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1

Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In planning an x-ray imaging experiment one must have an accurate model of the imaging system to obtain optimum results. The blurring caused by the finite size of the x-ray source is often the least understood element in the system. We have developed experimental and analytical methods permitting accurate measurement and modeling of the x-ray source. The model offers a simple and accurate way to optimize the radiographic geometry for any given experimental requirement (i.e., resolution and dose at detector). Any text on radiography will mention the effects of the finite size of the x-ray source on image quality and how one can minimize this influence by the choice of a small radiographic magnification. The film blur (independent of the source blur) is often treated as a single number and combined with an effective blur dimension for the x-ray source to give a total blur on the film. In this paper, we will develop a treatment of x-ray sources based on the modulation transfer function (MTF). This approach allows us to infer the spatial distribution function of the electron beam that produces the bremsstrahlung x-rays and to predict the performance of an x-ray imaging system if we know the MTF of the detector. This treatment is much more accurate than a single number characterization. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Mueller, K.H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

Watson, S.A.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

Watson, S.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement has been developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords which are parallel to the minor axis were measured across the spot major axis which is proportional to the fluence cross-section thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and new-developed procedures the ablation threshold for typical Nd:YAG laser parameters (1064 nm, 10 ns) has been measured as 50 mJ/cm2 which is one order of magnitude lower than that for a bulk graphite.

Lednev, Vasily N; Obraztsova, Elena D; Kudryashov, Sergey I; Bunkin, Alexey F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Influence of spot size on propagation dynamics of laser-produced tin plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?Color online? Images of the tin plume recorded with 280 ? mdynamics of laser-produced tin plasma S. S. Harilal a?dynamics of an expanding tin plume for various spot sizes

Harilal, S S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

atf2 spot size: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which is characterized by the surface brightness contrast, the size, the number, the umbrapenumbra structure, the shape, and the orientation with respect to the sweeping...

7

ARM - Measurement - Cloud size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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8

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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9

Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from {approx}0.1 mm to {approx}0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of {approx}80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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12

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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13

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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14

DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

Operational Experiences Tuning the ATF2 Final Focus Optics Towards Obtaining a 37nm Electron Beam IP Spot Size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary aim of the ATF2 research accelerator is to test a scaled version of the final focus optics planned for use in next-generation linear lepton colliders. ATF2 consists of a 1.3 GeV linac, damping ring providing low-emittance electron beams (< 12pm in the vertical plane), extraction line and final focus optics. The design details of the final focus optics and implementation at ATF2 are presented elsewhere. The ATF2 accelerator is currently being commissioned, with a staged approach to achieving the design IP spot size. It is expected that as we implement more demanding optics and reduce the vertical beta function at the IP, the tuning becomes more difficult and takes longer. We present here a description of the implementation of the tuning procedures and describe operational experiences and performances.

White, Glen; /SLAC; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC; Woodley, Mark; /SLAC; Bai, Sha; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Bambade, Philip; /Orsay, LAL; Renier, Yves; /Orsay, LAL; Bolzon, Benoit; /Annecy, LAPP; Kamiya, Yoshio; /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Komamiya, Sachio; /Tokyo U.; Oroku, Masahiro; /Tokyo U.; Yamaguchi, Yohei; /Tokyo U.; Yamanaka, Takashi; /Tokyo U.; Kubo, Kiyoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kuroda, Shigeru; /KEK, Tsukuba; Okugi, Toshiyuki; /KEK, Tsukuba; Tauchi, Toshiaki; /KEK, Tsukuba; Marin, Eduardo; /CERN

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

16

IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 38, NO. 6, JUNE 2002 665 Facet Reflectivity of a Spot-Size-Converter Integrated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 7 dBm are observed at the fabricated SOA, which consists of a window length of 20 m, facet angle reflectivity, semiconductor op- tical amplifier, spot-size-converter, window. I. INTRODUCTION SEMICONDUCTOR) coating requires a quarter-wave film with a refractive index equal to the square root of the refractive

17

Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid RainTheimage ARM Dataparticle size

19

ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAciddroplet size ARM Dataicesize distribution

20

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Noninvasive Measurement of Ablation Crater Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proportional to laser power, whereas crater width and the zone of thermal injury appear to be unrelatedORIGINAL RESEARCH Noninvasive Measurement of Ablation Crater Size and Thermal Injury After CO2 at 10 m resolution, and the thermal disruption after laser ablation were identified by OCT. OCT

Chen, Zhongping

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

A simple way to measure particle size in fluegases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size range of particles found in fluegases from stationary emission sources, such as combustion stacks, is an important process parameter. Particle-size range not only affects plume opacity and dispersion modeling, but it is a key factor in the selection and design of air-pollution-control equipment, such as cyclones, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. The particle-size distribution of a fluegas stream is also a useful parameter for analyzing the performance efficiency of combustion equipment and particulate-removal systems. While several laboratories use costly, laser-beam techniques to carry out this task, no standard method to date has been developed to determine the size range of particles in stationary sources. This article discusses a method (described in US EPA Method 5) in which particles in gases circulating in a stack are collected isokinetically in a filter. Once collected, the particles are measured using an optical microscope. Despite some limitations, this relatively inexpensive method gives reproducible results in many applications. Several are described.

Gomes, J.F.P. [Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oerias (Portugal)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into an actual SNS target.

Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers have measured the phase behavior of green house gases in pores at the Angstrom-level, using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Yuri Melnichenko, an instrument scientist on the General Purpose Small Angle Neutron Scattering (GP SANS) Diffractometer at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor, his postdoctoral associate Lilin He and collaborators Nidia Gallego and Cristian Contescu from the Material Sciences Division (ORNL) were engaged in the work. They were studying nanoporous carbons to assess their attractiveness as storage media for hydrogen, with a view to potential use for on-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications. Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in a carbon nanoporous material for hydrogen storage is less than one nanometer. In a paper recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the collaborators used small angle neutron scattering to study how hydrogen condenses in small pores at ambient temperature. They discovered that the surface-molecule interactions create internal pressures in pores that may exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to 50. 'This is an exciting result,' Melnichenko said, 'as you achieve extreme densification in pores 'for free', i.e. without spending any energy. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored to maximize hydrogen storage capacities.' Another important factor that defines the adsorption capacity of sub-nanometer pores is their shape. In order to get accurate structural information and maximize sorption capacity, it is important that pores are small and of approximately uniform size. In collaboration with Drexel University's Yury Gogotsi who supplied the samples, Melnichenko and his collaborators used the GP SANS instrument to study how the size and shape of pores in sub-nanometer porous carbons varies, depending on the manufacturing conditions. While small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can do the job too, Melnichenko says, the SANS method broke new ground in analyzing the shape and behavior of pores at subnanometer size, when subjected to varying synthesis temperature. 'We found that these very small pores are in fact spherical, and that when we change the synthesis conditions, they become elongated, even 'slit-like', and all of this on a subnanometer scale,' Melnichenko said.

Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, single particle composition and size distributions at a high-elevation research site from March 2011 are presented.

Friedman, B.

26

Debye size microprobes for electric field measurements in laboratory plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of a host of tiny machines and sensors over the past decade. Plasma physics is in great need of small detectors for several reasons. First of all, very small detectors do not disturb a plasma, and secondly some detectors can only work because they are very small. We report on the first of a series of small (sub-Debye length) probes for laboratory plasmas undertaken at the basic Plasma Science Facility at UCLA. The goal of the work is to develop robust and sensitive diagnostic probes that can survive in a plasma. The probes must have electronics packages in close proximity. We report on the construction and testing of probes that measure the electric field.

Pribyl, P.; Gekelman, W.; Nakamoto, M.; Lawrence, E.; Chiang, F.; Stillman, J.; Judy, J.; Katz, N.; Kintner, P.; Niknejadi, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, Massachussetts (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Cal Poly, Pomona, California 91768 (United States)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles in the free troposphere over Japan: Aircraft measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aircraft measurements of number-, mass- and volume-size distributions of aerosols and concentration of sulfate, nitrate and others contained in particulate matter were made in the free troposphere over Japan in 1991-1994. Number-size distribution frequently shows a peak in the area of a diameter of D {ge} 1 {mu}m in the free troposphere during observational periods. A few peaks are identified in the volume-size distribution as estimated on the basis of number-size distribution having single mode in a coarse range. Mass-size distribution frequently indicate enhancement in the coarse size range. This feature of the distribution is more frequent in those measurements made at 4.42 km than those at 2.29 km. On the basis of a backward trajectory analysis of the air mass containing those particles, soil particles originating from the Asian continent affect the features found in the size distributions as well as and vertical change in those size distributions. Particulate sulfate concentration in the free troposphere suggested that chemical transformation of particles with D {ge} 1 {mu}m advanced during long range transport of the particle possibly through coagulation of sulfate particles on coarse size particles such as Asian dust particles, adsorption of gaseous sulfate. Those measurements provide useful data et to discuss global geochemical cycle and radiative forcing of particles originated from the Asian continent.

Iwasaka, Y.; Mori, I.; Mastunga, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Probe measurements and numerical model predictions of evolving size distributions in premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle size distributions (PSDs), measured with a dilution probe and a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and numerical predictions of these PSDs, based on a model that includes only coagulation or alternatively inception and coagulation, are compared to investigate particle growth processes and possible sampling artifacts in the post-flame region of a C/O = 0.65 premixed laminar ethylene-air flame. Inputs to the numerical model are the PSD measured early in the flame (the initial condition for the aerosol population) and the temperature profile measured along the flame's axial centerline. The measured PSDs are initially unimodal, with a modal mobility diameter of 2.2 nm, and become bimodal later in the post-flame region. The smaller mode is best predicted with a size-dependent coagulation model, which allows some fraction of the smallest particles to escape collisions without resulting in coalescence or coagulation through the size-dependent coagulation efficiency ({gamma}{sub SD}). Instead, when {gamma} = 1 and the coagulation rate is equal to the collision rate for all particles regardless of their size, the coagulation model significantly under predicts the number concentration of both modes and over predicts the size of the largest particles in the distribution compared to the measured size distributions at various heights above the burner. The coagulation ({gamma}{sub SD}) model alone is unable to reproduce well the larger particle mode (mode II). Combining persistent nucleation with size-dependent coagulation brings the predicted PSDs to within experimental error of the measurements, which seems to suggest that surface growth processes are relatively insignificant in these flames. Shifting measured PSDs a few mm closer to the burner surface, generally adopted to correct for probe perturbations, does not produce a better matching between the experimental and the numerical results. (author)

De Filippo, A.; Sgro, L.A.; Lanzuolo, G.; D'Alessio, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Early Life Measures of Size as Related to Weights and Productivity in Beef Cows and Carcass Traits in Steers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The overall objective of this study was to investigate various measures of cattle size. Records from three separate studies (herds) at Texas A&M University were used to evaluate relationships of birth and weaning measures (n = 750) with size...

Cunningham, Samantha Fern

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

30

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Measurement- and comparison-based sizes of Schrödinger cat states of light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extend several measurement-based definitions of effective "cat-size" to coherent state superpositions with branches composed of either single coherent states or tensor products of coherent states. These effective cat-size measures depend on determining the maximal quantum distinguishability of certain states associated with the superposition state: e.g., in one measure, the maximal distinguishability of the branches of the superposition is considered as in quantum binary decision theory; in another measure, the maximal distinguishability of the initial superposition and its image after a one-parameter evolution generated by a local Hermitian operator is of interest. The cat-size scaling with the number of modes and mode intensity (i.e., photon number) is compared to the scaling derived directly from the Wigner function of the superposition and to that estimated experimentally from decoherence. We also apply earlier comparison-based methods for determining macroscopic superposition size that require a reference GHZ state. The case of a hierarchical Schr\\"{o}dinger cat state with branches composed of smaller superpositions is also analyzed from a measurement-based perspective.

T. J. Volkoff; K. B. Whaley

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

32

TIME INTEGRATED MEASUREMENTS OF THE ACTIVITY-WEIGHTED SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF RADON PROGENY by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dose to the lung is dependent on the size distribution as well as the concentration of radon progeny. The principal indicator of particle size is the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient of radon progeny is the most important parameter in determining whether the particle will deposit its alpha energy in the tracheobronchial region of the respiratory tract. Due to the importance of the size distribution of progeny when characterizing health effects, a detector was developed that exploits the difference in diffusion coefficients to provide integrated measurements of the activity-weighted size distribution. Several radon chamber tests were performed in which the diffusion coefficient and unattached fraction of radon progeny were varied by the use of trace gasses and aerosol particles. The technical feasibility of this new detector design was demonstrated in all cases.

William C. Tetley P. E; Daniel R. Westcott; Bruce A. Cununings

33

Size-dependent ultrafast structural dynamics inside phospholipid vesicle bilayers measured with 2D IR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Size-dependent ultrafast structural dynamics inside phospholipid vesicle bilayers measured with 2D 25, 2013) The ultrafast structural dynamics inside the bilayers of dilauroyl- phosphatidylcholine was used as a vibrational probe and provided information on spectral diffusion (structural dynam- ics

Fayer, Michael D.

34

Short- and long-lived radionuclide particle size measurements in a uranium mine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radon-222 progeny and long-lived radionuclide measurements were done in a wet underground uranium mine in Saskatchewan, Canada, on Nov. 8-12, 1995. Radon-222 in the mine varied from 2 kBq/m{sup 3} at 90 m below surface to 12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the mining areas, 240 m below surface. Radon-222 progeny activity and potential alpha energy concentration appear affected by the airborne particle number concentration and size distribution. Particle number was up to 200x10{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}. Only an accumulation mode (30-1000 nm) and some bimodal size distributions in this accumulation size range were significant. Diesel particles and combustion particles from burning propane caused a major modal diameter shift to a smaller size range (50-85 nm) compared with previous values (100-200 nm). The high particle number reduced the unattached progeny (0.5-2 nm) to >5%. The nuclei mode (2-30 nm) in this test was nonexistent, and the coarse mode (>1000 nm), except from the drilling areas and on the stopes, was mostly not measurable. Airborne particle total mass and long- lived radionuclide alpha activity concentrations were very low (80- 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 4-5 mBq/m{sup 3}) owing to high ventilation rates. Mass-weighted size distributions were trimodal, with the major mode at the accumulation size region, which accounts for 45-50% of the mass. The coarse model contains the the least mass, about 20%. The size spectra from gross alpha activities were bimodal with major mode in the coarse region (>1000 nm) and a minor accumulation mode in the 50-900 nm size range. These size spectra were different from the {sup 222}Rn progeny that showed a single accumulation mode in the 50- 85 nm size region. The accumulation mode in the long-lived radionuclide size spectrum was not found in previous studies in other uranium mines.

Tu, Keng-Wu; Fisenne, I.M.; Hutter, A.R.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Canopy hot-spot as crop identifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Illuminating any reflective rough or structured surface by a directional light source results in an angular reflectance distribution that shows a narrow peak in the direction of retro-reflection. This is called the Heiligenschein or hot-spot of vegetation canopies and is caused by mutual shading of leaves. The angular intensity distribution of the hot-spot, its brightness and slope, are therefore indicators of the plant's geometry. We propose the use of hot-spot characteristics as crop identifiers in satellite remote sensing because the canopy hot-spot carries information about plant stand architecture that is more distinctive for different plant species than, for instance, their spectral reflectance characteristics. A simple three-dimensional Monte Carlo/ray tracing model and an analytic two-dimensional model are developed to estimate the angular distribution of the hot-spot as a function of the size of the plant leaves. The results show that the brightness-distribution and slope of the hot-spot change distinctively for different leaf sizes indicating a much more peaked maximum for the smaller leaves.

Gerstl, S.A.W.; Simmer, C.; Powers, B.J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Utility spot pricing, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

Schweppe, Fred C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Measurement of bubble sizes in fluidised beds using electrical capacitance tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mail address: djh79@cam.ac.uk (D.J. Holland). 1 Now at the Ocean Science & Technology Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, China. 2 Now at the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New... Measurement of bubble sizes in fluidised beds using electrical capacitance tomography T.C. Chandrasekera, Y. Li 1, D. Moody, M.A. Schnellmann, J.S. Dennis, D.J. Holland n,2 Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University...

Chandrasekera, T. C.; Li, Y.; Moody, D.; Schnellmann, M. A.; Dennis, J. S.; Holland, D. J.

2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

38

Betatron radiation based measurement of the electron-beam size in a wakefield accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a spatial and spectral characterization of a laser-plasma based betatron source which allows us to determine the betatron oscillation amplitude of the electrons which decreases with increasing electron energies. Due to the observed oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8{+-}0.3){mu}m we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6{+-}0.3){mu}m.

Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander; Reuter, Maria [Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich- Schiller- Universitaet, Jena (Germany); and others

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

39

IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organic haze produced from complex CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan plays an important role in processes that occur in the atmosphere and on its surface. The haze particles act as condensation nuclei and are therefore involved in Titan's methane hydrological cycle. They also may behave like sediment on Titan's surface and participate in both fluvial and aeolian processes. Models that seek to understand these processes require information about the physical properties of the particles including their size and density. Although measurements obtained by Cassini-Huygens have placed constraints on the size of the haze particles, their densities remain unknown. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments and measured the size, number density, and particle density of Titan aerosol analogs, or tholins, for CH{sub 4} concentrations from 0.01% to 10% using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that the densities currently in use by many Titan models are higher than the measured densities of our tholins.

Hoerst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

40

Reactor hot spot analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Vilim, R.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Online Particle Size And Concentration Measurement In A Pressurized Coal Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy industry has to face the demand for highly efficient coal combustion power plants in order to minimize the CO{sub 2} emissions. Efforts are made in new combustion processes, where coal powder is burned at a temperature of 1400 C and a pressure of 16 bars. The hot flue gas is used for a combined gas and steam turbine process. For that reason the flue gas has to be cleaned at the operating temperature and pressure. Limiting values for a secure operation of the turbine, with acceptable abrasion of the blades by impacting particles, are a mass concentration of c{sub M} {le}3 m g/m{sub N}{sup 3} at particle sizes smaller than 3 {micro}m . A granular bed filter is used to remove the gross of fine ash particles. But until now the separation of the submicron aerosol particles at high temperatures does not meet the mentioned specifications, and is still one of the most important open tasks. Regardless what kind of separation process will be implemented to remove fine ash particles, for investigations and control it is necessary to determine the particle concentration and size after the separation. The fact that the particle concentration after the purification is quite small and the size of the particles is less than 10 {micro}m means that gravimetric measurements are not suitable to record spontaneous changes due to the combustion process because of extended sampling times. Additionally a gravimetric measurement technique at operating conditions (T = 1400 C, p = 16 bars) is questionable, because particles can be lost by thermophoretic transport to the walls, also condensation of alkali species on the particle surfaces cannot be avoided (representativity). The single-particle-light-scattering size analysis is especially suited for measurements at low particle concentrations (< 10{sup 5} particles/m{sup 3}). With the counting technique used here, single particles are detected in situ while passing an optically defined measuring volume, which is placed in an iso-kinetically taken sample flow (free working distance of 80 mm and more). The total detectable size range of such a particle counter is between 0,1 and 10 {micro}m. Based on previous successful measurements on the clean gas side of rigid ceramic barrier filters and at a coal combustion pilot plant at temperatures up to 1000 C a constructive solution of this method at high temperatures and pressures is favorable.

Schiel, A.; Umhauer, H.; Kasper, G.; Christmann, W.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

42

Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

Chuyu Liu

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

Anders, Andre

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

44

Spot-spraying Johnsongrass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of naphtha and diesel fuel oil is the oil spray most generally used. Various other oil mixtures may be used for economy, for increased contact toxicity, or for a combination of contact toxicity and residual effectiveness. Oil sprays kill on contact... mixture of 40 pounds of sodium TCA and 20 pounds of sodium dalapon can be used for spot-treating sparsely infested cotton fields. It is a knock-out spray under some conditions. Maleic hydrazide (MH-30) is a translocated growth inhibitor with no residual...

Rea, H. E.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSIO-N SERVICE G. G. Gibson, Director, College Station, Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] I the bast I ir used the low I . .. 1 the fol or mort , needed SPOT-OILING JOHNSONGRASS H. E. Rea, M. J. Norris..., and Fred C. Elliott* Texas A. & M. College System ~HNSONGRASS CAN BE killed to the i ground by the application of 1 / 3 teaspoonful of a herbicidal oil to the crown of each stem. Eradication of established Johnsongrass can be obtained in a single...

Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

Chen, Jian [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hottest spot temperature allowance to be used for the different insulation system temperature classes is a major unknown facing IEEE Working Groups developing standards and loading guides for ventilated dry type transformers. In 1944, the hottest spot temperature allowance for ventilated dry type transformers was established as 30 C for 80 C average winding temperature rise. Since 1944, insulation temperature classes have increased to 220 C but IEEE standards continue to use a constant 30 C hottest spot temperature allowance. IEC standards use a variable hottest spot temperature allowance from 5 to 30 C. Six full size test windings were manufactured with imbedded thermocouples and 133 test runs performed to obtain temperature rise data. The test data indicated that the hottest spot temperature allowance used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA is too low. This is due to the large thermal gradient from the bottom to the top of the windings caused by natural convection air flow through the cooling ducts. A constant ratio of hottest spot winding temperature rise to average winding temperature rise should be used in product standards for all insulation temperature classes. A ratio of 1.5 is suggested for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA. This would increase the hottest spot temperature allowance from 30 C to 60 C and decrease the permissible average winding temperature rise from 150 C to 120 C for the 220 C insulation temperature class.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

The application of size- resolved hygroscopicity measurements to understand the physical and chemical properties of ambient aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE APPLICATION OF SIZE-RESOLVED HYGROSCOPICITY MEASUREMENTS TO UNDERSTANDING THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMBIENT AEROSOL A Dissertation by JOSHUA L. SANTARPIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMBIENT AEROSOL A Dissertation by JOSHUA L. SANTARPIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

Santarpia, Joshua Lee

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

52

Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

Caramanis, Michael C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

54

Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Measuring size dependent electrical properties from nanoneedle structures: Pt/ZnO Schottky diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work reports the fabrication and testing of nanoneedle devices with well-defined interfaces that are amenable to a variety of structural and electrical characterization, including transmission electron microscopy. Single Pt/ZnO nanoneedle Schottky diodes were fabricated by a top down method using a combination of electro-polishing, sputtering, and focused ion beam milling. The resulting structures contained nanoscale planar heterojunctions with low ideality factors, the dimensions of which were tuned to study size-dependent electrical properties. The diameter dependence of the Pt/ZnO diode barrier height is explained by a joule heating effect and/or electronic inhomogeneity in the Pt/ZnO contact area.

Mao, Shimin; Anderson, Daniel D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shang, Tao [Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Park, Byoungnam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1 Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Dillon, Shen J., E-mail: sdillon@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

56

Electrical Mobility Spectrometer Using a Diethylene Glycol Condensation Particle Counter for Measurement of Aerosol Size Distributions Down to 1 nm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a new scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) for measuring number size distributions of particles down to {approx}1 nm mobility diameter. This SMPS includes an aerosol charger, a TSI 3085 nano differential mobility analyzer (nanoDMA), an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid, and a conventional butanol CPC (the 'booster') to detect the small droplets leaving the DEG UCPC. The response of the DEG UCPC to negatively charged sodium chloride particles with mobility diameters ranging from 1-6 nm was measured. The sensitivity of the DEG UCPC to particle composition was also studied by comparing its response to positively charged 1.47 and 1.70 nm tetra-alkyl ammonium ions, sodium chloride, and silver particles. A high resolution differential mobility analyzer was used to generate the test particles. These results show that the response of this UCPC to sub-2 nm particles is sensitive to particle composition. The applicability of the new SMPS for atmospheric measurement was demonstrated during the Nucleation and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (NCCN) field campaign (Atlanta, Georgia, summer 2009). We operated the instrument at saturator and condenser temperatures that allowed the efficient detection of sodium chloride particles but not of air ions having the same mobility. We found that particles as small as 1 nm were detected during nucleation events but not at other times. Factors affecting size distribution measurements, including aerosol charging in the 1-10 nm size range, are discussed. For the charger used in this study, bipolar charging was found to be more effective for sub-2 nm particles than unipolar charging. No ion induced nucleation inside the charger was observed during the NCCN campaign.

Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; Chen, M.; Attoui, M.; McMurry, P. H.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin and SGP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImportsBG4,Measurements+

58

Predicting hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformer windings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test data indicates that hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA are too low. A mathematical model to predict hottest spot temperature rises in ventilated dry type transformers was developed. Data from six layer type test windings and a 2500 kva prototype was used to refine the model. A correlation for the local heat transfer coefficient in the cooling ducts was developed. The model was used to study the effect of various parameters on the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The number of conductor layers, insulation thickness, and conductor strand size were found to have only a minor effect on the ratio. Winding height was found to be the main parameter influencing the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The study based on the mathematical model confirmed previous conclusions based on test data that the hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA should be revised.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

Chen, Yu-Jiuan

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.

Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Simultaneous measurements of soot volume fraction and particle size/microstructure in flames using a thermophoretic sampling technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new particle volume fraction measurement technique was developed using electron microscope analysis of thermophoretically sampled particles/aggregates based on a theoretical treatment of particle deposition to a cold surface immersed in a flame. This experimental method, referred to as the thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostic (TSPD), can yield all particle parameters of principal interest (particle volume fraction, particle and aggregate sizes, and fractal properties) without requiring knowledge of particle bulk density and refractive index. To assess its reliability, the TSPD technique was implemented at various heights on the centerline of a soot-containing coflowing ethylene/air nonpremixed laminar flame. Inferred soot volume fractions agreed with previous laser extinction and thermocouple particle densitometry measurements within experimental uncertainties at sampling positions where only aggregates of mature particles were present. However, TSPD-soot volume fractions were about a factor of 3 higher than light extinction results in the lower part of the flame. This significant difference was evidently a result of the presence of translucent precursor soot particles, which do not absorb as much visible light as mature particles, but can be quantified with the electron microscope. Clearly, this ability of TSPD to separately measure the concentration and morphology of each type of soot is a significant advantage over other available diagnostics, making it extremely valuable for studying particle formation in flames.

Koeylue, U.O.; McEnally, C.S.; Rosner, D.E.; Pfefferle, L.D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Developing models of aerosol representation to investigate composition, evolution, optical properties, and CCN spectra using measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure size distributions, hygroscopicity, and volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period at the Central Facility...

Gasparini, Roberto

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

63

Blind spots between quantum states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The overlap of a large quantum state with its image, under tiny translations, oscillates swiftly. We here show that complete orthogonality occurs generically at isolated points. Decoherence, in the Markovian approximation, lifts the correlation minima from zero much more quickly than the Wigner function is smoothed into a positive phase space distribution. In the case of a superposition of coherent states, blind spots depend strongly on positions and amplitudes of the components, but they are only weakly affected by relative phases and the various degrees and directions of squeezing. The blind spots for coherent state triplets are special in that they lie close to an hexagonal lattice: Further superpositions of translated triplets, specified by nodes of one of the sublattices, are quasi-orthogonal to the original triplet and to any state, likewise constructed on the other sublattice.

Eduardo Zambrano; Alfredo M Ozorio de Almeida

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/?sec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic, including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, we will also describe the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles. Finally, we will present results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn-ejecta experiments. Particle-size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double-pulsed experiment will be described.

Sorenson, D. S. [LANL; Pazuchanics, P. [LANL; Johnson, R. [LANL; Malone, R. M. [NSTec; Kaufman, M. I. [NSTec; Tibbitts, A. [NSTec; Tunnell, T. [NSTec; Marks, D. [NSTec; Capelle, G. A. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Turley, W. D. [NSTec; LaLone, B. [NSTec

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

65

Frequency domain photon migration measurements: a method to size powders and detect active pharmaceutical ingredients in blending operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

means for process validation in the manufacture of solid pharmaceutics through its ability to characterize powder ingredients by particle size and ingredient composition. In this work, FDPM analysis techniques were utilized to extract particle size...

Torrance, Sharnay Etasha

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Hot Spot | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHi GtelHomer, Alaska:Horace, NorthHorvatic JumpOpenHotPot,Spot

67

A statistical study of bright spot reflection parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cal Study of Bright Spot Reflection Parameters. (December 1981) David Lee Godwin, B. S. , Pepperdine University Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. T. W. Spencer A data set consisting of two seismic lines served as the basis of study... obtained from each of the seismic lines were compared to deter- mine if the presence of commercial quantities of gas could be identified. The measurement process revealed that the interval travel time measurements between the marker horizons...

Godwin, David Lee

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr. [Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Physics Department, University of Windsor, 292 Essex Hall, 401 Sunset Ave. N9B 3P4 Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

69

Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

( l Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation S. A. GEDEON and T. W. EAGAR Dynamic inspection monitoring of the weld current, voltage, resistance of material variations and weld process parameter modifications on resistance spot welding of coated

Eagar, Thomas W.

70

Using measured equipment load profiles to "right-size" HVAC systems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

load profiles to “right-size” HVAC systems and reduce energyGeorgia. ASHRAE [1999]. HVAC Applications Handbook 1999.Inefficiency of a Common Lab HVAC System,” presented at the

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS Nuri Tasdemir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS by Nuri Ta¸sdemir BS, in Electrical and Electronics in Computer Engineering Bogazi¸ci University 2007 #12;ii BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS APPROVED BY: Prof. A.C. Cem Say . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Thesis Supervisor) Prof. H. Levent Akin

72

Use of treatment log files in spot scanning proton therapy as part of patient-specific quality assurance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to assess the monitor unit (MU) values and position accuracy of spot scanning proton beams as recorded by the daily treatment logs of the treatment control system, and furthermore establish the feasibility of using the delivered spot positions and MU values to calculate and evaluate delivered doses to patients. Methods: To validate the accuracy of the recorded spot positions, the authors generated and executed a test treatment plan containing nine spot positions, to which the authors delivered ten MU each. The spot positions were measured with radiographic films and Matrixx 2D ion-chambers array placed at the isocenter plane and compared for displacements from the planned and recorded positions. Treatment logs for 14 patients were then used to determine the spot MU values and position accuracy of the scanning proton beam delivery system. Univariate analysis was used to detect any systematic error or large variation between patients, treatment dates, proton energies, gantry angles, and planned spot positions. The recorded patient spot positions and MU values were then used to replace the spot positions and MU values in the plan, and the treatment planning system was used to calculate the delivered doses to patients. The results were compared with the treatment plan. Results: Within a treatment session, spot positions were reproducible within {+-}0.2 mm. The spot positions measured by film agreed with the planned positions within {+-}1 mm and with the recorded positions within {+-}0.5 mm. The maximum day-to-day variation for any given spot position was within {+-}1 mm. For all 14 patients, with {approx}1 500 000 spots recorded, the total MU accuracy was within 0.1% of the planned MU values, the mean (x, y) spot displacement from the planned value was (-0.03 mm, -0.01 mm), the maximum (x, y) displacement was (1.68 mm, 2.27 mm), and the (x, y) standard deviation was (0.26 mm, 0.42 mm). The maximum dose difference between calculated dose to the patient based on the plan and recorded data was within 2%. Conclusions: The authors have shown that the treatment log file in a spot scanning proton beam delivery system is precise enough to serve as a quality assurance tool to monitor variation in spot position and MU value, as well as the delivered dose uncertainty from the treatment delivery system. The analysis tool developed here could be useful for assessing spot position uncertainty and thus dose uncertainty for any patient receiving spot scanning proton beam therapy.

Li Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Li Yupeng; Li Xiaoqiang; Zhang Xiaodong; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Development of Criteria and Identification of Particle Cluster Size Based on Measurements of Void Fraction in Gas-Solid Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) built at FIU was used to study particle motion in the riser in order to simulate flow regimes in a cold gasifier. High speed imaging was used in order to capture the dynamics of the particles flowing in the riser. The imaging method used here is called the shadow sizing technique which allowed the determination of particle areas and trajectories at various flow rates in the riser. The solid volume fraction and particle velocities calculated using the images acquired during the experiments can be related to granular temperature in order to detect formations of clusters in the riser section of the CFB. The shadow sizing technique was observed to be an effective method in detecting dynamics of particles in motion and formation of clusters when supported with high-speed imaging.

David Roelant; Seckin Gokaltun

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

System size and energy dependence of high pT hadron production measured with PHENIX experiment at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHENIX has measured high transverse momentum (pT) identified hadrons in different collision species and energies in the last five RHIC runs. The systematic study of the high pT hadron production provides an idea on interaction of hard scattered partons and the matter created in relativistic heavy ion collision. The eta/pi0 ratio is measured in Au+Au collisions, which gives a hint on the system thermalization and particle production. A future measurement of hadron and photon measurement is discussed.

Takao Sakaguchi

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

75

POWER '99 Conference 1 Stochastic Models of Electricity Spot Price  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spread call options. power spot price delivery at PV gas spot price SoCal system 8000 heat rate When power. When the spot market implied heat rate is below the unit operating heat rate, generator should1 POWER '99 Conference 1 Stochastic Models of Electricity Spot Price and their Applications Shijie

California at Berkeley. University of

76

Pressure fluctuations beneath turbulent spots and instability wave packets in a hypersonic boundary layer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer was studied on the nozzle wall of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel. Under quiet flow conditions, the nozzle wall boundary layer remains laminar and grows very thick over the long nozzle length. This allows the development of large turbulent spots that can be readily measured with pressure transducers. Measurements of naturally occurring wave packets and developing turbulent spots were made. The peak frequencies of these natural wave packets were in agreement with second-mode computations. For a controlled study, the breakdown of disturbances created by spark and glow perturbations were studied at similar freestream conditions. The spark perturbations were the most effective at creating large wave packets that broke down into turbulent spots. The flow disturbances created by the controlled perturbations were analyzed to obtain amplitude criteria for nonlinearity and breakdown as well as the convection velocities of the turbulent spots. Disturbances first grew into linear instability waves and then quickly became nonlinear. Throughout the nonlinear growth of the wave packets, large harmonics are visible in the power spectra. As breakdown begins, the peak amplitudes of the instability waves and harmonics decrease into the rising broad-band frequencies. Instability waves are still visible on either side of the growing turbulent spots during this breakdown process.

Beresh, Steven Jay; Casper, Katya M.; Schneider, Steven P. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Relationship between Hot Spot Residues and Ligand Binding Hot Spots in Protein-Protein Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, while identification of a hot spot by alanine scanning establishes the potential to generate substantial, termed "hot spots", that comprise the subset of residues that contribute the bulk of the binding free proposed as prime targets for drug binding.1,4 The established approach to the identification of such hot

Vajda, Sandor

78

Hot spot-derived shock initiation phenomena in heterogeneous nitromethane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of solid silica particles to gelled nitromethane offers a tractable model system for interrogating the role of impedance mismatches as one type of hot spot 'seed' on the initiation behaviors of explosive formulations. Gas gun-driven plate impact experiments are used to produce well-defined shock inputs into nitromethane-silica mixtures containing size-selected silica beads at 6 wt%. The Pop-plots or relationships between shock input pressure and rundistance (or time)-to-detonation for mixtures containing small (1-4 {micro}m) and large (40 {micro}m) beads are presented. Overall, the addition of beads was found to influence the shock sensitivity of the mixtures, with the smaller beads being more sensitizing than the larger beads, lowering the shock initiation threshold for the same run distance to detonation compared with neat nitromethane. In addition, the use of embedded electromagnetic gauges provides detailed information pertaining to the mechanism of the build-up to detonation and associated reactive flow. Of note, an initiation mechanism characteristic of homogeneous liquid explosives, such as nitromethane, was observed in the nitromethane-40 {micro}m diameter silica samples at high shock input pressures, indicating that the influence of hot spots on the initiation process was minimal under these conditions.

Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Determination of zero-field size percent depth doses and tissue maximum ratios for stereotactic radiosurgery and IMRT dosimetry: Comparison between experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, zero-field percent depth dose (PDD) and tissue maximum ratio (TMR) for 6 MV x rays have been determined by extrapolation from dosimetric measurements over the field size range 1x1-10x10 cm{sup 2}. The key to small field dosimetry is the selection of a proper dosimeter for the measurements, as well as the alignment of the detector with the central axis (CAX) of beam. The measured PDD results are compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to examine the consistency and integrity of the measured data from which the zero-field PDD is extrapolated. Of the six most commonly used dosimeters in the clinic, the stereotactic diode field detector (SFD), the PTW Pinpoint, and the Exradin A14 are the most consistent and produce results within 2% of each other over the entire field size range 1x1-40x40 cm{sup 2}. Although the diamond detector has the smallest sensitive volume, it is the least stable and tends to disagree with all other dosimeters by more than 10%. The zero-field PDD data extrapolated from larger field measurements obtained with the SFD are in good agreement with the MC results. The extrapolated and MC data agree within 2.5% over the clinical depth range (d{sub max}-30 cm), when the MC data for the zero field are derived from a 1x1 cm{sup 2} field simulation using a miniphantom (1x1x48 cm{sup 3}). The agreement between the measured PDD and the MC data based on a full phantom (48x48x48 cm{sup 3}) simulation is fairly good within 1% at shallow depths to approximately 5% at 30 cm. Our results seem to indicate that zero-field TMR can be accurately calculated from PDD measurements with a proper choice of detector and a careful alignment of detector axis with the CAX.

Cheng, C.-W.; Sang, Hyun Cho; Taylor, Michael; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Morristown Memorial Hospital, Morristown, New Jersey 07962 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Portland Kaiser Permanente, Portland, Oregon 97227 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Discriminative Keyword Spotting David Grangier1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ, USA 2 IDIAP Research Institute, Martigny, Switzerland 3 Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA This chapter introduces a discriminative method for detecting and spotting keywords and transition models, or the Expectation-Maximization (EM) training procedure, which is prone to convergence

Tomkins, Andrew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Sourcing Flexibility, Spot Trading, and Procurement Contract Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the structure and pricing of option contracts for an industrial good in the presence of spot trading. We combine the analysis of spot trading and buyers' disparate private valuations for different suppliers' ...

Pei, Pamela Pen-Erh

82

Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

83

EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 9:53am Addthis Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing...

84

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 4:07pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing tremendous...

85

Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis – Part II: Evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009) in which measurements of trace gases and particles at a remote, high-altitude mountain site 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), acyl peroxy nitrate (APN) and particle size distributions (PSDs) of the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic mass (OM) were simulated with the WRF-Chem chemical transport model and compared with the measurements at the mountain site. The model prediction of the diurnal trends of the gases were well correlated with the measurements before the regional boundary layer reached the measurement site but underestimated the concentrations after that time. The differences are caused by an overly rapid growth of the boundary layer by the model with too much dilution. There also appears to be more O3 produced by photochemical production, downwind of the emission sources, than predicted by the model. The measured and modeled PSDs compare very well with respect to their general shape and diameter of the peak concentrations. The spectra are log normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode and the geometric diameter centered at 200 ±20 nm, with little observed or predicted change with respect to the origin of the air mass or the time when the RBL is above the Altzomoni research. Only the total mass changed with time and air mass origin. The invariability of the average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexico’s Megapolis.

Ochoa, Carlos; Baumgardner, Darrel; Grutter, M.; Allan, James D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Rappengluck, B.

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumber concentration ARM Data Discovery

88

Decision making in coastal fisheries conflict: the case of red drum and spotted seatrout legislation in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stricter Measures Called For The TPWD Increases Regulations on Red and Spotted Seatrout Illegal Netting 61 65 66 Drum TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) IV CASE FINDINGS (continued) The Opposition Increases The Legislative Process Economic Impact... of the controversial House B i 1 1 1000 in the Texas Legislature. H B. 1000 was signed into law in May, 1981 and prohibits the possession or transportation for the purpose of sale red drum or spotted seatrout taken from waters under the jurisdiction of the state...

Christian, Richard Travis

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Detection, tracking and analysis of turbulent spots and other coherent structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transition. 1 Jacques Lewalle2 and David E. Ashpis3 Abstract Transition on turbine blades is an important of this preliminary study was to evaluate which spot properties can be quanti ed based on hot lm data, and which seem station, which provides smooth data to measure the phase relative to the rst stage blade passing

Lewalle, Jacques

90

A high resolution view of the jet termination shock in a hot spot of the nearby radio galaxy Pictor A: implications for X-ray models of radio galaxy hot spots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Images made with the VLBA have resolved the region in a nearby radio galaxy, Pictor A, where the relativistic jet that originates at the nucleus terminates in an interaction with the intergalactic medium, a so-called radio galaxy hot spot. This image provides the highest spatial resolution view of such an object to date (16 pc), more than three times better than previous VLBI observations of similar objects. The north-west Pictor A hot spot is resolved into a complex set of compact components, seen to coincide with the bright part of the hot spot imaged at arcsecond-scale resolution with the VLA. In addition to a comparison with VLA data, we compare our VLBA results with data from the HST and Chandra telescopes, as well as new Spitzer data. The presence of pc-scale components in the hot spot, identifying regions containing strong shocks in the fluid flow, leads us to explore the suggestion that they represent sites of synchrotron X-ray production, contributing to the integrated X-ray flux of the hot spot, along with X-rays from synchrotron self-Compton scattering. This scenario provides a natural explanation for the radio morphology of the hot spot and its integrated X-ray emission, leading to very different predictions for the higher energy X-ray spectrum compared to previous studies. From the sizes of the individual pc-scale components and their angular spread, we estimate that the jet width at the hot spot is in the range 70 - 700 pc, which is comparable to similar estimates in PKS 2153-69, 3C 205, and 4C 41.17. The lower limit in this range arises from the suggestion that the jet may dither in its direction as it passes through hot spot backflow material close to the jet termination point, creating a "dentist drill" effect on the inside of a cavity 700 pc in diameter.

S. J. Tingay; E. Lenc; G. Brunetti; M. Bondi

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

91

Measurements of elastic modulus using laser-induced surface waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In general, the mechanical testing methods that are utilized for alloys and polymers, e.g., dogbone, rheovibron, etc., are not applicable to thin film structures. We wish to report noncontacting measurements of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity and the elastic modulus applicable to thin films of moderate thickness. An accompanying paper extends this technique to smaller film dimensions. A 15 ns pulsed YAG laser was used as the energy source to thermoelastically excite surface waves. The propagation of the waves was then observed by a second, independent He-Ne laser at a distance from the excitation spot. using the knife edge/beam deflection technique. A cylindrical lens was used to reduce the energy loading of the YAG laser on the sample to avoid damaging the surface of the specimen. The Rayleigh wave velocity is calculated from measurements of the arrival time of the surface wave as a function of distance from the ND:YAG laser spot. The shear modulus, G, can be determined from the measured speed of the surface waves, V, the specimen density, p, and Poisson`s ratio, v, according to the following relationship: V = R(v){sm_bullet}(G/p){sup {1/2}} where R(v), expressed as (0.862 + 1.14v)/(l + v), is the ratio of the Rayleigh wave velocity to the shear wave velocity and ranges from 0.86 to 0.95 Table below lists the measured surface wave velocities and the calculated shear modulus for our experimental results and the published values. Excellent agreement is observed. The depth of the SAW is approximately equal to the SAW wavelength which is approximately the laser spot size. Typically 30 {mu}m spot sizes can be readily achieved. In conclusion, SAW velocities and the modulus of elasticity of various materials have been measured. We have demonstrated that this non-contacting method can be used to characterize moderately thin films.

Chang, D.J.; Amimoto, S.T.; Gross, R.W.F. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Glenn, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

On the mechanism of operation of a cathode spot cell in a vacuum arc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The erosive structures formed on a tungsten cathode as a result of the motion of the cathode spot of a vacuum arc over the cathode surface have been examined. It has been found that the average mass of a cathode microprotrusion having the shape of a solidified jet is approximately equal to the mass of ions removed from the cathode within the lifetime of a cathode spot cell carrying a current of several amperes. The time of formation of a new liquid-metal jet under the action of the reactive force of the plasma ejected by the cathode spot is about 10?ns, which is comparable to the lifetime of a cell. The growth rate of a liquid-metal jet is ?10{sup 4}?cm/s. The geometric shape and size of a solidified jet are such that a new explosive emission center (spot cell) can be initiated within several nanoseconds during the interaction of the jet with the dense cathode plasma. This is the underlying mechanism of the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc.

Mesyats, G. A.; Petrov, A. A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bochkarev, M. B. [Institute of Electrophysics, UB, RAS, 106 Amundsen St., Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, S. A., E-mail: sb@nsc.gpi.ru [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, 38 Vavilov St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

93

Berkeley Lab's SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi,Benefits PlanabPerformanceSPOT Suite

94

Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

95

High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Armando System Measurements at R-306 FY 2003 Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details some of the measurements made by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to characterize the Armando radiographic detection system and marks the completion of the R-306 Armando System Characterization milestone. The measurements, made in July 2003, utilized the Cygnus pulse power machine, which was assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Firing Site R-306. This report describes the test configuration used and the findings concerning the following Armando radiographic detection system issues for source spot size, mirror vs. pellicle performance, scintillator configuration evaluation, resolution and reproducibility, off-axis scatter contribution, and source spectra reproducibility.

S. S. Lutz; S. A. Baker

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Measuring Complementary Electronic Structure Properties of both Deposited and Gas Phase Clusters using STM, UPS, and PES: Size-Selected Clusters on Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, we studied size-selected cluster interactions with surfaces, with other clusters on surfaces, and with external stimuli. These studies focused on mobility as a function of cluster size, surface morphologies as a function of composition and coverage, ion-induced modification and reactivity of clusters as a function of composition, the structural evolution of cluster cuboids culminating in the characterization of theoretically-predicted “baby crystal” clusters, and unusual fractal pattern formation due to deposition.

Bowen, Kit H.

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

98

Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies Dafydd Steele MSc Stochastics and Financial forward and spot prices for energy com- panies. The two main ways of modelling power prices are stochastic Mathematics dafydd.steele@edf-energy.com August 5, 2010 #12;Abstract The focus of this thesis is on modelling

Bhulai, Sandjai

99

A NONGAUSSIAN ORNSTEINUHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A NON­GAUSSIAN ORNSTEIN­UHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND DERIVATIVES for analytical pricing of electricity forward and futures contracts. Electricity forward and futures contracts to capture the observed dynamics of electricity spot prices. We also discuss the pricing of European call

Kallsen, Jan

100

Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet Preweld and postweld current modifications on the resistance spot welding of galvanized steel sheet ·are analyzed using high phenomena through· out the weld process are discussed. In addition. the duration of current modifi· cation

Eagar, Thomas W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko, William B. McNamara III-13 the effective hot spot temperature during aqueous cavitation remains unresolved. Given the importance of aqueous cavitation (sonography and bioeffects of ultrasound, sonochemical remediation of aqueous pollutants

Suslick, Kenneth S.

102

Measurements and simulations of focused beam for orthovoltage therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Megavoltage photon beams are typically used for therapy because of their skin-sparing effect. However, a focused low-energy x-ray beam would also be skin sparing, and would have a higher dose concentration at the focal spot. Such a beam can be produced with polycapillary optics. MCNP5 was used to model dose profiles for a scanned focused beam, using measured beam parameters. The potential of low energy focused x-ray beams for radiation therapy was assessed. Methods: A polycapillary optic was used to focus the x-ray beam from a tungsten source. The optic was characterized and measurements were performed at 50 kV. PMMA blocks of varying thicknesses were placed between optic and the focal spot to observe any variation in the focusing of the beam after passing through the tissue-equivalent material. The measured energy spectrum was used to model the focused beam in MCNP5. A source card (SDEF) in MCNP5 was used to simulate the converging x-ray beam. Dose calculations were performed inside a breast tissue phantom. Results: The measured focal spot size for the polycapillary optic was 0.2 mm with a depth of field of 5 mm. The measured focal spot remained unchanged through 40 mm of phantom thickness. The calculated depth dose curve inside the breast tissue showed a dose peak several centimeters below the skin with a sharp dose fall off around the focus. The percent dose falls below 10% within 5 mm of the focus. It was shown that rotating the optic during scanning would preserve the skin-sparing effect of the focused beam. Conclusions: Low energy focused x-ray beams could be used to irradiate tumors inside soft tissue within 5 cm of the surface.

Abbas, Hassan, E-mail: Hassan.Abbas@Yale.Edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, 344 Lane Street Hamden, Connecticut 06514 (United States)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, 344 Lane Street Hamden, Connecticut 06514 (United States); Mahato, Dip N., E-mail: dip.n.mahato@intel.com [Intel Corporation, Mail-Stop RA3-410, 2501 NW 229th Avenue, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Satti, Jahangir, E-mail: sattij@mail.amc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albany Medical Center, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albany Medical Center, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208 (United States); MacDonald, C. A., E-mail: c.macdonald@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Statistical analysis of the sizes and velocities of laser hot spots of smoothed beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the speckle patterns generated by optical smoothing techniques for uniform irradiation in plasma physics for uniform irradiation in plasma physics.1 This paper is a contribution to the study of optical smoothing for application to inertial confinement fusion ICF , which requires a high level of irradiation uniformity

Garnier, Josselin

105

Statistical analysis of the sizes and velocities of laser hot spots of smoothed beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the speckle patterns generated by optical smoothing techniques for uniform irradiation in plasma physics for uniform irradiation in plasma physics. 1 This paper is a contribution to the study of optical smoothing for application to inertial confinement fusion ~ICF!, which requires a high level of irradiation uniformity

Garnier, Josselin

106

X-ray imaging with monochromatic and small focal spot size sources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout SRNL Home SRNL main campusMore thanX-RayX-ray ImagePhase

107

On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmermann, Bjorn [WOLFRAM RESEARCH INC.; Nichols, Albert L [LLNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

109

Genome Size Varaiation in D. melanogaster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in genome size may account for some of the missing heritability. We measured female genome sizes for 34 Drosophila melanogaster inbred strains that derived from isofemale lines established from a natural population in Raleigh, NC, in addition to a group...

Alfrejd, Benjamin

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

110

System-size dependence of Lambda and Xi production in nucleus--nucleus collisions at 40A and 158A GeV measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results on Lambda, Anti-lambda, and Xi- production in centrality selected Pb+Pb reactions at 40A and 158A GeV and in near-central C+C and Si+Si reactions at 158A GeV are presented. Transverse mass spectra, rapidity spectra, and multiplicities in dependence of the system size are discussed. Comparisons to transport models (UrQMD2.3 and HSD) and to the core-corona approach are performed. While Lambda and Anti-lambda production can be described by transport models reasonably well, these models do not agree with the Xi- measurements. On the other hand, the core-corona picture fits very well the system-size dependence of Lambda and Xi-, while it agrees less well with the Anti-lambda data.

NA49 Collaboration

2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

111

Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Hovanski, Yuri [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Grant, Glenn J [ORNL; Dahl, Michael E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Berkeley Lab's SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

samples onto barcoded sample holders at home and ship them to the ALS. At the facility, a robot arm transfers each new sample to the measurement stage, where it is automatically...

113

Aspects of the life history and population dynamics of the spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Spot are distributed from &5 to 73 m but are most abundant at 5-9 m. Spot of one cohort recruit to the Gulf primarily in two periods, May- July (Spring), at 3-7 mo, and January-March (winter), at 13-18 mo of age. Recruitment occurs in waters &5-16 m.... Collection Observed Size Ran e 955 Confidence Limits about h N 99% Conf idence Limits of bs rvations Spring Recruitment Group 1 Oct 77 D 4 Rov 77 D 137-207 166, 1 148-201 173. 1 69 331. 2 9 373. 6 161. 7-170. 5 158. 2-188. 0 117. 7-214. 5...

Hata, David Noboru

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Io hot spots - infrared photometry of satellite occultations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Io's active hot spots, which are presently mapped on the basis of IR photometry of this moon's occultation by other Gallilean satellites, are obtained with greatest spatial resolution near the sub-earth point. A model is developed for the occultation lightcurves, and its fitting to the data defines the apparent path of the occulting satellite relative to Io; the mean error in apparent relative position of occulting satellites is of the order of 178 km. A heretofore unknown, 20-km diameter hot spot is noted on Io's leading hemisphere. 31 references.

Goguen, J.D.; Matson, D.L.; Sinton, W.M.; Howell, R.R.; Dyck, H.M.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Minimum-Hot-Spot Query Trees for Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an energy- efficient query routing tree. (a) Energy harvesting for battery- less nodes for the (b) Voltree to the querying node. Energy-efficient query routing trees are needed in a plethora of systems such as PeopleMinimum-Hot-Spot Query Trees for Wireless Sensor Networks Georgios Chatzimilioudis Dept

Zeinalipour, Demetris

116

Spot Convenience Yield Models for Energy Michael Ludkovski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This is not true for some commodities, such as electricity. Even for mature markets like crude oil where spot of fu- ture asset and current consumption values. However, unlike financial deriva- tives, storage, the agent has the option of flexibility with regards to consumption (no risk of commodity shortage

Ludkovski, Mike

117

Front Vehicle Blind Spot Translucentization Based on Augmented Reality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Front Vehicle Blind Spot Translucentization Based on Augmented Reality Che-Tsung Lin, Yu-Chen Lin--Recently, WAVE/DSRC has become an attrac- tive technology for vehicular safety applications. Vehicles with WAVE/DSRC devices can communicate with their neighboring vehicles to exchange information to achieve collaborative

Wang, Yuan-Fang

118

Bright Spots in the South Carolina the Economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bright Spots in the South Carolina the Economy 2012 African American Economic Summit Doug Woodward Professor of Economics #12;Overview · Why we should worry. ­ Global economy and financial contagion. ­ U.S. economy and political uncertainty. · Why we should be happy. ­ South Carolina economy healing. · Robust

Almor, Amit

119

Spot welding of steel and aluminum using insert sheet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automobile industries have been increasingly interested in the use of aluminum and thus joining of steel and aluminum becomes of importance. The joining of the two types of metal raises a problem of brittle welds caused by the formation of intermetallic compounds. The authors solved the problem by using an insert sheet. This paper deals with the resistance spot welding of steel and aluminum sheets using insert sheets. The insert sheet used in the present development was a steel/aluminum clad sheet of the 0.8 mm thickness with 50% steel and 50% aluminum. The clad sheet was produced by warm rolling of steel and aluminum with a direct resistance heating process. Steel to be warm rolled was of EDDQ of the 0.4 mm thickness and aluminum was of JIS A1050 of 0.6 mm thickness. The mechanical properties of the insert clad sheets were in between those of the steel sheets and the aluminum sheets, while the clad sheets showed much better formability than the aluminum sheets. Resistance spot welding was conducted for 0.8 mm thick EDDQ steel sheets and 1.0 mm thick aluminum alloy (AL-5.5%Mg) sheets under the welding force of 1.96 kN, welding current ranging between 4.2 and 20.1 kA, and welding time from 0.5 to 10 cycles. The steel was spot welded to the steel side of the insert sheet while the aluminum was welded to the aluminum side. What the authors investigated were the applicable welding current range, nugget diameter, tensile shear strength, U-tension strength, and macro- and microstructures. In conclusion, steel sheets can be spot welded to aluminum sheets without difficulty by using clad sheets as insert materials while the strength level of the dissimilar metal spot welds is close to that of aluminum joints.

Oikawa, H.; Saito, T.; Yoshimura, T. [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-white spot syndrome Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

white spot syndrome Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anti-white spot syndrome Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, June...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

EGG AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPOT, LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS (SCIAENIDAE)l  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlantic and GulfofMexico coasts from Massachusetts Bay to the Bay of Campeche (Johnson 1978). Spot spawns

122

Time series analysis and long range correlations of Nordic spot electricity market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 21020 Ispra(VA), Italy Abstract The electricity system price of the Nord Pool spot market is analysed. Weron and Przybylowicz [19] studied the electricity prices using Hurst R/S analysis and showed anti energy spot price time series. The question of modelling electricity spot prices has also been addressed

Wright, Francis

123

A k-factor GIGARCH process: Estimation and Application on electricity market spot prices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A k-factor GIGARCH process: Estimation and Application on electricity market spot prices. Abdou Kâ time series of market data, such as electricity spot price, exhibit long-memory, in the sense of slowly this approach to electricity prices (spot prices) from the German energy market (European Energy e

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

IMPROVING MULTI-LATTICE ALIGNMENT BASED SPOKEN KEYWORD SPOTTING Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as when- ever it is inconvenient, unsafe, or impossible for the user to enter a search query using and the utterance being searched is beneficial for spoken keyword spotting. In this paper, we introduce several im- prove the performance of spoken keyword spotting. Index Terms-- Spoken keyword spotting, lattice

Noble, William Stafford

125

Delivery and Hedging Delivery ties the futures price to the spot price.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Delivery and Hedging · Delivery ties the futures price to the spot price. · On the delivery date, the settlement price of the futures contract is determined by the spot price. · Hence, when the delivery period is reached, the futures price should be very close to the spot price. · Changes in futures prices usually

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

126

The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Modelling and pricing in electricity markets Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Overview

Pfeifer, Holger

127

Impulsive Spot Heating and Thermal Explosion of Interstellar Grains Revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically, with the aim to better understand leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. It is rigorously shown that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., heating of mantles by cosmic rays), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number $\\lambda$. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: When $\\lambda$ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain -- this regime is commonly known as the whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of the physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, the calculations suggest tha...

Ivlev, A V; Vasyunin, A; Caselli, P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

Gilbert, Hubert W. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

Evidence of randomness in United States spot oil prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates U.S. crude oil spot-market prices to determine if they were cyclical, autoregressive, or random in nature. The fact that oil-price volatility emerged only with the rise of spot markets meant that data for this type of an analysis were not previously available. The hypothesis tested was that U.S. crude oil price changes are neither cyclical nor autocorrelated, and are, therefore, random. Daily data on U.S. crude oil spot market prices (for the period of December 3, 1984 to November 4, 1988) were analyzed using spectral analysis; this converts time-series data into a frequency series, where it can be analyzed using more-powerful statistical methods. The spectral results of the price series gave a maximum power spectrum of 0.026, which is considerably smaller than the significance level of 0.052, considered acceptable using a 99% confidence level. The conclusion reached was that there was no significant cyclicality or autocorrelation in the data. This indicated that the U.S. crude oil prices are efficient, and that it would not be possible to predict crude oil price changes by using historical price data, seasonality, or business cycles.

Howard, B.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Detection of surface carbon and hydrocarbons in hot spot regions of niobium superconducting rf cavities by Raman spectroscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Raman microscopy/spectroscopy measurements are presented on high purity niobium (Nb) samples, including pieces from hot spot regions of a tested superconducting rf cavity that exhibit a high density of etch pits. Measured spectra are compared with density functional theory calculations of Raman-active, vibrational modes of possible surface Nb-O and Nb-H complexes. The Raman spectra inside particularly rough pits in all Nb samples show clear differences from surrounding areas, exhibiting enhanced intensity and sharp peaks. While some of the sharp peaks are consistent with calculated NbH and NbH2 modes, there is better overall agreement with C-H modes in chain-type hydrocarbons. Other spectra reveal two broader peaks attributed to amorphous carbon. Niobium foils annealed to >2000°C in high vacuum develop identical Raman peaks when subjected to cold working. Regions with enhanced C and O have also been found by SEM/EDX spectroscopy in the hot spot samples and cold-worked foils, corroborating the Raman results. Such regions with high concentrations of impurities are expected to suppress the local superconductivity and this may explain the correlation between hot spots in superconducting rf (SRF) cavities and the observation of a high density of surface pits. The origin of localized high carbon and hydrocarbon regions is unclear at present but it is suggested that particular processing steps in SRF cavity fabrication may be responsible.

Cao, C.; Ford, D.; Bishnoi, S.; Proslier, T.; Albee, B.; Hommerding, E.; Korczakowski, A.; Cooley, L.; Ciovati, G.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Wear testing of friction stir spot welding tools for joining of DP 980 Steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Several tooling materials have been evaluated in prior studies, including silicon nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, where a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) was used in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re (designated as Q60), and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re (designated at Q70). The sheet material used for all wear testing was DP 980. Tool profiles were measured periodically during the testing process in order to show the progression of wear as a function of the number of spots produced. Lap shear testing was done each time a tool profile was taken in order to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. For the welding parameters chosen for this study the Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

Ridges, Chris; Miles, Michael; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Steel, Russell

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

132

Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm – 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 – 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 – 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 – 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Understanding plastic deformation in thermal glasses from single-soft-spot dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By considering the low-frequency vibrational modes of amorphous solids, Manning and Liu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 108302 (2011)] showed that a population of "soft spots" can be identified that are intimately related to plasticity at zero temperature under quasistatic shear. In this work we track individual soft spots with time in a two-dimensional sheared thermal Lennard Jones glass at temperatures ranging from deep in the glassy regime to above the glass transition temperature. We show that the lifetimes of individual soft spots are correlated with the timescale for structural relaxation. We additionally calculate the number of rearrangements required to destroy soft spots, and show that most soft spots can survive many rearrangements. Finally, we show that soft spots are robust predictors of rearrangements at temperatures well into the super-cooled regime. Altogether, these results pave the way for mesoscopic theories of plasticity of amorphous solids based on dynamical behavior of individual soft spots.

Samuel S. Schoenholz; Andrea J. Liu; Robert A. Riggleman; Joerg Rottler

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

134

Maerz, N. H., Germain, P., 1996. Block size determination around underground openings using simulations. Proceedings of the FRAGBLAST 5 Workshop on Measurement of Blast Fragmentation, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 23-24 Aug., 1996, pp. 215-223.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-strength classification. The actual block size distribution is the product of the interaction between the joint Designation (RQD), Volumetric Joint Count (Jv), and Block Size Index (Ib). These, being index properties do, block size may be considered simply the product of three simple rock mass parameters: joint set

Maerz, Norbert H.

135

The magnetic configuration of a delta-spot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sunspots, which harbor both magnetic polarities within one penumbra, are called delta-spots. They are often associated with flares. Nevertheless, there are only very few detailed observations of the spatially resolved magnetic field configuration. We present an investigation performed with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter at the Vacuum Tower Telescope in Tenerife. We observed a sunspot with a main umbra and several additional umbral cores, one of them with opposite magnetic polarity (the delta-umbra). The delta-spot is divided into two parts by a line along which central emissions of the spectral line Ca II 854.2 nm appear. The Evershed flow comming from the main umbra ends at this line. In deep photospheric layers, we find an almost vertical magnetic field for the delta-umbra, and the magnetic field decreases rapidly with height, faster than in the main umbra. The horizontal magnetic field in the direction connecting main and delta-umbra is rather smooth, but in one location next to a bright penumbral featu...

Balthasar, Horst; Louis, Rohan E; Verma, Meetu; Denker, Carsten

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Host-specific strain of Stemphylium causes leaf spot disease of California spinach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spinach culti- vars developed leaf spots within 2 weeks, while the wateras onto spinach lines used in downy mildew research. A water

Koike, Steven T.; Henderson, Diana M.; Butler, Edward E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence of cost and price risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence ofeither increase or decrease inventory by buying or sellingof actively managing inventory during the period rather than

Guo, X.; Kaminsky, P.; Tomecek, P.; Yuen, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Transformation from spots to waves in a model of actin pattern formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Actin networks in certain single-celled organisms exhibit a complex pattern-forming dynamics that starts with the appearance of static spots of actin on the cell cortex. Spots soon become mobile, executing persistent random walks, and eventually give rise to traveling waves of actin. Here we describe a possible physical mechanism for this distinctive set of dynamic transformations, by equipping an excitable reaction-diffusion model with a field describing the spatial orientation of its chief constituent (which we consider to be actin). The interplay of anisotropic actin growth and spatial inhibition drives a transformation at fixed parameter values from static spots to moving spots to waves.

Stephen Whitelam; Till Bretschneider; Nigel J. Burroughs

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Empirical analysis of the spot market implications ofprice-elastic demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulated electricity industries share one common feature: the absence of any significant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, electricity industries continue to charge most consumers an average cost based on regulated retail tariff from the era of vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are forced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in open markets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who are sometimes forbidden by regulators from signing hedging contracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time (or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price of electricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumption in response to price signals. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic, and electricity generation resources can be stretched to the point where system stability is threatened. This, then, facilitates many other problems associated with electricity markets, such as market power and price volatility. Indeed, economic theory suggests that even modestly price-responsive demand can remove the stress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To test this theory, we use actual generator bid data from the New York control area to construct supply stacks, and intersect them with demand curves of various slopes to approximate different levels of demand elasticity. We then estimate the potential impact of real-time pricing on the equilibrium spot price and quantity. These results indicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a more price-elastic demand. Such analysis can provide policymakers with a measure of how effective price-elastic demand can potentially reduce prices and maintain consumption within the capability of generation resources.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

2004-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

142

Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications ofPrice-Responsive Demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulatedelectricity industries share one common feature: the absence of anysignificant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, most electricity consumers stillpay an average cost based regulated retail tariff held over from the eraof vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are oftenforced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in openmarkets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who aresometimes additionally forbidden by regulators from signing hedgingcontracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time(or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price ofelectricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumptionaccordingly. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic,which together with the non storability of electricity that requiresmarket clearing over very short time steps spawn many other problemsassociated with electricity markets, such as exercise of market power andprice volatility. Indeed, electricity generation resources can bestretched to the point where system adequacy is threatened. Economictheory suggests that even modest price responsiveness can relieve thestress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To quantify thiseffect, actual generator bid data from the New York control area is usedto construct supply stacks and intersect them with demand curves ofvarious slopes to approximate the effect of different levels of demandresponse. The potential impact of real-time pricing (RTP) on theequilibrium spot price and quantity is then estimated. These resultsindicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a moreprice-responsive demand providing policymakers with a measure of howprices can be potentially reduced and consumption maintained within thecapability of generation assets.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Light stops, blind spots, and isospin violation in the MSSM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of the MSSM, we examine several simplified models where only a few superpartners are light. This allows us to study WIMP-nucleus scattering in terms of a handful of MSSM parameters and thereby scrutinize their impact on dark matter direct-detection experiments. Focusing on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering, we derive simplified, analytic expressions for the Wilson coefficients associated with Higgs and squark exchange. We utilize these results to study the complementarity of constraints due to direct-detection, flavor, and collider experiments. We also identify parameter configurations that produce (almost) vanishing cross sections. In the proximity of these so-called blind spots, the amount of isospin violation is found to be much larger than typically expected in the MSSM. This feature is a generic property of parameter regions where cross sections are suppressed, and highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the nucleon couplings and the associated hadronic uncertainties. T...

Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano; Tunstall, Lewis C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A NON-GAUSSIAN ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A NON-GAUSSIAN ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND DERIVATIVES for analytical pricing of electricity forward and futures contracts. Electricity forward and futures contracts to capture the observed dynamics of electricity spot prices. We also discuss the pricing of European call

Kallsen, Jan

145

Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part I. Material Variations and Process Modifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

( l Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part I. Material Variations and Process to determine their effects on the acceptable range of resistance spot welding conditions for galvanized steel upsloping and downsloping of the weld current, preheat current, postheat current, electrode tip geometry

Eagar, Thomas W.

146

The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California on the Cost of Forward), the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) program on Reliability and Markets at the U Cruz, California. #12;ABSTRACT The unexpectedly high spot prices for electricity in the summer of 2000

147

AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1 , Toshiro a system for automatic hot spots detection and segmentation in whole body FDG-PET images. The main in clinical PET images. 1.INTRODUCTION Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 de- oxyglucose

California at Santa Barbara, University of

148

CoRoT's view on variable B8/9 stars: spots versus pulsations: Evidence for differential rotation in HD 174648  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context. There exist few variability studies of stars in the region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between the A and B-star pulsational instability strips. With the aid of the high precision continuous measurements of the CoRoT space satellite, low amplitudes are more easily detected, making a study of this neglected region worthwhile. Aims. We collected a small sample of B stars observed by CoRoT to determine the origin of the different types of variability observed. Methods. We combine literature photometry and spectroscopy to measure the fundamental parameters of the stars in the sample, and compare asteroseismic modelling of the light curves with (differentially rotating) spotted star models. Results. We found strong evidence for the existence of spots and differential rotation in HD 174648, and formulated hypotheses for their origin. We show that the distinction between pulsations and rotational modulation is difficult to make solely based on the light curve, especially in slowly rotating stars.

Degroote, P; Samadi, R; Aerts, C; Kurtz, D W; Noels, A; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Bloemen, S; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Auvergne, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Varying the Population Size of Artificial Foraging Swarms on Time ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at each time step, the least fit species, they measured the size of mutation avalanches on the system. They concluded that the phenomenon follows a power law ...

Vitorino Ramos

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

150

An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A. by Tim important feature. Spot prices for electricity have been very volatile with dramatic price spikes occurring insight into the behavior of spot prices for electricity, and in particular, to model the type

151

Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength infrared radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot spots produced by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation in an energetic material, crystalline RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), were studied by thermal-imaging microscopy. The LWIR source was a CO{sub 2} laser operating in the 28-30?THz range. Hot spot generation was studied using relatively low intensity (?100?W cm{sup ?2}), long-duration (450 ms) LWIR pulses. The hot spots could be produced repeatedly in individual RDX crystals, to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of hot spot generation by LWIR, since the peak hot-spot temperatures were kept to ?30?K above ambient. Hot spots were generated preferentially beneath RDX crystal planes making oblique angles with the LWIR beam. Surprisingly, hot spots were more prominent when the LWIR wavelength was tuned to be weakly absorbed (absorption depth ?30??m) than when the LWIR wavelength was strongly absorbed (absorption depth ?5??m). This unexpected effect was explained using a model that accounts for LWIR refraction and RDX thermal conduction. The weakly absorbed LWIR is slightly focused underneath the oblique crystal planes, and it penetrates the RDX crystals more deeply, increasing the likelihood of irradiating RDX defect inclusions that are able to strongly absorb or internally focus the LWIR beam.

Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Dlott, Dana D., E-mail: dlott@illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

May market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seven uranium transactions totalling nearly three million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported during May, but only two, totalling less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8, involved concentrates. As no discretionary buying occurred during the month, and as near-term supply and demand were in relative balance, prices were steady, while both buyers and sellers appeared to be awaiting some new market development to signal the direction of future spot-market prices. The May 31, 1993, Exchange Value and the Restricted American market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates were both unchanged at $7.10, and $2.95 per pound U3O8, respectively. NUEXCO's judgement was that transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that were both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on May 31 at $10.05 per pound U3O8. Two near-term concentrate transactions were reported in which one US utility purchased less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8 from two separate sellers. These sales occurred at price levels at or near the May 31 Exchange Value plus RAMP. No long-term uranium transactions were reported during May. Consequently, the UF6 Value decreased $0.20 to $24.30 per kgU as UF6, reflecting some weakening of the UF6 market outside the USA.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Light stops, blind spots, and isospin violation in the MSSM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of the MSSM, we examine several simplified models where only a few superpartners are light. This allows us to study WIMP-nucleus scattering in terms of a handful of MSSM parameters and thereby scrutinize their impact on dark matter direct-detection experiments. Focusing on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering, we derive simplified, analytic expressions for the Wilson coefficients associated with Higgs and squark exchange. We utilize these results to study the complementarity of constraints due to direct-detection, flavor, and collider experiments. We also identify parameter configurations that produce (almost) vanishing cross sections. In the proximity of these so-called blind spots, the amount of isospin violation is found to be much larger than typically expected in the MSSM. This feature is a generic property of parameter regions where cross sections are suppressed, and highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the nucleon couplings and the associated hadronic uncertainties. This becomes especially relevant once the increased sensitivity of future direct-detection experiments corners the MSSM into these regions of parameter space.

Andreas Crivellin; Martin Hoferichter; Massimiliano Procura; Lewis C. Tunstall

2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

154

Down-sizing Forever  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evidence for cosmic down-sizing has been growing over the last decade. It is now clear that the major star-forming epoch for the largest galaxies occurred earlier than for smaller galaxies. This not only runs counter to the popular hierarchical clustering picture, but points to an even more radical revision of our ideas of the evolution of cosmological structure. Galaxies do not form at all.

Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Display Size Wireless LAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.) - Security sofware ­ESET Smart Security. No Reuse PC with English OS for this time. PC PC Code Image Brand PC PC Code Image Brand Model F008 Panasonic CF-W2 Pentium733 M 1.10GHz 256MB 40GB 12.1 inch 1.0kg System Memory HDD Display Size Weight OS Accessory LAN Wireless LAN Remarks PC PC Code Image Brand

Katsumoto, Shingo

156

Hawaiian hot-spot swell structure from seafloor MT sounding Steven Constablea,*, Graham Heinsonb,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hawaiian hot-spot swell structure from seafloor MT sounding Steven Constablea,*, Graham Heinsonb,1 5348090. E-mail addresses: sconstable@ucsd.edu (S. Constable)8 Graham.Heinson@adelaide.edu.au (G. Heinson

Constable, Steve

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic robotic spotting Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: P2 position on the pig and the spot produced by the laser on the end of the robot arm. This was less... Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 44 (2004) 93-106 A...

158

Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - availability hot spot Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

20.00 2006 IEEE 22nd IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Hot Spot Cooling using Embedded Thermoelectric Coolers Summary: 0-7803-XXXX-X0620.00 2006 IEEE 22nd IEEE SEMI-THERM...

160

Wetland monitoring using classification trees and SPOT-5 seasonal time series. Aurlie Davranche1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to estimate the area of4 marshes covered with common reeds (Phragmites australis) and submerged macrophytes5 Phragmites australis, remote sensing, SPOT-5, submerged macrophytes, wetland monitoring.29 30 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Reedbed monitoring using classification trees and SPOT-5 seasonal time series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Phragmites australis, Remote sensing, SPOT-5. Abstract The Camargue, the Rhône river delta in south of France to model the presence of common reed (Phragmite australis) stands in Camargue. The development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

April market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spot market price for uranium outside the USA weakened further during April, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.35, to $7.10 per pound U3O8. This is the lowest Exchange Value observed in nearly twenty years, comparable to Values recorded during the low price levels of the early 1970s. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.40, to $2.95 per pound U3O8. Transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that are both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on April 30 at $10.05 per pound U3O8, up $0.05 from the sum of corresponding March Values. Four near-term concentrates transactions were reported, totalling nearly 1.5 million pounds equivalent U3O8. One long-term sale was reported. The UF6 Value also declined, as increased competition among sellers led to a $0.50 decrease, to $24.50 per kgU as UF6. However, the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.65, to $5.90 per kgU as UF6, reflecting an effective US market level of $30.40 per kgU. Two near term transactions were reported totalling approximately 1.1 million pounds equivalent U3O8. In total, eight uranium transactions totalling 28 million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported, which is about average for April market activity.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Usage by Job Size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sectorlongUpdates by DianeDemographics UsageUsage by Job Size

166

First working group meeting on the minority carrier diffusion length/lifetime measurement: Results of the round robin lifetime/diffusion length tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As was noted in the cover letter that accompanied the samples, the eleven bare silicon samples were from various manufacturers. Table I lists the codes for the samples and the manufacturer of each sample. It also notes if the sample was single or poly-crystalline. The samples had been polished on one side before being sent out for measurements, but no further processing was done. The participants of the study were asked to measure either the lifetime or diffusion length of each of the samples using their standard procedure. Table II shows the experimental conditions used by the groups who measured diffusion length. All the diffusion length measurements were performed using the Surface Photovoltage method (SPV). Table M shows the experimental conditions for the lifetime measurements. All the lifetime measurements were made using the Photoconductance Decay method (PCD) under low level injection. These tables show the diameter of the spot size used during the measurement (the effective sampling area), the locations where measurements were taken, and the number of measurements taken at each location. Table N shows the results of the measurements. The table is divided into diffusion length and lifetime measurements for each sample. The values listed are the average values reported by each group. One of the immediate artifacts seen in the data is the large variation in the lifetime measurements. The values from MIT and Mobil are generally close. However, the measurements from NCSU are typically an order of magnitude lower.

Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B. [comp.] [comp.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Multi-channel Doppler backscattering measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A versatile heterodyne Doppler Backscattering (DBS) system is used to measure density fluctuation levels (in the wavenumber range k?{sub s} ? 50), and the toroidal E × B flow velocity in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). Six tunable frequencies in three waveguide bands (26 GHz ? f ? 90 GHz) are launched using monostatic beam optics, via a quasi-optical beam combiner/polarizer and an adjustable parabolic focusing mirror (inside the vacuum enclosure) achieving Gaussian beam spot sizes of 3–5.5 cm at the X/O-mode cutoff. The DBS system covers plasma densities of 0.8 × 10{sup 13} ? n{sub e} ? 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup ?3}, and provides access to the FRC core (up to the field null) and across the FRC separatrix into the scrape-off layer plasma.

Schmitz, L., E-mail: lschmitz@ucla.edu; Peebles, W. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ruskov, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Tuszewski, M.; Douglass, J.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Characteristics of spot-market rate indexes for truckload transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the truckload transportation industry in the United States, a number of indexes are published that attempt to measure changes in rates, but no single index has emerged as an industry standard. Industry participants, ...

Bignell, Andrew (Andrew Souglas)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Sun Spot One (SS1): San Luis Valley, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

171

The Observer March 2003 page 3 CSU Fresno 16" SCT at f/38 & Jupiter's Great Red Spot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Observer March 2003 page 3 CSU Fresno 16" SCT at f/38 & Jupiter's Great Red Spot By Greg Morgan in March that the Great Red Spot will be making a central meridian crossing along with the shadow of one in the region of the Great Red Spot. Similarly, on Tuesday evening April 1st , from 10:24 PM to 1:48 AM PDT, Io

Ringwald, Frederick A.

172

Control of Black Spot of Roses with Sulphur-Copper Dust.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 648 APRIL, 1944 CONTROL OF BLACK SPOT OF ROSES WITH SULPHUR-COPPER DUST E. W. LYLE Division of Plant Pathology and Physiology l ,i- ' 7, r... ......................................................................................................... - . CONTROLOFBLACKSPOTOFROSES WITH SULPHUR-COPPER DUST' E. W. Lyle,' Plant Pathologist Black spot is a fungous disease of the rose plant that attacks ' leaves during rainy, humid weather (5). It is caused by the fung Diplocarpon rosae. As the name of the disease implies...

Lyle, E. W. (Eldon W.)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Energy and system-size dependence of two- and four-particle $v_2$ measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and their implications on flow fluctuations and nonflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present STAR measurements of azimuthal anisotropy by means of the two- and four-particle cumulants $v_2$ ($v_2\\{2\\}$ and $v_2\\{4\\}$) for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at center of mass energies $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}} = 62.4$ and 200 GeV. The difference between $v_2\\{2\\}^2$ and $v_2\\{4\\}^2$ is related to $v_{2}$ fluctuations ($\\sigma_{v_2}$) and nonflow $(\\delta_{2})$. We present an upper limit to $\\sigma_{v_2}/v_{2}$. Following the assumption that eccentricity fluctuations $\\sigma_{\\epsilon}$ dominate $v_2$ fluctuations $\\frac{\\sigma_{v_2}}{v_2} \\approx \\frac{\\sigma_{\\epsilon}}{\\epsilon}$ we deduce the nonflow implied for several models of eccentricity fluctuations that would be required for consistency with $v_2\\{2\\}$ and $v_2\\{4\\}$. We also present results on the ratio of $v_2$ to eccentricity.

The STAR Collaboration; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; B. D. Anderson; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bueltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Calderon; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; P. Chung; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; L. Didenko; F. Ding; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; F. Geurts; P. Ghosh; S. Gliske; Y. N. Gorbunov; O. G. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; L. Huo; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; J. Joseph; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; D. Kettler; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; S. R. Klein; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; L. Kumar; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; L. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; Y. Lu; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; O. I. Mall; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; S. Mioduszewski; M. K. Mitrovski; Y. Mohammed; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; L. V. Nogach; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; C. B. Powell; D. Prindle; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. Redwine; R. Reed; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; N. Schmitz; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; B. Sharma; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. de Souza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; D. Thein; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; F. Videbaek; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; S. A. Voloshin; A. Vossen; M. Wada; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; W. Witzke; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; Y. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zhan; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; W. M. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva

2011-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

174

Experimental results obtained during fatigue testing of a spot-welded lap-shear structural-joint specimen are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a number of industries. Spot welding is the traditional method of assembly for steel-based automotive and construction of vehicular structures indicate a strong diversification of material usage, with aluminum and polymeric composites projected to play a major role. While aluminum is amenable to both spot welding

Giurgiutiu, Victor

175

Price-based Congestion-Control in Wi-Fi Hot Spots Roberto Battiti(*), Marco Conti(**), Enrico Gregori(**), Mikalai Sabel(*)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

if they are in the transmission range of an access point. A new business model, named Wi-Fi Hot Spots, is now emerging to exploit offer with Wi-Fi. To reach an efficient use of the scarce bandwidth resources, market mechanisms the potentialities of this technology. A hot spot is a "critical" business area, e.g., airports, stations, hotels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks and long memory models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks of oil spot and futures prices using three GARCH-type models, i.e., linear GARCH, GARCH with structural that oil price fluctuations influence economic activity and financial sector (e.g., Jones and Kaul, 1996

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits Chong@ece.ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Circuits using nano-meter technologies are becoming increasingly vulnerable to signal interference methodology to study the vulnerability of digital ICs exposed to nano-meter noise and transient soft errors

California at San Diego, University of

178

Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal In this article, we construct forward price curves and value a class of two asset exchange options for energy the implied market prices of risk for this commodity. 1. Introduction The energy commodity markets

Jaimungal, Sebastian

179

ESTIMATING THE VOLATILITY OF SPOT PRICES IN RESTRUCTURED ELECTRICITY MARKETS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR OPTION VALUES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Draft 1e ESTIMATING THE VOLATILITY OF SPOT PRICES IN RESTRUCTURED ELECTRICITY MARKETS path. Accurate valuation of claims based on competitive electricity prices has proved problematic, as electricity price data are not well represented by traditional commodity price models of Brownian motion

180

Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process. Abdou Kâ Diongue this method to the German electricity price market for the period August 15, 2000 - De- cember 31, 2002 and we; Electricity prices; Forecast; GIGARCH process. Corresponding author: Universite Gaston Berger de Saint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2 October 9, 2009 for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity and electricity prices is a relevant issue. Numerous diffusion-type and econometric models have been proposed

182

Fracture toughness of the molten zone of resistance spot welds Florent Krajcarz1,2*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). In these tests, the load vs. load line displacement curve is recorded to derive the weld strength (i.e. maximal of the base metal still significantly influences the load vs. displacement curve, yet to a lesser extent than and the crack extension resistance of the molten zone of resistance spot welds under Mode I loading has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

THE FROBENIUS INTEGRABILITY THEOREM AND THE BLIND-SPOT PROBLEM FOR MOTOR VEHICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-side automotive mirror that has no blind-spot or distortion. While reasonably good solutions have been found driver-side mirror compared with a aluminum prototype designed using the method described in [7, the issue of the driver's field of view is a crucial one for automotive safety. According to a U

Moskow, Shari

184

SPIRIT-IPY: List of Publications SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, A. and Gallee, H.: Modeling the mass and surface heat budgets in a coastal blue ice area of AdelieSPIRIT-IPY: List of Publications SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year

Berthier, Etienne

185

Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pool (SPP), Entergy (ENT), and Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). Approximate locations of the spot markets are shown in Figure 2.1. Plots of the price series for each market are provided in Figure 2.2. One day lagged U.S. aggregate...

Park, Haesun

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Integrated thermal-microstructure model to predict the property gradients in resistance spot steel welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated model approach was proposed for relating resistance welding parameters to weldment properties. An existing microstructure model was used to determine the microstructural and property gradients in resistance spot welds of plain carbon steel. The effect of these gradients on the weld integrity was evaluated with finite element analysis. Further modifications to this integrated thermal-microstructure model are discussed.

Babu, S.S.; Riemer, B.W.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Short-lived spots in solar-like stars as observed by CoRoT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context. CoRoT light curves have an unprecedented photometric quality, having simultaneously a high signal-to-noise ratio, a long time span and a nearly continuous duty-cycle. Aims. We analyse the light-curves of four bright targets observed in the seismology field and study short-lived small spots in solar-like stars. Methods. We present a simple spot modeling by iterative analysis. Its ability to extract relevant parameters is ensured by implementing relaxation steps to avoid convergence to local minima of the sum of the residuals between observations and modeling. The use of Monte-Carlo simulations allows us to estimate the performance of the fits. Results. Our starspot modeling gives a representation of the spots on these stars in agreement with other well tested methods. Within this framework, parameters such as rigid-body rotation and spot lifetimes seem to be precisely determined. Then, the lifetime/rotation period ratios are in the range 0.5 - 2, and there is clear evidence for differential rotation.

Mosser, B; Lanza, A F; Hulot, J C; Catala, C; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk Prof. Dr. Meyer. Februar 2010, 16:15 Uhr Seminarraum, LudwigstraÃ?e 33 I The recent deregulation of electricity markets has led to the creation of energy exchanges, where the electricity is freely traded. We study the most

Gerkmann, Ralf

189

Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models Gernot M¨uller Vortrag im years, electricity markets throughout the world have undergone massive changes due to deregulations risk but also against price movements. Consequently, statistical modeling and estimation of electricity

Gerkmann, Ralf

190

DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Phil demonstrated a cooling method on a "digital microfluidics" platform whereby discrete droplets are manipulated and the effective flow rate of the droplets. The results presented here suggest that digital microfluidics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Mapping the Energy Distribution of SERRS Hot Spots from Anti-Stokes to Stokes Intensity Ratios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mapping the Energy Distribution of SERRS Hot Spots from Anti- Stokes to Stokes Intensity Ratios in the anti-Stokes to Stokes intensity ratios in single-molecule surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, a methodology to estimate the distribution of resonance energies

Brolo, Alexandre G.

192

21 Apr 2006 IPSN / SPOTS `06 Trio: Enabling Sustainable and Scalable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management. Use energy harvesting. Improve energy mgmt. Reduce power draw. #12;21 Apr 2006 IPSN / SPOTS `06 harvesting · Improve energy "transfer" ­ Lower operating voltage ­ Adapt load (e.g. MPP) · Decrease power ­ Increasing Lifetime through Solar Energy Solar Cell Short Circuit Current Richmond Field Station, August 24

California at Berkeley, University of

193

Resistance of Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars to Necrotic Ring Spot by Tom Hsiang and Gary A Chastagner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resistance of Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars to Necrotic Ring Spot by Tom Hsiang and Gary, but is especially destructive on Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) (Smiley et al., 1992; Worf et al., 1986 stands of Kentucky bluegrass. Symptoms are small, pale, straw-coloured patches of turf a few cm

Hsiang, Tom

194

Verification of the Accuracy of Sample-Size Equation Calculations for Visual Sample Plan Version 0.9C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is a software tool being developed to facilitate the design of environmental sampling plans using a site-map visual interface, standard sample-size equations, a variety of sampling grids and random sampling plans, and graphs to visually depict the results to the user. This document provides comparisons between sample sizes calculated by VSP Version 0.9C, and sample sizes calculated by test code written in the S-Plus language. All sample sizes calculated by VSP matched the independently calculated sample sizes. Also the VSP implementation of the ELIGPRID-PC algorithm for hot spot probabilities is shown to match previous results for 100 standard test cases. The Conclusions and Limitations section of this document lists some aspects of VSP that were not tested by this suite of tests and recommends simulation-based enhancements for future versions of VSP.

Davidson, James R.

2001-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

195

Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

Srinivasan, Bhuvana, E-mail: srinbhu@vt.edu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Tang, Xian-Zhu, E-mail: xtang@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Controlling atomistic processes on Pb films via quantum size effects and lattice rotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two main techniques used to record the data in this dissertation were Spot Profile Analysis - Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). A specific data analysis technique for LEED data called G(S) curves is described in depth. G(S) curves can provide a great deal of structural information about the surface; including step heights, island size, and island separation. The effects of quantum size effects (QSE) on the diffusion and critical island sizes of Pb and In on Pb #12;films are reported. Pb depositions on the 2D In phases {radical}3 and {radical}31 to see how the phases affect the Pb growth and its strong QSE are reported.

Binz, Steven

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

Pechersky, M.J.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

199

Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

Pechersky, Martin J. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

Shah, K.B.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Finite element simulation of laser spot welding A. De, S. K. Maiti, C. A. Walsh and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finite element simulation of laser spot welding A. De, S. K. Maiti, C. A. Walsh and H. K. D. H laser spot welding, taking into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties and latent formation during laser spot welding, although the `double ellipsoidal' representation requires an a priori

Cambridge, University of

202

Operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasma in front of a positively biased electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stability of an anode spot plasma, which is an additional high density plasma generated in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in ambient plasma, is a critical issue for its utilization to various types of ion sources. In this study, operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasmas are experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of the bias current flowing into the positively biased electrode and the properties of ambient plasma reveal that unstable nature of the anode spot is deeply associated with the reduction of double layer potential between the anode spot plasma and the ambient plasma. It is found that stability of the anode spot plasma can be improved with increasing the ionization rate in ambient plasma so as to compensate the loss of electrons across the double layer or with enlarging the area of the biased electrode to prevent electron accumulation inside the anode spot. The results obtained from the present study give the guideline for operating conditions of anode spot plasmas as an ion source with high brightness.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Dang, Jeong-Jeung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Children's Clothes - Size and Selection.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tooe ZTA245.7 8-1303 B873 no ? \\'3J~3L-~=============i1 ? ? ? CHILDREN'S CLOTHES, SIZE AND SELECTION ? ~========================~ Texas Agricultural Extension Service. The Texas A&M University System. Daniel C. pfannstiel, Director.... College Station, Texas ," ? (BIaBk Pa,ge in O'rigjaal Bulletinl ' / I' j '. ":SIZE AND SELECTION Ann Vanderpoorten and Claudia Kerbel* Preschool and school-age children have special...

Vanderpoorten, Ann; Kerbel, Claudia

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Laser wakefield generated X-ray probe for femtosecond time-resolved measurements of ionization states of warm dense aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a laser wakefield generated X-ray probe to directly measure the temporal evolution of the ionization states in warm dense aluminum by means of absorption spectroscopy. As a promising alternative to the free electron excited X-ray sources, Betatron X-ray radiation, with femtosecond pulse duration, provides a new technique to diagnose femtosecond to picosecond transitions in the atomic structure. The X-ray probe system consists of an adjustable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope for focusing the Betatron emission to a small probe spot on the sample being measured, and a flat Potassium Acid Phthalate Bragg crystal spectrometer to measure the transmitted X-ray spectrum in the region of the aluminum K-edge absorption lines. An X-ray focal spot size of around 50 ?m was achieved after reflection from the platinum-coated 10-cm-long KB microscope mirrors. Shot to shot positioning stability of the Betatron radiation was measured resulting in an rms shot to shot variation in spatial pointing on the sample of 16 ?m. The entire probe setup had a spectral resolution of ?1.5 eV, a detection bandwidth of ?24 eV, and an overall photon throughput efficiency of the order of 10{sup ?5}. Approximately 10 photons were detected by the X-ray CCD per laser shot within the spectrally resolved detection band. Thus, it is expected that hundreds of shots will be required per absorption spectrum to clearly observe the K-shell absorption features expected from the ionization states of the warm dense aluminum.

Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Fourmaux, S.; Saraf, A.; Otani, K.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada)] [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ng, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Kriging by using measurements in different size Support  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-2100 - esp. floods and droughts ·To assess impacts of the changes on agriculture, industry, energy, drinking as a resource WATCH Project (http://www.eu-watch.org) #12;WATCH Application Basins Climate: Cold climate (Nordic is a Storage Reservoir Inputs Rainfall Recharge River and Wetland infiltrations Lateral inflow from neighboring

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

206

Projectile containing metastable intermolecular composites and spot fire method of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for altering the course of a conflagration involving firing a projectile comprising a powder mixture of oxidant powder and nanosized reductant powder at velocity sufficient for a violent reaction between the oxidant powder and the nanosized reductant powder upon impact of the projectile, and causing impact of the projectile at a location chosen to draw a main fire to a spot fire at such location and thereby change the course of the conflagration, whereby the air near the chosen location is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause a spot fire at such location. The invention also includes a projectile useful for such method and said mixture preferably comprises a metastable intermolecular composite.

Asay, Blaine W.; Son, Steven F.; Sanders, V. Eric; Foley, Timothy; Novak, Alan M.; Busse, James R.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Modeling the formation and size distribution of fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of mathematical models has been developed to predict the size distribution of fly ash particles formed in pulverized coal combustion. The large particle mode of the size distribution, typically centered about 10 to 20 ..mu..m, is predicted by a simple breakup model that is based on the complete coalescence of molten mineral inclusions within fragments of the devolatilized coal char. The ultrafine particle mode, that is typically centered about 0.1 to 0.2 ..mu..m, is modeled in terms of ash volatilization, nucleation, and coagulation. Silica and alumina are reduced to volatile suboxides through reactions at the char surface. The volatile suboxides are transported from the char surface where they are oxidized back to the stable oxides in the bulk gas, and then nucleated in accordance with homogeneous nucleation theory. The ultrafine nuclei coagulate in accordance with Brownian coagulation theory. The predicted particle size spectra have been compared to measured size distributions from a pilot-scale combustor and a full-scale utility boiler. Considering the disproportionate loss of coarse particles in the pilot-scale unit, the agreement between the predicted and measured size distributions was considered reasonably good. Both the predicted ultrafine and large particle modes agreed reasonably well with the measured particle size distribution for the full scale boiler. The validated computer models were used to study the effect of changes in the coal ash content, coal particle size, and the combustion flame temperature.

Dahlin, R.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

Harris, Betty W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

Harris, B.W.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

210

Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

Shen, Junjun, E-mail: junjun.shen@hzg.de; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining Processes, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

211

Blind Spots for neutralino Dark Matter in the MSSM with an intermediate m_A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the spin-independent neutralino Dark Matter scattering off heavy nuclei in the MSSM. We identify analytically the blind spots in direct detection for intermediate values of $m_A$. In the region where $\\mu$ and $M_{1,2}$ have opposite signs, there is not only a reduction of the lightest CP-even Higgs coupling to neutralinos, but also a destructive interference between the neutralino scattering through the exchange of the lightest CP-even Higgs and that through the exchange of the heaviest CP-even Higgs. At critical values of $m_A$, the tree-level contribution from the light Higgs exchange cancels the contribution from the heavy Higgs, so the scattering cross section vanishes. We denote these configurations as blind spots, since they provide a generalization of the ones previously discussed in the literature, which occur at very large values of $m_A$. We show that the generalized blind spots may occur in regions of parameter space that are consistent with the obtention of the proper neutralino relic density, and can be tested by non-standard Higgs boson searches and EWino searches at the LHC and future linear colliders.

Peisi Huang; Carlos E. M. Wagner

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy: Does Breast Size Matter?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of breast size on dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical toxicity in whole-breast hypofractionated radiation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy between 2005 and 2009 were screened, and qualifying consecutive patients were included in 1 of 2 cohorts: large-breasted patients (chest wall separation >25 cm or planning target volume [PTV] >1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=97) and small-breasted patients (chest wall separation <25 cm and PTV <1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=32). All patients were treated prone or supine with hypofractionated IMRT to the whole breast (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) followed by a boost dose (9.6 Gy in 4 fractions). Dosimetric and clinical toxicity data were collected and analyzed using the R statistical package (version 2.12). Results: The mean PTV V95 (percentage of volume receiving >= 95% of prescribed dose) was 90.18% and the mean V105 percentage of volume receiving >= 105% of prescribed dose was 3.55% with no dose greater than 107%. PTV dose was independent of breast size, whereas heart dose and maximum point dose to skin correlated with increasing breast size. Lung dose was markedly decreased in prone compared with supine treatments. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 0, 1, and 2 skin toxicities were noted acutely in 6%, 69%, and 25% of patients, respectively, and at later follow-up (>3 months) in 43%, 57%, and 0% of patients, respectively. Large breast size contributed to increased acute grade 2 toxicity (28% vs 12%, P=.008). Conclusions: Adequate PTV coverage with acceptable hot spots and excellent sparing of organs at risk was achieved by use of IMRT regardless of treatment position and breast size. Although increasing breast size leads to increased heart dose and maximum skin dose, heart dose remained within our institutional constraints and the incidence of overall skin toxicity was comparable to that reported in the literature. Taken together, these data suggest that hypofractionated radiation therapy using IMRT is a viable and appropriate therapeutic modality in large-breasted patients.

Hannan, Raquibul, E-mail: Raquibul.Hannan@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thompson, Reid F.; Chen Yu; Bernstein, Karen; Kabarriti, Rafi; Skinner, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Chin C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Landau, Evan; Miller, Ekeni; Spierer, Marnee; Hong, Linda; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

Wang, Jian

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

215

Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on the Prevention of White Spot Lesions in Patients Undergoing Active Orthodontic Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on white spot lesion (WSL) formation utilizing a typical orthodontic treatment interval for the applications. Methods...

Hutto Fretty, Corneil Kimberly

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

216

Managing Two-Spotted Spider Mites on Soybeans Ken Ostlie, Extension Entomologist, and Bruce Potter, IPM Specialist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Managing Two-Spotted Spider Mites on Soybeans Ken Ostlie, Extension Entomologist, and Bruce Potter? Spider mite populations are held in balance by natural enemies, weather and host quality. Drought

Minnesota, University of

217

Development of elastography as a non-invasive method for hard spots detection of packaged beef rations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generated under the selected conditions. The elastograms were segmented using an automatic thresholding algorithm and the results were used to analyze the detection of hard spots. The optimal conditions determined for elastography were an applied strain of 1...

Wang, Wei-wei

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Post-Harvest Control of Two-Spotted Spider Mites in Nikki Rothwell, District Fruit IPM Educator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with two distinct black spots; irregular dark splotches may appear after feeding. Male TSSM are more as both species can have greenish colored stages. TSSM infestations are often accompanied by silk webbing

219

Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

220

Measurement of acoustoelastic effect of Rayleigh surface waves using laser ultrasonics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The acoustoelastic effect refers to the fact that elastic wave velocities vary with stress. Measurements of the change in stress induced velocity yield information which leads to the determination of stresses. Some work has been done to explore the possibility of using ultrasonic waves, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves as well as surface waves, for the nondestructive evaluation of stresses. This paper focuses on Rayleigh surface waves, which have the advantage of detecting both surface stresses and stress gradients. Piezoelectric or electromagnetic acoustic transducers have been used for the application of Rayleigh waves in the acoustoelastic measurement of stress. The size of these transducers and their fixtures limit the distance between transducers. Sharp edge wedges are usually bound to the pick-up piezoelectric transducers, known as the Rayleigh or surface wave device (SWD), to provide a better spatial resolution when the stress field is not uniform. The smallest distance reported is 11 mm. On the other hand, acoustic microscopes (AM) can measure localized stress for a very small area, from 30 {micro}m to 2 mm. Both SWD and AM method may lack the agility required for general applications. Laser ultrasonics (LU) is a method for optical generation and detection of ultrasound. The generation and detection areas can be focused to very small spot sizes, less than 1 mm, which allow velocity measurements to be made over a path length of a few millimeters. The LU technique is non-contact and can be applied remotely; it has many potential applications. The authors used the LU technique to measure the acoustoelastic behavior of an aluminum alloy, A16061-T6.

Lu, W.Y.; Peng, L.W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Materials and Engineering Sciences Center; Holland, S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Evolution of particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor is studied in this paper. As an important mechanism of particle collision, thermophoresis is briefly discussed in this paper and the thermophoretic velocity is given. The temperature gradient that causes the thermophoretic force is established between high and low temperature particles in the flow, which results from convection and radiation heat balance between particles and wall. Particle temperature with respect to their sizes is obtained. Mechanism of agglomeration and collection efficiency of fine particles is presented. Finally, at the inlet of the ESP, theoretical particle size distribution is compared with the experimental measurements at CFFF.

Yang, Dujiu; Crawford, L.W.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Evolution of particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor is studied in this paper. As an important mechanism of particle collision, thermophoresis is briefly discussed in this paper and the thermophoretic velocity is given. The temperature gradient that causes the thermophoretic force is established between high and low temperature particles in the flow, which results from convection and radiation heat balance between particles and wall. Particle temperature with respect to their sizes is obtained. Mechanism of agglomeration and collection efficiency of fine particles is presented. Finally, at the inlet of the ESP, theoretical particle size distribution is compared with the experimental measurements at CFFF.

Yang, Dujiu; Crawford, L.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

8, 78477881, 2008 Size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 7847­7881, 2008 Size distributions and sources of WSOC in urban background area H. Timonen, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air H. Timonen 1 , S Chemistry Division National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80305-3000, USA

Boyer, Edmond

224

Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

225

Control of Transcription by Cell Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cell size increases significantly with increasing ploidy. Differences in cell size and ploidy are associated with alterations in gene expression, although no direct connection has been made between cell size and transcription. ...

Wu, Chia-Yung

226

5, 52235252, 2005 Size-resolved source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcano emission. PMF analysis of size% in the fine size range (0.56­2.5 µm). The diesel vehicle source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size

Boyer, Edmond

227

Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail: mkazemi@sharif.edu; Kokabi, A.H.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

229

Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Steel with Transition Material - From Process to Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes work to date on resistance spot welding (RSW) of aluminum alloy to mild steel from process development to performance evaluation. A cold-rolled strip material is introduced as a transition material to aid the resistance welding process. The optimal welding parameters and electrode selections were established using a combination of experimental and analytical approaches. The mechanical behaviors of welded samples was evaluated using static and dynamic strength tests and cyclic fatigue tests. A statistical analysis was also performed to analyze the effect of different failure modes on the sample's peak load and energy absorption.

Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Shao, H; Kimchi, Menachem; Menachem Kimchi and Wanda Newman

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

230

Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

Feng Liubin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xi Tingting [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas of the Ministry of Education of China and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He Duanwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

High spring temperatures decrease peach fruit size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

useful in dif?cult fruit- and crop level interactions inin light of the increasing fruit size distribution and waterpressure for large-size fruits. CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE •

Lopez, Geraldo; Johnson, R. Scott; DeJong, Theodore M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Neighbouring male spotted bowerbirds are not related, but do maraud each other  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Lanctot et al. 1998), or by determining the size and structure of aggregations that males form (Westcott

Dasmahapatra, Kanchon

233

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Observations of Ferrite/Austenite Transformations in the Heat Affected Zone of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Spot Welds Using Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD) measurements are made in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) spot welds. Both the {gamma} {yields} {delta} and {delta} {yields} {gamma} transformations are monitored as a function of time during the rapid spot weld heating and cooling cycles. These observations are then correlated with calculated thermal cycles. Where the peak temperatures are highest ({approx}1342 C), the {gamma} {yields} {delta} transformation proceeds to completion, leaving a ferritic microstructure at the end of heating. With lower peak temperatures, the {gamma} {yields} {delta} transformation proceeds to only partial completion, resulting in a microstructure containing both transformed and untransformed austenite. Further analyses of the individual diffraction patterns show shifts in the peak positions and peak widths as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, these changes in the peak characteristics are correlated with measured changes in the ferrite volume fraction. Such changes in the peak positions and widths during the {gamma} {yields} {delta} transformation provide an indication of changes occurring in each phase. These changes in peak properties can be correlated with the diffusion of nitrogen and other substitutional alloying elements, which are recognized as the primary mechanisms for this transformation. Upon cooling, the {delta} {yields} {gamma} transformation is observed to proceed from both the completely and partially transformed microstructural regions in the TRXRD data. An examination of the resulting microstructures confirms the TRXRD observation as the evidence shows that austenite both nucleates and grows from the ferritic microstructure at locations closest to the fusion zone boundary and grows from untransformed austenite grains at locations further from this boundary.

Palmer, T; Elmer, J; Babu, S

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

235

Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

VERTICAL BEAM SIZE CONTROL IN TLS AND TPS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertical beam size control is an important issue in the light source operations. The horizontal-vertical betatron coupling and vertical dispersion were measured and corrected to small values in the TLS 1.5 GeV storage ring. Estimated beam sizes are compared with the measured values. By employing an effective transverse damping system, the vertical beam blow-up due to transverse coherent instabilities, such as the fast-ion beam instability, was suppressed. As a result, the light source is very stable. In NSRRC we are designing an ultra low emittance 3-GeV storage ring and its designed vertical beam size could be as small as a few microns. The ground and mechanic vibration effects, and coherent instabilities could spoil the expected photon brightness due to blow-up of the vertical beam size if not well taken care of. The contributions of these effects to vertical beam size increase will be evaluated and the counter measures to minimize them will be proposed and reported in this paper.

KUO, C.C.; CHEN, J.R.; CHOU, P.J.; CHANG, H.P.; HSU, K.T.; LUO, G.H.; TSAI, H.J.; WANG, D.J.; WANG, M.H.

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

239

The evaluation of resistance of seedling alfalfa varieties and strains to the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata (Buckton)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Evaluation of Resistance oi Seedling Alfalfa Varieties and Strains to the Spotted Alfalfa Aphid, ~ggj, ~a~ Eggg~g (Buck- ton) EILFRED J. KLEi~KlT A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural aud Mechanical College of Texas... in partial 1'ulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER UF SCIEECE January 1960 Major Subject: Entomology The Evaluation of Raeietance of SeecG. Lag Alfalfa Varietiee and ~trains to the Spotted Alfalfa Aphid& (3~ton) A Thesis By 4'iifred...

Klement, Wilfred John

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: in situ measurements and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ spatial and temporal temperature measurements of pristine fused silica surfaces heated with a 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser were obtained using an infrared radiation thermometer based on a Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) camera. Laser spot sizes ranged from 250 {micro}m to 1000 {micro}m diameter with peak axial irradiance levels of 0.13 to 16 kW/cm{sup 2}. For temperatures below 2800K, the measured steady-state surface temperature is observed to rise linearly with both increasing beam size and incident laser irradiance. The effective thermal conductivity estimated over this range was approximately 2W/mK, in good agreement with classical calculations based on phonon heat capacities. Similarly, time-dependent temperature measurements up to 2000K yielded thermal diffusivity values which were close to reported values of 7 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/s. Above {approx}2800K, the fused silica surface temperature asymptotically approaches 3100K as laser power is further increased, consistent with the onset of evaporative heat losses near the silica boiling point. These results show that in the laser heating regime studied here, the T{sup 3} temperature dependent thermal conductivity due to radiation transport can be neglected, but at temperatures above 2800K heat transport due to evaporation must be considered. The thermal transport in fused silica up to 2800K, over a range of conditions, can then be adequately described by a linear diffusive heat equation assuming constant thermal properties.

Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Draggoo, V G; Bisson, S E

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding of DP 980 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, using a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re, and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re. The sheet material used for all wear testing was 1.4 mm DP 980. Lap shear testing was used to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. The Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

Miles, Michael; Ridges, Chris; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Santella, M. L.; Steel, Russel

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

242

On the development of nugget growth model for resistance spot welding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we developed a general mathematical model to estimate the nugget growth process based on the heat energy delivered into the welds by the resistance spot welding. According to the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer, and the effect of electrode force during the welding process, the shape of the nugget can be estimated. Then, a mathematical model between heat energy absorbed and nugget diameter can be obtained theoretically. It is shown in this paper that the nugget diameter can be precisely described by piecewise fractal polynomial functions. Experiments were conducted with different welding operation conditions, such as welding currents, workpiece thickness, and widths, to validate the model and the theoretical analysis. All the experiments confirmed that the proposed model can predict the nugget diameters with high accuracy based on the input heat energy to the welds.

Zhou, Kang, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk; Cai, Lilong, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

243

Docket No. PA02-2-000 Price Manipulation in Western MarketsV-1 V. The Influence of Electricity Spot Prices on Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Electricity Spot Prices on Electricity Forward Prices Summary of Results The vital link between the spot price electric prices today and the forward price of electricity. Instead, forward prices should mostly reflect electricity in the West, forward gas prices should, in large part, explain forward electricity prices. Our

Laughlin, Robert B.

244

Size-dependent same-material tribocharging in insulating grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations of flowing granular matter have suggested that same-material tribocharging de- pends on particle size, rendering large grains positive and small ones negative. Models assuming the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this, but so far have not been validated. Tracking individual grains in an electric field, we show quantitatively that charge is transferred based on size between materially identical grains. However, the surface density of trapped electrons, measured independently by thermoluminescence techniques, is orders of magnitude too small to account for the scale of charge transferred. This suggests that another negatively charged species, such as ions, is responsible.

Scott R. Waitukaitis; Victor Lee; James M. Pierson; Steven L. Forman; Heinrich M. Jaeger

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic T.D. Mount Department of market power to raise prices above competitive levels in the UK market for electricity has been discussed in an electricity market. In spite of this abundant evidence, regulators in the USA have been relatively unconcerned

246

Assessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas: Evidence from Daily Price Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

following the FERC's `open access' reforms of the late 1980s. Daily spot prices at 76 market locations from segmented from the more loosely integrated Western market. Thus, although the FERC reforms have contributed Commission (FERC) implemented a series of far-reaching regulatory reforms. These reforms were designed

247

P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i ...) P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material proper- ties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current

Eagar, Thomas W.

248

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies, stripes on zebras, tri-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies variety. The Gray{Scott equations were formulated originally by Gray and Scott in 1983; we shall advantage of this principle. References P. Gray and S. K. Scott, papers in Chem. Eng. Sci. 38 (1983), 29

Trefethen, Nick

249

The sweet spot of forward osmosis: Treatment of produced water, drilling wastewater, and other complex and difficult liquid streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and especially oil and gas (O&G) exploration and production wastewaters. High salt concentrations, decentralized generated during exploration and production (E&P) (e.g., drilling muds, hydraulic fracturing flowback water processes, have identified its sweet spot: treatment and desalination of complex industrial streams

250

Instabilities of a three-dimensional localized spot Marcin Leda, Vladimir K. Vanag, and Irving R. Epstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Zhabotinsky reaction in water-in-oil microemulsion. We find three types of instabili- ties: splitting of a single spot be classified as either supercritical or subcritical. In reaction-diffusion systems, supercritical instabilities of a ho- mogeneous steady state SS can give rise to small-amplitude patterns, while subcritical

Epstein, Irving R.

251

Introduction The composition and size of atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nearly an order of magnitude in all size bins, with pronounced increases in larger size bins. · The Raman&M University Chart 1: The 0.3 m size bin exceeds 1x10 particles per 0.5000ft³ and particle count overlaps. Chart 2: The 0.3m bin count predominates and there are significant differences between size bin counts

252

7, 1074310766, 2007 EC size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 10743­10766, 2007 EC size distributions in an urban atmosphere in China Xiao-Feng Huang a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Size distributions of elemental Correspondence to: Jian Zhen Yu (chjianyu@ust.hk) 10743 #12;ACPD 7, 10743­10766, 2007 EC size distributions

Boyer, Edmond

253

6, 1184511875, 2006 A new SIze REsolved  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the aerosol size distribution into sections and solves the GDE by splitting coagulation and condensation Interactive Discussion EGU that affect the aerosol size/composition distribution are therefore crucial. ThreeACPD 6, 11845­11875, 2006 A new SIze REsolved Aerosol Model E. Debry et al. Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

254

Improving spot-scanning proton therapy patient specific quality assurance with HPlusQA, a second-check dose calculation engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the use of HPlusQA, spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) dose calculation software developed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, as second-check dose calculation software for patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA). The authors also showed how HPlusQA can be used within the current PSQA framework.Methods: The authors compared the dose calculations of HPlusQA and the Eclipse treatment planning system with 106 planar dose measurements made as part of PSQA. To determine the relative performance and the degree of correlation between HPlusQA and Eclipse, the authors compared calculated with measured point doses. Then, to determine how well HPlusQA can predict when the comparisons between Eclipse calculations and the measured dose will exceed tolerance levels, the authors compared gamma index scores for HPlusQA versus Eclipse with those of measured doses versus Eclipse. The authors introduce the ??? transformation as a way to more easily compare gamma scores.Results: The authors compared measured and calculated dose planes using the relative depth, z/R × 100%, where z is the depth of the measurement and R is the proton beam range. For relative depths than less than 80%, both Eclipse and HPlusQA calculations were within 2 cGy of dose measurements on average. When the relative depth was greater than 80%, the agreement between the calculations and measurements fell to 4 cGy. For relative depths less than 10%, the Eclipse and HPlusQA dose discrepancies showed a negative correlation, ?0.21. Otherwise, the correlation between the dose discrepancies was positive and as large as 0.6. For the dose planes in this study, HPlusQA correctly predicted when Eclipse had and had not calculated the dose to within tolerance 92% and 79% of the time, respectively. In 4 of 106 cases, HPlusQA failed to predict when the comparison between measurement and Eclipse's calculation had exceeded the tolerance levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement.Conclusions: The authors found HPlusQA to be reasonably effective (79%± 10%) in determining when the comparison between measured dose planes and the dose planes calculated by the Eclipse treatment planning system had exceeded the acceptable tolerance levels. When used as described in this study, HPlusQA can reduce the need for patient specific quality assurance measurements by 64%. The authors believe that the use of HPlusQA as a dose calculation second check can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the QA process.

Mackin, Dennis; Li, Yupeng; Taylor, Michael B.; Kerr, Matthew; Holmes, Charles; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Li, Heng; Lii, Jim; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Measurement of the Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Molybdenum Disulfide Single Crystal by the Time-resolved Magneto-optic Kerr Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with perpendicular magnetization serves as the heater and thermometer in the experiment. The low thermal conductivity for determining the thermal conductivity of materials but the sensitivity of TDTR to the lateral or in-plane thermal conductivity of a sample is low when conventional choices are made for laser spot sizes, #12

Cahill, David G.

256

Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings

Martin, Thomas E.

258

Spatial distribution and size evolution of particles in Asian outflow: Significance of primary and secondary aerosols during ACE-Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volatility suggested increasing neutralization of the aerosol during growth. Size distribution measurements; KEYWORDS: ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, aerosol size distribution, nucleation, primary and secondary aerosols, condensation and coagulation Citation: Mc Naughton, C. S., et al. (2004), Spatial distribution and size

259

Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior and Adams, 2009b) ·Condensation, coagulation, nucleation ·40 size bins (1 nm ­ 10 µm) ·Nucleation rates the aerosol mass distribution. However, recent closure studies with field measurements show that a significant

260

French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed.

Kibriya, Nabil, E-mail: nabskib@yahoo.co.uk; Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); How, Thien [University of Liverpool, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G. [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Sizing sliding gate valves for steam service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding gate valves have been used in thousands of applications during the past 40 yr. While steam control is a common application for these valves, thy are also used to control other gases and liquids. The sliding gate design provides straight-through flow, which minimizes turbulence, vibration, and noise. Seats are self-cleaning and self-lapping to provide a tight, long-lasting shutoff. A correctly sized valve is essential for accurate control. Valve size should be determined by service and system requirements, not by the size of the existing pipeline. Sizing a valve on the basis of pipeline size usually results in an oversized valve and poor control. Generally, regulator size is smaller than pipe size. Whenever complete information is known (inlet pressure, outlet pressure, or pressure drop, and required flow), determine the valve flow coefficient (C{sub v}) using the equations in ANSI/ISA S75.01 or a flow sizing chart. Tables of values for various types of valves are available from manufacturers. However, when complete system requirements are not known, valve oversizing is prevented by determining the design capacity of piping downstream from the valve. The valve should not be sized to pass more flow than the maximum amount the pipe can handle at a reasonable velocity. An example calculation is given.

Bollinger, R. [Jordan Value, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

262

Optimization Online - Lot sizing with inventory gains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apr 27, 2006 ... Abstract: This paper introduces the single item lot sizing problem with inventory gains. This problem is a generalization of the classical single ...

Hamish Waterer

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - austenitc grain size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dynamics of granular stratification Hernan A. Makse,1,2 Summary: camera, we study a rapid flow regime where the rolling grains size segregate during the avalanche due... measure...

264

Mean-Risk Optimization of Electricity Portfolios Using Multiperiod Polyhedral Risk Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mean-Risk Optimization of Electricity Portfolios Using Multiperiod Polyhedral Risk Measures Andreas-risk optimization of electricity portfolios containing electricity futures as well as several com- ponents to satisfy a stochastic electricity demand: electricity spot market, two different types of supply contracts

Eichhorn, Andreas

265

Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in conductivity corresponding to the scanning direction. Also, we demonstrate Nb- V as a low thermal conductivity thermal conductivity tensor and the illuminating spots have arbitrary intensity profiles

Cahill, David G.

266

Analysis of testing the single-fluxon dynamics in a long Josephson junction by a dissipative spot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A change of the [ital I]-[ital V] characteristics of a long Josephson junction, operating in the zero-field single-fluxon regime, under the action of a hot spot'' (e.g., created by a focused electron beam) is calculated analytically by means of the perturbation theory, and also investigated numerically. The change of the average voltage at a given value of the bias current is calculated as a function of the hot spot-position. The overlap Josephson junction geometry is considered in detail, while the inline one is briefly discussed. A good accord between analytical and numerical results is found. The results are relevant for the interpretation of the low-temperature scanning electron microscopy experiments on imaging the fluxon dynamic states in a long Josephson junction.

Malomed, B.A. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, I-84801 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)); Ustinov, A.V. (Institute for Thin Films and Ion Technology, Research Centre (KFA), D-52425 Juelich (Germany))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Comparison of the Coulter Multisizer and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer for obtaining the aerodynamic particle size of irregularly shaped dust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When studying air quality it is often necessary to measure the aerodynamic size distribution of particles. True aerodynamic diameter must be measured using a gravitational settling method, which is impractical. Other methods exist that use other...

McClure, Joshua Wayne

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Optical sizing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mining operation, from the drilling and blasting to the final product; the material size dictates all- disruptive and practical for sizing any material that could be successfully imaged, including blastedWares's WipFrag system work best under controlled conditions like over moving conveyor belts, where camera

Maerz, Norbert H.

269

Thermocharge of a hot spot in an electrolyte solution Arghya Majee and Alois Wrger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was realized through a thermal barrier in a microchannel [1] and the droplet size of a thermocapillary valve-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobil- ity. The Seebeck coefficient S depends on the electrolyte and may take either sign reported non-uniform variation of the Soret coefficient with the ionic strength [23] is characteristic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Size and Crystallinity in Protein-Templated Inorganic Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Protein cages such as ferritins and virus capsids have been used as containers to synthesize a wide variety of protein-templated inorganic nanoparticles. While identification of the inorganic crystal phase has been successful in some cases, very little is known about the detailed nanoscale structure of the inorganic component. We have used pair distribution function analysis of total X-ray scattering to measure the crystalline domain size in nanoparticles of ferrihydrite, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoPt, and FePt grown inside 24-meric ferritin cages from H. sapiens and P. furiosus. The material properties of these protein-templated nanoparticles are influenced by processes at a variety of length scales: the chemistry of the material determines the precise arrangement of atoms at very short distances, while the interior volume of the protein cage constrains the maximum nanoparticle size attainable. At intermediate length scales, the size of coherent crystalline domains appears to be constrained by the arrangement of crystal nucleation sites on the interior of the cage. On the basis of these observations, some potential synthetic strategies for the control of crystalline domain size in protein-templated nanoparticles are suggested.

Jolley, Craig C.; Uchida, Masaki; Reichhardt, Courtney; Harrington, Richard; Kang, Sebyung; Klem, Michael T.; Parise, John B.; Douglas, Trevor (SBU); (Montana)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

installed on all three resoitors. Between February 27 and necessary at a 1.2 m (4.0 it) depth for a reason-and May 15, 1980 all the time metern, the house watt-ably sized earth coil in this location.hour meter, and the indoor temperature as measured by Th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.hour meter, and the indoor temperature as measured by The design procedure for the length of the eartha glass. Thea the CROC5 heating seson werelyfth day from the running time meter. heat input QH(i) ist The second at by using a differnt set of "xperimental measurements (air handler time meter for B1, and house Q (i) " B

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

272

Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cosmological model unless elliptical and disk galaxies grew in size by a surprisingly large factor ~6 from z~3 to 0. The fact that both LCDM and R_h=ct fit the cluster-size measurements quite well casts some doubt on the suggestion that the unexpected result with individual galaxies may be due to the use of an incorrect expansion scenario, rather than astrophysical causes, such as mergers and/or selection effects.

Jun-Jie Wei; Xue-Feng Wu; Fulvio Melia

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

274

Size Optimizations for Java C. Scott Ananian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis int foo() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } 7 7 77 ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨¨ e e ee rrr rrSize Optimizations for Java Programs C. Scott Ananian cananian@lcs.mit.edu Laboratory for Computer() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } Size Optimizations for Java Programs ­ p.9 #12;Intraprocedural

Ananian, C. Scott

275

The economic feasibility of computerized spot markets for feeder cattle in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and innovation. These variables were analyzed with demographic information such as age, location in the state, income derived from their livestock operation, and size. In a computerized market, animals would not be purchased on sight and therefore, would... discovery the market "thickens", making it potentially more competitive. Market power may be equalized by in- creasing the number of buyers and the potential for price manipulation is decreased. The absence of spatial restrictions on the price dis...

Glazener, Gretchen

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Measurement-based quantum repeaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Size separation in vibrated granular matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review recent developments in size separation in vibrated granular materials. Motivated by a need in industry to efficiently handle granular materials and a desire to make fundamental advances in non-equilibrium physics, experimental and theoretical investigations have shown size separation to be a complex phenomena. Large particles in a vibrated granular system invariably rise to the top. However, they may also sink to the bottom, or show other patterns depending on subtle variations in physical conditions. While size ratio is a dominant factor, particle specific properties such as density, inelasticity and friction can play an important role. The nature of the energy input, boundary conditions and interstitial air have been also shown to be significant factors in determining spatial distributions. The presence of convection can enhance mixing or lead to size separation. Experimental techniques including direct visualization and magnetic resonance imaging are being used to investigate these properties. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation techniques have been developed to probe size separation. Analytical methods such as kinetic theory are being used to study the interplay between particle size and density in the vibro-fluidized regime, and geometric models have been proposed to describe size separation for deep beds. Besides discussing these studies, we will also review the impact of inelastic collision and friction on the density and velocity distributions to gain a deeper appreciation of the non-equilibrium nature of the system. While a substantial number of studies have been accomplished, considerable work is still required to achieve a firm description of the phenomena.

A. Kudrolli

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

System size and energy dependence of $?$ meson production at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a system size and energy dependence of $\\phi$ meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=62.4 GeV and 200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that the number of participant scaled $\\phi$ meson yields in heavy ion collisions over that of p+p collisions are larger than 1 and increase with collision energy. We compare the results with those of open-strange particles and discuss the physics implication.

J. H. Chen

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

Optimum Size of Nanorods for Heating Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) have become increasingly important in heating applications such as hyperthermia treatment of cancer due to their ability to release heat when a remote external alternating magnetic field is applied. It has been shown that the heating capability of such particles varies significantly with the size of particles used. In this paper, we theoretically evaluate the heating capability of rod-shaped MNP's and identify conditions under which these particles display highest efficiency. For optimally sized monodisperse particles, the power generated by rod-shaped particles is found to be equal to that generated by spherical particles. However, for particles which have a dispersion in size, rod-shaped particles are found to be more effective in heating as a result of the greater spread in the power density distribution curve. Additionally, for rod-shaped particles, a dispersion in the radius of the particle contributes more to the reduction in loss power when compared to a dispersion in the...

Seshadri, Gowrishankar; Mehra, Anurag

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Control of pore size in epoxy systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

In situ diagnostic of the size distribution of nanoparticles generated by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We aim to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles located in the ablation plume produced by femtosecond laser interaction. The proposed method relies on the use of white-light extinction spectroscopy setup assisted by ultrafast intensified temporal gating. This method allows measurement of optical absorbance of a nickel nanoparticles cloud. Simulation of the extinction section of nickel nanoparticles size distributions has been developed in order to compare the measured optical absorbance to the optical extinction by theoretical and experimental nanoparticles size distributions (measured by scanning electron microscopy). A good agreement has been found between the in situ measured optical absorbance and the optical extinction cross section calculated from ex situ nanoparticles size distribution measurements.

Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne-Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)] [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

Response of the plasma to the size of an anode electrode biased near the plasma potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the size of a positively biased electrode increases, the nature of the interface formed between the electrode and the host plasma undergoes a transition from an electron-rich structure (electron sheath) to an intermediate structure containing both ion and electron rich regions (double layer) and ultimately forms an electron-depleted structure (ion sheath). In this study, measurements are performed to further test how the size of an electron-collecting electrode impacts the plasma discharge the electrode is immersed in. This is accomplished using a segmented disk electrode in which individual segments are individually biased to change the effective surface area of the anode. Measurements of bulk plasma parameters such as the collected current density, plasma potential, electron density, electron temperature and optical emission are made as both the size and the bias placed on the electrode are varied. Abrupt transitions in the plasma parameters resulting from changing the electrode surface area are identified in both argon and helium discharges and are compared to the interface transitions predicted by global current balance [S. D. Baalrud, N. Hershkowitz, and B. Longmier, Phys. Plasmas 14, 042109 (2007)]. While the size-dependent transitions in argon agree, the size-dependent transitions observed in helium systematically occur at lower electrode sizes than those nominally derived from prediction. The discrepancy in helium is anticipated to be caused by the finite size of the interface that increases the effective area offered to the plasma for electron loss to the electrode.

Barnat, E. V.; Laity, G. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Baalrud, S. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Corium droplet size in direct containment heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For those light water reactor severe accident sequences in which molten corium is postulated to melt through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head at elevated primary system pressure and enter the cavity region beneath the vessel, the flow of corium from the RPV will be followed by a sustained high-pressure blowdown of steam and hydrogen through the breach remaining in the vessel. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the cavity as droplets into other parts of the containment. An important issue is the fraction of the dispersed corium thermal and chemical energy which may be transferred directly to the containment atmosphere. An important determinant of the extent of direct containment heating is the size of the corium droplets which are dispersed into the containment atmosphere. An analysis is presented here of the mass median droplet sizes in the Argonne National Laboratory CWTI-13 and CWTI-14 reactor material-direct containment heating experiments as well as the Sandia National Laboratory SPIT-19 thermite test. The observed median droplet diameters are shown to be in good agreement with a correlation for the drop size in ordinary annular flow, and a droplet size prediction is carried out for the reactor system.

Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Analysis of size options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the deliberations of the interagency group formed to study the costs and benefits of expanding the size of the SPR. The study concentrated on severe oil supply disruptions involving sharp reductions in world oil production that were 2 to 4 times larger than the largest 1970s interruption. The disruption sizes and estimated probability of occurrence of these scenarios were supplied by the CIA. The most critical part of the CIA's analysis was the assessment of likelihood of these cases occurring. The CIA approached the likelihood problem by combining an examination of past oil supply disruptions with qualitative analysis of important oil market and regional trends. The study group then used statistical techniques and probability distributions to synthesize the historical data with CIA evaluations of as yet unobserved events. The SPR size study assumed direct purchases of SPR oil and did not assume the use of alternative financing mechanisms. Members of the working group with foreign policy and national security responsibilities provided an in-depth review of strategic considerations affecting SPR size. A number of prior studies, some classified, have addressed the strategic importance and insurance value of the SPR to the US and its allies. The results of these studies have also been incorporated in the current effort. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

LBNL -42691 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL - 42691 1 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer of or agreement with these findings, nor that of any CIEE sponsor. #12;LBNL - 42691 2 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant of the Residential Thermal Distribution Systems research done by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL

287

Right-Size Heating and Cooling Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment size for heating and cooling to improve comfort and reduce costs, maintenance, and energy use.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate Employment In West Virginia 2010 Summary Results For Work 2012 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Corporation Funding for this research was provided by the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

Mohaghegh, Shahab

289

Evolution of the Size and Functional Areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolution of the Size and Functional Areas of the Human Brain P. Thomas Schoenemann Department-6570/06/1021-0379$20.00 Key Words neuroanatomy, encephalization, behavior, adaptation, selection Abstract The human brain to understand basic principles of brain evolution that appear to operate across broad classes of organisms

Schoenemann, P. Thomas

290

Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Sun Spot Two; Swink, Colorado (Data)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Sun Spot Two; Swink, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

292

Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

293

Evaluation of the Au Size Effect: CO Oxidation Catalyzed by Au/TiO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size dependence of activity in gold catalysts was examined. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to determine mean particle size, and a flow reactor was used to assess activity of the catalysts for CO oxidation as a function of temperature. A sequence of calcination steps was used to systematically increase the mean Au particle size while repeated measurements of the activity were conducted. In this way the size dependence could be obtained in a single catalyst to avoid differences due to variations in support, synthesis conditions, Au loading, or incidental impurities. Two Au catalysts with different Au loadings were prepared on TiO{sub 2} by deposition precipitation and used for the measurements. For Au particles with mean particle size, d, in the range of 2-10 nm, the measured TOF at 298 K varies as d{sup -1.7{+-}0.2} and d{sup -0.9{+-}0.2} for the 7.2 and 4.5 wt% Au/TiO{sub 2} (P25) catalysts, respectively. Variation between samples emphasizes the conclusion that the activity is sensitive to many factors that may mask the true structure dependence. It is concluded that the observed decrease in activity with increasing particle size beyond 2 nm is controlled by the population of low-coordinate sites, rather than by size-dependent changes in overall electronic structure of the nanoparticle. No evidence was found for maximum activity for small particle sizes, although arguments are offered for why such a maximum was expected but was not observed.

Overbury,S.; Schwartz, V.; Mullins, D.; Yan, W.; Dai, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate...

295

Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads During this webinar, Building America Research Team IBACOS...

296

SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & InformationAdmin Support SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & InformationAdmin Support December...

297

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

298

Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

299

Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled by core-shell iron nanoclusters. Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled by core-shell...

300

Specifications Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-performance Dell PC with 17-inch LCD monitor Software ZYGO MetroPro software running under Microsoft Windows XP, transparent, coated, uncoated, specular, and nonspecular Maximum Size (H x W x D) 3.5 x 8 x 8 in. (89 x 203 x stages), 400 watts (motorized stages) Compressed Air 60 to 80 psi (4.1 to 5.5 bar); dry and filtered

Wu, Shin-Tson

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Angular Size-Redshift: Experiment and Calculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper the next attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Euclidean behavior of the boundary in the angular size-redshift cosmological test. It is shown experimentally that this can be explained by the selection determined by anisotropic morphology and anisotropic radiation of extended radio sources. A catalogue of extended radio sources with minimal flux densities of about 0.01 Jy at 1.4 GHz was compiled for conducting the test. Without the assumption of their size evolution, the agreement between the experiment and calculation was obtained both in the Lambda CDM model (Omega_m=0.27 , Omega_v=0.73.) and the Friedman model (Omega = 0.1 ).

Amirkhanyan, V R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Sandia National Laboratories: reduce platform size requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskite oxideplatform size requirements Study

304

Missile sizing for ascent-phase intercept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer code has been developed to determine the size of a ground-launched, multistage missile which can intercept a theater ballistic missile before it leaves the atmosphere. Typical final conditions for the inteceptor are 450 km range, 60 km altitude, and 80 sec flight time. Given the payload mass (35 kg), which includes a kinetic kill vehicle, and achievable values for the stage mass fractions (0.85), the stage specific impulses (290 sec), and the vehicle density (60 lb/ft{sup 3}), the launch mass is minimized with respect to the stage payload mass ratios, the stage burn times, and the missile angle of attack history subject to limits on the angle of attack (10 deg), the dynamic pressure (60,000 psf), and the maneuver load (200,000 psf deg). For a conical body, the minimum launch mass is approximately 1900 kg. The missile has three stages, and the payload coasts for 57 sec. A trade study has been performed by varying the flight time, the range, and the dynamic pressure Emits. With the results of a sizing study for a 70 lb payload and q{sub max} = 35,000 psf, a more detailed design has been carried out to determine heat shield mass, tabular aerodynamics, and altitude dependent thrust. The resulting missile has approximately 100 km less range than the sizing program predicted primarily because of the additional mass required for heat protection. On the other hand, launching the same missile from an aircraft increases its range by approximately 100 km. Sizing the interceptor for air launch with the same final conditions as the ground-launched missile reduces its launch mass to approximately 1000 kg.

Hull, D.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics; Salguero, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Quantum size effects in classical hadrodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author discusses future directions in the development of classical hydrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. The present version of the theory includes only the neutral scalar ({sigma}) and neutral vector ({omega}) meson fields. In the future, additional isovector pseudoscalar ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup 0}), isovector vector ({rho}{sup +}, {rho}{sup {minus}}, {rho}{sup 0}), and neutral pseudoscalar ({eta}) meson fields should be incorporated. Quantum size effects should be included in the equations of motion by use of the spreading function of Moniz and Sharp, which generates an effective nucleon mass density smeared out over a Compton wavelength. However, unlike the situation in electrodynamics, the Compton wavelength of the nucleon is small compared to its radius, so that effects due to the intrinsic size of the nucleon dominate.

Nix, J.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemically-powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors that propel themselves in solution are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. Recent experiments have shown that, even on the molecular scale, small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to self-propulsion. Simulations of very small {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic motors in bulk solution have shown similar effects. Applications of such small motors in the cell or in microfluidic devices require knowledge of how these motors interact with boundaries. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic chemically-powered motors confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent exclusion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research presents information needed for potential applications that use these motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

Peter H. Colberg; Raymond Kapral

2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

have spotted. Drug addiction can be treated and abstinence achieved, and with a programmatic approach to maintaining abstinence, the illness is ar-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have spotted. Drug addiction can be treated and abstinence achieved, and with a programmatic to treat a specific problem. This knowledge can assist the employee in making an informed choice from a list of ap- proved providers. If a managed care referral is made to a therapist to treat a problem

Kim, Duck O.

310

PLUS: FAT, BUT NOT SICK HOW TO SPOT QUACKERY GREEN BUSINESS MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J. AND DOROTHY R.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLUS: FAT, BUT NOT SICK HOW TO SPOT QUACKERY GREEN BUSINESS NUTRITION MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J N G . G R O W T H . G R AT I T U D E . 32 ALUMNI NEWS S TAY I N G C O N N E C T E D 36 LAST BITE WA

Dennett, Daniel

311

A comparison of automated land cover/use classification methods for a Texas bottomland hardwood system using lidar, spot-5, and ancillary data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decisions affecting these disappearing systems. SPOT-5 imagery from 2005 was combined with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from 2006 and several ancillary datasets to map a portion of the bottomland hardwood system found in the Sulphur River Basin...

Vernon, Zachary Isaac

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Measurement of XeI and XeII velocity in the near exit plane of a low-power Hall effect thruster by light induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near exit plane non-resonant light induced fluorescence spectroscopy is performed in a Hall effect low-power Xenon thruster at discharge voltage of 250 V and anode flow rate of 0.7 mg/s. Measurements of the axial and radial velocity components are performed, exciting the 6s{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o}{yields}6p{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2} transition at 823.16 nm in XeI and the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}{yields}6p[3]{sub 5/2}{sup o} transition at 834.724 nm in XeII. No significant deviation from the thermal velocity is observed for XeI. Two most probable ion velocities are registered at a given position with respect to the thruster axis, which are mainly attributed to different areas of creation of ions inside the acceleration channel. The spatial resolution of the set-up is limited by the laser beam size (radius of the order of 0.5 mm) and the fluorescence collection optics, which have a view spot diameter of 8 mm.

Dancheva, Y. [CNISM, University of Siena, CSC and DSFTA, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Biancalana, V. [CNISM, University of Siena, CSC and DIISM, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pagano, D.; Scortecci, F. [Aerospazio Tecnologie Srl., via Provinciale Nord 42a, 53040 Rapolano Terme (Italy)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

An Analysis of Web File Sizes: New Methods and Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Analysis of Web File Sizes: New Methods and Models A Thesis presented by Brent Tworetzky consider such models and how to improve their fits. This thesis contributes to file size research-improved file size estimations over type-blind models. We therefore present a range of useful new file size

Wolfe, Patrick J.

314

Comparison of particle size of cracking catalyst determined by laser light scattering and dry sieve methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of interconversion of dry sieve and laser light scattering particle size values has been developed for cracking catalysts. Values obtained by light scattering techniques were consistently larger than those obtained by dry sieve analysis. The differences were primarily due to lack of sphericity of the particles. The particle size distribution determined by light scattering techniques was based on an average particle diameter. Conversely, the sieve measured the smallest diameter of the particle which can pass through the opening. Microscopic examination of commercial cracking catalysts confirmed their nonuniformity. The sphericity of the catalyst particles decreased as particle size increased. Therefore, the divergence between the laser light scattering and dry sieving value became greater as the catalyst particle size increased.

Dishman, K.L.; Doolin, P.K.; Hoffman, J.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cos...

Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Muller, M.R. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Jones, T.W. [Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dowd, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLUEM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.

Per Redelius

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

2002-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.

Ambrosi, G; Baba, H; Bamba, A; Barceló, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Brunetti, L; Carmona, E; Chabanne, E; Chikawa, M; Colin, P; Conteras, J L; Cortina, J; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Deleglise, G; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Dubois, F; Fiasson, A; Fink, D; Fouque, N; Freixas, L; Fruck, C; Gadola, A; García, R; Gascon, D; Geffroy, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grañena, F; Gunji, S; Hagiwara, R; Hamer, N; Hanabata, Y; Hassan, T; Hatanaka, K; Haubold, T; Hayashida, M; Hermel, R; Herranz, D; Hirotani, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Ioka, K; Jablonski, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, T; Kodani, K; Kohri, K; Konno, Y; Koyama, S; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; López-Moya, M; López, R; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Manalaysay, A; Mariotti, M; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Monteiro, I; Moralejo, A; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Nakajima, D; Nakamori, T; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nozato, A; Ohira, Y; Ohishi, M; Ohoka, H; Okumura, A; Orito, R; Panazol, J L; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pauletta, G; Podkladkin, S; Prast, J; Rando, R; Reimann, O; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Saito, K; Saito, T; Saito, Y; Sakaki, N; Sakonaka, R; Sanuy, A; Sasaki, H; Sawada, M; Scalzotto, V; Schultz, S; Schweizer, T; Shibata, T; Shu, S; Sieiro, J; Stamatescu, V; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Sugawara, R; Tajima, H; Takami, H; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, M; Tejedor, L A; Terada, Y; Teshima, M; Totani, T; Ueno, H; Umehara, K; Vollhardt, A; Wagner, R; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamazaki, R; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)WyomingSquare FeetHouseholds, Buildings1999Size of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

System Size Dependence of Particle Production at the SPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent results on the system size dependence of net-baryon and hyperon production as measured at the CERN SPS are discussed. The observed Npart dependences of yields, but also of dynamical properties, such as average transverse momenta, can be described in the context of the core corona approach. Other observables, such as antiproton yields and net-protons at forward rapidities, do not follow the predictions of this model. Possible implications for a search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram are discussed. Event-by-event fluctuations of the relative core to corona source contributions might influence fluctuation observables (e.g. multiplicity fluctuations). The magnitude of this effect is investigated.

C. Blume

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

322

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch RelatedcontentcharacteristicsMeasurements RelatedMeasurements

323

Multiple Exciton Coherence Sizes in Photosynthetic Antenna Complexes viewed by Pump-Probe Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiple Exciton Coherence Sizes in Photosynthetic Antenna Complexes viewed by Pump, 1996X The pump-probe signal from the light-harvesting antenna LH2 of purple bacteria is analyzed using absorption,4,5 pump-probe,11-16 and three pulse echoes.8,17 These measurements show ultrafast energy transfer

Mukamel, Shaul

324

Towards Approximating COSMIC Functional Size from User Requirements in Agile Development Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Processes Using Text Mining Ishrar Hussain, Leila Kosseim and Olga Ormandjieva Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada {h_hussa, kosseim, ormandj}@cse.concordia.ca Abstract. Measurement of software size from user requirements is crucial

Kosseim, Leila

325

A Database of 660 Peptide Ion Cross Sections: Use of Intrinsic Size Parameters for Bona Fide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Database of 660 Peptide Ion Cross Sections: Use of Intrinsic Size Parameters for Bona Fide by tryptic digestion of 34 common proteins. Measured cross sections have been compiled into a database that contains peptide molecular weight and sequence information. The database is used to generate average

Clemmer, David E.

326

The effects of moisture and particle size of feedlot biomass on co-firing burner performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contents and particle sizes of feedlot biomass. Measurements of NO[], O?, CO and CO? along the furnace are reported. The summaries of results are as follows. With the atomized air only (i.e. without external water injection), the NO[] concentrations...

Chen, Chen-Jung

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Sizes of Early-type Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter we present a study of the size luminosity relation of 475 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data. The analysis of our homogeneous, model-independent data set reveals that giant and dwarf early-type galaxies do not form one common sequence in this relation. The dwarfs seem to show weak or no dependence on luminosity, and do not fall on the extension of the rather steep relation of the giants. Under the assumption that the light profile shape varies continuously with magnitude, a curved relation of size and magnitude would be expected. While the galaxies do roughly follow this trend overall, we find that the dwarf galaxies are significantly larger and the low-luminosity giants are significantly smaller than what is predicted. We come to the conclusion that in this scaling relation there is not one common sequence from dwarfs to giants, but a dichotomy which can not be resolved by varying profile shapes. The comparison of our data to a semi-analytic model supports the idea of a physical origin of this dichotomy.

Joachim Janz; Thorsten Lisker

2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation InExplosionAnnouncementsgovMeasurements Measurement Categories Select below

329

Measuring Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImportsBG4,Measurements ofMeasurement

330

Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype. The facility is operated to remotely cut and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. We have found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Harper, J.; Warren, J.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Choosing wind power plant locations and sizes based on electric reliability measures using multiple-year wind speed measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To project the US potential to meet future electricity demands with wind energy, estimates of available wind resource and costs to access that resource are critical. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) annually estimates the US market penetration of wind in its Annual Energy Outlook series. For these estimates, the EIA uses wind resource data developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for each region of the country. However, the EIA multiplies the cost of windpower by several factors, some as large as 3, to account for resource quality, market factors associated with accessing the resource, electric grid impacts, and rapid growth in the wind industry. This paper examines the rationale behind these additional costs and suggests alternatives.

Milligan, M.R.; Artig, R.

1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

332

Improving the hot-spot pressure and demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosions on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reaching ignition in direct-drive (DD) inertial confinement fusion implosions requires achieving central pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is used to study the physics of implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. It is shown that the highest hot-spot pressures (up to 40 Gbar) are achieved in target designs with a fuel adiabat of ? ? 4, an implosion velocity of 3.8?×?10{sup 7}?cm/s, and a laser intensity of ?10{sup 15}?W/cm{sup 2}. These moderate-adiabat implosions are well understood using two-dimensional hydrocode simulations. The performance of lower-adiabat implosions is significantly degraded relative to code predictions, a common feature between DD implosions on OMEGA and indirect-drive cryogenic implosions on the NIF. Simplified theoretical models are developed to gain physical understanding of the implosion dynamics that dictate the target performance. These models indicate that degradations in the shell density and integrity (caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the target acceleration) coupled with hydrodynamics at stagnation are the main failure mechanisms in low-adiabat designs. To demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic implosions on OMEGA, the target-design robustness to hydrodynamic instability growth must be improved by reducing laser-coupling losses caused by cross beam energy transfer.

Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Follett, R. K.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Janezic, R.; Kelly, J. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

ARM - Measurement - Extreme event time  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAciddroplet size ARMgovMeasurementsExtreme

334

SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The coupling of the rate of cell growth to the rate of cell division determines cell size, a defining characteristic that is central to cell function and, ultimately, to tissue architecture. The physiology of size homeostasis ...

Sung, Yongjin

336

Relationships between body size and abundance in ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but interrelated, relation- ships between size and abundance that are often con- fused in the literature. Here, we and the structure and dynamics of eco- logical communities [3­5]. In addition, because body size is one

Enquist, Brian Joseph

337

Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

Walter, M.Todd

338

Effect of filament supports on emissive probe measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have constructed an emissive probe with a thin tungsten filament spot-welded across two nickel wires insulated with ceramic paint. We show that the ceramic supports covering the nickel wires have a large effect on the potential measurements in low-density plasmas. It is found that the potential measured by the emissive probe is more negative than the potential derived from a Langmuir probe current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve when the plasma density is so low that the emitting filament remains immersed in the sheaths of the ceramic supports. The length of the filament L needs to be larger than about 2 Debye lengths (L > 2{lambda}{sub De}) in order to avoid the influence of the ceramic supports and to achieve reliable plasma potential measurements using emissive probes.

Wang, X.; Howes, C. T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Horanyi, M. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Robertson, S. [NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Measurement of \  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single \\pi^0 production on CH_2 induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC \\pi^0 events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of \\pi^0 momentum and \\pi^0 angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.40_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =808 MeV and (1.48+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.14_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =664 MeV for \

Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Bazarko, A O; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Gonzales, J; Grange, J; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Karagiorgi, G; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Linden, S K; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Mauger, C; McGary, V T; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Nowak, J A; Osmanov, B; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, J L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Soderberg, M; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Van de Water, R G; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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342

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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343

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch RelatedcontentcharacteristicsMeasurements Related

344

Estimating Dataset Size Requirements for Classifying DNA Microarray Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Dataset Size Requirements for Classifying DNA Microarray Data S. Mukherjee*+#1 , P methodology for estimating dataset size requirements for classifying microarray data using learning curves is introduced. The goal is to use existing classification results to estimate dataset size requirements

Poggio, Tomaso

345

Method and apparatus for measuring areas of photoelectric cells and photoelectric cell performance parameters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser scanning system for scanning the surface of a photovoltaic cell in a precise, stepped raster pattern includes electric current detecting and measuring equipment for sensing the current response of the scanned cell to the laser beam at each stepped irradiated spot or pixel on the cell surface. A computer is used to control and monitor the raster position of the laser scan as well as monitoring the corresponding current responses, storing this data, operating on it, and for feeding the data to a graphic plotter for producing a visual, color-coded image of the current response of the cell to the laser scan. A translation platform driven by stepper motors in precise X and Y distances holds and rasters the cell being scanned under a stationary spot-focused laser beam.

Osterwald, Carl R. (Lakewood, CO); Emery, Keith A. (Fort Collins, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Time-resolved temperature measurement and numerical simulation of millisecond laser irradiated silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal process of 1064 nm millisecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiated silicon was time-resolved temperature measured by an infrared radiation pyrometer, temperature evolutions of the spot center for wide range of laser energy densities were presented. The waveforms of temperature evolution curves contained much information about phase change, melting, solidification and vaporization. An axisymmetric numerical model was established for millisecond laser heating silicon. The transient temperature fields were obtained by using the finite element method. The numerical results of temperature evolutions of the spot center are in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the axial temperature distributions of the numerical results give a better understanding of the waveforms in the experimental results. The melting threshold, vaporizing threshold, melting duration, and melting depth were better identified by analyzing two kinds of results.

Li Zewen; Zhang Hongchao; Shen Zhonghua; Ni Xiaowu [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

2013-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

347

Plasmon Mapping in Metallic Nanostructures and its Application to Single Molecule Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: Imaging Electromagnetic Hot-Spots and Analyte Location  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major component of this proposal is to elucidate the connection between optical and electron excitation of plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures. These accomplishments are reported: developed a routine protocol for obtaining spatially resolved, low energy EELS spectra, and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra from the same nanostructures.; correlated optical scattering spectra and plasmon maps obtained using STEM/EELS.; and imaged electromagnetic hot spots responsible for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SMSERS).

Camden, Jon P

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

348

DNA ruler : enhancing nanopore sizing resolution by multiple measurements on the same DNA molecule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanopores are versatile sensors for label-free detection of single molecules and particles that have attracted attention for applications such as DNA sequencing and nanoparticle analysis. Detection of single molecules or ...

Sen, Yi-Heng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Alternative Size and Lifetime Measurements for High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-Particle correlations based on the interference of identical particles has provided the chief means for determining the shape and lifetime of sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, Strong and Coulomb induced correlations are shown to provide equivalent information.

Scott Pratt; Silvio Petriconi

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

350

Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartment ofList? |EnergyDepartmentMilestoneFilters forSingle

351

Measurements of Aerosol Size-Resolved Hygroscopicity at Sub and Supermicron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImportsBG4,

352

The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wh per day. The effect of varying the size of the pv array and the battery bank in such systems on both hours and so on. This paper explores the effect of different sizes of battery bank and photovoltaic of battery size and photovoltaic array. The study is addressed to loads in the small community range

353

Mineralogy and particle size of bed sediments 173 Chapter 7 -Quantitative Mineralogy and Particle-Size Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineralogy and particle size of bed sediments 173 Chapter 7 - Quantitative Mineralogy and Particle to assess particle-size distribution and mineralogical composition. Changes in particle- size distribution-ray diffraction, and their quantitative mineralogy was determined with a recently-developed computer program

354

Abstract Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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355

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops Atmospheric OpticalExperimentgovField CampaignsMidlatitudegovMeasurementsSurface

356

Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

Pendse, H.P.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Energy and System Size Dependence of Strangeness Production from SPS to RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strange particle production is an important experimental observable that allows the study of the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The STAR experiment at RHIC has a unique capability of measuring identified strange particles over a wide range of acceptance providing a rich set of data to perform a systematic study. In addition to the data from Au+Au collisions, strange particles from p+p and d+Au collisions are also available for comparison and normalization. A new set of data from Cu+Cu reactions at 62 GeV and 200 GeV provides the chance to compare the system size dependence observed in Au+Au collisions with this smaller system size. In addition to the comparison of the yields, a statistical thermal model was used to extract freeze-out characteristics for the different system sizes and collision energies.

Jun Takahashi; for the STAR collaboration

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

358

Finite-size scaling in thin Fe/Ir(100) layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The critical temperature of thin Fe layers on Ir(100) is measured through M\\"o{\\ss}bauer spectroscopy as a function of the layer thickness. From a phenomenological finite-size scaling analysis, we find an effective shift exponent lambda = 3.15 +/- 0.15, which is twice as large as the value expected from the conventional finite-size scaling prediction lambda=1/nu, where nu is the correlation length critical exponent. Taking corrections to finite-size scaling into account, we derive the effective shift exponent lambda=(1+2\\Delta_1)/nu, where Delta_1 describes the leading corrections to scaling. For the 3D Heisenberg universality class, this leads to lambda = 3.0 +/- 0.1, in agreement with the experimental data. Earlier data by Ambrose and Chien on the effective shift exponent in CoO films are also explained.

Malte Henkel; Stéphane Andrieu; Philippe Bauer; Michel Piecuch

1998-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

359

Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ?0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ?2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ?2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ?3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ?2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a larger patient cohort are warranted.

Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K., E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi- physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis. The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.

Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The giant star of the symbiotic system YY Her: Rotation, Tidal wave, Solar-type cycle and Spots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the historical light curve of the symbiotic star YY Her, from 1890 up to December 2005. A secular declining trend is detected, at a rate of ~.01 magn in 1000 d, suggesting that the system could belong to the sub-class of symbiotic novae. Several outburst events are superposed on this slow decline. Three independent periodicities are identified in the light curve. A quasi-periodicity of 4650.7 d is detected for the outburst occurrence. We suggest that it is a signature of a solar-type magnetic dynamo cycle in the giant component. A period of 593.2 d modulates the quiescent light curve and it is identified as the binary period of the system. During outburst events the system shows a stable periodic oscillation of 551.4 d. We suggest that it is the rotation period of the giant.The secondary minima detected at some epochs of quiescence are probably due to dark spots on the surface of the rotating giant. The difference between the frequencies of these two last periods is the frequency of a tidal wave in the outer layers of the giant. A period which is a beat between the magnetic cycle and the tidal wave period is also apparent in the light curve. YY Her is a third symbiotic system exhibiting these cycles in their light curve, suggesting that a magnetic dynamo process is prevalent in the giant components of symbiotic stars, playing an important role in the outburst mechanism of some of these systems.

Liliana Formiggini; Elia M. Leibowitz

2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

362

Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab (for a single 2D gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 9. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37

Richardson, David

364

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 5. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37°C. 6. Following

Richardson, David

365

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had Kd values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected Kd values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured Kd values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the Kd values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kd values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents are present in the gravels.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Clayton, Ray E.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

366

Rater reliability of fragile X mutation size estimates: A multilaboratory analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Notwithstanding the use of comparable molecular protocols, description and measurement of the fra(X) (fragile X) mutation may vary according to its appearance as a discrete band, smear, multiple bands, or mosaic. Estimation of mutation size may also differ from one laboratory to another. We report on the description of a mutation size estimate for a large sample of individuals tested for the fra(X) pre- or full mutation. Of 63 DNA samples evaluated, 45 were identified previously as fra(X) pre- or full mutations. DNA from 18 unaffected individuals was used as control. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and DNA fragments from each of four laboratories were sent to a single center where Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. Photographs from autoradiographs were returned to each site, and raters blind to the identity of the specimens were asked to evaluate them. Raters` estimates of mutation size compared favorably with a reference test. Intrarater reliability was good to excellent. Variability in mutation size estimates was comparable across band types. Variability in estimates was moderate, and was significantly correlated with absolute mutation size and band type. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Fisch, G.S. [Kings County Hospital Center and SUNY/Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [Kings County Hospital Center and SUNY/Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Carpenter, N. [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States); Maddalena, A. [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others] [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States); and others

1996-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

Size distribution of metals in particulate matter formed during combustion of residual fuel oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between July 1992 and January 1993 three full-scale test programs were performed by Carnot for the Electric Power Research Institute and the Fuel Oil Users` Support (FOUS) Group, as part of a program for development and testing of various stack emissions models. One of the components of the program was determination of the concentrations of individual elements as a function of the size of particles suspended in flue gas. The size distributions of species are important because several aspects of system performance depend upon particulate matter size and composition: (1) the rate of ash deposition in the convection section, and activity of deposits for high temperature corrosion and SO{sub 3} formation, (2) the efficiency of precipitators for collection of individual elements, and (3) scattering of visible light and contribution of particles to stack plume opacity. Size distributions of major ash constituents were measured at the entrance and exit of the dust collectors during each of the field tests. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first reports of such measurements in residual oil-fired utility boilers. The focus, in the present paper, is on the composition of the particles entering the dust collectors.

Walsh, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rovesti, W.C. [Electric Power Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Freeman, R.F. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Oswego, NY (United States); Olen, K.R.; Washington, K.T.; Patrick, S.T.; Campbell, G.L.; Harper, D.S. [Florida Power & Light Co., West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Teetz, R.D.; Bennett, T.E. [Long Island Lighting Co., Glenwood Landing, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

Baxter, Larry L. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA); Wessel, Richard A. (Babcock & Wilcox Company, Barberton, OH)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Audio Spots | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone byDearTechnical Information AtomsAu10-: isomerism

370

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements using smart meter household data produce theof program households. Smart meters lower the cost of usingsample sizes with smart meter data can be far larger than

Bode, Josh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

volumes. Innovation frequencies also correlated with laboratory measures of learning, increasing our confidence in the innovation measure, and with social learning frequencies,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

our confidence in the innovation measure, and with social learning frequencies, suggesting that innovation and social learning propensities have evolved together. Species range size did not correlatevolumes. Innovation frequencies also correlated with laboratory measures of learning, increasing

Reader, Simon

372

Evaluation of the Au size effect: CO oxidation catalyzed by Au/TiO2.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size dependence of activity in gold catalysts was examined. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to determine mean particle size, and a flow reactor was used to assess activity of the catalysts for CO oxidation as a function of temperature. A sequence of calcination steps was used to systematically increase the mean Au particle size while repeated measurements of the activity were conducted. In this way the size dependence could be obtained in a single catalyst to avoid differences due to variations in support, synthesis conditions, Au loading, or incidental impurities. Two Au catalysts with different Au loadings were prepared on TiO{sub 2} by deposition precipitation and used for the measurements. For Au particles with mean particle size, d, in the range of 2-10 nm, the measured TOF at 298 K varies as d{sup -1.7{+-}0.2} and d{sup -0.9{+-}0.2} for the 7.2 and 4.5 wt% Au/TiO{sub 2} (P25) catalysts, respectively. Variation between samples emphasizes the conclusion that the activity is sensitive to many factors that may mask the true structure dependence. It is concluded that the observed decrease in activity with increasing particle size beyond 2 nm is controlled by the population of low-coordinate sites, rather than by size-dependent changes in overall electronic structure of the nanoparticle. No evidence was found for maximum activity for small particle sizes, although arguments are offered for why such a maximum was expected but was not observed.

Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Yan, Wenfu [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Seed size relationships in kleingrass, Panicum coloratum L  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEED SIZE RELATIONSHIPS IN KLEINGRASSs PANICUM COLORATUM L. A Thesis By ROBERT CHARLES KIESCHNICK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1974 Major Subject: Plant Breeding SEED SIZE RELATIONSHIPS IN KLEINGRASS, PANICUM COLORATUM L. A Thesis By ROBERT CHARLES KIESCHNI CK Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Comm&ttee Hea of Department e er Me er ABSTRACT Seed Size...

Kieschnick, Robert Charles

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick A., E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.ed [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

375

average particle size: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with the standing wave model. The particle size follows from the magnitude of the radiation pressure. It is shown that the outward directed radiation pressure is balanced by...

376

Optimization Online - Optimal management and sizing of energy ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 30, 2012 ... Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy. Pavithra Harsha ...

Pavithra Harsha

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

affecting body size: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Body size and reserve protection affect flight initiation Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , is an important component of antipredator behavior and a...

378

Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize high-capture efficiency with low backpressure. p-25strzelec.pdf More Documents & Publications...

379

On nano size structures for enhanced bone formation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Purpose The general aim of the present thesis was to investigate early bone response to titanium implants modified with nano size structures. Therefore, 1. a… (more)

Meirelles, Luiz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Ultrahigh-Power Micrometre-Sized Supercapacitors Based on Onion...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Ultrahigh-Power Micrometre-Sized Supercapacitors Based on Onion-Like Carbon Re-direct Destination: Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy in two...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Evaluation of Powertrain Options and Component Sizing for MD...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sizing for MD and HD Applications on Real World Drive Cycles 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

382

aggregate form size: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of exceedence of the aggregate-size provide a meaningful estimate of the same fractal dimension. Systems aggregate because of the influence exerted by a physical or...

383

activity size distributions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients increased Mazumder, Asit 33 A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL SUBEVENT SIZE DISTRIBUTION Geosciences Websites Summary: A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL...

384

activity size distribution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients increased Mazumder, Asit 33 A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL SUBEVENT SIZE DISTRIBUTION Geosciences Websites Summary: A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL...

385

algorithm population sizing: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CiteSeer Summary: Deciding the appropriate population size and number of islands for distributed island-model genetic algorithms is often critical to the algorithms success. This...

386

Optimization Online - Varying the Population Size of Artificial ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 2, 2005 ... Varying the Population Size of Artificial Foraging Swarms on Time Varying ... Abstract: Swarm Intelligence (SI) is the property of a system ...

Carlos Fernandes

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

387

John S. Wright Forestry Center Room Sizes, Capacities, and Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix 1 John S. Wright Forestry Center Room Sizes, Capacities, and Rates Room College the Wright Center contact: Marlene Mann, Administrative Assistant Forestry and Natural Resources Voice: 765

388

avian clutch size: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clutch Size Models with Daphnia Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: - hower 1995; Charnov et al. 1995; Downhower and Char- nov 1998; West et al. 2001). A novel...

389

Cost Sharing for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006. Duality approaches to economic lot sizing games. Working paper. H. Driesch, H. E. V. Oyen, S. M. Flapper. 2005. Recovery of car engines: the Mercedez.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

390

Acoustic Method for Fish Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks W.A. Kuperman and Philippedistributed among its 97 tanks to maximize feed-conversionrequires inventory- ing tanks regularly. Currently, this is

Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

aiming equipment sizing: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

methods such as acoustic emission as a global method associated to a local method such as TOFD technique which permits an accurate characterization and precise sizing of flaw...

392

On the sensitivity, selectivity, sensory information and optimal size of resistive chemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information theoretical tools are applied for the study of the sensitivity and selectivity enhancements of resistive fluctuation-enhanced sensors. General considerations are given for the upper limit of selectivity enhancement. The signal-to-noise ratio and information channel capacity of fluctuation-enhanced chemical sensors is compared to that of classical sensors providing a single output. The considerations are done at the generic level with a few concrete examples and include the estimation of scaling relations between the sensor size, speed of measurements, sampling rate, measurement time, signal power and noise power.

Laszlo B. Kish; Janusz Smulko; Peter Heszler; Claes-Goran Granqvist

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

393

Energy and System Size Dependence of Photon Production at Forward Rapidities at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy and system size dependence of pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) and multiplicity distributions of photons are measured in the region -2.3 $\\leq$ $\\eta$ $\\leq$ -3.7 for Cu + Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV. Photon multiplicity measurements at forward rapidity have been carried out using a Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) in the STAR experiment. Photons are found to follow longitudinal scaling for Cu + Cu collisions for 0-10% centrality. A Comparison of pseudorapidity distributions with HIIJING model is also presented.

Monika Sharma; Sunil Dogra; Neeraj Gupta

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

394

Magnetotelluric measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ideas of flux quantization and Josephson tunneling are reviewed, and the operation of the dc SQUID as a magnetometer is described. The SQUID currently used for magnetotellurics has a sensitivity of 10/sup -14/ T Hz/sup -1/2/, a dynamic range at 10/sup 7/ in a 1 Hz bandwidth, a frequency response from 0 to 40 kHz, and a slewing rate of 5 x 10/sup -5/T s/sup -1/. Recent improvements in sensitivity are discussed: SQUIDS are rapidly approaching the limit imposed by the uncertainty principle. The essential ideas of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements are outlined, and it is shown how the remote reference method can lead to major reductions in bias errors compared to more conventional schemes. The field techniques of the Berkeley group are described. The practical application of MT requires that amplitude and phase spectra of apparent resistivities be transformed into a geologically useful distribution of subsurface resistivities. In many areas where MT is being applied today, the technique may not provide the information needed because stations are too few and widely spaced, or because we are unable to interpret data influenced by complex 3-D resistivity features. The results of two surveys, one detailed, the other regional, over the Klamath Basin, Oregon, are examined. The detailed survey is able to resolve small (1 km wide) structural features that are missed or add a component of spatial aliasing to the regional data. On the other hand, the regional survey avoids truncation effects that may occur when the survey undersamples an area.

Clarke, J.; Goldstein, N.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

396

Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

397

Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size ({<=}20 cm{sup 3}) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate size for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm{sup 3}. For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm{sup 3}. There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.

Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, California (United States)] [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, California (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)] [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

An inheritance and cytological study of angular leaf spot resistance in the F? generation of a gossypium three-species hybrid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dissemination of angular leaf spot. However, Rolf (1935) and Tennyson (1936) believe the seed to be the primary source of infection. Tennyson found that under favorable conditions the seedling infection resulting from internal contamination may reach 20... percent or more. Rolf (1930-32) observed that most of the infection is found on the outer seed coat with only three percent of the infection within the seed. Rogers (19U3) and Ray (19U7) report that seed treatment is benefi? cial for controlling...

Bradford, Willis Warren

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

399

THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES PIERRE HYVERNAT Abstract to improve the size-change termination principle of Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram. The points of interest-change termination principle ([1]) is a simple, yet surprisingly strong termination checker for generic programming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Molecular Squares as Molecular Sieves: Size-Selective Transport Through  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular Squares as Molecular Sieves: Size-Selective Transport Through Porous-Membrane squaresº: cyclic structures typically featuring metal-ion cor- ners and difunctional bridging ligands processes: size-selective molecular transport from a guest-containing solution to one initially free

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals A. M. Kovanen, D. J. Gillich, T. Z the conditions for D-D fusion in pyroelectric crystal accelerators. Three different pyroelectric crystal sizes are with the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. A. M

Danon, Yaron

402

Market Size and Pharmaceutical Innovation Pierre Dubois, Olivier de Mouzony  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

market size and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry using improved, and newer, methods and data. We and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. More precisely we shall estimate the elasticity of innovation (asMarket Size and Pharmaceutical Innovation Pierre Dubois, Olivier de Mouzony , Fiona Scott

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

403

Energy Storage System Sizing for Smoothing Power Generation , P. Bydlowski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Storage System Sizing for Smoothing Power Generation of Direct J. Aubry1 , P. Bydlowski 1 E-mail: judicael.aubry Abstract This paper examines the sizing energy storage system (ESS) for energy converter. Keywords: Energy Storage System (ESS), power smoothing, Direct Wave Energy Converter, Supercapacitor, Power

Boyer, Edmond

404

Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

405

Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

406

Integrated Measurement of the Mass and Surface Charge of Discrete Microparticles Using a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

averages over multiple particles. Hence, accuracy in estimating the particle's charge, which is dependent measurement and that of the size measure- ment, because they have inherently different optimum orifice lengths

Manalis, Scott

407

Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

CHARACTERISTIC SIZE OF FLARE KERNELS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CONTINUA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this Letter, we present a new approach to estimate the formation height of visible and near-infrared emission of an X10 flare. The sizes of flare emission cores in three wavelengths are accurately measured during the peak of the flare. The source size is the largest in the G band at 4308 A and shrinks toward longer wavelengths, namely the green continuum at 5200 A and NIR at 15600 A, where the emission is believed to originate from the deeper atmosphere. This size-wavelength variation is likely explained by the direct heating model as electrons need to move along converging field lines from the corona to the photosphere. Therefore, one can observe the smallest source, which in our case is 0.''65 {+-} 0.''02 in the bottom layer (represented by NIR), and observe relatively larger kernels in upper layers of 1.''03 {+-} 0.''14 and 1.''96 {+-} 0.''27, using the green continuum and G band, respectively. We then compare the source sizes with a simple magnetic geometry to derive the formation height of the white-light sources and magnetic pressure in different layers inside the flare loop.

Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Size Characterization of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been utilized to characterize colloidal platinum nanoparticles synthesized in the 1-4 nm size range. The nanoparticles were prepared via a solution-based method in which the size could be controlled by varying reaction conditions, such as the alcohol used as the reductant. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, (MW = 29,000 g/mol) was employed as a capping agent to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles in solution. A model for determining the size of the metallic nanoparticle core from MALDI-TOF mass spectra has been developed and verified through correlation with particle sizes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In this model it was assumed that 1.85 nm nanoparticles are capped by one PVP chain, which was verified through experiments performed with capped and uncapped nanoparticles. Larger nanoparticles are capped by either two (2.60 and 2.94 nm) or three (3.69 nm) PVP chains. These findings clearly indicate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for fully characterizing nanoscale materials in order to elucidate structure-property relationships.

Navin, Jason K.; Grass, Michael E.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Marsh, Anderson L.

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a group is similar to all other components as a group. However, some differences were observed. The Supermicro server used 27 percent more power at idle compared to the other brands. The Intel server had a power supply control feature called cold redundancy, and the data suggest that cold redundancy can provide energy savings at low power levels. Test and evaluation methods that might be used by others having limited resources for IT equipment evaluation are explained in the report.

Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: • An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. • The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. • The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. • Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

Wang, Huei-Sen, E-mail: huei@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Dong-Yih [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gu, Jhen-Wang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Calculation of size for bound-state constituents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elements are given of a calculation that identifies the size of a proton in the Schroedinger equation for lepton-proton bound states, using the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) in quantum field theory, executed only up to the second order of expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Already in this crude approximation, the extraction of size of a proton from bound-state observables is found to depend on the lepton mass, so that the smaller the lepton mass the larger the proton size extracted from the same observable bound-state energy splitting. In comparison of Hydrogen and muon-proton bound-state dynamics, the crude calculation suggests that the difference between extracted proton sizes in these two cases can be a few percent. Such values would match the order of magnitude of currently discussed proton-size differences in leptonic atoms. Calculations using the RGPEP of higher order than second are required for a precise interpretation of the energy splittings in terms of the proton size in the Schroedinger equation. Such calculations should resolve the conceptual discrepancy between two conditions: that the renormalization group scale required for high accuracy calculations based on the Schroedinger equation is much smaller than the proton mass (on the order of a root of the product of reduced and average masses of constituents) and that the energy splittings due to the physical proton size can be interpreted ignoring corrections due to the effective nature of constituents in the Schr\\"odinger equation.

Stanislaw D. Glazek

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Effect of size heterogeneity on community identification in complex networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Identifying community structure can be a potent tool in the analysis and understanding of the structure of complex networks. Up to now, methods for evaluating the performance of identification algorithms use ad-hoc networks with communities of equal size. We show that inhomogeneities in community sizes can and do affect the performance of algorithms considerably, and propose an alternative method which takes these factors into account. Furthermore, we propose a simple modification of the algorithm proposed by Newman for community detection (Phys. Rev. E 69 066133) which treats communities of different sizes on an equal footing, and show that it outperforms the original algorithm while retaining its speed.

Danon, L.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Arenas, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Texas Adapted Genetic Strategies for Beef Cattle X: Frame Score, Frame Size, and Weight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Body size is an important genetic factor in beef cattle production. Size is most accurately estimated by considering several factors, such as weight, skeletal size and body condition. Frame Scores are a way of estimating skeletal size based on hip...

Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

415

SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period January 01, 2006 to June 30, 2006 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse completed obtaining additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in a previous reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed obtaining raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (Cd/m) information for 9 more biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated before in this project. Results of the mean mass data obtained to date are reported here, and analysis of the raw data collected by REM is in progress.

Ramanathan Sampath

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2005 to December 31, 2005 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse continued to obtain additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in the last reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has obtained raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (C{sub d}/m) information for several biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated in the last reporting period. Preliminary results of the mean mass and the shape data obtained are reported here, and more data collection is in progress.

Ramanathan Sampath

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Beam Energy and System Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4, 200 GeV, and p + p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub {+-},dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are non-zero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling, but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

STAR Coll

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Ultra-fast x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of coalescing shock-heated matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experiment in this work was preformed at the Titan laser facility (S1) where a short pulse beam at a wavelength of 1053nm delivered up to 350J in 0.5 to 20 ps and a long pulse beam at 527nm, 2{omega} frequency provided energies up to 450J in 1 to 6 ns. Long pulse shaping in this experiment, similar to future capabilities at NIF, was primarily a 4ns long foot with an intensity of 1 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, followed by a 2ns long peak with an intensity of 3 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. A {approx} 600 um phase plate was used on the long pulse beam to moderate non-uniformities in the intensity profile. An illustration of the Thomson scattering setup for this experiment is provided in Fig. 1 of the main text. A nearly mono-energetic scattering source of {Delta}E/E {approx} 0.3% in the 4.5 keV Ti K-alpha line was produced via intense short-pulse laser irradiation of 1.9 x 3 x 0.01 mm Ti foils, creating energetic keV electrons in the process (S2, S3). The nearly isotropic source emission (S4) is produced in the cold solid density bulk of the foil from electron K shell ionization of neutral or weakly ionized atoms, with an emission size on the order of the laser focal spot. By optimizing the laser intensity and pulse width to 4.4 x 10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2}, a total of 2.3 x 10{sup 13} x-ray photons have been produced into 4{pi}. This value corresponds to a conversion efficiency of laser energy into Ti K-alpha x-ray energy of 5 x 10{sup -5}, see Fig. S1. These sources provide {approx}10 ps x-ray pulses as measured experimentally (S5).

Kritcher, A; Neumayer, P; Castor, J; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Morse, E C; Ng, A; Pollaine, S; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

419

Ferromagnetic Resonance of Micro- and Nano-sized Hexagonal Ferrite Powders at Millimeter Waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complex magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity of micro- and nano-sized powdered barium (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) hexaferrites have been studied in a broadband millimeter wave frequency range (30-120 GHz). Transmittance measurements have been performed using a free space quasi-optical millimeter wave spectrometer, equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators. Real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity for both types of micro- and nanoferrites have been calculated using analysis of recorded high precision transmittance spectra. Frequency dependences of the magnetic permeability have been obtained from Schloemann's equation for partially magnetized ferrites. These materials show promise as tunable millimeter wave absorber, based on their size-dependent absorption.

Korolev, Konstantin A.; McCloy, John S.; Afsar, Mohammed N.

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the discovery of the first extrasolar giant planets around Sun-like stars[superscript 1, 2], evolving observational capabilities have brought us closer to the detection of true Earth analogues. The size of an exoplanet ...

Seager, Sara

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Direct exfoliation of natural graphite into micrometer size few...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Direct exfoliation of natural graphite into micrometer size few layers graphene sheets using ionic liquids Re-direct Destination: Stable high-concentration suspensions (up to 0.95...

422

Effective Size and Zeta Potential of Nanorods by Ferguson Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effective hydrodynamic size and free mobility of particles of varying aspect ratio were evaluated by Ferguson analysis of gel electrophoresis. The ligand layer thickness was estimated from the difference between the ...

Park, Sunho

423

agglomerates sizes approach: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lorenzo Isella; Yannis Drossinos 2010-04-26 52 A fractal-based approach to lake size-distributions David A. Seekell,1 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary:...

424

Strangeness Enhancement and System Size in the Hadronic Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strange particle enhancement in relativistic ion collisions is discussed with particular attention to the dependence on the size of the volume and/or the baryon number of the system.

Azwinndini Muronga; Jean Cleymans

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

425

Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the CdSe quantum dots. Decreasing the size of quantum dots also increases the Se vacancies that facilitate the phase transformation. The X-ray photoelectron spectra show a...

426

Grain size effects on the fatigue response of nanocrystalline materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The resistance of metals and alloys to fatigue crack initiation and propagation is known to be influenced significantly by grain size. Based on a wealth of experimental results obtained from microcrystalline metals, where ...

Hanlon, Timothy, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

TVA- Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) now compliments the small generation Green Power Providers Program by providing incentives for mid-sized renewable energy generators between 50kW and 20MW to...

428

array stiffness size: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results were based on non-amplitude techniques and pattern display of S- and B-scan. The sizing capability is far better than ASME XI tolerances for performance demonstration and...

429

Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article examines effects of sample size and other design features on correspondence between factors obtained from analysis of sample data and those present in the population from which the samples were drawn. We extend ...

MacCallum, R. C.; Widaman, K. F.; Preacher, K. J.; Hong, Sehee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

Singh, N. S. S., E-mail: narinderjit@petronas.com.my; Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: msmuthuvalu@gmail.com [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Asirvadam, V. S., E-mail: vijanth-sagayan@petronas.com.my [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

431

Sub-Pixel Response Measurement of Near-Infrared Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wide-field survey instruments are used to efficiently observe large regions of the sky. To achieve the necessary field of view, and to provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio for faint sources, many modern instruments are undersampled. However, precision photometry with undersampled imagers requires a detailed understanding of the sensitivity variations on a scale much smaller than a pixel. To address this, a near-infrared spot projection system has been developed to precisely characterize near-infrared focal plane arrays and to study the effect of sub-pixel non uniformity on precision photometry. Measurements of large format near-infrared detectors demonstrate the power of this system for understanding sub-pixel response.

N. Barron; M. Borysow; K. Beyerlein; M. Brown; C. Weaverdyck; W. Lorenzon; M. Schubnell; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch

2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND CONCENTRATIONS WITHIN COTTONSEED OIL MILLS A Thesis by LEE ROY WIEDERHOLD, JR. / I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Aqricultural Engineering DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND CONCENTRATIONS WITHIN COTTONSEED OIL MILLS A Thesis by LEE ROY WIEDERHOLD, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee ~Hd fdp t Member ber...

Wiederhold, Lee Roy

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED{sub adj}). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED{sub adj} between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED{sub adj} that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates that were not adjusted by patient size. Additionally, considerable differences were noted in ED{sub adj} distributions between scanners, with scanners employing iterative reconstruction exhibiting significantly lower ED{sub adj} (range: 9%-64%). Finally, a significant difference (up to 59%) in ED{sub adj} distributions was observed between institutions, indicating the potential for dose reduction. Conclusions: The authors developed a robust automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT. Using this program, significant differences in ED{sub adj} were observed between scanner models and across institutions. This new dose monitoring program offers a unique tool for improving quality assurance and standardization both within and across institutions.

Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan [Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Magnetic field measurements on the sun and implications for stellar magnetic field observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of solar magnetic field measurements in plages, sunspot umbrae, and sunspot penumbrae using high spectral resolution, unpolarized infrared H band spectral data are presented. A Fourier deconvolution analysis scheme similar to that utilized for stellar magnetic field measurements is adopted. As an example, a field strength of 3240 + or - 450 G is determined in a sunspot umbra combined with a value of 2000 + or - 180 G in the associated penumbra. These values are compared with a direct measurement of the spot umbra and penumbra field strengths based on the observed separation of the Zeeman components of the magnetically sensitive lines. Possible origins for the discrepancy between the results inferred by these two different techniques are discussed. The Fourier analysis results confirm the widespread occurrence of kilogauss level fields in the solar photosphere. The implications of the solar results for stellar magnetic field measurements are considered. 45 references.

Sun, W.H.; Giampapa, M.S.; Worden, S.P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Mathematicians Land Top Spot in New Ranking of Best and Worst Occupations in the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than just some boring subject that everybody has to take in school," says Ms. Courter, a research considers pay, which was determined by measuring each job's median income and growth potential The Worst 1. Mathematician 200. Lumberjack 2. Actuary 199. Dairy Farmer 3. Statistician 198. Taxi Driver 4

Raines, Brian

436

Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NVLAP Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty #12;Assessor Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 3 Measurement Uncertainty ·Calibration and testing labs performing Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 4 Measurement Uncertainty ·When the nature of the test precludes

437

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions. [Coulter Multisizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Presentation of a modified design equation for sizing lateral spillway channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Civil Engineering PRESENTATION OF A MODIFIED DESIGN EQUATION FOR SIZING LATERAL SPILLWAY CHANNELS A Thesis by FRANK GERRARD PAYNE Approved as to style and content by: m D. nolds (Chair of C mittee... in Equation [4-1]. A device was constructed in the Texas A&N University Civil Engineering shop for measuring depth of flow in the clarifier launder. This device is illustrated in Figure 4-2 on the following page. The base of the device was placed...

Payne, Frank Gerrard

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nacionales, Madrid. Peltier, W. (1993) Time dependentlast glacial maximum (Peltier, 1993). This variable measures

Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZES OF RED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sizes of galaxies are known to be closely related with their masses, luminosities, redshifts, and morphologies. However, when we fix these quantities and morphology, we still find large dispersions in the galaxy size distribution. We investigate the origin of these dispersions for red early-type galaxies using two SDSS-based catalogs. We find that the sizes of faint galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 10.3 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}> -19.5, where {sup 0.1} M{sub r} is the r-band absolute magnitude, k-corrected to z = 0.1) are affected more significantly by luminosity, while the sizes of bright galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}> 11.4 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}< -21.4) are by dynamical mass. At fixed mass and luminosity, the sizes of low-mass galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.45 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -19.8) are relatively less sensitive to their colors, color gradients, and axis ratios. On the other hand, the sizes of intermediate-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.85 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -20.4) and high-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 11.25 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -21.0) galaxies significantly depend on those parameters, in the sense that larger red early-type galaxies have bluer colors, more negative color gradients (bluer outskirts), and smaller axis ratios. These results indicate that the sizes of intermediate- and high-mass red early-type galaxies are significantly affected by their recent minor mergers or rotations, whereas the sizes of low-mass red early-type galaxies are affected by some other mechanisms. Major dry mergers also seem to have influenced on the size growth of high-mass red early-type galaxies.

Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyuseok, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we study the problem of determining the size of battery storage used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, electricity is generated from PV and is used to supply the demand from loads. Excess electricity generated from the PV can be stored in a battery to be used later on, and electricity must be purchased from the electric grid if the PV generation and battery discharging cannot meet the demand. The objective is to minimize the electricity purchase from the electric grid while at the same time choosing an appropriate battery size. More specifically, we want to find a unique critical value (denoted as $E_{max}^c$) of the battery size such that the cost of electricity purchase remains the same if the battery size is larger than or equal to $E_{max}^c$, and the cost is strictly larger if the battery size is smaller than $E_{max}^c$. We propose an upper bound on $E_{max}^c$, and show that the upper bound is achievable for certain scenarios. For the case with ideal PV generat...

Ru, Yu; Martinez, Sonia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Variation of direct-heat geothermal economics with project size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparision of the economics of large, intermediate, and small direct-heat goethermal projects is presented. An attempt is made to define which types of direct-heat geothermal projects are most cost-efficient and produce the most energy for the least amount of money. The potential energy contribution of fourteen different sizes of direct heat projects is used to determine the number of projects of a given size required to produce 1 Quad of energy. The cost of developing 1 Quad of direct-heat geothermal energy from large, intermediate, and small projects is compared to the cost of 1 Quad of energy from conventional sources. The engineering and resource parameters controlling project size are defined. The development of large-scale projects is stressed as the way in which direct-heat geothermal energy can make the most significant contribution to the nation's energy requirements. (MJF)

Struhsacker, D.W.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

444

Lognormal Size Distribution Theory for Deposition of Polydisperse Aerosol Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The moments method of the lognormal size distribution theory was applied to the deposition equation of a radioactive aerosol within a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor for analysis of postulated accidents. The deposition coefficient of Crump and Seinfeld was utilized to represent the Brownian and turbulent diffusions and the gravitational sedimentation. The deposition equation was converted into a set of three ordinary differential equations. This approach takes the view point that the size distribution of an aerosol is represented by a time-dependent lognormal size distribution function during the deposition process. Numerical calculations have been performed, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the exact solution. The derived model for aerosol deposition is convenient to use in a numerical general dynamic equation solution routine based on the moments method, where nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and deposition need to be solved simultaneously.

Park, S.H.; Lee, K.W. [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Aerosol size distribution evolution in large area fire plumes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large fires are significant seasonal contributors to western visibility reduction. We have found that the relative concentration of supermicron size particles (assumed to be a mixture of mechanically generated particles by high winds associated with large fires and low density chain aggregates from coagulation in the fire) and high turbulence in fire plumes can radically change the aerosol sizes in the fire plume. This is especially important for aerosols with high visibility reduction and long range transport potential. This calculation was done with a 10 level one dimensional model with parameterized vertical and horizontal diffusion, sedimentation and coagulation. The optical effects of the evolving concentration and size distributions were modeled using Mie scattering and absorption assumptions.

Porch, W.M.; Penner, J.E.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Effects of particle size on digestion of sorghum grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF PARTICIE SIZE ON DIGESTION OF SORGJJJJJJ GRAINS A Thesis by REUBEN DON WALKER Submitted to the Grariuate College of Texas Af. N University in partial f'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree cf K&TER OF SCIENCE Decembe. r... 19!2 Flajor Subjert; Animal Nutrition EFFECTS OF 1'ARTICLE SIZE ON DIGESTION OF SORGHUM GRAINS A Thesis REUBEN DON WALKER Approved as to style and content by: (Chai n of Committee) (Bead or Doper ment) c (Member) , 'j ji i (Member) Deceu...

Walker, Reuben Don

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Anomalous Finite-Size Effect in Superconducting Josephson Junction Arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that a previously reported discrepancy between simulations of superconducting Josephson junction arrays and the theoretical analysis of Ambegaokar, Halperin, Nelson, and Siggia (AHNS) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 783 (1978)] is rooted in a peculiar finite-size effect under periodic boundary conditions. Our simulation results for the largest array support the power-law I-V curves predicted by AHNS. Analysis of the vortex dynamics reveals two intrinsic length scales set by the applied current, which define three size regimes with distinctive I-V characteristics.

Chen, Qing-Hu; Tang, Lei-Han; Tong, Peiqing

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

448

Ex-vessel demand by size for the Gulf shrimp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EX-VESSEL DEMAND BY SIZE FOR THE GULF SHRIMP A Thesis by MARGARET RAM-TOO CHUI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major... Subject: Agricultural Economics EX-VESSEL DEMAND BY SIZE FOR SHRIMP IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by MARGARET KAM-TOO CHUI Approved as to style and content by: ai an of Committee) (Hea f ep tment) (Member) (Member) August 1980 ABSTRACT Ex...

Chui, Margaret Kam-Too

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Sizing up nuclear fuel | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted forHighlightsSeminarsSiliconSite Map TUNL pdf'sFundSizeSizing a

450

Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

Gamwo, Isaac K. (Murrysville, PA); Gidaspow, Dimitri (Northbrook, IL); Jung, Jonghwun (Naperville, IL)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

451

Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

452

Video Communications Systems 2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LifeSize® Video Communications Systems User Guide #12;2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User-9301 #12;LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide 3 Welcome to LifeSize Video Communications Systems LifeSize high definition video communications systems enable anyone with dispersed colleagues

453

Stack Sizing for Optimal Current Drivability in Subthreshold Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consuming orders of magnitude less power than in the normal strong-inversion region. The operating frequencyStack Sizing for Optimal Current Drivability in Subthreshold Circuits John Keane, Hanyong Eom, Tae to be a successful alternative when ultra-low power consumption is paramount. However, the characteristics of MOS

Sapatnekar, Sachin

454

THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES PIERRE HYVERNAT Laboratoire describes an automatic termination checker for a generic first- order call-by-value language in ML style. We arguments of recursive call evolve during evaluation. The result is a criterion for termination extending

455

Termination Checking: Comparing Structural Recursion and Sized Types by Examples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Termination Checking: Comparing Structural Recursion and Sized Types by Examples David Thibodeau Decemer 3, 2011 Abstract Termination is an important property for programs and is necessary for formal proofs to make sense. In order to make sure that a program using recursion is terminating, one can use

Abel, Andreas

456

THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES PIERRE HYVERNAT Laboratoire describes an automatic termination checker for a generic first- order call-by-value language in ML style. We arguments of recursive calls evolve during evaluation. The result is a criterion for termination extending

Hyvernat, Pierre

457

Method of controlling crystallite size in nuclear-reactor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved spherules for making enhanced forms of nuclear-reactor fuels are prepared by internal gelation procedures within a sol-gel operation and are accomplished by first boiling the concentrated HMTA-urea feed solution before engaging in the spherule-forming operation thereby effectively controlling crystallite size in the product spherules.

Lloyd, Milton H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Collins, Jack L. (Knoxville, TN); Shell, Sam E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Note on the size of binary Armstrong codes Aart Blokhuis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note on the size of binary Armstrong codes Aart Blokhuis , Andries Brouwer, Attila Sali April 19, 2012 Abstract We show for binary Armstrong codes Arm(2, k, n) that asymptotically n/k 1.224, while) for all admissible n. Keywords: coding theory; databases; Armstrong codes AMS subject classification: 94B

Brouwer, Andries E.

459

Note on the size of binary Armstrong codes Aart Blokhuis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note on the size of binary Armstrong codes Aart Blokhuis , Andries Brouwer, Attila Sali February 20, 2012 Abstract We show for binary Armstrong codes Arm(2, k, n) that asymptotically n/k 1.224, while) for all admissible n. Keywords: coding theory; databases; Armstrong codes AMS subject classification: 94B

Brouwer, Andries E.

460

Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we consider the 1-component real scalar $\\phi^4$ theory in 4 space-time dimensions on the lattice and investigate the finite size scaling of thermodynamic quantities to study whether the thermodynamic limit is attained. The results are obtained for the symmetric phase of the theory.

Debasish Banerjee; Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory A thesis submitted to the Tata Research, Mumbai December 2008 #12;ii #12;Synopsis In this work we study the thermodynamics of an interacting 4 theory in 4 space- time dimensions. The expressions for the thermodynamic quantities are worked

462

A QuikSCAT climatology of tropical cyclone size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QuikSCAT data of near-surface wind vectors for the years 1999–2008 are used to create a climatology of tropical cyclone (TC) size, defined as the radius of vanishing winds. The azimuthally-averaged radius of 12 ms?1 [ms ...

Chavas, Daniel Robert

463

Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the supercapacitor bank has to be sharply designed to stay more competitive against a battery design. Accurate sizing electric drive train. Today, most of full-electrical transportation drive trains use batteries as main energy storage unit. Indeed, the specific energy of battery is high (hundred of Wh/kg for lithium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

PROGRAM OVERVIEW Australia is the size of continental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROGRAM OVERVIEW Australia is the size of continental USA with about 1/15 of the population. It is the fourth most urban country and yet most Americans know Australia as "outback" and rural country. In a wet year, Australia is dry. Australia exports natural resources. It is "bordered" by the fourth most

Liskiewicz, Maciej

465

Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1 Isabelle Larocque, A distribution of epilimnetic algae on patterns of algal sedimentation was determined in lake enclosures under the mean length of algae in fish-free enclosures and reduced the mean length in the enclosures to which

Mazumder, Asit

466

Exploiting weather forecasts for sizing photovoltaic energy bids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Exploiting weather forecasts for sizing photovoltaic energy bids Antonio Giannitrapani, Simone for a photovoltaic (PV) power producer taking part into a competitive electricity market characterized by financial set from an Italian PV plant. Index Terms--Energy market, bidding strategy, photovoltaic power

Giannitrapani, Antonello

467

TC1 Parts List Quantity Size Description **Possible Vendor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TC1 Parts List Quantity Size Description **Possible Vendor Source 1 3.5"od x 20" Clear Acrylic tube stripped Radio Shack Other parts as required. **This is just a list of possible vendor sources. Please note, some vendors have minimums for orders. #12;

Barrash, Warren

468

Brief Communications Why Sex Matters: Brain Size Independent Differences in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brief Communications Why Sex Matters: Brain Size Independent Differences in Gray Matter, Germany The different brain anatomy of men and women is both a classic and continuing topic of major interest. Among the most replicated and robust sex differences are larger overall brain dimensions in men

Gaser, Christian

469

Sizing Storage and Wind Generation Capacities in Remote Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sizing Storage and Wind Generation Capacities in Remote Power Systems by Andy Gassner B capital investment costs of renewable energy technologies. Specifically, wind power represents the most and small power systems. However, the variability due to the stochastic nature of the wind resource

Victoria, University of

470

Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with internal diameters shown). 4-inch 6-inch 8-inch 10-inch 12-inch Pipe size Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Flow rate (gpm) 100 1.2 0.9 0.6 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 150 2.5 1.8 1.2 0.3 0.2 0...

Fipps, Guy

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

471

CTB Ground Strap Size Document Number R ev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 D D C C B B A A CTB Ground Strap Title Size Document Number R ev Date: Sheet o Body 5x"VNTC"#10awgrated33A Actualoperating=11Amax. Belden 83029 #18 awg rated 10 A max. Actual

Llope, William J.

472

The Hydrogen Atom with a Finite Sized Nucleus Frank Rioux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

r( ) Reduced mass: 1 Angular momentum: L 0 Integration limit: rmax 7 Energy guess: E 0.496 r 0 .01 of nuclear size on the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom's electron. The traditional approach assumes radius, the potential energy of the electron is as given below. Nuclear radius: Rn 0.1 Potential energy

Rioux, Frank

473

Mesocellular Siliceous Foams with Uniformly Sized Cells and Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure. The isotherms show large hystereses, which in conjunction with BdB pore size analyses9b-d and X-ray experiments suggests that the MCFs possess ink-bottle-type pores in which large cells are connected

Yang, Peidong

474

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, to achieve bet- ter power-delay and area-delay tradeo s. The delay model incorporates placement-based information and the e ect of input slew rates on gate delays. The re- sults obtained by using the new method gate Gi is mod- eled by an equivalent inverter. The relation between the gate sizes in the equivalent

Sapatnekar, Sachin

475

Convex Delay Models for Transistor Sizing Mahesh Ketkar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for developing accurate con- vex delay models to be used for transistor sizing. A new rich class of convex]: minimize Area or Power subject to Delay Tspec: (1) There have been many significant attempts to solve. in the development of closed form models for inverters and then mapping other gates to an equivalent inverter [5, 6

Sapatnekar, Sachin

476

Design and sizing of electromagnetic linear actuators for valve applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a description of the design and sizing of variable reluctance or permanent magnet devices is given. The main, concerning magnetic saturation, the section of this shaft will have to be greater than a minimal value. So qualities of each structure are enhanced. Keywords: Linear motion actuator, variable reluctance, permanent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

477

THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIALLY REDUCING THE SIZE OF INDUCTORS IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

damped using a capacitance modi¯ed shunt circuit. Keywords: Dampers, Passive Compensation, Vibration of the piezoelectric transducer, creates a damped electrical resonance, equivalent to that of a tuned vibrationalTHE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIALLY REDUCING THE SIZE OF INDUCTORS IN PIEZOELECTRIC SHUNT DAMPING CIRCUITS 1

Fleming, Andrew J.

478

The role of real-world size in object representation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Every object in the world has a physical size which is intrinsic to how we interact with it: we pick up small objects like coins with our fingers, we throw footballs and swing tennis rackets, we orient our body to bigger ...

Konkle, Talia (Talia A.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Improving large-sized PLC programs verification using abstractions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving large-sized PLC programs verification using abstractions V. Gourcuff O. de Smet J [2005]) models of PLC programs, which can be verified with well- known model-checkers, like UPPAAL the development of industrial PLC programs up to now (John- son [2007]). Several reasons can explain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

480

A Transformed Lagged Ensemble Forecasting Technique for Increasing Ensemble Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Transformed Lagged Ensemble Forecasting Technique for Increasing Ensemble Size Andrew. R.Lawrence@ecmwf.int #12;Abstract An ensemble-based data assimilation approach is used to transform old en- semble. The impact of the transformations are propagated for- ward in time over the ensemble's forecast period

Hansens, Jim

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

The evolutionary consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: a body size perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at lower O2:CO2. Field studies of size distributions across extant higher taxa and individual species of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA M. Kowalewski Department of Geosciences transport limits the thickness or volume-to-surface area ratio--rather than mass or volume

Lyons, S. Kathleen

482

Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10%) compared with the tail regions. This result shows that the