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1

Measurement of focal spot size with slit camera using computed radiography and flat-panel based digital detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital x-ray imagingdetectors for the measurement of diagnostic x-ray tube focal spot size using a slit camera. Slit cameraimages of two focal spots for a radiographicx-ray tube were acquired with direct-exposure film (DF) (as specified by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association [NEMA] Standards Publication No. XR 5

Xiujiang J. Rong; Kerry T. Krugh; S. Jeff Shepard; William R. Geiser

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One possibility is to use the wires in the ASTM E2002 unsharpness gage and take two orthogonal images. The signal levels in the image need to be linear with radiation exposure and so may need conversion if a nonlinear detector is used to acquire the image.

Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewert, Uwe [BAM

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Diode magnetic-field influence on radiographic spot size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flash radiography of hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a well-known diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The Dual-Axis Radiography for Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos was developed for flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) produce the bremsstrahlung radiographic source spots for orthogonal views of each experiment ('hydrotest'). The 2-kA, 20-MeV Axis-I LIA creates a single 60-ns radiography pulse. For time resolution of the hydrotest dynamics, the 1.7-kA, 16.5-MeV Axis-II LIA creates up to four radiography pulses by slicing them out of a longer pulse that has a 1.6-{micro}s flattop. Both axes now routinely produce radiographic source spot sizes having full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) less than 1 mm. To further improve on the radiographic resolution, one must consider the major factors influencing the spot size: (1) Beam convergence at the final focus; (2) Beam emittance; (3) Beam canonical angular momentum; (4) Beam-motion blur; and (5) Beam-target interactions. Beam emittance growth and motion in the accelerators have been addressed by careful tuning. Defocusing by beam-target interactions has been minimized through tuning of the final focus solenoid for optimum convergence and other means. Finally, the beam canonical angular momentum is minimized by using a 'shielded source' of electrons. An ideal shielded source creates the beam in a region where the axial magnetic field is zero, thus the canonical momentum zero, since the beam is born with no mechanical angular momentum. It then follows from Busch's conservation theorem that the canonical angular momentum is minimized at the target, at least in principal. In the DARHT accelerators, the axial magnetic field at the cathode is minmized by using a 'bucking coil' solenoid with reverse polarity to cancel out whatever solenoidal beam transport field exists there. This is imperfect in practice, because of radial variation of the total field across the cathode surface, solenoid misalignments, and long-term variability of solenoid fields for given currents. Therefore, it is useful to quantify the relative importance of canonical momentum in determining the focal spot, and to establish a systematic methodology for tuning the bucking coils for minimum spot size. That is the purpose of this article. Section II provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the relative importance of the canonical momentum. Section III describes the results of simulations used to quantify beam parameters, including the momentum, for each of the accelerators. Section IV compares the two accelerators, especially with respect to mis-tuned bucking coils. Finally, Section IV concludes with a methodology for optimizing the bucking coil settings.

Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

5

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements . Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer External Instruments CPOL : C-Band Polarimetric Radar Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters

6

A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

Gerstl, S.A.W.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size Distribution Size Distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor Size Distribution The number of hydrometeors observed in a given size range. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams PARS2 : OTT Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer VDIS : Video Disdrometer Datastreams VDIS : Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution

8

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

9

ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

droplet size droplet size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud droplet size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of a cloud particle Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager

10

ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Particle size distribution The number of particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

11

Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004–06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been ...

Ali Tokay; Paul G. Bashor; Emad Habib; Takis Kasparis

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

13

ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range, including liquid and ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments WSACR : Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, tuned to W-Band (95GHz) Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties

14

Two self-referencing methods for the measurement of beam spot position  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Two quantitative methods of measuring electron beam spot position with respect to the collimator axis of rotation (CAOR) are described. Methods: Method 1 uses a cylindrical ion chamber (IC) mounted on a jig corotational with the collimator making the relationship among the chamber, jaws, and CAOR fixed and independent of collimator angle. A jaw parallel to the IC axis is set to zero and the IC position adjusted so that the IC signal is approximately 50% of the open field value, providing a large dose gradient in the region of the IC. The cGy/MU value is measured as a function of collimator rotation, e.g., every 30 Degree-Sign . If the beam spot does not lie on the CAOR, the signal from the ion chamber will vary with collimator rotation. Based on a measured spatial sensitivity, the distance of the beam spot from the CAOR can be calculated from the IC signal variation with rotation. The 2nd method is image based. Two stainless steel rods, 3 mm in diameter, are mounted to a jig attached to the Linac collimator. The rods, offset from the CAOR, lay in different planes normal to the CAOR, one at 158 cm SSD and the other at 70 cm SSD. As the collimator rotates the rods move tangent along an envelope circle, the centers of which are on the CAOR in their respective planes. Three images, each at a different collimator rotation, containing the shadows of both rods, are acquired on the Linac EPID. At each angle the shadow of the rods on the EPID defines lines tangent to the projection of the envelope circles. From these the authors determine the projected centers of the two circles at different heights. From the distance of these two points using the two heights and the source to EPID distance, the authors calculate the distance of the beam spot from the CAOR. Measurements with all two techniques were performed on an Elekta Linac. Measurements were performed with the beam spot in nominal clinical position and in a deliberately offset position. Measurements were also performed using the Flexmap image registration/ball-bearing test. Results: Within their uncertainties, both methods report the same beam spot displacement. In clinical use, a total of 203 monthly beam spot measurements on 14 different beams showed an average displacement of 0.11 mm ({sigma}= 0.07 mm) in-plane and 0.10 mm ({sigma}= 0.07 mm) cross-plane with maximum displacement of 0.37 mm in-plane and 0.34 mm cross-plane. Conclusions: The methods described provide a quantitative measure of beam spot position, are easy to use, and provide another tool for Linac setup and quality assurance. Fundamental to the techniques is that they are self-referencing-i.e., they do not require the user to independently define the CAOR.

Nyiri, Balazs J.; Smale, Jason R.; Gerig, Lee H. [Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa K1H 8L6 (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1H 8M5 (Canada); Elekta Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 1Z3 (Canada); Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa K1H 8L6 (Canada); Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1H 8M5 (Canada)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Measuring micron size beams in the SLC final focus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pair of high resolution wire scanners have been built and installed in the SLC final focus. The final focus optics uses a set of de-magnifying telescopes, and an ideal location for a beam size monitor is at one of the magnified image points of the interaction point. The image point chosen for these scanners is in the middle of a large bend magnet. The design beam spots here are about 2 microns in the vertical and 20 microns in the horizontal plane. The scanners presented a number of design challenges. In this paper we discuss the mechanical design of the scanner, and fabrication techniques of its ceramic wire support card which holds many 4 and 7 um carbon wires. Accurate motion of the wire during a scan is critical. In this paper we describe tests of stepper motors, gear combinations, and radiation hardened encoders needed to produce the required motion with a step resolution of 80 nanometers. Also presented here are the results of scattered radiation detector placement studies carried out to optimize the signal from the 4 micron wires. Finally, we present measurements from the scanner.

McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; DeBarger, S. [and others

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Small Spot, Brighter Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Spot, Brighter Beam Small Spot, Brighter Beam Small Spot, Brighter Beam Print Do you notice the brighter beam? During the most recent shutdown, all of the corrector magnets were replaced with sextupoles, reducing the horizontal emittance and increasing beam brightness. "This is part of ongoing improvement to keep the ALS on the cutting edge," says Alastair MacDowell, a beamline scientist on Beamline 12.2.2. The brightness has increased by a factor of about three in the storage ring. Beamlines on superbend or center-bend magnets will see the most noticeable increase in brightness, but the horizontal beam size and divergence have been substantially reduced at all beamlines. "We are starting to approach the resolution of many beamlines. Therefore, not every beamline will be able to resolve the full improvement," says Christoph Steier, project leader of the brightness upgrade. Though superbend and center-bend magnet source sizes are reduced by roughly a factor of three, "measured improvements so far range from a factor of 2-2.5," Steier says. He and MacDowell agree that the beamline optics are likely the limiting factor in resolving the full improvement at the beamlines.

18

USING STAR SPOTS TO MEASURE THE SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT OF TRANSITING PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic follow-up of dozens of transiting planets has revealed the degree of alignment between the equators of stars and the orbits of the planets they host. Here we determine a method, applicable to spotted stars, that can reveal the same information from the photometric discovery data, with no need for follow-up. A spot model fit to the global light curve, parameterized by the spin orientation of the star, predicts when the planet will transit the spots. Observing several spot crossings during different transits then leads to constraints on the spin-orbit alignment. In cases where stellar spots are small, the stellar inclination, i{sub s} , and hence the true alignment, rather than just the sky projection, can be obtained. This method has become possible with the advent of space telescopes such as CoRoT and Kepler, which photometrically monitor transiting planets over a nearly continuous, long time baseline. We apply our method to CoRoT-2 and find the projected spin-orbit alignment angle, {lambda} = 4.{sup 0}7 {+-} 12.{sup 0}3, in excellent agreement with a previous determination that employed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The large spots of the parent star, CoRoT-2, limit our precision on i{sub s} : 84{sup 0} {+-} 36{sup 0}, where i{sub s} < 90{sup 0}(> 90{sup 0}) indicates that the rotation axis is tilted toward (away from) the line of sight.

Nutzman, Philip A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: pnutzman@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

19

Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin and SGP Bartholomew, Mary Jane Brookhaven National Laboratory Category: Instruments ARM has purchased two impact...

20

Is there a single spot size and grid for intensity modulated proton therapy? Simulation of head and neck, prostate and mesothelioma cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the quality of dose distributions in real clinical cases for different dimensions of scanned proton pencil beams. The distance between spots (i.e., the grid of delivery) is optimized for each dimension of the pencil beam. Methods: The authors vary the {sigma} of the initial Gaussian size of the spot, from {sigma}{sub x} = {sigma}{sub y} = 3 mm to {sigma}{sub x} = {sigma}{sub y} = 8 mm, to evaluate the impact of the proton beam size on the quality of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. The distance between spots, {Delta}x and {Delta}y, is optimized on the spot plane, ranging from 4 to 12 mm (i.e., each spot size is coupled with the best spot grid resolution). In our Hyperion treatment planning system (TPS), constrained optimization is applied with respect to the organs at risk (OARs), i.e., the optimization tries to satisfy the dose objectives in the planning target volume (PTV) as long as all planning objectives for the OARs are met. Three-field plans for a nasopharynx case, two-field plans for a prostate case, and two-field plans for a malignant pleural mesothelioma case are considered in our analysis. Results: For the head and neck tumor, the best grids (i.e., distance between spots) are 5, 4, 6, 6, and 8 mm for {sigma} = 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. {sigma} {low dose and {sigma}{dose. For the prostate patient, the best grid is 4, 4, 5, 5, and 5 mm for {sigma} = 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. Beams with {sigma} > 3 mm did not satisfy our first clinical requirement that 95% of the prescribed dose is delivered to more than 95% of prostate and proximal seminal vesicles PTV. Our second clinical requirement, to cover the distal seminal vesicles PTV, is satisfied for beams as wide as {sigma} = 6 mm. For the mesothelioma case, the low dose PTV prescription is well respected for all values of {sigma}, while there is loss of high dose PTV coverage for {sigma} > 5 mm. The best grids have a spacing of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 mm for {sigma} = 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The maximum acceptable proton pencil beam {sigma} depends on the volume treated, the protocol of delivery, and optimization of the plan. For the clinical cases, protocol and optimization used in this analysis, acceptable {sigma}s are {<=} 4 mm for the head and neck tumor, {<=} 3 mm for the prostate tumor and {<=} 6 mm for the malignant pleural mesothelioma. One can apply the same procedure used in this analysis when given a ''class'' of patients, a {sigma} and a clinical protocol to determine the optimal grid spacing.

Widesott, Lamberto; Lomax, Antony J.; Schwarz, Marco [AtreP, Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia, 38122 Trento (Italy); Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); AtreP, Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia, 38122 Trento (Italy)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders  

SciTech Connect

Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Comparison of Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements by Collocated Disdrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An impact-type Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), and a laser optical OTT Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer (PD) were used to measure the raindrop size distribution (DSD) over a 6-month ...

Ali Tokay; Walter A. Petersen; Patrick Gatlin; Matthew Wingo

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Measurement of Raindrop Size Distributions Using a Small Doppler Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A small X-band bistatic Doppler radar originally developed for use in automated weather stations as a Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS) can also measure real time raindrop size distributions. In contrast to large-scale pulsed Doppler ...

Brian E. Sheppard

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 40-45 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor

25

Spotted Inflation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe new scenarios of generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ``spot'', which arises from interactions associated with enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap to the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it appears not simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions.

Tomohiro Matsuda

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

A Two-Spot Sensor for Measurement of Dissipation by Means of Laser-Doppler Velocimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An estimate of the dissipation rate for mechanical energy in a turbulent flow can be obtained by computing the variance of the temporal derivative of the fluid velocity measured at a single point. This technique is not suited to conventional ...

John Trowbridge; Yogi Agrawal

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A 4-spot time-of-flight anemometer for small centrifugal compressor velocity measurements  

SciTech Connect

The application of laser anemometry techniques in turbomachinery facilities is a challenging dilemma requiring an anemometer system with special qualities. Here, we describe the use of a novel laser anemometry technique applied to a small 4.5 kg/s, 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor. Sample velocity profiles across the blade pitch are presented for a single location along the rotor. The results of the intra-blade passage velocity measurements will ultimately be used to verify CFD 3-D viscous code predictions.

Wernet, M.P.; Skoch, G.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These data will be useful for preparing the feed material for subsequent fine grinding operations and designing new mills.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into an actual SNS target.

Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

High-Resolution Measurement of Size Distributions of Asian Dust Using a Coulter Multisizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Coulter Multisizer, which is based on the electrical sensing zone (ESZ) or the Coulter principle, was used to measure the size distribution of Asian dust. Coulter Multisizer analysis provides high-resolution size measurements of water-insoluble ...

Hiroshi Kobayashi; Kimio Arao; Toshiyuki Murayama; Kengo Iokibe; Ryuji Koga; Masataka Shiobara

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Laboratory Measurements of Spontaneous Oscillations for Moderate-Size Raindrops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The natural oscillations of moderate-size raindrops were studied in a seven-story fall column using a computer-controlled generator to produce isolated water drops at terminal speed. Instantaneous shapes were photographed to obtain oscillation ...

Rodney J. Kubesh; Kenneth V. Beard

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Measurement of Bubble-Size Distributions by Acoustical Backscatter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multifrequency acoustical-backscatter technique is described for determining the size distribution of bubbles with radii between 8 and 130 µm. The method makes use of the resonance in the microbubbles and operates at six frequencies ranging ...

Svein Vagle; David M. Farmer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Technique for inferring sizes of stellar-active regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inspection of spectroheliograms showing large, well-developed active regions generally show the sunspots to lead the associated plage, in the sense of the solar rotation. Measurements have been made from spectroheliograms of spot-plage offsets and compared with nearly contemporaneous integrated disk observations. Larger active regions generally show larger spot leads; however, information regarding active-region sizes and spot-plage offsets is not readily obtainable form stellar-type observations of the Sun.

Dobson-Hockey, A.K.; Radick, R.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Self-Evaluating Disdrometer for the Measurement of Raindrop Size and Charge at the Ground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A disdrometer for the measurement of the co-spectra of raindrop size and charge is described which can evaluate to a significant extent spurious data caused by unavoidable drop overlap within the charge detector volume. The sizes of individual ...

C. D. Stow; K. Jones

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 228 (2005) 299307 Complementary methods for cluster size distribution measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

size distribution measurements: supported platinum nanoclusters in methane reforming catalysts J.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cluster size; SAXS; XAFS; HRTEM; Methane reforming 1. Introduction cluster size strongly influences the reactivity of surfaces for C H bond activation during CH4 steam

Iglesia, Enrique

36

A procedure to determine the planar integral spot dose values of proton pencil beam spots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Planar integral spot dose (PISD) of proton pencil beam spots (PPBSs) is a required input parameter for beam modeling in some treatment planning systems used in proton therapy clinics. The measurement of PISD by using commercially available large area ionization chambers, like the PTW Bragg peak chamber (BPC), can have large uncertainties due to the size limitation of these chambers. This paper reports the results of our study of a novel method to determine PISD values from the measured lateral dose profiles and peak dose of the PPBS. Methods: The PISDs of 72.5, 89.6, 146.9, 181.1, and 221.8 MeV energy PPBSs were determined by area integration of their planar dose distributions at different depths in water. The lateral relative dose profiles of the PPBSs at selected depths were measured by using small volume ion chambers and were investigated for their angular anisotropies using Kodak XV films. The peak spot dose along the beam's central axis (D{sub 0}) was determined by placing a small volume ion chamber at the center of a broad field created by the superposition of spots at different locations. This method allows eliminating positioning uncertainties and the detector size effect that could occur when measuring it in single PPBS. The PISD was then calculated by integrating the measured lateral relative dose profiles for two different upper limits of integration and then multiplying it with corresponding D{sub 0}. The first limit of integration was set to radius of the BPC, namely 4.08 cm, giving PISD{sub RBPC}. The second limit was set to a value of the radial distance where the profile dose falls below 0.1% of the peak giving the PISD{sub full}. The calculated values of PISD{sub RBPC} obtained from area integration method were compared with the BPC measured values. Long tail dose correction factors (LTDCFs) were determined from the ratio of PISD{sub full}/PISD{sub RBPC} at different depths for PPBSs of different energies. Results: The spot profiles were found to have angular anisotropy. This anisotropy in PPBS dose distribution could be accounted in a reasonable approximate manner by taking the average of PISD values obtained using the in-line and cross-line profiles. The PISD{sub RBPC} values fall within 3.5% of those measured by BPC. Due to inherent dosimetry challenges associated with PPBS dosimetry, which can lead to large experimental uncertainties, such an agreement is considered to be satisfactory for validation purposes. The PISD{sub full} values show differences ranging from 1 to 11% from BPC measured values, which are mainly due to the size limitation of the BPC to account for the dose in the long tail regions of the spots extending beyond its 4.08 cm radius. The dose in long tail regions occur both for high energy beams such as 221.8 MeV PPBS due to the contributions of nuclear interactions products in the medium, and for low energy PPBS because of their larger spot sizes. The calculated LTDCF values agree within 1% with those determined by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Conclusions: The area integration method to compute the PISD from PPBS lateral dose profiles is found to be useful both to determine the correction factors for the values measured by the BPC and to validate the results from MC simulations.

Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Poenisch, Falk; Amos, Richard A.; Ciangaru, George; Titt, Uwe; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Box 1150, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Improvements of Droplet Size Distribution Measurements with the Fast-FSSP (Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basics of single particle measurements are discussed and illustrated with measurements of the droplet size distribution with an optical spectrometer, the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), and its improved version, the Fast-FSSP. ...

Jean-Louis Brenguier; Thierry Bourrianne; Afraniode Araujo Coelho; Jacques Isbert; Robert Peytavi; Dominique Trevarin; Perry Weschler

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Effects of Drop-Size-Distribution Truncation on Computer Simulations of Dual-Measurement Radar Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation is made of the effects of truncating the raindrop-size distribution at minimum and maximum diameters on the results of computer simulations of dual-measurement radar methods. The dual-measurement methods investigated include ...

Carlton W. Ulbrich

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions in the Lower Troposphere over Northern Europe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of particle size distributions were made at several altitudes within and above the mixing layer at sites near Ahlhorn and Meppen (West Germany), Rodby (Denmark), and Bruz (France). The distributions were measured over the ...

Bruce W. Fitch; Ted S. Cress

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Towards an accurate functional size measurement procedure for conceptual models in an MDA environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate measurement of the functional size of applications that are automatically generated in MDA environments is a challenge for the software development industry. This paper introduces the OO-Method COSMIC Function Points (OOmCFP) procedure, ... Keywords: COSMIC, Conceptual modeling, Functional size measurement, MDA, Object orientation

Beatriz Marín; Oscar Pastor; Alain Abran

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Underwater microscope for measuring spatial and temporal changes in bed-sediment grain size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater microscope for measuring spatial and temporal changes in bed-sediment grain size David M by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Underwater microscope; Bed sediment; Grain size; In situ measurement; Colorado counts on a small subset of processed images. 2.3. Underwater microscope hardware Digital images of bed

42

A Balloon-Borne Instrument for Measuring the Charge and Size of Precipitation Particles inside Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new balloon-borne instrument created by the authors and referred to as the q-d instrument that measures the charge q and size d of precipitation particles is discussed. The instrument measures charge with an induction cylinder size with an ...

Monte G. Bateman; W. David Rust; Thomas C. Marshall

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Retrieval of Raindrop Size Distribution from Simulated Dual-Frequency Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) have validated the use of three-parameter distribution functions in representing the observed spectra. However, dual-frequency radar measurements are limited to retrieving two independent ...

S. Joseph Munchak; Ali Tokay

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Intercomparison of Instruments used for Measurement of Cloud Drop Concentration and Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of drop concentration and size distribution with the Clague droplet gun and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe in 21 cumulus clouds on five days show no evidence of systematic differences between the two instruments. Though ...

S. C. Mossop

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Evaluation of Measurements of Particle Size and Sample Area from Optical Array Probes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technique of using shadow images of particles, obtained in coherent illumination to measure particle size, is analyzed. The theory of Fresnel diffraction for an opaque disc was used to analyze shadow images of transparent spherical particles. ...

A. V. Korolev; S. V. Kuznetsov; Yu E. Makarov; V. S. Novikov

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

An Optical Disdrometer for the Measurement of Raindrop Size Spectra in Windy Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument for measuring the size and concentration of raindrops is described which has the ability to function equally well in calm conditions and strong winds. Raindrops are detected optically in a shadowgraph-type imaging system. A unique ...

A. J. Illingworth; C. J. Stevens

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

A Free-Flooding Acoustical Resonator for Measurement of Bubble Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument for the measurement of bubble size distributions is described. The sensing element exploits the free-flooding resonator design of Medwin with modifications to overcome the limitations in the original implementation, especially those ...

David M. Farmer; Svein Vagle; A. Donald Booth

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The Simultaneous Measurement of Rainfall Intensity, Drop-Size Distribution, and the Scattering of Visible Light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field measurements were made of the attenuation of a low-power. He-Ne laser beam over a 272-m path. Concurrently, high-resolution (10 s) measurements of rainfall intensity were obtained at several points along the path and drop-size distributions ...

C. D. Stow; S. G. Bradley; K. Paulson; L. Couper

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A Broadband Acoustic Technique for Measuring Bubble Size Distributions: Laboratory and Shallow Water Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a broadband sound velocimeter that allows the simultaneous measurement of sound speed and attenuation over a wide range of frequencies is described. The velocimeter measures the attenuation and dispersion of a broadband ...

Eric J. Terrill; W. Kendall Melville

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Drop Size Distributions Measured by a 2D Video Disdrometer: Comparison with Dual-Polarization Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of drop size distributions (DSDs) measured in four very different precipitation regimes is presented and is compared with polarimetric radar measurements. The DSDs are measured by a 2D video disdrometer, which is designed to measure ...

Terry J. Schuur; Alexander V. Ryzhkov; Dusan S. Zrni?; Michael Schönhuber

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Utility spot pricing, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

Schweppe, Fred C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Discriminative keyword spotting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new approach for keyword spotting, which is based on large margin and kernel methods rather than on HMMs. Unlike previous approaches, the proposed method employs a discriminative learning procedure, in which the learning phase aims ... Keywords: Discriminative models, Keyword spotting, Large margin and kernel methods, Speech recognition, Spoken term detection, Support vector machines

Joseph Keshet; David Grangier; Samy Bengio

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

White Spots in Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Also, a brief description of detection methods ... (EDS) Analysis of the Discrete White Spot in the Alloy ..... 400°C (750'99, Load Control, R Ratio = 0. 164 .... Electric. 7. Reported at May, 1992 White Spots Workshop by S. Besse of SNECMA. 8.

55

Pore and throat size distributions measured from synchrotron X-ray tomographic images of Fontainebleau sandstones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The three-dimensional geometry and connectivity of pore space controls the hydraulic transport behavior of crustal rocks. We report on direct measurement of flow-relevant geometrical properties of the void space in a suite of 4 samples of Fontainebleau sandstone ranging from 7.5% to 22% porosity. The measurements are obtained from computer analysis of three dimensional, synchrotron X-ray computed microtomographic images. We present measured distributions of coordination number, channel length, throat size and pore volume, and of correlations between throat-size/pore-volume and nearest neighbor pore-volume/pore volume determined for these samples. We also present quantitative characterization of the distributions measured. The effects of finite sample volume are investigated. The accuracy of the numerical algorithms employed is investigated using a simulated image of hexagonal closed packed spheres.

W. Brent Lindquist; Arun Venkatarangan; John Dunsmuir; Teng-fong Wong

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Measuring Crystal Size in Cirrus Using 35- and 94-GHz Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a case study in which coincident 35- and 94-GHz radars located at Chilbolton, England, were used to measure crystal size in cirrus clouds. In the presence of larger crystals the 94-GHz radar scatters sufficiently beyond ...

Robin J. Hogan; Anthony J. Illingworth; Henri Sauvageot

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

An Optical Device for the Measurement of Droplet Size Spectra in Calm or Low Wind Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument for measuring the size and concentration of droplets is described. It has the ability to function in calm and low wind conditions. Droplets in the 5–50 ?m diameter range are detected optically. The data acquisition and real-time ...

T. Perrin; A. Rigaud; C. Pontikis; M. Cabane

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present research reports on the effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Experimental and theoretical research related to combustion phenomena in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures has been ongoing for many years. However, detonation cell size data currently exists or hydrogen-air-steam mixtures up to a temperature of only 400K. Sever accident scenarios have been identified for light water reactors (LWRs) where hydrogen-air mixture temperatures in excess of 400K could be generated within containment. The experiments in this report focus on extending the cell size data base for initial mixture temperatures in excess of 400K. The experiments were carried out in a 10-cm inner-diameter, 6.1-m long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700K and spatial temperature uniformity of {plus_minus}14K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K--650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent by hydrogen at 300K down to about 9 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Single-Bunch Tune and Beam Size Measurements Along Bunch Trains in PEP-II  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By scanning gated cameras and gated tune monitors across the bunch pattern during normal colliding-bunch operation of PEP-II, the tunes and beam sizes of individual bunches were measured simultaneously in the high and low energy storage rings of PEP-II. The measurements were made with 1561 colliding bunches in PEP-II, arranged in trains of 66 bunches, with each bunch in the train separated by 4.2 ns. The tune and beam size measurements were correlated with the current, luminosity, and specific luminosity of the bunch. The results show a vertical tune shift at the start and end of the mini-trains, a luminosity droop along the mini-train, and specific luminosity drop in the first and last bunches of the train, since they experience a different parasitic crossing on either side of the interaction point (IP).

Holtzapple, Robert; /Alfred U.; Dujmic, Denis; Fisher, Alan S.; /SLAC

2005-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

60

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Natural Gas Spot Prices:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 of 26 4 of 26 Notes: Spot wellhead prices last summer averaged well over $4.00 per thousand cubic feet during a normally low-price season. During the fall, these prices stayed above $5.00 per thousand cubic feet, more than double the year-ago average price. In January, the spot wellhead price averaged a record $8.98 per thousand cubic feet. Spot prices at the wellhead have never been this high for such a prolonged period. The chief reason for these sustained high gas prices was, and still is, uneasiness about the supply situation. Concern about the adequacy of winter supplies loomed throughout most of the summer and fall as storage levels remained significantly depressed. Last December, the most severe assumptions about low storage levels became real, when the spot price

62

Resistance Spot Welding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...or more sheetmetal stampings that do not require gas-tight or liquid-tight joints can be more economically joined by high-speed RSW than by mechanical methods. Containers frequently are spot welded. The attachment of

63

Reactor hot spot analysis  

SciTech Connect

The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Vilim, R.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

New Method for Rapid Measurement of Orientations and Sizes of Grains in Multicrystalline Silicon Wafers  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new technique for rapid measurement of orientations and sizes of various grains in a multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafer. The wafer is texture etched to expose (111) faces nearest to each surface. Because grains of different orientations result in uniquely different texture shapes, they also have well-defined reflectance values. Hence, the process of determining the grain orientations is brought down to making reflectance maps. Reflectance maps are produced by PVSCAN or reflectometer (GT FabScan), and then transformed into orientation maps. Because the grain boundaries are very well delineated in the reflectance maps, they are also excellent for making measurements of size and distribution of grains. We will compare the results of this technique with other standard techniques.

Sopori, B.; Guhabiswas, D.; Rupnowski, P.; Shet, S.; Devayajanam, S.; Moutinho, H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hydrated and Dried Aerosol-Size-Distribution Measurements from the Particle Measuring Systems FSSP-300 Probe and the Deiced PCASP-100X Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons of particle-size distributions measured by Particle Measuring Systems FSSP-300 and PCASP-100X probes through a range of relative humidities reveal that the deiced PCASP-100X probe dries hydrated submicron aerosols before measurement. ...

J. Walter Strapp; W. R. Leaitch; P. S. K. Liu

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Using measured equipment load profiles to "right-size" HVAC systems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using measured equipment load profiles to “right-size” HVAClighting and occupancy load profiles in all the spaces wereintensity” equipment load profile, while the remaining zones

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Wholesale/Spot Henry Hub Spot Price ........  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Wholesale/Spot Wholesale/Spot Henry Hub Spot Price ........ 2.52 2.35 2.97 3.50 3.59 4.13 3.66 3.83 3.92 3.67 3.92 4.08 2.83 3.81 3.90 Residential New England ...................... 13.08 14.05 16.86 13.62 13.05 13.88 17.27 14.17 14.04 15.15 18.40 15.22 13.73 13.84 14.91 Middle Atlantic .................... 11.34 13.46 16.92 11.76 10.98 13.32 17.88 13.58 12.80 14.60 18.94 14.39 12.20 12.56 13.95 E. N. Central ...................... 8.30 10.68 15.52 8.57 7.74 10.79 15.82 9.37 8.80 11.38 17.13 10.31 9.20 9.15 10.13 W. N. Central ..................... 8.45 11.99 16.39 9.08 8.10 10.47 17.24 9.38 8.79 11.27 17.99 10.23 9.60 9.35 10.11 S. Atlantic ........................... 12.37 17.68 22.08 12.24 11.10 15.05 22.27 13.49 12.56 18.03 24.66 14.95 13.71 13.12 14.77 E. S. Central ....................... 10.26 14.69 17.56 10.41 9.25 12.36 18.26 11.50

68

Coincident In Situ and W-Band Radar Measurements of Drop Size Distribution in a Marine Stratus Cloud and Drizzle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigation of precipitation formation requires measurements of the drop size distribution in a cloud. These measurements have usually been made using ground-based radar systems or aircraft in situ probes. Difficulties encountered in practice ...

J. Galloway; A. Pazmany; J. Mead; R. E. McIntosh; D. Leon; J. French; S. Haimov; R. Kelly; G. Vali

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Improved Normalization of the Size Distribution of Atmospheric Particles Retrieved from Aureole Measurements Using the Diffraction Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an improvement in the diffraction approximation used to retrieve the size distribution of atmospheric particles from solar aureole radiance measurements. Normalization using total optical thickness based on measurement of the ...

J. G. DeVore

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Sea-Salt Size Distributions from Breaking Waves: Implications for Marine Aerosol Production and Optical Extinction Measurements during SEAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors' participation in the Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS) involved measurements focused on the coastal aerosol size distribution and related optical measurements, including aerosol light scattering, visibility, and remote ...

A. Clarke; V. Kapustin; S. Howell; K. Moore; B. Lienert; S. Masonis; T. Anderson; D. Covert

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter  

SciTech Connect

Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

Chuyu Liu

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Aerodynamic particle size measurement by laser--Doppler velocimetry. Publication number 343  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of measuring the aerodynamic diameter of aerosol particles was investigated. The method consists of accelerating particles in a coverging nozzle and measuring their velocities near the exit of th nozzle with a laser--Doppler velocimeter. The experimental studies utilized a test nozzle with a converging angle of approximately 15/sup 0/ and an exit diameter of about .1 cm. The pressure drop across the nozzle was varied from 2.54 to 276 cm of H/sub 2/O, and particle velocity was observed to vary from approximately 0.5 to 1.0 times the gas velocity at the exit of the nozzle. A theoretical analysis utilized boundary layer theory to predict the velocity of the gas in the nozzle, and then the equations of particle motion were integrated to give the theoretical particle velocities. These values agreed with the experimental values to within a few percent. The effects of nozzle geometry, flow rate, particle density, and particle size were studied using the results of calculations made with dimensionless equations. The velocity of a particle in a given nozzle and flow depends upon the aerodynamic diameter of the particle and the particle density. The geometry and flow can be chosen to minimize the effect of particle density. Assuming that the density of particles in the atmosphere ranges from 1 g/cm/sup 3/ to 3 g/cm/sup 3/, the aerodynamic diameter of particles can be measured with an uncertainty of +- 10% in the size range from .5 ..mu..m to 10 ..mu..m.

Wilson, J.C.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Can a Unique Model Describe the Raindrop Shape–Size Relation? A Clue from Polarimetric Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is proposed to retrieve raindrop shape–size relations from the radar measurements of reflectivity factor Zh, differential reflectivity Zdr, and specific differential phase Kdp at S band. This procedure is obtained using a domain defined ...

Eugenio Gorgucci; V. Chandrasekar; Luca Baldini

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Aerosol Size Spectra in a Convective Marine Layer with Stratus: Results of Airborne Measurements near San Nicolas Island, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of the aerosol size spectra n (r) (r is radius) were made in a vertical plane extending northeastward 18 km from San Nicolas Island, California. Thin, patchy, stratus clouds were present in a deepening convective marine ...

V. Ray Noonkester

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Doppler Polarimetric Radar Measurements of the Gamma Drop Size Distribution of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conversion of radar reflections into rain intensities is dependent upon assumptions regarding the drop size distribution. The gamma drop size distribution contains three unknown parameters; the number of parameters that can be obtained ...

H. W. J. Russchenberg

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

GCM Aerosol Radiative Effects Using Geographically Varying Aerosol Sizes Deduced from AERONET Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical properties, and hence the direct radiative effects, are largely determined by the assumed aerosol size distribution. In order to relax the fixed aerosol size constraint commonly used in general circulation models (GCMs), ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

A Bayesian Approach to Upscaling and Downscaling of Aircraft Measurements of Ice Particle Counts and Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the issue of how to upscale cloud-sized in situ measurements of ice to yield realistic simulations of ice clouds for a variety of modeling studies. Aircraft measurements of ice particle counts along a 79 km zigzag path were ...

A. R. Jameson; A. J. Heymsfield

78

A Bayesian Approach to Upscaling and Downscaling of Aircraft Measurements of Ice Particle Counts and Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the issue of how to upscale cloud-sized in situ measurements of ice to yield realistic simulations of ice clouds for a variety of modeling studies. Aircraft measurements of ice particle counts along a 79-km zigzag path were ...

A. R. Jameson; A. J. Heymsfield

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 Notes: Propane spot prices at the major trading hubs remained relatively close through October 2000, but uncoupled in California as natural gas prices rose rapidly during...

80

Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

Chen, Jian [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Wind-Induced Error of Raindrop Size Distribution Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors investigate a disdrometer that provides information on raindrop size distribution, terminal velocity, and shape using video imaging technology. Two video cameras are enclosed in a large box and provide images of the passing drops. The ...

Vladislav Nešpor; Witold F. Krajewski; Anton Kruger

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Particle Size and Optical Depth Using Polarimetric Sensor Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a conceptual approach toward the remote sensing of cirrus cloud particle size and optical depth using the degree of polarization and polarized reflectance associated with the first three Stokes parameters, I, Q, and U, for the ...

S. C. Ou; K. N. Liou; Y. Takano; R. L. Slonaker

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Size and time-resolved growth rate measurements of 1 to 5 nm freshly formed atmospheric nuclei  

SciTech Connect

This study presents measurements of size and time-resolved particle diameter growth rates for freshly nucleated particles down to 1 nm geometric diameter. Novel data analysis methods were developed, de-coupling for the first time the size and time-dependence of particle growth rates by fitting the aerosol general dynamic equation to size distributions obtained at an instant in time. Size distributions of freshly nucleated total aerosol (neutral and charged) were measured during two intensive measurement campaigns in different environments (Atlanta, GA and Boulder, CO) using a recently developed electrical mobility spectrometer with a diethylene glycol-based ultrafine condensation particle counter as the particle detector. One new particle formation (NPF) event from each campaign was analyzed in detail. At a given instant in time during the NPF event, size-resolved growth rates were obtained directly from measured size distributions and were found to increase approximately linearly with particle size from {approx}1 to 3 nm geometric diameter, increasing from 5.5 {+-} 0.8 to 7.6 {+-} 0.6 nm h{sup -1} in Atlanta (13:00) and from 5.6 {+-} 2 to 27 {+-} 5 nm h{sup -1} in Boulder (13:00). The resulting growth rate enhancement {Lambda}, defined as the ratio of the observed growth rate to the growth rate due to the condensation of sulfuric acid only, was found to increase approximately linearly with size from {approx}1 to 3 nm geometric diameter. For the presented NPF events, values for {Lambda} had lower limits that approached {approx}1 at 1.2 nm geometric diameter in Atlanta and {approx}3 at 0.8 nm geometric diameter in Boulder, and had upper limits that reached 8.3 at 4.1 nm geometric diameter in Atlanta and 25 at 2.7 nm geometric diameter in Boulder. Nucleated particle survival probability calculations comparing the effects of constant and size-dependent growth indicate that neglecting the strong dependence of growth rate on size from 1 to 3 nm observed in this study could lead to a significant overestimation of CCN survival probability.

Kuang C.; Chen, M.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Wang, J.

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

85

Measuring Sub-micron Size Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks  

SciTech Connect

Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to size fractionate particulate matter (PM) into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56-100 nm, 100-180 nm, 180-320 nm, 320-560 nm, 560-1000 nm, and 1000-1800 nm. Since MOUDI have low flow rates, it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20-200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate ({approx}25 mg Al) presents several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for {sup 14}C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils.

Buchholz, B A; Zermeno, P; Hwang, H; Young, T M

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

ClearSpot Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name ClearSpot Energy Sector Solar Product US-based solar project developer for rooftop commercial installations. References ClearSpot...

87

Detection, size, measurement and structural analysis limits for the 2MASS, UKIDSS-LAS & VISTA VIKING surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The 2MASS, UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA VIKING surveys have all now observed the GAMA 9hr region in the $K_s$ band. Here we compare the detection rates, photometry, basic size measurements, and single-component GALFIT structural measurements for a sample of 37,591 galaxies. We explore the sensitivity limits where the data agree for a variety of issues including: detection, star-galaxy separation, photometric measurements, size and ellipticity measurements, and S\\'{e}rsic measurements. We find that 2MASS fails to detect at least 20% of the galaxy population within all magnitude bins, however for those that are detected we find photometry is robust ($\\pm$ 0.2 mag) to 14.7 AB mag and star-galaxy separation to 14.8 AB mag. For UKIDSS-LAS we find incompleteness starts to enter at a flux limit of 18.9 AB mag, star-galaxy separation is robust to 16.3 AB mag and structural measurements are robust to 17.7 AB mag. VISTA VIKING data is complete to approximately 20.0 AB mag and structural measurements appear robust to 18.8 AB ma...

Andrews, Stephen K; Driver, Simon P; Robotham, Aaron S G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

How to spot a nuke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to spot a nuke How to spot a nuke 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit How to spot a nuke Neutrons set loose by a high-power laser can identify illicit nuclear materials inside closed containers. November 25, 2013 How to spot a nuke Could you identify dangerous nuclear materials inside this box if it weren't labeled? We can. Laser-driven blast of neutrons reveals concealed nuclear bomb materials Los Alamos scientists recently demonstrated a new laser-based technique for producing a burst of neutrons capable of revealing the presence of illicit nuclear materials, such as plutonium. "No one knew it could actually be done," said Andrea Favalli, one of the team leaders, "until we worked out the details, fabricated the parts, and performed the test." The

89

Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

Caramanis, Michael C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

19 Notes: Propane spot prices at the major trading hubs remained relatively close through the fall of 2000, even as they were pushed higher by rapidly rising natural gas prices....

91

Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 Notes: Propane spot prices at the major trading hubs remained relatively close through the fall of 2000, even as they were pushed higher by rapidly rising natural gas prices....

92

Drop Size Ambiguities in the Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Dual-Frequency Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The threat of flooding from landfalling tropical cyclones is a function of the local variation in rain rate and rain accumulation. To date, these have been inferred from single-frequency radar reflectivity measurements. However, the Tropical ...

Ziad S. Haddad; Jonathan P. Meagher; Stephen L. Durden; Eric A. Smith; Eastwood Im

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Analysis of Rotating Multicylinder Data in Measuring Cloud-Droplet Size and Liquid Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective method is presented for the analysis of rotating multicylinder data in measuring the liquid water content and median volume droplet diameter of icing clouds. The method is based on time-dependent numerical modeling of cylinder icing ...

Lasse Makkonen

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Drop-Size Distributions in Thunderstorms Measured by Optical Disdrometers during VORTEX2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When studying the influence of microphysics on the near-surface buoyancy tendency in convective thunderstorms, in situ measurements of microphysics near the surface are essential and those are currently not provided by most weather radars. In this ...

Katja Friedrich; Evan A. Kalina; Forrest J. Masters; Carlos R. Lopez

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Refractive Index and Size Distribution of Aerosols as Estimated from Light Scattering Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Angular distributions of the intensity of light scattered by airborne particles were measured for both parallel and perpendicularly polarized components. A precision polar nephelometer was constructed for use of this study. The data were analyzed ...

Masayuki Tanaka; Tamio Takamura; Teruyuki Nakajima

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Size-Resolved Density Measurements of Particulate Emissions from an Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine: Effect of Aggregate Morphology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the first in situ size-resolved density measurements of particles produced by premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and compare these with conventional diesel particles. The densities of size-classified particles were determined by measurements with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). Particle masses of the different size classes were evaluated with a proposed DMA-APM response function for aggregates. Our results indicate that the effective densities of PCCI and conventional diesel particles were approximately the same for 50 and 100 nm electrical mobility diameters (0.9 and 0.6 g/cc, respectively), but the PCCI particle effective density (0.4 g/cc) was less than the conventional (0.5 g/cc) for 150 nm. The lowest effective particle densities were observed for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels somewhat less than that required for PCCI operation. The inherent densities of conventional particles in the 50 and 100 nm size classes were 1.22 and 1.77 g/cc, which is in good agreement with Park et al. (2004). PCCI inherent particle densities for these same size classes were higher (1.27 and 2.10 g/cc), suggesting that there may have been additional adsorbed liquid hydrocarbons. For 150 nm particles, the inherent densities were nearly the same for PCCI and conventional particles at 2.20 g/cc. We expect that the lower effective density of PCCI particles may improve particulate emissions control with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The presence of liquid hydrocarbons may also promote oxidation in DPFs.

Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Rotationally sampled wind characteristics for several rotor sizes using laser anemometer measurements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concept of measuring the wind velocity rotationally around crosswind circles using a circle-scanning Doppler laser anemometer is investigated to determine the technique's suitability as an effective, simple, economical, and nonintrusive method for estimation turbulence at a wind turbine rotor. Estimates of wind features obtained using the lidar technique are compared to actual wind measurements obtained using a vertical plane array of anemometers, and to other estimates generated using a single-tower technique. Although the lack of a common data set precludes a firm conclusion regarding the lidar method's accuracy, it appears that the rotationally scanning lidar has the potential of becoming an excellent tool for measuring turbulent wind around the disk of rotation of a turbine blade. 11 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

Connell, J.R.; Morris, V.R.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Spots, plages, and flares on lambda Andromedae and II Pegasi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of a contemporaneous photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of lambda And and II Peg aimed at investigating the behavior of surface inhomogeneities in the atmospheres of these active stars which have nearly the same temperature but different gravity. The light curves and the modulation of the surface temperature, as recovered from LDRs, are used to map the photospheric spots, while the H-alpha emission has been used as an indicator of chromospheric inhomogeneities. The spot temperatures and sizes were derived from a spot model applied to the contemporaneous light and temperature curves. We find larger and cooler spots on II Peg (T_sp ~ 3600 K) compared to lambda And (T_sp ~ 3900 K); this could be the result of both the different gravity and the higher activity level of the former. Moreover, we find a clear anti-correlation between the H-alpha emission and the photospheric diagnostics. We have also detected a modulation of the intensity of the HeI D_3 line with the star rotation. A rough reconstruction of the 3D structure of their atmospheres has been also performed by applying a spot/plage model to the light and temperature curves and to the H-alpha flux modulation. A close spatial association of photospheric and chromospheric active regions has been found in both stars. Larger and cooler spots have been found on II Peg, the system with the active component of higher gravity and higher activity level. The area ratio of plages to spots seems to decrease when the spots get bigger. Moreover, with the present and literature data, a correlation between the temperature difference Delta_T = T_ph - T_sp and the surface gravity has been also suggested. In addition, a strong flare affecting the H-alpha, the HeI D_3, and the cores of NaI D_1,2 lines has been observed on II Peg.

A. Frasca; K. Biazzo; G. Tas; S. Evren; A. C. Lanzafame

2007-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

99

An Inversion Problem on Inferring the Size Distribution of Precipitation Areas from Raingage Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given a long, continuous record of rain rate measured at a point on the ground, it is straightforward to select a threshold value of rate and note the duration of each event in which the threshold is exceeded. The distribution of durations for ...

M. K. Yau; R. R. Rogers

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Electrical Mobility Spectrometer Using a Diethylene Glycol Condensation Particle Counter for Measurement of Aerosol Size Distributions Down to 1 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a new scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) for measuring number size distributions of particles down to {approx}1 nm mobility diameter. This SMPS includes an aerosol charger, a TSI 3085 nano differential mobility analyzer (nanoDMA), an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid, and a conventional butanol CPC (the 'booster') to detect the small droplets leaving the DEG UCPC. The response of the DEG UCPC to negatively charged sodium chloride particles with mobility diameters ranging from 1-6 nm was measured. The sensitivity of the DEG UCPC to particle composition was also studied by comparing its response to positively charged 1.47 and 1.70 nm tetra-alkyl ammonium ions, sodium chloride, and silver particles. A high resolution differential mobility analyzer was used to generate the test particles. These results show that the response of this UCPC to sub-2 nm particles is sensitive to particle composition. The applicability of the new SMPS for atmospheric measurement was demonstrated during the Nucleation and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (NCCN) field campaign (Atlanta, Georgia, summer 2009). We operated the instrument at saturator and condenser temperatures that allowed the efficient detection of sodium chloride particles but not of air ions having the same mobility. We found that particles as small as 1 nm were detected during nucleation events but not at other times. Factors affecting size distribution measurements, including aerosol charging in the 1-10 nm size range, are discussed. For the charger used in this study, bipolar charging was found to be more effective for sub-2 nm particles than unipolar charging. No ion induced nucleation inside the charger was observed during the NCCN campaign.

Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; Chen, M.; Attoui, M.; McMurry, P. H.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Comparison of Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements by a Joss-Waldvogel Disdrometer, a PMS 2DG Spectrometer, and a POSS Doppler Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three techniques for the measurement of raindrop size distributions are compared using data from a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), a Particle Measuring Systems 2DG spectrometer (PMS), and an Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) Precipitation ...

B. E. Sheppard; P. I. Joe

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Translation spotting for translation memories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The term translation spotting (TS) refers to the task of identifying the target-language (TL) words that correspond to a given set of source-language (SL) words in a pair of text segments known to be mutual translations. This article examines ...

Michel Simard

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

MIKE TURNER ON SPOTTING YOUNG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BAE SYSTEMS MIKE TURNER ON SPOTTING YOUNG TALENT AND THE GROWTH OF HIS BUSINESS Success stories? Surely, it is about making lots of money, gaining power, status and prestige, and then using this wealth, the extinction of many animal and plant species, and global warming demonstrated that the raw materials

104

Natural Gas Spot Price Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 of 17 7 of 17 Notes: Despite signs that domestic natural gas production has begun to turn around (the Texas Railroad Commission now reports year-to-date (through Sep.) gains in Texas gas production of 1.2 percent, compared to a 4.7-percent decline for the same months in 1999 versus 1998) the reality of the U.S. gas market is that supply responses have been too little, too late to prevent record-high spot prices and prospects for very high average prices this winter. We now expect to see peak monthly spot wellhead prices this winter of over $6.00 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) (December). Last month we maintained confidence that conditions would improve enough to keep the $5.10 per mcf recorded in October as the peak for this heating season. With partial data available, a monthly average value of about $5.60 per mcf looks likely for

105

Occultation measurement of the size of the X-ray emitting region in the Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 1365  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an occultation of the central X-ray emitting region in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1365. This extreme spectral variation (from Compton-thin to reflection-dominated and back to Compton-thin in four days) has been caught in a ten days Chandra monitoring campaign consisting of six short (15 ks) observations performed every two days. We discuss the implications of this occultation within the scenario of a Compton-thick cloud crossing the line of sight of the X-ray source. We estimate a source size R<10^14 cm and a distance of the cloud from the source D<10^16 cm. This direct measurement confirms the theoretical expectations of an extremely compact X-ray source, and shows that the Compton-thick circumnuclear gas is located at a distance from the center on the scale of the Broad Line Region.

G. Risaliti; M. Elvis; G. Fabbiano; A. Baldi; A. Zezas; M. Salvati

2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

HotSpot | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HotSpot HotSpot HotSpot Current Central Registry Toolbox Version(s): 2.07.1 Code Owner: Department of Energy, Office of Emergency Operations and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Description: The HotSpot Health Physics Code is used for safety-analysis of DOE facilities handling nuclear material. Additionally, HotSpot provides emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation of the radiation effects associated with atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The HotSpot atmospheric dispersion models are designed for near-surface releases, short-range (less than 10 km) dispersion, and short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations in

107

Infrared measurements of soot formation and droplet sizes in diesel sprays. Final report, June 6, 1987--December 31, 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes an investigation of diesel sprays using a combination of infrared wavelength optical diagnostics to probe the high droplet number density region surrounding the injector tip. Infrared wavelengths were shown to be more effective than visible or ultraviolet wavelength light at penetrating this region of the spray. This success is easily explained by the decrease in optical cross section of small diameter drops (less than 10 {mu}m) for a wavelength shift from the visible to wavelengths near 10 {mu}m. Two types of diagnostics were implemented. First, a custom manufactured, high speed infrared spectrometer was used to monitor the spectral region between 6 and 12 {mu}m in 0.5 {mu}m intervals. Spectra from this instrument, for specific locations in the combusting spray were used to monitor the development of soot in the spray. The second diagnostic technique used three collinear laser beams focussed into a 0.25 mm beam to monitor the droplet size in the spray. This measurement uses a ratio of signals to remove the droplet number density as a variable and the observed signal ratio is a direct indication of the average (using an approximate radius to the fourth power weighting function) droplet size. The experiments were performed using a shock tube to simulate the conditions typical of diesel combustion (700 to 900 K in temperature and approximately 3.0 MPa in pressure) and a custom manufactured single shot fuel injection system. Optical access in the shock tube included visible and infrared transmissive windows arranged to provide orthogonal access in two directions and perpendicular to the spray axis. The fuel injection system for this work was configured to produce approximately 20 MPa of injection pressure and produced a single injection approximately 2 ms after the injection trigger. This system could therefore be controlled to inject into the quiescent reflected region of the shock tube after the incident shock reflection from the end wall.

Parker, T.E.; Morency, J.R.; Foutter, R.R.; Rawlins, W.T.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A Microcomputer Data-Acquisition System for Real-Time Processing of Raindrop Size Distribution Measured with the RD69 Distrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disdrometer is an instrument used worldwide to measure the size distribution of raindrops at ground level. In this paper, a data-acquisition and real-time processing system designed for disdrometer measurements is presented. It is based on a ...

Bernard Campistron; Gilbert Despaux; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................ 102.88 93.42 92.24 87.96 94.34 94.10 105.84 96.30 95.67 95.33 95.67 93.33 94.12 97.64 95.00 Brent Spot Average ........................................................... 118.49 108.42 109.61 110.09 112.49 102.58 110.27 108.29 106.33 105.00 103.00 102.00 111.65 108.41 104.08 Imported Average .............................................................. 108.14 101.18 97.18 97.64 98.71 97.39 103.07 100.03 99.64 99.33 99.69 97.35 101.09 99.85 99.04 Refiner Average Acquisition Cost ...................................... 107.61 101.44 97.38 97.27 101.14 99.45 105.24 100.44 100.15 99.82 100.18 97.83 100.83 101.61 99.50 Liquid Fuels (cents per gallon) Refiner Prices for Resale Gasoline .........................................................................

110

Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO{sub 2} from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25% of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50% of aerosol with D{sub p} > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two approaches possibly representing shattered cloud droplets or unknown artifact. CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated in all cloud transects, consistent with the occurrence of dry in-cloud areas due to entrainment or circulation mixing.

Kleinman, L.I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

111

Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (D{sub p} > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25 % of aerosol with D{sub p} > 100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the interstitial aerosol appears to have a background, upon which is superimposed a high frequency signal that contains the anti-correlation. The anti-correlation is a possible source of information on particle activation or evaporation.

Kleinman L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

112

First measurement of the small-scale spatial variability of the rain drop size distribution: Results from a crucial experiment and maximum entropy modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main challenges of measuring precipitation are related to the spatio-temporal variability of the drop-size distribution, to the uncertainties that condition the modeling of that distribution, and to the instrumental errors present in the in situ estimations. This PhD dissertation proposes advances in all these questions. The relevance of the spatial variability of the drop-size distribution for remote sensing measurements and hydro-meteorology field studies is asserted by analyzing the measurement of a set of disdrometers deployed on a network of 5 squared kilometers. This study comprises the spatial variability of integral rainfall parameters, the ZR relationships, and the variations within the one moment scaling method. The modeling of the drop-size distribution is analyzed by applying the MaxEnt method and comparing it with the methods of moments and the maximum likelihood. The instrumental errors are analyzed with a compressive comparison of sampling and binning uncertainties that affect actual device...

Checa-Garcia, Ramiro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Using measured equipment load profiles to "right-size" HVAC systems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

load profiles to “right-size” HVAC systems and reduce energyGeorgia. ASHRAE [1999]. HVAC Applications Handbook 1999.Inefficiency of a Common Lab HVAC System,” presented at the

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Measurements of Raindrop Size Distributions over the Pacific Warm Pool and Implications for Z–R Relations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raindrop images obtained on research flights of the NCAR Electra aircraft in the Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) are analyzed. The drop size distributions, based on the images obtained ...

Sandra E. Yuter; Robert A. Houze Jr.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Detecting urbanization changes using SPOT5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic system to estimate the urbanization changes on the Belgian territory, using SPOT5 images and the National Geographic Institute vectorial database is proposed. The images and the vectorial data are first co-registered. Then, the vectorial ... Keywords: Built-up area detection, Cartography, Change detection, SPOT5

V. Lacroix; M. Idrissa; A. Hincq; H. Bruynseels; O. Swartenbroekx

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

Walker, H; Homann, S G

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

117

Optimal Personal Comfort Management Using SPOT+  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present SPOT+, a system that allows office workers to optimally balance between heating energy consumption and personal thermal comfort. In prior work, we described SPOT: a smart personal thermal control system based on reactive control [8]. In contrast, ... Keywords: Energy management

Peter Xiang Gao, S. Keshav

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Developing models of aerosol representation to investigate composition, evolution, optical properties, and CCN spectra using measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure size distributions, hygroscopicity, and volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period at the Central Facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site. Hygroscopic growth factor distributions for particles at eight dry diameters ranging from 0.012 µm to 0.600 µm were measured. These measurements, along with backtrajectory clustering, were used to infer aerosol composition and evolution. The hygroscopic growth of the smallest and largest particles analyzed was typically less than that of particles with dry diameters of about 0.100 µm. Condensation of secondary organic aerosol on nucleation mode particles may be responsible for the minimal growth observed at the smallest sizes. Growth factor distributions of the largest particles typically contained a non-hygroscopic mode believed to be composed of dust. A model was developed to characterize the hygroscopic properties of particles within a size distribution mode through analysis of the fixed-size hygroscopic growth measurements. This model was used to examine three cases in which the sampled aerosol evolved over a period of hours or days. Additionally, size and hygroscopicity information were combined to model the aerosol as a population of multi-component particles. With this model, the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor f(RH), relating the submicron scattering at high RH to that at low RH, is predicted. The f(RH) values predicted when the hygroscopic fraction of the aerosol is assumed to be metastable agree better with measurements than do those predicted under the assumption of crystalline aerosol. Agreement decreases at RH greater than 65%. This multi-component aerosol model is used to derive cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra for comparison with spectra measured directly with two Desert Research Institute (DRI) CCN spectrometers. Among the 1490 pairs of DMA/TDMA-predicted and DRI-measured CCN concentrations at various critical supersaturations from 0.02-1.05%, the sample number-weighted mean R2 value is 0.74. CCN concentrations are slightly overpredicted at both the lowest (0.02-0.04%) and highest (0.80-1.05%) supersaturations measured. Overall, this multi-component aerosol model based on size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopicity yields reasonable predictions of the humidity-dependent optical properties and CCN spectra of the aerosol.

Gasparini, Roberto

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Rainfall Estimation from Polarimetric Radar Measurements: Composite Algorithms Immune to Variability in Raindrop Shape–Size Relation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polarization diversity radar measurements such as reflectivity factor, differential reflectivity, and differential propagation phase are extensively used in rainfall estimation. Algorithms to estimate rainfall from polarimetric radar measurements ...

Eugenio Gorgucci; Gianfranco Scarchilli; V. Chandrasekar; V. N. Bringi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and of the presence of spikes by measuring the risk on a power plant portfolio. Keywords: Electricity markets; spot Abstract The recent liberalization of the electricity and gas markets has resulted in the growth of energy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A novel particle tracking method with individual particle size measurement and its application to ordering in glassy hard sphere colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle tracking is a key to single-particle-level confocal microscopy observation of colloidal suspensions, emulsions, and granular matter. The conventional tracking method has not been able to provide accurate information on the size of individual particle. Here we propose a novel method to localise spherical particles of arbitrary relative sizes from either 2D or 3D (confocal) images either in dilute or crowded environment. Moreover this method allows us to estimate the size of each particle reliably. We use this method to analyse local bond orientational ordering in a supercooled polydisperse colloidal suspension as well as the heterogeneous crystallisation induced by a substrate. For the former, we reveal non-trivial couplings of crystal-like bond orientational order and local icosahedral order with the spatial distribution of particle sizes: Crystal-like order tends to form in regions where very small particles are depleted and the slightly smaller size of the central particle stabilizes icosahedral order. For the latter, on the other hand, we found that very small particles are expelled from crystals and accumulated on the growth front of crystals. We emphasize that such information has not been accessible by conventional tracking methods.

Mathieu Leocmach; Hajime Tanaka

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Background dust emission following grassland fire: a snapshot across the particle-size spectrum highlights how high-resolution measurements enhance detection  

SciTech Connect

Dust emission rates vary temporally and with particle size. Many studies of dust emission focus on a particular temporal scale and the portion of the particle-size spectrum associated with a single instrument; fewer studies have assessed dust emission across the particle-size spectrum and associated temporal scales using multiple instruments. Particularly lacking are measurements following disturbances such as fire that are high-resolution and focused on finer particles - those with direct implications for human health and potential for long-distance biogeochemical transport - during less windy but more commonly occurring background conditions. We measured dust emissions in unburned and burned semiarid grassland using four different instruments spanning different combinations of temporal resolution and particle-size spectrum: Big Springs Number Eight (BSNE) and Sensit instruments for larger saltating particles, DustTrak instruments for smaller suspended particles, and Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samplers for measuring the entire range of particle sizes. Unburned and burned sites differed in vegetation cover and aerodynamic roughness, yet surprisingly differences in dust emission rates were only detectable for saltation using BSNE and for smaller aerosols using DustTrak. Our results, surprising in the lack of consistently detected differences, indicate that high-resolution DustTrak measurements offered the greatest promise for detecting differences in background emission rates and that BSNE samplers, which integrate across height, were effective for longer intervals. More generally, our results suggest that interplay between particle size, temporal resolution, and integration across time and height can be complex and may need to be considered more explicitly for effective sampling for background dust emissions.

Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Luis M [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Field, Jason P [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Villegas, Juan C [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Brehsears, David D [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Law, Darin J [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Urgeghe, Anna M [UNIV OF ARIZONA

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Particle Size Estimation in Ice-Phase Clouds Using Multifrequency Radar Reflectivity Measurements at 95, 33, and 2.8 GHz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multifrequency radar measurements collected at 2.8 (S band), 33.12 (Ka band), and 94.92 GHz (W band) are processed using a neural network to estimate median particle size and peak number concentration in ice-phase clouds composed of dry crystals ...

Stephen M. Sekelsky; Warner L. Ecklund; John M. Firda; Kenneth S. Gage; Robert E. McIntosh

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Performance of a Focused Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer for Measurements in the Stratosphere of Particle Size in the 0.06–2.0-µm-Diameter Range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A focused cavity aerosol spectrometer aboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft provided high-resolution measurements of the size of the stratospheric particles in the 0.06–2.0-µm-diameter range in flights following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo ...

H.H. Jonsson; J.C. Wilson; C.A. Brock; R.G. Knollenberg; T.R. Newton; J.E. Dye; D. Baumgardner; S. Borrmann; G.V. Ferry; R. Pueschel; Dave C. Woods; Mike C. Pitts

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Development of the Dried Spot Sample Preparation Methodology and Applications to XRMF Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dried spot method has significant potential for trace elemental analysis using x-ray fluorescence. Small sample size coupled with spatially resolved excitation offers increased sensitivity for aqueous solutions. The primary limitation in applying this method to routine analyses is that much of the method development and fundamental aspects have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of a number of parameters on the quantitative capabilities of the dried spot method. These include thin-film substrates, drying methods, and solution composition. The small sample size offers opportunities for the analysis of a wide array of sample types including highly radioactive specimens.

Colletti, Lisa P.; Havrilla, George J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Detonation cell size measurements in high-temperature hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at the BNL high-temperature combustion facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) was designed and constructed with the objective of studying detonation phenomena in mixtures of hydrogen-air-steam at initially high temperatures. The central element of the HTCF is a 27-cm inner-diameter, 21.3-m long cylindrical test vessel capable of being heating to 700K {+-} 14K. A unique feature of the HTCF is the {open_quotes}diaphragmless{close_quotes} acetylene-oxygen gas driver which is used to initiate the detonation in the test gas. Cell size measurements have shown that for any hydrogen-air-steam mixture, increasing the initial mixture temperature, in the range of 300K to 650K, while maintaining the initial pressure of 0.1 MPa, decreases the cell size and thus makes the mixture more detonable. The effect of steam dilution on cell size was tested in stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric (e.g., equivalence ratio of 0.5) hydrogen-air mixtures. Increasing the steam dilution in hydrogen-air mixtures at 0.1 MPa initial pressure increases the cell size, irrespective of initial temperature. It is also observed that the desensitizing effect of steam diminished with increased initial temperature. A 1-dimensional, steady-state Zel`dovich, von Neumann, Doring (ZND) model, with full chemical kinetics, has been used to predict cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at different initial conditions. Qualitatively the model predicts the overall trends observed in the measured cell size versus mixture composition and initial temperature and pressure. It was found that the proportionality constant used to predict detonation cell size from the calculated ZND model reaction zone varies between 10 and 100 depending on the mixture composition and initial temperature. 32 refs., 35 figs.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.L. [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Average wholesale spot natural gas prices rose across the country ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wholesale spot natural gas prices rose across the country in 2010. Average spot natural gas prices at the Henry Hub—a key benchmark location for pricing throughout ...

128

Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site.

John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Transparent window size study of the water beam assisted form error in-process optical measurement method.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xxxii, 242 p. : ill. ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis MECH 2009 ZhangY In precision machining, it is desirable to measure workpiece form… (more)

Zhang, Yunfei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently. Crude oil rose about 36 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to the middle of January 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, heating oil spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled slightly higher as the New York Harbor market began to

131

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: SPOT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPOT SPOT SPOT screen image Quantifies existing or intended electric lighting performance, evaluate annual daylighting characteristics and help establish the optimal photosensor placement in a given space relative to annual performance and annual energy savings. The Sensor Placement and Optimization Tool, or SPOT, was developed with classroom daylighting in mind, but can be used for all types of spaces. Screen Shots Keywords daylighting, electric lighting, photosensor, energy savings Validation/Testing Various individuals have tested the software. Testing and validation continues. Documentation of the test and validation results are available on the web site. Expertise Required Energy engineering or lighting design background is helpful for analysis of results. A working familiarity with Excel may be helpful, but it is not

132

2013 ORNL Audio Spots | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 2013 ORNL Audio Spots 1-10 of 26 Results Prev 123 Next ORNL working to strengthen seals for nuclear containers OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Dec. 19, 2013 - The Department of Energy's Oak...

133

Natural Gas Spot Prices: - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spot wellhead prices last summer averaged well over $4.00 per thousand cubic feet during a normally low-price season. During the fall, these prices stayed above $5.00 ...

134

Retail Price Changes Lag Spot Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Notes: While EIA cannot claim to explain all of the factors that drive retail gasoline prices, we have had a fair amount of success in exploring the relationship between wholesale and retail prices. In particular, we have looked closely at the "pass-through" of changes in spot prices to the retail market. This graph shows a weighted national average of spot prices for regular gasoline -both conventional and reformulated (shown in red), and EIA's weekly survey price for retail regular (again both conventional and reformulated). As you can see, spot prices tend to be more volatile (and would be even more so on a daily basis), while these changes are smoother by the time they reach the retail pump. Furthermore, by looking at the peaks, you can see the retail prices seem to lag the spot price changes

135

Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic particles. Uniformity coefficient was corn stover, which indicated a moderate assortment of particles. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean diameter, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median diameter, and effective size had strong correlation among themselves and good negative correlation with speed. Distribution-related parameters, namely, Rosin Rammler distribution parameter, mass relative span, inclusive graphic skewness, graphic kurtosis, uniformity index, uniformity coefficient, coefficient of gradation and distribution geometric standard deviation had strong correlation among themselves and a weak correlation with mill speed. Results of this extensive analysis of specific energy and particle sizes can be applied to selection of hammer mill operating factors to produce a particular size of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grind, and will serve as a guide for relations among the energy and various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Uniform irradiation of adjustable target spots in high-power laser driver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For smoothing and shaping the on-target laser patterns flexibly in high-power laser drivers, a scheme has been developed that includes a zoom lens array and two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). The size of the target pattern can be controlled handily by adjusting the focal length of the zoom lens array, while the profile of the pattern can be shaped by fine tuning the distance between the target and the focal plane of the principal focusing lens. High-frequency stripes inside the pattern caused by beamlet interference are wiped off by spectral dispersion. Detailed simulations indicate that SSD works somewhat differently for spots of different sizes. For small spots, SSD mainly smooths the intensity modulation of low-to-middle spatial frequency, while for large spots, SSD sweeps the fine speckle structure to reduce nonuniformity of middle-to-high frequency. Spatial spectra of the target patterns are given and their uniformity is evaluated.

Jiang Xiujuan; Li Jinghui; Li Huagang; Li Yang; Lin Zunqi

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Forecasting Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels MICHAEL YE, ∗ JOHN ZYREN, ∗∗ AND JOANNE SHORE ∗∗ Abstract This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermedi- ate crude oil spot price using OECD petroleum inventory levels. Theoretically, petroleum inventory levels are a measure of the balance, or imbalance, between petroleum production and demand, and thus provide a good market barometer of crude oil price change. Based on an understanding of petroleum market fundamentals and observed market behavior during the post-Gulf War period, the model was developed with the objectives of being both simple and practical, with required data readily available. As a result, the model is useful to industry and government decision-makers in forecasting price and investigat- ing the impacts of changes on price, should inventories,

138

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recent liberalization of the electricity and gas markets has resulted in the growth of energy exchanges and modelling problems. In this paper, we modelize jointly gas and electricity spot prices using a mean-reverting model which fits the correlations structures for the two commodities. The dynamics are based on Ornstein processes with parameterized diffusion coefficients. Moreover, using the empirical distributions of the spot prices, we derive a class of such parameterized diffusions which captures the most salient statistical properties: stationarity, spikes and heavy-tailed distributions. The associated calibration procedure is based on standard and efficient statistical tools. We calibrate the model on French for electricity and on UK market for gas, and then simulate some trajectories which reproduce well the observed prices behavior. Finally, we illustrate the importance of the correlation structure and of the presence of spikes by measuring the risk on a power plant portfolio.

Frikha, Noufel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Properly synchronized measurements of droplet sizes for high-pressure intermittent coal-water slurry fuel sprays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation with a laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. A correlation of the SMD with the injection conditions was determined which should show a satisfactory agreement with the measured SMD data. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure.

Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Chicago Gasoline - WTI Spot Spread - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Chicago Gasoline - WTI Spot Spread. Previous slide: Next slide: Back to first slide: View graphic version

142

Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

SciTech Connect

There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

143

Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Strategic Spot Trading in Supply Chains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a variety of industries ranging from agriculture to electronics and oil, procurement takes place through a combination of bilateral fixed-price contracts and open market trading among supply chain participants, which allows them to improve supply ... Keywords: demand and cost information, fixed-price contracts, procurement and supply chain, spot trading

Haim Mendelson; Tunay I. Tunca

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Potential Vorticity and Layer Thickness Variations in the Flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Layer thickness variations in Jupiter's atmosphere are investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Starting with the horizontal velocity field measured from Voyager images, fluid trajectories around the Great Red Spot (GRS)...

Timothy E. Dowling; Andrew P. Ingersoll

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Training Program EHS ~ 244: Resistance Spot Welding Safety Training  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: Resistance Spot Welding Safety Training 4: Resistance Spot Welding Safety Training Course Syllabus Subject Category: Resistance Spot Welding Course Prerequisite: None Course Length: 25 minutes Medical Approval: No Delivery Mode: Web-Based Course Goal: Participants will be introduced to resistance spot welding processes, hazards, and safe work practices. Course Objectives: By the end of this course, you will be able to: * Identify resistance spot welding processes * Identify hazards, safe work practices, and personal protective equipment associated with resistance spot welding * Recognize the purpose of resistance spot welding schedules * Locate resistance spot welding schedule Subject Matter Expert: Joe Dionne x 7586 Training Compliance: 29 CFR 1910 Subparts O & Z, 29 CFR 1926 Subparts J & Z

147

Figure 86. Annual average Henry Hub spot natural gas prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 86. Annual average Henry Hub spot natural gas prices, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per million Btu) Henry Hub Spot Price 1990.00

148

Weekly Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 ... Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

149

Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ... Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

150

Spot natural gas prices at Marcellus trading point reflect ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... the spot price of natural gas at the TGP Zone 4 Marcellus trading point has fallen—at times considerably—below the spot price at Henry Hub in Louisiana, ...

151

Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

View History: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual : Download Data (XLS File) Cushing, OK ... Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

152

The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plasma-emitting) spot fragment will increase its area in time (~10-100 ns timescale) due to heat conduction,

Anders, Andre

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

View History: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual : Download Data (XLS File) Europe ... Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

154

Spot Ventilation: Source Control to Improve Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to employ spot ventilation in the home for comfort and safety.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Lexicon-free handwritten word spotting using character HMMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For retrieving keywords from scanned handwritten documents, we present a word spotting system that is based on character Hidden Markov Models. In an efficient lexicon-free approach, arbitrary keywords can be spotted without pre-segmenting text lines ... Keywords: Handwriting recognition, Hidden Markov Models, Keyword spotting

Andreas Fischer; Andreas Keller; Volkmar Frinken; Horst Bunke

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Size Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... An Explanation of the Power-Exponent in the Size Effect on Strength in ... in terms of the Taylor-type resistance in the dislocation network in the specimen. ... hysteresis and loss in pseudoelasticity with decrease in sample size.

157

Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

158

Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

159

Phase-resolved spectroscopy of Geminga shows rotating hot spot(s)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isolated neutron stars are seen in x-rays through their nonthermal and/or surface thermal emissions. XMM-Newton observations of the Geminga pulsar show a 43 electron volt spectrum from the whole neutron star surface, as well as a power-law component above 2 kiloelectron volts. In addition, we have detected a hot (170 electron volts) thermal emission from an 60-meter-radius spot on the pulsar s surface. Such a thermal emission, only visible at selected phase intervals, may be coming from polar hot spot(s), long thought to exist as a result of heating from magnetospheric accelerated particles. It may provide the missing link between the x-ray and gamma-ray emission of the pulsar.

P. A. Caraveo; A. De Luca; S. Mereghetti; A. Pellizzoni; G. F. Bignami

2004-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

160

Characterization of plasma and laser conditions for single hot spot interaction experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The LANL TRIDENT laser system is being used for fundamental experiments which study the interaction of self-focusing, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a single (diffraction limited) laser hot spot in order to better understand the coupling between these plasma instabilities. The diffraction limited beam mimics a single hot spot found in speckle distributions that are typical of random or kinoform phase plate (RPP or KPP) smoothing. A long scale length, hot plasma ({approximately} 1 mm, {approximately} 0.5 keV) is created by a separate heater beam, and the single hot spot beam is used to drive parametric instabilities. The focal plane distribution and wavefront of the single hot spot beam are characterized, and the intensity of the single hot spot can be varied between 10{sup 14}--10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. The plasma density, temperature, and flow profiles are measured using gated imaging spectroscopy of collective Thomson scattering. Results of the laser and plasma characterization, and initial results of backscattered SRS, SBS, and beam steering in a flowing plasma are presented.

Montgomery, D.S.; Johnson, R.P.; Cobble, J.A.; Fernandez, J.C.; Lindman, E.L.; Rose, H.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Estabrook, K.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A high resolution view of the jet termination shock in a hot spot of the nearby radio galaxy Pictor A: implications for X-ray models of radio galaxy hot spots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Images made with the VLBA have resolved the region in a nearby radio galaxy, Pictor A, where the relativistic jet that originates at the nucleus terminates in an interaction with the intergalactic medium, a so-called radio galaxy hot spot. This image provides the highest spatial resolution view of such an object to date (16 pc), more than three times better than previous VLBI observations of similar objects. The north-west Pictor A hot spot is resolved into a complex set of compact components, seen to coincide with the bright part of the hot spot imaged at arcsecond-scale resolution with the VLA. In addition to a comparison with VLA data, we compare our VLBA results with data from the HST and Chandra telescopes, as well as new Spitzer data. The presence of pc-scale components in the hot spot, identifying regions containing strong shocks in the fluid flow, leads us to explore the suggestion that they represent sites of synchrotron X-ray production, contributing to the integrated X-ray flux of the hot spot, along with X-rays from synchrotron self-Compton scattering. This scenario provides a natural explanation for the radio morphology of the hot spot and its integrated X-ray emission, leading to very different predictions for the higher energy X-ray spectrum compared to previous studies. From the sizes of the individual pc-scale components and their angular spread, we estimate that the jet width at the hot spot is in the range 70 - 700 pc, which is comparable to similar estimates in PKS 2153-69, 3C 205, and 4C 41.17. The lower limit in this range arises from the suggestion that the jet may dither in its direction as it passes through hot spot backflow material close to the jet termination point, creating a "dentist drill" effect on the inside of a cavity 700 pc in diameter.

S. J. Tingay; E. Lenc; G. Brunetti; M. Bondi

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

162

RAS Gene Hot-Spot Mutations in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Point mutations in the cellular homologues HRAS, KRAS2, and NRAS of the viral Harvey and Kirsten rat sarcoma virus oncogenes are commonly involved in the onset of malignancies in humans and other species such as dog, mouse, and rat. Most often, three particular hot-spot codons are affected, with one amino acid exchange being sufficient for the induction of tumor growth. While RAS genes have been shown to play an important role in canine tumors such as non-small lung cell carcinomas, data about RAS mutations in canine fibrosarcomas as well as KRAS2 mutations in canine melanomas is sparse. To increase the number of tumors examined, we recently screened 13 canine fibrosarcomas and 11 canine melanomas for point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot spots. The results were compared to the already existing data from other studies about these tumors in dogs. A family of genes often involved in human tumors are the well-characterized RAS genes, which comprise HRAS, KRAS2, and NRAS, coding for closely related, small, 189 amino acid, 21 kDa, membrane-bound, intracellular proteins. The human cellular HRAS and KRAS2 genes were identified to be homologues of the Harvey and Kirsten rat sarcoma

Canine Neoplasias; J. Bullerdiek

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per barrel or 40 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to January 17, 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and the beginning of a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, distillate spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled higher as the New York Harbor market began to draw on product from other areas. They closed at 83 cents per gallon, an increase of 11 cents from the prior Friday. Crude oil had risen about 4 cents from

164

Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: SPOT Agency/Company /Organization: Architectural Energy Corporation Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.archenergy.com/SPOT/ Cost: Free Language: English References: http://www.archenergy.com/SPOT/ SPOT(tm) is intended to assist a designer in quantifying the existing or intended electric lighting and annual daylighting characteristics of a given space and to help establish the optimal photosensor placement for the space relative to annual performance and annual energy savings. The software was developed with classroom daylighting in mind, but can be used

165

Repeatability of measurements of residential magnetic fields and wire codes  

SciTech Connect

Several epidemiological studies have been based on wire codes (i.e., categories of electrical wiring configurations near residences) or on in-home spot measurements of magnetic flux density (MFD) as surrogates for short- and long-term exposure of children and adults to residential magnetic fields. We used wire code and MFD measurements that were made in 81 Colorado homes in 1985 and again in 1990 to assess their repeatability over periods of 0-24 h and 5 years. These homes, a subset of those lived in by subjects from the case-control study of Savitz et al. [Am J Epidemiol 128:21-38, 1988], were divided into four approximately equally sized groups that were differentiated by wire code and by case-control status. Eight homes were assigned wire codes in 1990 that differed from the 1985 coding of Savitz and colleagues [1988]; of these, seven were coded as high-current configuration (HCC) and one as low-current configuration (LCC) in 1985. Overall, 37 homes were coded as HCC in 1990 compared with 38 homes in 1985. Coding differences were due to differing distance measurements (four homes), differing thick vs. thin categorization of primary-distribution line-conductor sizes (two homes), differing first-span vs. second-span categorization of secondary wires (one home), and physical changes in proximate electrical wiring (one home). Coefficients of correlation between MFD spot measurements that were separated in time by 0-24 h range between 0.70 and 0.90. The coefficient between spot measurements made in 1985 and then again in 1990 is 0.70. These coefficients are similar for HCC and LCC homes and do not depend on whether residential appliances were turned on or off. The data show (at least for the portion of Colorado studied) that residential wire code and, more surprisingly, spot MFD measurements, are fairly reliable over 0-24-h and 5-year periods.

Dovan, T.; Kaune, W.T.; Savitz, D.A. (ENERTECH Consultants, Campbell, CA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Average prices for spot sulfur dioxide emissions allowances at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The weighted average spot price for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions allowances awarded to winning bidders at Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) annual auction on ...

167

Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Release Date: 10/9/2013: Next Release Date: 10/17/2013: Referring Pages: Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

168

The development of a UK natural gas spot market  

SciTech Connect

The growth of a natural gas spot market in the United Kingdom (UK) is a radical innovation for the industry. Spot markets turned the oil industry inside out, and will do the same for gas. Such a development seemed all but impossible to gas industry experts three years ago. The role and likely form of a spot market are now at the center of current industry debate about the designing of a daily balancing regime to replace unitary management by British Gas. This paper examines parallels between the evolution of spot markets for oil in the 1980`s and the current UK gas industry. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Roeber, J. [Joe Roeber Associates, London (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Care for a Spot of (Green) Tea? New NIST Reference ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Care for a Spot of (Green) Tea? ... Green tea has been long prized not only for its taste but also for purported health benefits and medicinal value. ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

View History: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual : Download Data (XLS File) Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel) Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri ; 1985 ...

171

Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

View History: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual : Download Data (XLS File) Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel) Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri ; 1987 ...

172

Spot price for Central Appalachian coal up since early 2010 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average spot prices for Central Appalachian (CAPP) coal are up about 36% since January, 2010. Contributing factors include: global supply disruptions, slightly ...

173

Los Alamos Lab: NSO: Hot Spot: Director's Papers, Reviews  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Security Office. The Hot Spot page lists recently published Director's papers, book reviews, etc. Director's Paper: Safeguards at 40, LANL Director Michael Anastasio (pdf)...

174

Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels MICHAEL YE,? JOHN ZYREN,?? AND JOANNE SHORE?? Abstract This paper presents a short ...

175

Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane spot prices at the major trading hubs remained relatively close through the fall of 2000, even as they were pushed higher by rapidly rising natural gas prices.

176

Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane spot prices at the major trading hubs remained relatively close through October 2000, but uncoupled in California as natural gas prices rose rapidly during ...

177

Central Appalachian (CAPP) coal spot prices affect markets for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Note: Bloomberg prices for the prompt month have been shifted forward by one month to show the spot versus delivered price for the same month.

178

Pipeline constraints raise average spot natural gas prices in the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The chart shows that spot natural gas prices for Henry Hub, Chicago, ... and gas from Pennsylvania storage fields on to Atlantic coast markets. ...

179

Spot natural gas prices at Marcellus trading point reflect ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Daily natural gas spot prices between Tennessee Gas Pipeline ... Dry natural gas production in Pennsylvania, a key part of the Marcellus supply basin, ...

180

Aerosol Size Distribution, Particle Concentration, and Optical Property Variability near Caribbean Trade Cumulus Clouds: Isolating Effects of Vertical Transport and Cloud Processing from Humidification Using Aircraft Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the effect of trade wind cumulus clouds on aerosol properties in the near-cloud environment using data from the Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) campaign. Aerosol size distributions, particle concentrations, and optical ...

Robert M. Rauber; Guangyu Zhao; Larry Di Girolamo; Marilé Colón-Robles

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Spotted Wing Drosophila Management in Maryland Small Fruit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spotted Wing Drosophila Management in Maryland Small Fruit Gerald Brust IPM Vegetable Specialist Sept. 2011 Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive, destructive pest due to human intervention. Identification SWD adults are small (2-3 mm) flies with red eyes and a pale

Mohaghegh, Shahab

182

Sourcing Flexibility, Spot Trading, and Procurement Contract Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the structure and pricing of option contracts for an industrial good in the presence of spot trading. We combine the analysis of spot trading and buyers' disparate private valuations for different suppliers' products, and we jointly endogenize ... Keywords: contract pricing, procurement, supply chain management

Pamela Pen-Erh Pei; David Simchi-Levi; Tunay I. Tunca

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

A NONGAUSSIAN ORNSTEINUHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A NON­GAUSSIAN ORNSTEIN­UHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND DERIVATIVES for analytical pricing of electricity forward and futures contracts. Electricity forward and futures contracts to capture the observed dynamics of electricity spot prices. We also discuss the pricing of European call

Kallsen, Jan

184

Idealized Hot Spot Experiments with a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Idealized experiments are conducted using a GCM coupled to a 20-m slab ocean model to examine the short-term response to an initial localized positive equatorial SST anomaly, or “hot spot.” A hot spot is imposed upon an aquaplanet with globally ...

Eric D. Maloney; Adam H. Sobel

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Title Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Liu, Gao, John B. Kerr, and Stephen G. Johnson Journal Synthetic Metals Volume 144 Pagination 1-6 Keywords dark spot, failure mechanism, interface, ito surface, oled Abstract The failure behaviors of ITO/PEDOT;PSS/polyfluorene/Al devices are different depending on the surface roughness of the sputtered ITO anode film. The spikes on ITO surface are responsible for the initial local shorts of the device, which develop into dark spots very quickly. Indium adsorption is observed on the polymer and Al cathode interface. A chemical etching procedure is used to smoothen the ITO surface without changing the ITO thickness and the sheet resistance. Devices made out of smooth ITO show minimum changes at polymer-cathode interface during operation.

186

Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Intrinsic Size Parameters for Val, Ile, Leu, Gln, Thr, Phe, and Trp Residues from Ion Mobility Measurements of Polyamino Acid Ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intrinsic Size Parameters for Val, Ile, Leu, Gln, Thr, Phe, and Trp Residues from Ion Mobility)] have been studied by ion mobility methods and molecular modeling simulations. The average amino acid in establishing conformation remain. The recent development of new ionization sources4 for mass spectrometry (MS

Clemmer, David E.

189

Size-dependent piezoelectricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a consistent theory is developed for size-dependent piezoelectricity in dielectric solids. This theory shows that electric polarization can be generated as the result of coupling to the mean curvature tensor, unlike previous flexoelectric theories that postulate such couplings with other forms of curvature and more general strain gradient terms ignoring the possible couple- stresses. The present formulation represents an extension of recent work that establishes a consistent size-dependent theory for solid mechanics. Here by including scale-dependent measures in the energy equation, the general expressions for force- and couple-stresses, as well as electric displacement, are obtained. Next, the constitutive relations, displacement formulations, the uniqueness theorem and the reciprocal theorem for the corresponding linear small deformation size-dependent piezoelectricity are developed. As with existing flexoelectric formulations, one finds that the piezoelectric effect can also exist in isotrop...

Hadjesfandiari, Ali R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Figure 88. Annual average Henry Hub spot prices for natural ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 88. Annual average Henry Hub spot prices for natural gas in five cases, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per million Btu) Reference

191

Current Natural Gas Spot Prices:. Well Above the Recent Price ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The surge in spot prices at the Henry Hub since April has taken prices well above a typical range for 1998-1999 (in this context, defined as the average, +/- 2 ...

192

Natural Gas Spot Prices: Base Case and 95% Confidence Interval  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spot prices at the Henry Hub traded at a midpoint of $6.91 per MMBtu on Wednesday. This is the first time the price has been below $7.00 since December 1, ...

193

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per barrel or 40 cents per gallon from its low point in mid ... New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents ...

194

page 7 : Turing's Spot-Generation System - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System for generating spots proposed by Turing: $\\bigtriangleup a_{ij} = s(16 - a_ {ij} $\\bigtriangleup b_{ij} = s(a_{ij}b_{. where s is the source density constant.

195

Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Notes: To reinforce the impact that inventory levels (I.e., tight markets) have on price, note the variation in spot gasoline prices relative to crude oil prices, as shown by the...

196

Unsupervised spoken keyword spotting and learning of acoustically meaningful units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of keyword spotting in audio data has been explored for many years. Typically researchers use supervised methods to train statistical models to detect keyword instances. However, such supervised methods require ...

Zhang, Yaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Sources of Errors in Rainfall Measurements by Polarimetric Radar: Variability of Drop Size Distributions, Observational Noise, and Variation of Relationships between R and Polarimetric Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a set of long-term disdrometric data and of actual radar measurements from the McGill S-band operational polarimetric radar, several sources of errors in rain measurement with polarimetric radar are explored in order to investigate their ...

Gyu Won Lee

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

CoolSpots: Reducing the Power Consumption of Wireless Mobile Devices with Multiple Radio Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CoolSpots enable a wireless mobile device to automatically switch between multiple radio interfaces, such as WiFi and Bluetooth, in order to increase battery lifetime. The main contribution of this work is an exploration of the policies that enable a system to switch among these interfaces, each with diverse radio characteristics and different ranges, in order to save power – supported by detailed quantitative measurements. The system and policies do not require any changes to the mobile applications themselves, and changes required to existing infrastructure are minimal. Results are reported for a suite of commonly used applications, such as file transfer, web browsing, and streaming media, across a range of operating conditions. Experimental validation of the CoolSpot system on a mobile research platform shows substantial energy savings: more than a 50 % reduction in energy consumption of the wireless subsystem is possible, with an associated increase in the effective battery lifetime.

Trevor Pering; Yuvraj Agarwal; Rajesh Gupta; Comm Power

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Synchronized droplet size measurements of intermittent coal-water slurry diesel sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiments have been completed to characterize atomization of intermittent coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel fuel engine. A synchronized laser diffraction particle analyzer technique was used to measure the spray tip Sauter mean diameters (SMD). The Rosin-Rammler two parameter model was assumed for the droplet distribution. The measurements were made at the spray tip where laser obscuration was low and the chance of multiscattering bias was minimal. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading by mass containing 5gm volume mean diameter coal particles was used. Injection pressures were ranged from 28 to II 0 MPa. Three different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mm, four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm downstream of the nozzle tip were studied. Measurements were made for both pressurized (2.07 MPa, 300 psig) and unpressurized (ambient, 0 gage) chamber conditions. The spray tip SMD showed an increase with chamber gas density, and with axial measurement location, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. The effect of nozzle orifice diameter on spray tip SMDs of completely developed sprays for such high pressure injections was found to be negligible. A regression equation for CWS-50 spray tip SMDs was determined as SMD = 0.279-P(inj).?702 r(amb) 2?85 x .521 where Pinj is the injection pressure in Mpa, r(amb) is the ambient density in kg/m3, and x is the axial measurement location downstream of the nozzle tip in mm. The equation shows very good agreement with the measured SMD data by having a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The results were also compared with previous SMD regression equations that were originally obtained for diesel fuel sprays.

Terracina, Dwayne Paul

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Grain-Scale Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation for Shocked TATB  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-explosive (HE) material consists of large-sized grains with micron-sized embedded impurities and pores. Under various mechanical/thermal insults, these pores collapse generating high-temperature regions leading to ignition. A computational study has been performed to investigate the mechanisms of pore collapse and hot spot initiation in TATB crystals, employing the thermohydrodynamics arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian code ALE3D. This initial study includes non-reactive dynamics to isolate the thermal and hydrodynamical effects. Two-dimensional high-resolution large-scale meso-scale simulations have been undertaken. We study an axisymmetric configuration for pore radii ranging from 0.5 to 2{micro}m, with initial shock pressures in the range from 3 to 11 GPa. A Mie-Gruneisen Equation of State (EOS) model is used for TATB, and includes a constant yield strength and shear modulus; while the air in the pore invokes a Livermore Equation of State (LEOS) model. The parameter space is systematically studied by considering various shock strengths, pore diameters and material properties. We find that thermal diffusion from the collapsed pores has an important effect in generating high-temperature hot spots in the TATB.

Najjar, F; Howard, W; Fried, L

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

202

Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Hovanski, Yuri [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Grant, Glenn J [ORNL; Dahl, Michael E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 4:07pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing tremendous energy savings by cutting down consumption. Using an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant from the Recovery Act, the city was able to have the building retrofitted and install a building management system. The system allows library staff to control the indoor climate of the library from one location to reduce operating costs of the facility. Addthis Related Articles Captured data from the monitoring system at the public library shows that energy usage was highest at 10:30a.m., a time when a number of patrons in the library would be using computers and lighting. | Photo courtesy of Texas Institute for Sustainable Technology Research

204

Methodology for Managing the Handling and Combustion of Spot Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel purchases can constitute 80 percent of generation costs for a coal-fired power plant. Therefore, reducing fuel costs is often a key strategy for reducing generation costs. Power producers have found the spot coal market to be a viable option for filling the gaps in a plant's coal supply portfolio. On average, over the last 10 years, approximately 33 percent of the coal purchased was in the form of spot contracts. While lower quality, cheaper fuels reduce fuel costs; unit capacity, availability, and ...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

205

Jupiter's Great Red Spot as a Shallow Water System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most current models of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) are cast in terms of a two-layer model, where a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, overlies a much deeper layer, which is meant to represent the neutrally stratified deep ...

Timothy E. Dowling; Andrew P. Ingersoll

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

IC defect sensitivity for footprint-type spot defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it is important to exhaustively verify IC designs for their functional performance, it is equally important to verify their robustness against spot defects, that is, to foresee what will happen to the design when it is exposed to defect conditions ...

J. Pineda de Gyvez; C. Di

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.

S. Brunner; E. Valeo

2001-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Modelling and pricing in electricity markets Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Overview

Pfeifer, Holger

209

Storm Spotting and Public Awareness since the First Tornado Forecasts of 1948  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history of storm spotting and public awareness of the tornado threat is reviewed. It is shown that a downward trend in fatalities apparently began after the famous “Tri-State” tornado of 1925. Storm spotting’s history begins in World War II ...

Charles A. Doswell III; Alan R. Moller; Harold E. Brooks

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product - Crude  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Gasoline inventories indicate how tight the gasoline product market is in any one region. When the gasoline market is tight, it affects the portion of gasoline price is the spread between spot product price and crude oil price. Note that in late 1998-and early 1999 spreads were very small when inventories were quite high. Contrast summers of 1998 or 1999 with summer 2000. Last summer's tight markets, resulting low stocks and transition to Phase 2 RFG added price pressure over and above the already high crude price pressure on gasoline -- particularly in the Midwest. As we ended last winter, gasoline inventories were low, and the spread between spot prices and crude oil were higher than typical as a result. Inventories stayed well below average and the spread during the

211

Solar reflector soiling pattern distributions and reflectance measurement requirements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Short-term specular reflectance losses from optical surfaces used in the collection or concentration of solar energy results in significant reduction of these systems' output. Losses range from 0.1% to 1.0% per day, approaching asymptotes of 25% to 60% for periods greater than one year, depending onsite and season. To appropriately assess the value of a particular location for the production of power, consideration of the rates of soiling and strategies to minimize losses resulting from soiling must be considered. Strategies for measuring the optical performance of reflector materials to a specified degree of accuracy have been developed, according to the types of soiling patterns observed. It was found most soiling occurs with the accumulation of particulates in spots of different sizes, and the spot sizes follow a lognormal distribution. For most practical situations, it was determined that 10 measurements with a 1-cm-diameter beam are enough to place the average value within 3% of the true value, with a confidence level of 95%.

Kidney, K. (Colorado Univ., Denver, CO (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Acoustic Sounding of Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radars have been successfully used for remote measurements of raindrop size distribution and rain intensity for many years. Over the last two decades, sodars have been increasingly applied to measure the parameters of precipitation. In the ...

Sergei V. Shamanaev

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Wear testing of friction stir spot welding tools for joining of DP 980 Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Several tooling materials have been evaluated in prior studies, including silicon nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, where a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) was used in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re (designated as Q60), and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re (designated at Q70). The sheet material used for all wear testing was DP 980. Tool profiles were measured periodically during the testing process in order to show the progression of wear as a function of the number of spots produced. Lap shear testing was done each time a tool profile was taken in order to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. For the welding parameters chosen for this study the Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

Ridges, Chris; Miles, Michael; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Steel, Russell

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

214

Cat heart Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heart Size Name: Iris Status: student Grade: K-3 Location: OR Country: USA Date: NA Question: Can you tell me the size of a cats heart? Replies: Iris A cat's heart is about the...

215

Cat heart Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cat heart Size Name: Rebecca Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: What is the average size of a cat's heart? Replies: Hi Rebecca, That...

216

Hopper Job Size Charts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

charts shows the fraction of hours used on Hopper in each of 5 job-core-size bins. 2012 Usage by Job Size Chart 2011 . This chart shows the fraction of hours used on Hopper by jobs...

217

A New Method for Measuring Aerosol Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique has recently been developed to measure aerosol absorption by means of a microdensitometer. Black particulate material is collected into six spots on membrane filters by a laboratory-tested impaction/concentration technique. Follow-...

B. B. Murphey; S. I. Reynolds

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Measurement of Key Pool BOiling Parameters in nanofluids for Nuclerar Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanofluids, colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base fluid such as water, can afford very significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. Such engineered fluids potentially could be employed in reactors as advanced coolants in safety systems with significant safety and economic advantages. However, a satisfactory explanation of the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids is lacking. To close this gap, we have identified the important boiling parameters to be measured. These are the properties (e.g., density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, vaporization enthalpy, surface tension), hydrodynamic parameters (i.e., bubble size, bubble velocity, departure frequency, hot/dry spot dynamics) and surface conditions (i.e., contact angle, nucleation site density). We have also deployed a pool boiling facility in which many such parameters can be measured. The facility is equipped with a thin indium-tin-oxide heater deposited over a sapphire substrate. An infra-red high-speed camera and an optical probe are used to measure the temperature distribution on the heater and the hydrodynamics above the heater, respectively. The first data generated with this facility already provide some clue on the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids. Specifically, the progression to burnout in a pure fluid (ethanol in this case) is characterized by a smoothly-shaped and steadily-expanding hot spot. By contrast, in the ethanol-based nanofluid the hot spot pulsates and the progression to burnout lasts longer, although the nanofluid CHF is higher than the pure fluid CHF. The presence of a nanoparticle deposition layer on the heater surface seems to enhance wettability and aid hot spot dissipation, thus delaying burnout.

Bang, In C [ORNL; Buongiorno, Jdacopo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Hu, Lin-wen [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.

Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Spot Prices Spot Prices (Crude Oil in Dollars per Barrel, Products in Dollars per Gallon) Period: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product by Area 12/09/13 12/10/13 12/11/13 12/12/13 12/13/13 12/16/13 View History Crude Oil WTI - Cushing, Oklahoma 97.1 98.32 97.25 97.21 96.27 97.18 1986-2013 Brent - Europe 110.07 108.91 109.47 108.99 108.08 110.3 1987-2013 Conventional Gasoline New York Harbor, Regular 2.677 2.698 2.670 2.643 2.639 2.650 1986-2013 U.S. Gulf Coast, Regular 2.459 2.481 2.429 2.398 2.377 2.422 1986-2013 RBOB Regular Gasoline Los Angeles 2.639 2.661 2.569 2.543 2.514 2.527 2003-2013 No. 2 Heating Oil New York Harbor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Homing in on sweet spots in Cretaceous Austin chalk  

SciTech Connect

In discussing the nature and causes of fracturing in the Cretaceous Austin chalk of south central Texas, many geologists and operators involved in horizontal drilling of the chalk consider regional rock stress as the probable main cause of the fractures. If Austin chalk fractures are mainly the result of regional extensional stress without localizing factors, then fractured sweet spots are randomly distributed and successful exploration is more or less a matter of luck, usually dependent upon the coincidental placement of a seismic line. But if local, deep-seated structure or basement topography are the main causes of sweet spots, then a successful exploration method would be to first delineate the basement paleo structure or topography and secondly, place a seismic line to confirm the delineated features. Finding localities of maximum fracturing and production would than be based on scientific logic rather than luck. It is the purpose of this article to present the results of an examination of these alternative causes for the Austin chalk fracturing in the hope of determining the most cost effective exploration method for the fractured chalk reservoir.

Thomas, G.E. (Thomas and Associates, Denver, CO (United States)); Sonnenberg, F.P.

1993-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

Transformation from spots to waves in a model of actin pattern formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Actin networks in certain single-celled organisms exhibit a complex pattern-forming dynamics that starts with the appearance of static spots of actin on the cell cortex. Spots soon become mobile, executing persistent random walks, and eventually give rise to traveling waves of actin. Here we describe a possible physical mechanism for this distinctive set of dynamic transformations, by equipping an excitable reaction-diffusion model with a field describing the spatial orientation of its chief constituent (which we consider to be actin). The interplay of anisotropic actin growth and spatial inhibition drives a transformation at fixed parameter values from static spots to moving spots to waves.

Stephen Whitelam; Till Bretschneider; Nigel J. Burroughs

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

223

Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications of Price-Elastic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

absence of any significant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spot market) price. For a variety of reasons, electricity industries continue to charge most consumers...

224

Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications of Price-Responsive Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are exposed to real-time electricity prices, they can adjustCustomers Respond to Electricity Price Variability: A Studyhours lowers the electricity spot price and reduces needed

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

2011 Brief: Henry Hub natural gas spot prices fell about 9% in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... Wholesale spot natural gas prices in most areas of the United States fell slightly in 2011 from the ... In other markets, ...

226

Dose Modeling and Statistical Assessment of Hot Spots for Decommissioning Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A primary goal of this research was to develop a technically defensible approach for modeling the receptor dose due to smaller "hot spots" of residual… (more)

Abelquist, Eric Warner

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Current Natural Gas Spot Prices: Well Above the Recent Price Range  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Current Natural Gas Spot Prices: Well Above the Recent Price Range. Previous slide: Next slide: Back to first slide: ... (generally borne out so far ...

228

Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloys for Aviation by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refill FSSW process can supersede conventional rivet fastening and resistance spot welding techniques and contribute to weight reduction of structures as well.

229

U.K., U.S. spot natural gas prices diverging - Today in Energy - U ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Two important spot prices for natural gas are the Henry Hub in the United States and the ... a stronger price linkage in Europe between rising crude oil and ...

230

Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence of cost and price risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence ofeither increase or decrease inventory by buying or sellingof actively managing inventory during the period rather than

Guo, X.; Kaminsky, P.; Tomecek, P.; Yuen, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

What is a Raindrop Size Distribution?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is commonly understood that the number of drops that one happens to measure as a function of diameter in some sample represents the drop size distribution. However, recent observations show that rain is "patchy" suggesting that such a ...

A. R. Jameson; A. B. Kostinski

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications ofPrice-Responsive Demand  

SciTech Connect

Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulatedelectricity industries share one common feature: the absence of anysignificant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, most electricity consumers stillpay an average cost based regulated retail tariff held over from the eraof vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are oftenforced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in openmarkets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who aresometimes additionally forbidden by regulators from signing hedgingcontracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time(or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price ofelectricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumptionaccordingly. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic,which together with the non storability of electricity that requiresmarket clearing over very short time steps spawn many other problemsassociated with electricity markets, such as exercise of market power andprice volatility. Indeed, electricity generation resources can bestretched to the point where system adequacy is threatened. Economictheory suggests that even modest price responsiveness can relieve thestress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To quantify thiseffect, actual generator bid data from the New York control area is usedto construct supply stacks and intersect them with demand curves ofvarious slopes to approximate the effect of different levels of demandresponse. The potential impact of real-time pricing (RTP) on theequilibrium spot price and quantity is then estimated. These resultsindicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a moreprice-responsive demand providing policymakers with a measure of howprices can be potentially reduced and consumption maintained within thecapability of generation assets.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Empirical analysis of the spot market implications ofprice-elastic demand  

SciTech Connect

Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulated electricity industries share one common feature: the absence of any significant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, electricity industries continue to charge most consumers an average cost based on regulated retail tariff from the era of vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are forced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in open markets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who are sometimes forbidden by regulators from signing hedging contracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time (or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price of electricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumption in response to price signals. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic, and electricity generation resources can be stretched to the point where system stability is threatened. This, then, facilitates many other problems associated with electricity markets, such as market power and price volatility. Indeed, economic theory suggests that even modestly price-responsive demand can remove the stress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To test this theory, we use actual generator bid data from the New York control area to construct supply stacks, and intersect them with demand curves of various slopes to approximate different levels of demand elasticity. We then estimate the potential impact of real-time pricing on the equilibrium spot price and quantity. These results indicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a more price-elastic demand. Such analysis can provide policymakers with a measure of how effective price-elastic demand can potentially reduce prices and maintain consumption within the capability of generation resources.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

2004-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

234

Land animal sizes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Land animal sizes Name: tamar c Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: Why are today's land mammals so much smaller than prehistoric mammals?...

235

Multimodal Raindrop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The raindrop size distributions (DSDs) observed over a short span usually have an erratic shape, with several relative maxima. This multimodal structure is studied from disdrometer data acquired in tropical and midlatitude areas. It is shown that ...

Henri Sauvageot; Manlandon Koffi

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews some of the published results relating to raindrop-size distributions and couples this with some of the authors' results in order to show that the mathematical description of the distribution can be divided into three ...

M. C. Hodson

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Robert Van Steenwyk Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Recommendations for Sweet Cherry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robert Van Steenwyk Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Recommendations for Sweet of male and female SWD flies in each trap. Male SWD have spots on the tip of the wings and females have produced. The preferred ovipositional color was dark red for Bing fruit and red for Black Tartarian

Hammock, Bruce D.

238

The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California on the Cost of Forward), the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) program on Reliability and Markets at the U Cruz, California. #12;ABSTRACT The unexpectedly high spot prices for electricity in the summer of 2000

239

CoCoSpot: Clustering and recognizing botnet command and control channels using traffic analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present CoCoSpot, a novel approach to recognize botnet command and control channels solely based on traffic analysis features, namely carrier protocol distinction, message length sequences and encoding differences. Thus, CoCoSpot can deal with obfuscated ... Keywords: Botnet C&C, Botnet detection, Network security, Traffic analysis

Christian J. Dietrich; Christian Rossow; Norbert Pohlmann

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Parametric and non-parametric approaches in evaluating martingale hypothesis of energy spot markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examined the martingale hypothesis in the spot prices of the petroleum products markets. Under the parametric and non-parametric variance ratio tests, the independent and identically distributed increments and less restrictive martingale increments ... Keywords: Energy spot markets, Financial time series, Martingale process, Structural break, Variance ratio test

Chin Wen Cheong

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Model for Thermal Behavior of Shaded Photovoltaic Cells under Hot-Spot Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We address the problem of modeling the thermal behavior of photovoltaic (PV) cells that, due to their being exposed to shading, may experience a dramatic temperature increase (a phenomenon referred to as hot-spot) with consequent reduction of the provided ... Keywords: solar cell, hot-spot heating, energy efficiency, reliability

Daniele Giaffreda; Martin Omana; Daniele Rossi; Cecilia Metra

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Integration of Contracted Renewable Energy and Spot Market Supply to Serve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integration of Contracted Renewable Energy and Spot Market Supply to Serve Flexible Loads Anthony-mail: oren@ieor.berkeley.edu). Abstract: We present a contract for integrating renewable energy supply and electricity spot markets for serving deferrable electric loads in order to mitigate renewable energy

Oren, Shmuel S.

243

Simultaneous imaging electron- and ion-feature Thomson scattering measurements of radiatively heated Xe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uniform density and temperature Xe plasmas have been produced over >4 mm scale-lengths using x-rays generated in a cylindrical Pb cavity. The cavity is 750 {mu}m in depth and diameter, and is heated by a 300 J, 2 ns square, 1054 nm laser pulse focused to a spot size of 200 {mu}m at the cavity entrance. The plasma is characterized by simultaneous imaging Thomson scattering measurements from both the electron and ion scattering features. The electron feature measurement determines the spatial electron density and temperature profile, and using these parameters as constraints in the ion feature analysis allows an accurate determination of the charge state of the Xe ions. The Thomson scattering probe beam is 40 J, 200 ps, and 527 nm, and is focused to a 100 {mu}m spot size at the entrance of the Pb cavity. Each system has a spatial resolution of 25 {mu}m, a temporal resolution of 200 ps (as determined by the probe duration), and a spectral resolution of 2 nm for the electron feature system and 0.025 nm for the ion feature system. The experiment is performed in a Xe filled target chamber at a neutral pressure of 3-10 Torr, and the x-rays produced in the Pb ionize and heat the Xe to a charge state of 20{+-}4 at up to 200 eV electron temperatures.

Pollock, B. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Meinecke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of Oxford, Wellington Square, Oxford, OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Kuschel, S.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Shaw, J. L. [University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Stoafer, C. [Columbia University, 116th Street and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Tynan, G. R. [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - June 11,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - June 11, 2010 Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - June 11, 2010 June 11, 2010 Letter from Andy Lawrence to John Nasstrom accepting the revised Hotspot In your letter dated April 16, 2010, you summarized the work done by the Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendations from the 2007, Software Evaluation of HotSpot, and DOE, Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation, for inclusion of V2.07 in the DOE Safety Software Central Registry. Based on this work, you futher requested that HotSpot be included in the DOE Central Registry. Letter from Andy Lawrence to John Nasstrom accepting the revised Hotspot More Documents & Publications

245

Pore size estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel method for characterization of any porous structure is presented. The principle of the method is simple scanning a plane surface of a cellular material and consequent digital image analysis of the scan. Eleven samples of bread baked from dough ... Keywords: foams, image analysis, modelling the structure, plane cut visualization, pore size distribution, voronoi tessellation

Tomas Matousek; Petr Ponizil; Filip Kremen; Iva Buresova; Petra Dvorakova

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Figure 41. U.S. Brent crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas spot ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 41. U.S. Brent crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas spot market prices in three cases, 2005-2040 Natural Gas Crude Oil Reference

247

Spot natural gas prices dipped to two-year low in November ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spot natural gas prices at the Henry Hub in Erath, Louisiana fell to $2.83 per million British thermal units for delivery on November 24, 2011, the lowest price since ...

248

Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and calibrate our model to the NYMEX Light Sweet Crude Oil spot and futures data, allowing us to extract curves. Adding a perturbation on top of this first order model allows us to correct some

Jaimungal, Sebastian

249

On a euro basis, Brent crude oil spot price surpasses prior ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

On a euro basis, the spot price for Brent crude oil, a global benchmark, has surpassed its prior record high and set a new record high of 96.53 euros per barrel on ...

250

Figure 21. Annual average spot price for Brent crude oil in three ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 21. Annual average spot price for Brent crude oil in three cases, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per barrel) Reference Low Oil Price

251

Figure 87. Ratio of Brent crude oil price to Henry Hub spot ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 87. Ratio of Brent crude oil price to Henry Hub spot natural gas price in energy-equivalent terms, 1990-2040 Ratio Released:April 15, 2013

252

Figure 49. Brent crude oil spot prices in three cases, 1990-2040 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 49. Brent crude oil spot prices in three cases, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per barrel) Reference High Oil Price Low Oil Price

253

Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications of Price-Responsive Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used to adjust the real-time price perceived by end-useare exposed to real-time electricity prices, they can adjustof real-time pricing (RTP) on the equilibrium spot price and

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Empirical analysis of the spot market implications of price-elastic demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used to adjust the real-time price perceived by end-useare exposed to real-time electricity prices, then they canof real-time pricing on the equilibrium spot price and

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

U.S. natural gas spot prices increased during first-half 2013 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Maps by energy source and topic, includes ... Press Releases ... Spot prices on the map reflect averages of daily prices from the first half of 2013, January 1 ...

256

Assessment of Prices of Natural Gas Futures Contracts As A Predictor of Realized Spot Prices, An  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article compares realized Henry Hub spot market prices for natural gas during the three most recent winters with futures prices as they evolve from April through the following February, when trading for the March contract ends.

Lejla Alic

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

257

Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Genome Size Varaiation in D. melanogaster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As yet significant portions of the genetic variation in complex traits have not been explained with genome wide association experiments; and this has led to the search for the "missing heritability". Our data support the hypothesis that variation in genome size may account for some of the missing heritability. We measured female genome sizes for 34 Drosophila melanogaster inbred strains that derived from isofemale lines established from a natural population in Raleigh, NC, in addition to a group of 40 strains artificially selected for increased and decreased body size. We provide the first evidence that significant intraspecific genome size variation exists among these Drosophila melanogaster lines and that selection has a downsizing effect on the extent of variation.

Alfrejd, Benjamin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Usage by Job Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Usage by Job Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi Jacquard Seaborg User Account (Repo) Execution Queue All Debug Interactive Premium Regular Short Regular Long Regular Small Regular Medium Regular Big Regular Extra Big Killable Low Transfer IO Task Special System Serial Big Memory Westmere === Inactive === Magellan Serial Magellan Short Magellan Small Magellan Medium Magellan Big Magellan Long Regular 1 Regular 1 Long Regular 16 Regular 32 Regular 48 Full Config Seaborg Serial Batch 16 Batch 32 Batch 64 Submit Queue all interactive debug premium regular low DOE Office all ASCR BER BES FES HEP NP Summary for jobs that completed after Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 @ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Competition under Capacitated Dynamic Lot Sizing with Capacity Acquisition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lot-sizing and capacity planning are important supply chain decisions, and competition and cooperation affect the performance of these decisions. In this paper, we look into the dynamic lot sizing and resource competition problem of an industry consisting of multiple firms. A capacity competition model combining the complexity of time-varying demand with cost functions and economies os scale arising from dynamic lot-sizing costs is developed. Each firm can replenish inventory at the beginning of each period in a finite planning horizon. Fixed as well as variable production costs incur for each production setup, along with inventory carrying costs. The individual production lots of each firm are limited by a constant capacity restriction, which is purchased up front for the planning horizon. The capacity can be purchased from a spot market, and the capacity acquisition cost fluctuates with the total capacity demand of all the competing firms. We solve the competition model and establish the existence of a capacity equilibrium over the firms and the associated optimal dynamic lot-sizing plan for each firm under mild conditions.

Hongyan Li; Joern Meissner

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Resonant Response of Deep Convection to Surface Hot Spots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations show substantial variations of the intensity of tropical and/or summertime deep convection on land that are not explained by standard measures of convective instability. One feature that distinguishes land surfaces is their ...

F. J. Robinson; S. C. Sherwood; Y. Li

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Characteristics of spot-market rate indexes for truckload transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the truckload transportation industry in the United States, a number of indexes are published that attempt to measure changes in rates, but no single index has emerged as an industry standard. Industry participants, ...

Bignell, Andrew (Andrew Souglas)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Sun Spot One (SS1): San Luis Valley, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

265

Sun Spot One (SS1): San Luis Valley, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

266

The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE Cirrus Case Study: Retrieval of Cloud Particle Sizes and Optical Depths from Comparative Analyses of Aircraft and Satellite-based Infrared Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared radiance measurements were acquired from a narrow-field nadir-viewing radiometer based on the NASA ER-2 aircraft during a coincident Landsat 5 overpass on 28 October 1986 as part of the FIRE Cirrus IFO in the vicinity of Lake Michigan. ...

Philip D. Hammer; Francisco P. J. Valero; Stefan Kinne

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Dog's Heart Size and Activity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dog's Heart Size and Activity Name: Addie Status: Student Grade: 4-5 Location: IN Country: USA Date: Winter 2009-2010 Question: Does the size of a dog affect it's heart rate before...

268

Automated size analysis for OCL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An essential tool in object oriented modeling is the specification of cardinalities of associations between classes. In Object Constraint Language (OCL) such constraints are expressed as conditions on the sizes of the collections that correspond to associations. ... Keywords: OCL, size abstraction, size analysis

Fang Yu; Tevfik Bultan; Erik Peterson

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots July 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99.

270

New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots July 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99.

271

Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty November 7, 2012 - 3:05pm Addthis A Yuma bat flying inside the clearwell at 100-F Area. | Photo courtesy of the Office of Environmental Management. A Yuma bat flying inside the clearwell at 100-F Area. | Photo courtesy of the Office of Environmental Management. David Sheeley Editor/Writer for Environmental Management's Office of External Affairs What are the key facts? Yuma bats reside in a clearwell, a concrete structure formerly used to filter water from the Columbia River for cooling a reactor. Yuma bats have buff-colored bodies that are about 1.5 to 2 inches long with a wingspan of up to 9 inches. Think about the places where bats roost, and abandoned cab-ins, attics,

272

,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)",1,"Weekly","12/13/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdw.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdw.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:22 PM"

273

Proton Size Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

A measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen yields a charge radius of the proton that is smaller than the CODATA value by about 5 standard deviations. We explore the possibility that new scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and tensor flavor-conserving nonuniversal interactions may be responsible for the discrepancy. We consider exotic particles that, among leptons, couple preferentially to muons and mediate an attractive nucleon-muon interaction. We find that the many constraints from low energy data disfavor new spin-0, spin-1, and spin-2 particles as an explanation.

Barger, Vernon [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Chiang, Cheng-Wei [Department of Physics and Center for Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan 32001 (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11925 (China); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Keung, Wai-Yee [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Marfatia, Danny [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Implementing automatic spot addressing and contour based segmentation in microarray image analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DNA microarrays have become a widely used technique by geneticists to diagnose or treat diseases through gene expression. The process of analysis gene expression with DNA microarrays is based on the hybridization of a tissue's DNA sequence into a substrate ... Keywords: DNA microarrays, contour segmentation, edge detection, image processing, segmentation, spot addressing

Alexandra Oliveros; Miguel Sotaquirá

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Resistance spot welding of Ti-6A1-4V alloy  

SciTech Connect

The effects of weld power, electrode force, electrode tip radius, and elapsed time between cleaning and welding on resistance spot welds in Ti-6Al-4V alloy were evaluated. The alloy is weldable by this technique, and a wide latitude can be taken in processing variables.

Jarboe, D.M.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

On the Complexity of Market Power Assessment in the Electricity Spot Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Complexity of Market Power Assessment in the Electricity Spot Markets Poonsaeng Visudhiphan David Bertagnoli of the New England ISO for the informative discussion and insights. This work was supported in part by the members of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Laboratory's Consortium

Ilic, Marija D.

277

ESTIA: A Real-Time Consumer Control Scheme for Space Conditioning Usage under Spot Electricity Pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rendering price forecasting practically unnecessary and reducing the data and computing requirements Pricing P. Constantopoulos University of Crete and Research Centre of Crete Heraklion, Crete, Greece F are now relatively inexpensive, so that hourly (or more frequent) "spot prices" of electri- city could

278

ESTIA: A RealTime Consumer Control Scheme for Space Conditioning Usage under Spot Electricity Pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, thereby rendering price forecasting practically unnecessary and reducing the data and computing Pricing P. Constantopoulos University of Crete and Research Centre of Crete Heraklion, Crete, Greece F are now relatively inexpensive, so that hourly (or more frequent) "spot prices" of electri­ city could

279

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th EditionChapter 9 Microchemical Spot Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th Edition Chapter 9 Microchemical Spot Tests Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS 6C2FB81BF33EA47CEF1B98AD0BE2A9CB Press Downloadable pdf...

280

Hard prey, soft jaws and the ontogeny of feeding mechanics in the spotted ratfish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hard prey, soft jaws and the ontogeny of feeding mechanics in the spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei is a holocephalan fish that consumes hard prey (durophagy) but lacks many morphological characters (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) have branded them as hard prey specialists (Didier 1995; Grogan & Lund 2004

Summers, Adam P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Design of a Nanometer Beam Size Monitor for ATF2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We developed an electron beam size monitor for extremely small beam sizes. It uses a laser interference fringe for a scattering target with the electron beam. Our target performance is measurement using 90 electron bunches for 25 - 6000 nm beam size. A precise laser interference fringe control system using an active feedback function is incorporated to the monitor to achieve the target performance. We describe an overall design, implementations, and performance estimations of the monitor.

Taikan Suehara; Masahiro Oroku; Takashi Yamanaka; Hakutaro Yoda; Tomoya Nakamura; Yoshio Kamiya; Yosuke Honda; Tatsuya Kume; Toshiaki Tauchi; Tomoyuki Sanuki; Sachio Komamiya

2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

First working group meeting on the minority carrier diffusion length/lifetime measurement: Results of the round robin lifetime/diffusion length tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As was noted in the cover letter that accompanied the samples, the eleven bare silicon samples were from various manufacturers. Table I lists the codes for the samples and the manufacturer of each sample. It also notes if the sample was single or poly-crystalline. The samples had been polished on one side before being sent out for measurements, but no further processing was done. The participants of the study were asked to measure either the lifetime or diffusion length of each of the samples using their standard procedure. Table II shows the experimental conditions used by the groups who measured diffusion length. All the diffusion length measurements were performed using the Surface Photovoltage method (SPV). Table M shows the experimental conditions for the lifetime measurements. All the lifetime measurements were made using the Photoconductance Decay method (PCD) under low level injection. These tables show the diameter of the spot size used during the measurement (the effective sampling area), the locations where measurements were taken, and the number of measurements taken at each location. Table N shows the results of the measurements. The table is divided into diffusion length and lifetime measurements for each sample. The values listed are the average values reported by each group. One of the immediate artifacts seen in the data is the large variation in the lifetime measurements. The values from MIT and Mobil are generally close. However, the measurements from NCSU are typically an order of magnitude lower.

Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B. [comp.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Bite-sized science The oldest flint tools in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bite-sized science The oldest flint tools in Northern Europe Bite-sized science ShrimpArch at the University of York, were part of an international team studying flint flakes discovered two years ago-doors' (opercula) from fossilised snails' shells found around the flints, and measured how far their amino acids

Brierley, Andrew

284

Use of an Ultrasonic Sodar to Sense Raindrop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a sodar that uses ultrasound to remotely sense drop size distributions in rainfall is described. The Doppler shift is proportional to a drop's terminal velocity and gives a measure of the drop diameter, whereas the intensity of ...

Stuart Bradley; Tracey Webb

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Microphysics of Raindrop Size Spectra: Tropical Continental and Maritime Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work uses raindrop size spectra measured at the surface in tropical continental storms to determine the associated parameters of the best-fit gamma distributions. The physical processes responsible for those parameters and their relations to ...

Carlton W. Ulbrich; David Atlas

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Raindrop Size Distributions and the Radar Bright Band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between raindrop size distribution, measured with a disdrometer, and a radar parameter of the melting-layer bright band is investigated. The data, obtained in July 1993 in Switzerland, cover 120 h of precipitation. A good ...

A. Huggel; W. Schmid; A. Waldvogel

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Comparison of Polarimetric Radar Drop Size Distribution Retrieval Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, two physically based algorithms, the “beta” (?) method and the “constrained-gamma” method, have been proposed for retrieving the governing parameters of the gamma drop size distribution (DSD) from polarimetric radar measurements. The ? ...

Edward A. Brandes; Guifu Zhang; J. Vivekanandan

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Polarization Radar Estimates of Raindrop Size Spectra and Rainfall Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The differential reflectivity (ZDR) measures the mean shape of hydrometeors and provides an estimate of the mean size of raindrops Observations of ZDR for rain may be combined with the conventional radar reflectivity factor (Z) and fitted to any ...

A. J. Illingworth; I. J. Caylor

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Influence of Environmental Humidity on Tropical Cyclone Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations demonstrate that the radius of maximum winds in tropical cyclones (TCs) can vary by an order of magnitude; similar size differences are evident in other spatial measures of the wind field as well as in cloud and precipitation fields. ...

Kevin A. Hill; Gary M. Lackmann

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Statistical Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution in Southwest Monsoon Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raindrop size distribution (DSD) parameters are retrieved from dual-frequency (UHF and VHF) wind profiler measurements made at Gadanki, India, in a summer monsoon season. The convoluted UHF spectra are first corrected for vertical air motion and ...

N. V. P. Kirankumar; T. Narayana Rao; B. Radhakrishna; D. Narayana Rao

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Raindrop Size Distribution and Radar Parameters at Cape Verde  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation measurement using passive or active microwaves from space- or ground-based radar involves hypotheses about the raindrop size distribution (DSD). A universal knowledge of DSD characteristics is needed. A 4-yr dataset collected with a ...

Armand Nzeukou; Henri Sauvageot; Abe Delfin Ochou; Cheikh Mouhamed Fadel Kebe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Controlling atomistic processes on Pb films via quantum size effects and lattice rotation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two main techniques used to record the data in this dissertation were Spot Profile Analysis - Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). A specific data analysis technique for LEED data called G(S) curves is described in depth. G(S) curves can provide a great deal of structural information about the surface; including step heights, island size, and island separation. The effects of quantum size effects (QSE) on the diffusion and critical island sizes of Pb and In on Pb #12;films are reported. Pb depositions on the 2D In phases {radical}3 and {radical}31 to see how the phases affect the Pb growth and its strong QSE are reported.

Binz, Steven

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Bookmark Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal on Google; Bookmark Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal on Delicious; Rank Full Size Image ...

294

Exponential Size Distributions for Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using airborne data from several recent field projects, the authors have taken another look at the properties of exponential ice particle size distributions (PSDs) when the PSDs are broad. Two primary questions are addressed: for what ranges of ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Paul Field; Aaron Bansemer

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Parameterizing the Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of finding a parametric form for the raindrop size distribution (DSD) that 1) is an appropriate model for tropical rainfall, and 2) involves statistically independent parameters. Such a parameterization is derived ...

Ziad S. Haddad; Stephen L. Durden; Eastwood Im

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Method for sizing hollow microspheres  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

1975-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

297

Size Effects in Multilayer Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories through USDOE NNSA Contract DE-AC04 94AL85000. 5:40 PM Size Effect in ...

298

Search by EPA Size Class  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPA Size Class Select Year... 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985...

299

Simultaneous Measurements of Drop Size and Velocity in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of entrained air velocity. An example is presented in Prahl and Wendt (1988) and Wendt and Prahl (1986) where the authors ...

300

An Automated Approach for Prior Austenite Grain Size Measurement ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the approach relies on the crystallography of the phase transformation, it is independent of the ... 4-D Microstructural Characterization of Snow and Ice.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Simultaneous Measurements of Drop Size and Velocity in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... from the symmetric centerline of the orifice. The large orange circle is a light emitting diode used as a reference location. Page 53. Figure 50. ...

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhda.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhda.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:19 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35611,2.49 35976,2.09 36341,2.27 36707,4.31 37072,3.96 37437,3.38 37802,5.47 38168,5.89 38533,8.69 38898,6.73

303

Magnetism, chemical spots, and stratification in the HgMn star phi Phoenicis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury-manganese (HgMn) stars have been considered as non-magnetic and non-variable chemically peculiar (CP) stars for a long time. However, recent discoveries of the variability in spectral line profiles suggested an inhomogeneous surface distribution of chemical elements in some HgMn stars. From the studies of other CP stars it is known that magnetic field plays a key role in the formation of surface spots. All attempts to find magnetic fields in HgMn stars yielded negative results. In this study, we investigate a possible presence of the magnetic field in phi Phe (HD 11753) and reconstruct surface distribution of chemical elements that show variability in spectral lines. We also test a hypothesis that magnetic field is concentrated in chemical spots and look into the possibility that some chemical elements are stratified with depth in the stellar atmosphere.

Makaganiuk, V; Piskunov, N; Jeffers, S V; Johns-Krull, C M; Keller, C U; Rodenhuis, M; Snik, F; Stempels, H C; Valenti, J A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Point and Interval Forecasting of Spot Electricity Prices: Linear vs. Non-Linear Time Series Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we assess the short-term forecasting power of different time series models in the electricity spot market. In particular we calibrate AR/ARX (”X” stands for exogenous/fundamental variable — system load in our study), AR/ARX-GARCH, TAR/TARX and Markov regime-switching models to California Power Exchange (CalPX) system spot prices. We then use them for out-ofsample point and interval forecasting in normal and extremely volatile periods preceding the market crash in winter 2000/2001. We find evidence that (i) non-linear, threshold regime-switching (TAR/TARX) models outperform their linear counterparts, both in point and interval forecasting, and that (ii) an additional GARCH component generally decreases point forecasting efficiency. Interestingly, the former result challenges a number of previously published studies on the failure of non-linear regime-switching models in forecasting.

Adam Misiorek; Stefan Trueck; Rafal Weron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Spot pricing of electricity and ancillary services in a competitive California market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Typically, in competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, cease to exist. The burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to ensure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, spot markets for both electricity and AS are modeled. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optimal quantities of electricity and AS traded in the spot market by all participants, as well as the market clearing prices for each.

Siddiqui, A.S.; Marnay, C.; Khavkin, M.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Daily","12/16/2013" Daily","12/16/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdd.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdd.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35437,3.82 35438,3.8 35439,3.61 35440,3.92 35443,4 35444,4.01 35445,4.34 35446,4.71 35447,3.91

307

Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

Harris, B.W.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

308

Modelling and evaluation of the 3G mobile networks with hot-spot WLANs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical modelling and evaluation approach is developed for the integrated 3G/WLAN networks. The cell residence times of different types of users are modelled as a general distribution to adapt various mobility environments. The explicit expressions ... Keywords: 3G cellular networks, CAC, call admission control, channel occupancy time, horizontal handoff, hot spot WLANs, integration, local area networks, mobile networks, modelling, performance evaluation, traffic analysis, vertical handoff, wireless LANs, wireless networks

Shensheng Tang; Wei Li

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB  

SciTech Connect

A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

Harris, Betty W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given the role electricity and natural gas sectors play in the North American economy, an understanding of how markets for these commodities interact is important. This dissertation independently characterizes the price dynamics of major electricity and natural gas spot markets in North America by combining directed acyclic graphs with time series analyses. Furthermore, the dissertation explores a generalization of price difference bands associated with the law of one price. Interdependencies among 11 major electricity spot markets are examined in Chapter II using a vector autoregression model. Results suggest that the relationships between the markets vary by time. Western markets are separated from the eastern markets and the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas. At longer time horizons these separations disappear. Palo Verde is the important spot market in the west for price discovery. Southwest Power Pool is the dominant market in Eastern Interconnected System for price discovery. Interdependencies among eight major natural gas spot markets are investigated using a vector error correction model and the Greedy Equivalence Search Algorithm in Chapter III. Findings suggest that the eight price series are tied together through sixlong-run cointegration relationships, supporting the argument that the natural gas market has developed into a single integrated market in North America since deregulation. Results indicate that price discovery tends to occur in the excess consuming regions and move to the excess producing regions. Across North America, the U.S. Midwest region, represented by the Chicago spot market, is the most important for price discovery. The Ellisburg-Leidy Hub in Pennsylvania and Malin Hub in Oregon are important for eastern and western markets. In Chapter IV, a threshold vector error correction model is applied to the natural gas markets to examine nonlinearities in adjustments to the law of one price. Results show that there are nonlinear adjustments to the law of one price in seven pair-wise markets. Four alternative cases for the law of one price are presented as a theoretical background. A methodology is developed for finding a threshold cointegration model that accounts for seasonality in the threshold levels. Results indicate that dynamic threshold effects vary depending on geographical location and whether the markets are excess producing or excess consuming markets.

Park, Haesun

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Doppler Cloud Radar Derived Drop Size Distributions in Liquid Water Stratus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cloud particle size retrieval algorithm that uses radar reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity obtained by a 35-GHz Doppler radar and liquid water path estimated from microwave radiometer radiance measurements is developed to infer the size ...

Seiji Kato; Gerald G. Mace; Eugene E. Clothiaux; James C. Liljegren; Richard T. Austin

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Observations of Precipitation Size and Fall Speed Characteristics within Coexisting Rain and Wet Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based measurements of particle size and fall speed distributions using a Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer are compared among samples obtained in mixed precipitation (rain and wet snow) and rain in the Oregon Cascade ...

Sandra E. Yuter; David E. Kingsmill; Louisa B. Nance; Martin Löffler-Mang

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Distributions of Raindrop Sizes and Fall Velocities in a Semiarid Plateau Climate: Convective versus Stratiform Rains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Joint size and fall velocity distributions of raindrops were measured with a Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) precipitation particle disdrometer in a field experiment conducted during July and August 2007 at a semiarid continental site ...

Shengjie Niu; Xingcan Jia; Jianren Sang; Xiaoli Liu; Chunsong Lu; Yangang Liu

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Modeling Raindrop Size Distribution and Z(R) Relations in the Western Mediterranean Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study shows the results of the modeling of drop size distributions (DSD) observed during a 2-yr study in Barcelona. Thirty-second individual sample collections of drop sizes and velocities were measured with an optical disdrometer and ...

Carlos Cerro; Bernat Codina; Joan Bech; Jeroni Lorente

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Size does matter: how image size affects aesthetic perception?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is no doubt that an image's content determines how people assess the image aesthetically. Previous works have shown that image contrast, saliency features, and the composition of objects may jointly determine whether or not an image is perceived ... Keywords: crowdsourcing, human percpetion, image aesthetics, quality assessment, size-dependent aesthetics

Wei-Ta Chu, Yu-Kuang Chen, Kuan-Ta Chen

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Compare All CBECS Activities: Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

By Building Size By Building Size Compare Activities by ... Building Size Total Floorspace by Building Type There was approximately 67.3 billion square feet of commercial floorspace in the U.S. in 1999. Because there are many of them, office buildings comprised the largest amount of commercial floorspace. Figure showing total floorspace by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Square Feet per Building by Building Type Inpatient health buildings were by far the largest building type, on average, while food service and food sales buildings were the smallest. Figure showing square feet per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Establishments per Building by Building Type

317

Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy: Does Breast Size Matter?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of breast size on dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical toxicity in whole-breast hypofractionated radiation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy between 2005 and 2009 were screened, and qualifying consecutive patients were included in 1 of 2 cohorts: large-breasted patients (chest wall separation >25 cm or planning target volume [PTV] >1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=97) and small-breasted patients (chest wall separation <25 cm and PTV <1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=32). All patients were treated prone or supine with hypofractionated IMRT to the whole breast (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) followed by a boost dose (9.6 Gy in 4 fractions). Dosimetric and clinical toxicity data were collected and analyzed using the R statistical package (version 2.12). Results: The mean PTV V95 (percentage of volume receiving >= 95% of prescribed dose) was 90.18% and the mean V105 percentage of volume receiving >= 105% of prescribed dose was 3.55% with no dose greater than 107%. PTV dose was independent of breast size, whereas heart dose and maximum point dose to skin correlated with increasing breast size. Lung dose was markedly decreased in prone compared with supine treatments. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 0, 1, and 2 skin toxicities were noted acutely in 6%, 69%, and 25% of patients, respectively, and at later follow-up (>3 months) in 43%, 57%, and 0% of patients, respectively. Large breast size contributed to increased acute grade 2 toxicity (28% vs 12%, P=.008). Conclusions: Adequate PTV coverage with acceptable hot spots and excellent sparing of organs at risk was achieved by use of IMRT regardless of treatment position and breast size. Although increasing breast size leads to increased heart dose and maximum skin dose, heart dose remained within our institutional constraints and the incidence of overall skin toxicity was comparable to that reported in the literature. Taken together, these data suggest that hypofractionated radiation therapy using IMRT is a viable and appropriate therapeutic modality in large-breasted patients.

Hannan, Raquibul, E-mail: Raquibul.Hannan@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thompson, Reid F.; Chen Yu; Bernstein, Karen; Kabarriti, Rafi; Skinner, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Chin C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Landau, Evan; Miller, Ekeni; Spierer, Marnee; Hong, Linda; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Chorazy M. Seasonal variations in levels of DNA adducts and X-spots in human populations living in different parts of Poland. Environ Health Perspect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White blood cell DNA adducts were measured in coke oven workers, in residents from the area next to the coke oven in Silesia, Poland (highly industrialized region), and in residents from the rural area of Poland using the 32P-postlabeling technique. This method detected aromatic adducts including adducts formed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Highest levels of adducts in DNA were seen in the group of coke battery workers (6.9 adducts/10 ' nucleotides). Seasonal variations in levels of DNA adducts were observed both in residents of the district near the coke oven area and individuals from the rural area of Poland. Blood samples collected from people living near the coke oven in winter showed much higher levels of DNA adducts than blood samples obtained in summer (5.0 adducts/lO ' nucleotides in winter and 1A adducts/10' nucleotides in summer). The difference in the level ofDNA adducts between winter and summer was smaller in the group of people living in the rural area (3.2 adducts/10 and 2.2 adducts/10, respectively). In most cases the levels of X-spots correlated with the levels of other DNA adducts. Correlation coefficients(r) between the levels of X-spots and other adducts ranged between 0A6 and 0.74 (poven workers where no correlation was observed.

Ewa Grzybowska; Kari Hemminki; Mieczysuaw Chorazy

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Minisodar Measurements of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of raindrop fall velocity spectra have been made with a minisodar. Amplitude calibration of the system enables the calculation of drop size parameters such as number density, water density, and surface area using methods similar to ...

R. L. Coulter; T. J. Martin; T. M. Weckwerth

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

Novick, Vincent J.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Peaks in Raindrop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multipeak behavior of raindrop size distributions has been studied. Peaks have been found for distinct drop diameters: 0.7, 1.0, 1.9, and possibly 3.2 mm. The probability is about 65% that at least one of these peaks exists in an observed ...

M. Steiner; A. Waldvogel

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

THE SIZE SCALE OF STAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

Direct N-body simulations of star clusters in a realistic Milky-Way-like potential are carried out using the code NBODY6. Based on these simulations, a new relationship between scale size and galactocentric distance is derived: the scale size of star clusters is proportional to the hyperbolic tangent of the galactocentric distance. The half-mass radius of star clusters increases systematically with galactocentric distance but levels off when star clusters orbit the galaxy beyond {approx}40 kpc. These simulations show that the half-mass radius of individual star clusters varies significantly as they evolve over a Hubble time, more so for clusters with shorter relaxation times, and remains constant through several relaxation times only in certain situations when expansion driven by the internal dynamics of the star cluster and the influence of the host galaxy tidal field balance each other. Indeed, the radius of a star cluster evolving within the inner 20 kpc of a realistic galactic gravitational potential is severely truncated by tidal interactions and does not remain constant over a Hubble time. Furthermore, the half-mass radius of star clusters measured with present-day observations bears no memory of the original cluster size. Stellar evolution and tidal stripping are the two competing physical mechanisms that determine the present-day size of globular clusters. These simulations also show that extended star clusters can form at large galactocentric distances while remaining fully bound to the host galaxy. There is thus no need to invoke accretion from an external galaxy to explain the presence of extended clusters at large galactocentric distances in a Milky-Way-type galaxy.

Madrid, Juan P.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Sippel, Anna C. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

Feng Liubin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xi Tingting [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas of the Ministry of Education of China and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He Duanwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds  

SciTech Connect

PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Size of Cloud from Shadow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size of Cloud from Shadow Size of Cloud from Shadow Name: mike Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: I see a cloud and I see its shadow in a field - knowing high sun angles - is there a way of telling how far away the cloud is or how big? - I am thinking if the shadow is 30' wide and the sun is at 2:00 pm- ? Replies: Hi Mike, Try this, draw a small circle representing the Sun. Somewhere below this circle and maybe to the right, draw an oblong, make this oblong bigger than the circle. Now connect the leftmost edge of the circle with the leftmost edge of the oblong with a straight line. Do the same for the rightmost edges. The oblong now represent the shadow of a cloud on the ground, and the lines represent the rays of the sun passing along the edges of the cloud.

326

Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail: mkazemi@sharif.edu; Kokabi, A.H.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

High temperature size selective membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to develop a high temperature size selective membrane capable of separating gas mixture components from each other based on molecular size, using a molecular sieving mechanism. The authors are evaluating two concepts: a composite of a carbon molecular sieve (CMS) with a tightly defined pore size distribution between 3 and 4 {angstrom}, and a microporous supporting matrix which provides mechanical strength and resistance to thermal degradation, and a sandwich of a CMS film between the porous supports. The high temperature membranes the authors are developing can be used to replace the current low-temperature unit operations for separating gaseous mixtures, especially hydrogen, from the products of the water gas shift reaction at high temperatures. Membranes that have a high selectivity and have both thermal and chemical stability would improve substantially the economics of the coal gasification process. These membranes can also improve other industrial processes such as the ammonia production and oil reform processes where hydrogen separation is crucial. Results of tests on a supported membrane and an unsupported carbon film are presented.

Yates, S.F.; Zhou, S.J.; Anderson, D.J.; Til, A.E. van

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Site Map; Printable Version; Share this resource. Send a link to Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portalto someone by E-mail; Share Full Size Image - Energy ...

330

Battery-Size Regenerative Fuel Cells  

ORNL 2010-G01073/jcn UT-B ID 201002378 Battery-Size Regenerative Fuel Cells Technology Summary A battery-size regenerative fuel cell with energy ...

331

NCNR Magnetic Cluster Sizes in Recording Disks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Presently, cluster sizes are believed to be about 10 nano meters to 15 nano meters, but accurate knowledge of the size distribution and even the ...

332

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Site Map; Printable Version; Share this resource. Send a link to Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portalto someone by E-mail; Share Full Size Image ...

333

Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Gas reservoir sweet spot detection and delineation in Rocky Mountain laramide basins. Topical report, May 1993-March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes, and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin-center or deep-basin gas in Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. These two exploration elements from the basis for a new exploration paradigm. To utilize this new paradigm, the following tasks need to be included in the exploration strategy: (1) determine the position of the pressure boundary; (2) evaluate the three-dimensional aspects of the pressure boundary surface; (3) determine which depositional facies has the greatest potential for enhances storage capacity and deliverability below the pressure boundary; (4) document the determinative factors that control sweet spot development in the targeted lithofacies; and (5) detect and delineate sweet spots using 2-D and 3-D models of eletric log responses and seismic data.

Surdam, R.C.; Iverson, W.O.; Yin, P.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Field power measurements of imaging equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

we disaggregate our metering results by print engine andcollected during the spot metering test. Standby and sleepcollected during the spot metering test. Ready and sleep

McWhinney, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Roberson, Judy; Nordman, Bruce; Busch, John

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Field power measurements of imaging equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during the spot metering test. Standby and sleep power wasoff reflect spot metering, standby and sleep power reflector receiving hard copy input Standby: the condition in which

McWhinney, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Roberson, Judy; Nordman, Bruce; Busch, John

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Prior research has demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and via inhalation of infectious aerosols. Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. To detect airborne HRV, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine the assay detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 10,000-fold. This assay was used to quantify the size distribution of an artificially-produced HRV aerosol captured with an Andersen six-stage cascade impactor. In future studies, we hope to use the methods developed here to characterize the size distribution of naturally occurring viral-aerosols

339

Gradually Truncated Log-normal distribution- Size distribution of firms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many natural and economical phenomena are described through power law or log-normal distributions. In these cases, probability decreases very slowly with step size compared to normal distribution. Thus it is essential to cut-off these distributions for larger step size. Recently we introduce the gradually truncated power law distribution to successfully describe variation of financial, educational, physical and citation index. In the present work, we introduce gradually truncated log-normal distribution in which we gradually cut-off larger steps due to physical limitation of the system. We applied this distribution successfully to size distribution of USA´s manufactoring firms which is measured through their annual sell. The physical limitation are due to limited market size or shortage of highly competent executives. I.

Hari M. Gupta; José R. Campanha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Optimal Determination of Parameters for Gamma-Type Drop Size Distributions Based on Moments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured raindrop size distributions are often approximated by analytical functions. The parameters determining such functions are usually derived from measured data. This procedure can suffer from various uncertainties. The most important of ...

Jan Handwerker; Winfried Straub

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data. 2 figs.

Novick, V.J.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons Art and Science A Breakthrough in Interface Science APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots MARCH 11, 2008 Bookmark and Share Research and Design Magazine "The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has been kept busy of late." That's the first sentence of R&D Magazine's recent overview of research results from the APS. The article highlights "a new ultrafast synchrotron x-ray full-field phase contrast imaging technique and used it to reveal

344

Reciprocal space mapping by spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental approach for the recording of two-dimensional reciprocal space maps using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). A specialized alignment procedure eliminates the shifting of LEED patterns on the screen which is commonly observed upon variation of the electron energy. After the alignment, a set of one-dimensional sections through the diffraction pattern is recorded at different energies. A freely available software tool is used to assemble the sections into a reciprocal space map. The necessary modifications of the Burr-Brown computer interface of the two Leybold and Omicron type SPA-LEED instruments are discussed and step-by-step instructions are given to adapt the SPA 4.1d software to the changed hardware. Au induced faceting of 4 deg. vicinal Si(001) is used as an example to demonstrate the technique.

Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Analytic criteria for shock ignition of fusion reactions in a central hot spot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shock ignition is an inertial confinement fusion scheme where the ignition conditions are achieved in two steps. First, the DT shell is compressed at a low implosion velocity creating a central core at a low temperature and a high density. Then, a strong spherical converging shock is launched before the fuel stagnation time. It increases the central pressure and ignites the core. It is shown in this paper that this latter phase can be described analytically by using a self-similar solution to the equations of ideal hydrodynamics. A high and uniformly distributed pressure in the hot spot can be created thus providing favorable conditions for ignition. Analytic ignition criteria are obtained that relate the areal density of the compressed core with the shock velocity. The conclusions of the analytical model are confirmed in full hydrodynamic simulations.

Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Breil, J.; Lafon, M.; Le Bel, E. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1-CEA-CNRS, Talence 33405 (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding of DP 980 steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, using a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re, and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re. The sheet material used for all wear testing was 1.4 mm DP 980. Lap shear testing was used to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. The Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

Miles, Michael; Ridges, Chris; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Santella, M. L.; Steel, Russel

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

347

Size-Controlled Dissolution of Organic-Coated Silver Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be {approx}1 J/m{sup 2}, which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, {alpha}, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M.; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.; Lowry, Gregory V. (Duke)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cash, Money Laundering, and the Size of Underground Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Givenavastempiricalevidencethatcashiswidelyusedinthe underground economy, inter-governmental bodies like FATF recommend policy measures aimed at limitation of cash and at combat of money laundering. We show that there is no simple monotone relationship between policy and the size of underground economy, so that the policy has at best a limited scope.

Alexei Deviatov

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation S. Trieste Energy storage, Supercapacitor, Ultra capacitors, Traction application, Measurement, Efficiency, Device of supercapacitors used as a main energy source. First of all, the paper presents the two definitions of capacitance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Aerosol Size Distributions from Genetic Inversion of Polar Nephelometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that genetic inversions can be used to recover lognormal aerosol size distributions from multiangle optical scattering cross-section data measured by a polar nephelometer at a wavelength of 0.532 ?m. The inversions can also be used to ...

B. R. Lienert; J. N. Porter; S. K. Sharma

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

7, 15951622, 2007 Particle size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...........................................................................................26 Time-resolved measurements of surface diffusion induced by ultrashort laser pulses K. Stépán, M-ray radiation-induced damage in DNA monitored by XPS Sylwia Ptasinska...................................................................................................................67 Dissociative Electron Attachment to Fragile Biomolecules Using Laser Induced Acoustic Desorption

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Emerging Technology for Measuring Atmospheric Aerosol Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven Laboratory and with funding from the DOE STTR program. DMT is developing a new technique for measuring aerosol size distributions in the sub-0.1 um size range. The...

353

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

354

Closed form solutions to simultaneous buffer insertion/sizing and wire sizing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider the delay minimization problem of an interconnect wire by simultaneously considering buffer insertion, buffer sizing and wire sizing. We consider three cases, namely using no buffer (i.e., wire sizing alone), using a given ... Keywords: buffer insertion, buffer sizing, closed form solution, interconnect optimization, wire sizing

Chris Chu; D. F. Wong

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens uses the geomagnetic field for two forms of spatial orientation: (1)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens uses the geomagnetic field for two forms also use the geomagnetic field to derive map information (Fischer et al., 2001; Phillips et al., 2002 from the geomagnetic field (Phillips and Borland, 1994). Under long- wavelength light, therefore

Phillips, John B.

356

Beam power and angle adaptation in multibeam 2.5 Gbit/s spot diffusing mobile optical wireless system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mobility can induce significant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance degradation in optical wireless (OW) systems based on diffuse as well as spot-diffusing configurations. Two methods (beam angle and beam power adaptation) are introduced to the design ... Keywords: beam angle adaptation, diversity receiver, optical wireless communication, transmit power adaptation

Fuad E. Alsaadi; Jaafar M. H. Elmirghani

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Characterization of Grain Size, Morphology, Transmittance, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2010 ... Characterization of Minerals, Metals and Materials: Characterization of Grain Size, Morphology, Transmittance, and Tomography Sponsored ...

358

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

A coin-sized integrated circuit developed by researchers at PNNL may help solve the nation's overworked electricity grid.

359

Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing  

SciTech Connect

BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency by reducing pumping costs through optimum pipe sizing.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The Role of Ice Particle Shapes and Size Distributions in the Single Scattering Properties of Cirrus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The roles of ice particle size distributions (SDs) and particle shapes in cirrus cloud solar radiative transfer are investigated by analyzing SDs obtained from optical array probe measurements (particle sizes larger than 20–40 ?m) during ...

Andreas Macke; Peter N. Francis; Greg M. McFarquhar; Stefan Kinne

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Field Observations of In-Cloud Nucleation and the Modification of Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distributions after Cloud Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors measured aerosol and droplet size distributions in the range from 0.1 to 50 µm, concentrations and sizes of precipitation particles, concentrations of condensation nuclei, and state parameters in and in the vicinity of a towering ...

A. J. Alkezweeny

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Preliminary Investigations of the Effect of Particle Size and Tip Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Preliminary Investigations of the Effect of Particle Size and Tip Size in the Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) of Nickel Powder ...

363

Size-dependent same-material tribocharging in insulating grains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of flowing granular matter have suggested that same-material tribocharging de- pends on particle size, rendering large grains positive and small ones negative. Models assuming the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this, but so far have not been validated. Tracking individual grains in an electric field, we show quantitatively that charge is transferred based on size between materially identical grains. However, the surface density of trapped electrons, measured independently by thermoluminescence techniques, is orders of magnitude too small to account for the scale of charge transferred. This suggests that another negatively charged species, such as ions, is responsible.

Scott R. Waitukaitis; Victor Lee; James M. Pierson; Steven L. Forman; Heinrich M. Jaeger

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

364

HOT AND COLD SPOT COUNTS AS PROBES OF NON-GAUSSIANITY IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the numbers of hot and cold spots, n{sub h} and n{sub c} , of excursion sets of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps as statistical observables that can discriminate different non-Gaussian models. We numerically compute them from simulations of non-Gaussian CMB temperature fluctuation maps. The first kind of non-Gaussian model we study is the local type primordial non-Gaussianity. The second kind of model has some specific form of the probability distribution function from which the temperature fluctuation value at each pixel is drawn, obtained using HEALPIX. We find the characteristic non-Gaussian deviation shapes of n{sub h} and n{sub c} , which is distinct for each of the models under consideration. We further demonstrate that n{sub h} and n{sub c} carry additional information compared to the genus, which is just their linear combination, making them valuable additions to the Minkowski Functionals in constraining non-Gaussianity.

Chingangbam, Pravabati [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala II Block, Bangalore 560034 (India); Park, Changbom [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Yogendran, K. P. [Indian Institute for Science Education and Research, Mohali (India); Van de Weygaert, Rien, E-mail: prava@iiap.res.in, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr, E-mail: pattag@gmail.com, E-mail: weygaert@astro.rug.nl [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9747 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

365

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

366

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Size of Buildings Size of Buildings Size of Buildings The 1999 CBECS estimated that 2,348,000 commercial buildings, or just over half (50.4 percent) of total buildings, were found in the smallest building size category (1,001 to 5,000 square feet) (Figure 1). Only 7,000 buildings occupied the largest size category (over 500,000 square feet). Detailed tables Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999 Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999. If having trouble viewing this page, please contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The middle size categories (10,001 to 100,000 square feet) had relatively more floorspace per category than smaller or larger size categories (Figure 2). The greatest amount of floorspace, about 11,153,000 square feet (or 17 percent of total floorspace) was found in the 10,001 to 25,000 square feet category. Figure 2. Distribution of Floorspace by Size of Building, 1999

367

Particle-Size-Distribution of Nevada Test Site Soils  

SciTech Connect

The amount of each size particle in a given soil is called the particle-size distribution (PSD), and the way it feels to the touch is called the soil texture. Sand, silt, and clay are the three particle sizes of mineral material found in soils. Sand is the largest sized particle and it feels gritty; silt is medium sized and it feels floury; and clay is the smallest and if feels sticky. Knowing the particle-size distribution of a soil sample helps to understand many soil properties such as how much water, heat, and nutrients the soil will hold, how fast water and heat will move through the soil, and what kind of structure, bulk density and consistence the soil will have. Furthermore, the native particle-size distribution of the soil in the vicinity of ground zero of a nuclear detonation plays a major role in nuclear fallout. For soils that have a high-sand content, the near-range fallout will be relatively high and the far-range fallout will be relatively light. Whereas, for soils that have a high-silt and high-clay content, the near-range fallout will be significantly lower and the far-range fallout will be significantly higher. As part of a program funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has recently measured the PSDs from the various major areas at the Nevada Test Site where atmospheric detonations and/or nuclear weapon safety tests were performed back in the 50s and 60s. The purpose of this report is to document those results.

Spriggs, G; Ray-Maitra, A

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

368

PowerPlex Fusion Product Size Ranges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The schematic diagram illustrates the fluorescent dye label color and relative PCR product size ranges for the various STR loci present in this ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

369

Bird's Eggs - Their Size, Shape and Color  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Engine Table of Contents Copyright Disclaimer Bird's Eggs - Their Size, Shape and Color Nature Bulletin No. 455-A April 29, 1972 Forest Preserve District of Cook...

370

Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002asl2.441 Meeting Report Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution, chemical composition, and...

371

Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 14, 2013 ... We study the lot-sizing problem with piecewise concave production costs ... is to propose a minimum cost production plan to satisfy the demand ...

372

Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A. [Nanomaterials Program, Advance Materials Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000, Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia)

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

373

and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Past and Future Trends of Energy Use in Key Medium and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory abstract p...

374

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Share Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal on Facebook; ... Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America;

375

Optimization Online - Lot sizing with inventory gains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 27, 2006 ... Abstract: This paper introduces the single item lot sizing problem with inventory gains. This problem is a generalization of the classical single ...

376

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

377

The IkBa/NF-kB complex has two hot spots, one at either end of the interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The IkBa/NF-kB complex has two hot spots, one at either end of the interface SIMON BERGQVIST,1 of NF-kB family members via its ankyrin repeat (AR) domain. The binding affinity of IkBa with NF-kB(p50/p65) heterodimers and NF-kB(p65/65) homodimers is in the picomolar range, and in the cell

Komives, Elizabeth A.

378

Coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal noise of a mirror is one of the limiting noise sources in the high precision measurement such as gravitational-wave detection, and the modeling of thermal noise has been developed and refined over a decade. In this paper, we present a derivation of coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The result agrees to a previous result with an infinite-size mirror in the limit of large thickness, and also agrees to an independent result based on the mode expansion with a thin-mirror approximation. Our study will play an important role not only to accurately estimate the thermal-noise level of gravitational-wave detectors but also to help analyzing thermal noise in quantum-measurement experiments with lighter mirrors.

Kentaro Somiya; Kazuhiro Yamamoto

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

379

A Laboratory Method for Ash Particle Size Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing stringent particulate emissions limits are putting more pressure on power producers to improve electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance. In an effort to select the most cost effective upgrade option, many power plant engineers are using ESP computer models to estimate the impact of the available options. These models are sensitive to the fly ash particle size distribution used in the calculations, but the actual distribution is rarely known. Furthermore, measuring this distribution has, in...

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

380

Experimental Characterization of BORAL® Pore Size and Volume Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study has measured pore size and pore volume of six different production batches of BORAL. The study included production lots that are known for being either blister prone or blister resistant under simulated canister wetting/vacuum drying conditions, or known to form edge blisters while in the spent-fuel pool. Additional production lots for which blister performance is unknown also were tested. Blisters in the cladding of BORAL, if large enough, can deform stainless steel walls in storage racks and...

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Robust gate sizing by geometric programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an efficient optimization scheme for gate sizing in the presence of process variations. Using a posynomial delay model, the delay constraints are modified to incorporate uncertainty in the transistor widths and effective channel lengths due ... Keywords: gate sizing, geometric program, optimization, posynomial, uncertainty ellipsoid

Jaskirat Singh; Vidyasagar Nookala; Zhi-Quan Luo; Sachin Sapatnekar

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Economy size and performance: An efficiency analysis in the telecommunications sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existing empirical evidence on the relationship between economy size and performance has been inconclusive. This paper employs stochastic frontier analysis to estimate economic measures of efficiency for the telecommunications sectors of 139 economies ... Keywords: Economy size, Performance, Policy, Polity, Stochastic frontier analysis, Telecommunications

Pavlos C. Symeou

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Entrepreneurs' Networks: Size, Diversity and Composition Shaped by Cultures of Rationality and Trust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The network around an entrepreneur is conceptualized as having structural properties of size, diversity and composition as network components of varying prominence in the entrepreneur's network. These properties are important by impacting entrepreneurs' ... Keywords: Cultural differences,Analysis of variance,Innovation management,Monitoring,Educational institutions,Size measurement,Global Entrepreneurship Monitor,Entrepreneurs,networks,culture

Thomas Schott; Maryam Cheraghi

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

ARM - Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Select below to highlight measurements in specified measurement categories. Aerosols The effect of aerosols is measured by instrument systems and lidars that provide data...

385

Polarimetric Measurements in a Severe Hailstorm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study explores the utility of polarimetric measurements for discriminating between hydrometeor types with the emphasis on (a) hail detection and discrimination of its size, (b) measurement of heavy precipitation, (c) identification and ...

D. S. Zrni?; V. N. Bringi; N. Balakrishnan; K. Aydin; V. Chandrasekar; J. Hubbert

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Relationships between the Raindrop Size Distribution and Properties of the Environment and Clouds Inferred from TRMM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raindrop size distribution (DSD) retrievals from two years of data gathered by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and processed with a combined radar–radiometer algorithm over the oceans equatorward of 35° are examined for ...

S. Joseph Munchak; Christian D. Kummerow; Gregory Elsaesser

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Estimation of Gamma Raindrop Size Distribution Parameters: Statistical Fluctuations and Estimation Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gamma distribution is often used to characterize raindrop size distributions (DSDs). However, the estimation of measured raindrop distributions suffers from the shortcomings of statistical sampling errors, which become increasingly ...

Cécile Mallet; Laurent Barthes

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Errors in Estimating Raindrop Size Distribution Parameters Employing Disdrometer and Simulated Raindrop Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been debates and differences of opinion over the validity of using drop size distribution (DSD) models to characterize precipitation microphysics and to retrieve DSD parameters from multiparameter radar measurements. In this paper, ...

Qing Cao; Guifu Zhang

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A Preliminary Analysis of Spatial Variability of Raindrop Size Distributions during Stratiform Rain Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) and precipitation fields is investigated utilizing disdrometric measurements from the four Precipitation Occurrence Sensor Systems (POSS) and radar reflectivity fields from S-band dual-...

Choong Ke Lee; Gyu Won Lee; Isztar Zawadzki; Kyung-Eak Kim

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Feasibility-study for space-based transit photometry using mid-sized nanosatellites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The photometric precision needed to measure a transit of small planets cannot be achieved by taking observations from the ground, so observations must be made from space. Mid-sized nanosatellites can provide a low-cost ...

Bowens-Rubin, Rachel (Rachel A.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Chemical Heterogeneity across Cloud Droplet Size Spectra in Continental and Marine Air Masses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variations in the chemical composition of cloud droplets of different sizes are predicted in models. Measurements made in natural clouds to verify this prediction are extremely limited, however. During the spring of 1995 and the summers of 1995 ...

Surabi Menon; V. K. Saxena; B. D. Logie

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Functional Fits to Some Observed Drop Size Distributions and Parameterization of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A data sample of optical spectrometer measurements that were obtained in two tropical cyclones is analyzed. The resultant drop size distributions are normalized and their shape is found to exhibit some curvature-departure from exponentiality. ...

Paul T. Willis

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Air Entrainment Processes and Bubble Size Distributions in the Surf Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new optical instrument was deployed in the surf zone in a trial experiment to measure bubble size distributions and visualize air entrainment and bubble formation mechanisms within breaking surf. Images of bubbles and the evolving air–water ...

Grant B. Deane; M. Dale Stokes

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Measuring Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Compressed Natural Gas Retail Motor-Fuel Dispensers; Hydrogen Measuring Devices; Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquid-Measuring Devices; Loading ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

396

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time  

SciTech Connect

The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Small- and Medium-Sized Reactors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to essentially the same concept. As defined by the IAEA, a small reactor has an output electrical power of 300 MWe or less while a medium-sized reactor has an electrical power...

398

The Shape of Averaged Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of averaged drop size distributions (DSD) is studied from a large sample of data (892 h) collected at several sites of various latitudes. The results show that neither the hypothesis of an exponential distribution to represent rainfall ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

A General Formulation for Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general phenomenological formulation for drop size distribution (DSD), written down as a scaling law, is proposed. It accounts for all previous fitted DSDs. As a main implication of the expression proposed, the integral rainfall variables are ...

Daniel Sempere Torres; Josep M. Porrà; Jean-Dominique Creutin

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Gamma Size Distribution and Stochastic Sampling Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A maximum likelihood approach to the application of the gamma size distribution is described and compared with the method of moments approach suggested by Ulbrich. Estimation of distribution parameters based on the maximum likelihood principle ...

Raymond K. W. Wong; Norman Chidambaram

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The expected size of the orbits - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apparently, this data does not exclude or confirm a growth rate of . Another ... for fixed , the size of the orbit should increase with q as predicted by (6.7) and (6.8).

402

Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Tables 1. West Virginia Public Higher Education Graduate Work Participation By Area Of Concentration .................................................................................................1 Employment And Annualized Wages By West Virginia Firm Employment Size.....................................................18 Appendix I: Detailed Description Of Employment Data .........................................19

Mohaghegh, Shahab

403

nano sized lead free solder paste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 16, 2010 ... A while ago, I read an article about development of nano size Pb-free solder paste to reduce the melting point by increasing surface energy.

404

Temperature dependence of the indentation size effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of temperature on the indentation size effect is explored experimentally. Copper is indented on a custom-built high-temperature nanoindenter at temperatures between ambient and 200 °C, in an inert atmosphere ...

Franke, Oliver

405

Development of an Inexpensive Raindrop Size Spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deployment of weather radar, notably in mountainous terrain with many microclimates, requires the use of several or even many drop size spectrometers to provide confidence in the quantitative relation between radar reflectivity and rainfall. ...

William Henson; Geoff Austin; Harry Oudenhoven

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Crushed Coal Particle Size Distribution Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes an evaluation of different commercially available technologies for on-line monitoring of crushed coal size distribution with a subsequent laboratory test of the most promising system. The technology evaluation focused on image-based approaches for evaluating crushed coal size distribution that would address previous challenges encountered, including depth of field, image scale dependency upon the distance of the sample from the lens, image shadows caused by perimeter lighting, ...

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

407

Oxygen chemisorption on Cu(19 19 1) studied by spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Cu(110) and the vicinal Cu(19 19 1) surfaces were characterized by recording maps of the reciprocal space by means of spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). For both surfaces, kinematic simulations were performed to get insight into the main features of the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that chemisorption of oxygen and subsequent annealing lead to the formation of a Cu-CuO stripe phase and induce faceting of the Cu(19 19 1) surface. The evolution from the clean Cu(19 19 1) surface to the coexistence of the (110) and (111) facets with increasing oxygen exposure was characterized by SPA-LEED.

Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Magnetostatic focal spot correction for x-ray tubes operating in strong magnetic fields using iterative optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Combining x-ray fluoroscopy and MR imaging systems for guidance of interventional procedures has become more commonplace. By designing an x-ray tube that is immune to the magnetic fields outside of the MR bore, the two systems can be placed in close proximity to each other. A major obstacle to robust x-ray tube design is correcting for the effects of the magnetic fields on the x-ray tube focal spot. A potential solution is to design active shielding that locally cancels the magnetic fields near the focal spot. Methods: An iterative optimization algorithm is implemented to design resistive active shielding coils that will be placed outside the x-ray tube insert. The optimization procedure attempts to minimize the power consumption of the shielding coils while satisfying magnetic field homogeneity constraints. The algorithm is composed of a linear programming step and a nonlinear programming step that are interleaved with each other. The coil results are verified using a finite element space charge simulation of the electron beam inside the x-ray tube. To alleviate heating concerns an optimized coil solution is derived that includes a neodymium permanent magnet. Any demagnetization of the permanent magnet is calculated prior to solving for the optimized coils. The temperature dynamics of the coil solutions are calculated using a lumped parameter model, which is used to estimate operation times of the coils before temperature failure. Results: For a magnetic field strength of 88 mT, the algorithm solves for coils that consume 588 A/cm{sup 2}. This specific coil geometry can operate for 15 min continuously before reaching temperature failure. By including a neodymium magnet in the design the current density drops to 337 A/cm{sup 2}, which increases the operation time to 59 min. Space charge simulations verify that the coil designs are effective, but for oblique x-ray tube geometries there is still distortion of the focal spot shape along with deflections of approximately 3 mm in the radial and circumferential directions on the anode. Conclusions: Active shielding is an attractive solution for correcting the effects of magnetic fields on the x-ray focal spot. If extremely long fluoroscopic exposure times are required, longer operation times can be achieved by including a permanent magnet with the active shielding design.

Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Conolly, Steven M.; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Size effect and fracture characteristics of composite laminates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the size effect on the nominal strength of notched specimens of fiber composite laminates are reported. Tests were conducted on graphite/epoxy crossply and quasi-isotropic laminates. The specimens were rectangular strips of widths 6.4, 12.7, 25.4 and 50.8 mm (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 in.) geometrically similar in two dimensions. The gage lengths were 25, 51, 102 and 203 mm (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 in.). One set of specimens had double-edge notches and a [0/92{sub 2}]{sub s} crossply layup, and another set had a single-sided edge notch and a [0/{+-}45/90]{sub s} quasi-isotropic layup. It has been found that there is a significant size effect on the nominal strength. It approximately agrees with the size effect law proposed by Bazant, according to which the curve of the logarithm of the nominal strength versus the logarithm of size represents a smooth transition from a horizontal asymptote, corresponding to the strength criterion (plastic limit analysis), to an inclined asymptote of {minus}0.5 slope, corresponding to linear elastic fracture mechanics. Optimum fits of the test results to identify the material fracture characteristics, particularly the fracture energy and the effective length of the fracture process zone. Finally, the R-curves are also identified on the basis of the maximum load data. The results show that in design situations with notches or large initial traction-free cracks the size effect on the nominal strength of fiber composite laminates must be taken into account.

Bazant, Z.P.; Daniel, I.M.; Li, Z. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Size separation in vibrated granular matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent developments in size separation in vibrated granular materials. Motivated by a need in industry to efficiently handle granular materials and a desire to make fundamental advances in non-equilibrium physics, experimental and theoretical investigations have shown size separation to be a complex phenomena. Large particles in a vibrated granular system invariably rise to the top. However, they may also sink to the bottom, or show other patterns depending on subtle variations in physical conditions. While size ratio is a dominant factor, particle specific properties such as density, inelasticity and friction can play an important role. The nature of the energy input, boundary conditions and interstitial air have been also shown to be significant factors in determining spatial distributions. The presence of convection can enhance mixing or lead to size separation. Experimental techniques including direct visualization and magnetic resonance imaging are being used to investigate these properties. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation techniques have been developed to probe size separation. Analytical methods such as kinetic theory are being used to study the interplay between particle size and density in the vibro-fluidized regime, and geometric models have been proposed to describe size separation for deep beds. Besides discussing these studies, we will also review the impact of inelastic collision and friction on the density and velocity distributions to gain a deeper appreciation of the non-equilibrium nature of the system. While a substantial number of studies have been accomplished, considerable work is still required to achieve a firm description of the phenomena.

A. Kudrolli

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

411

Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recommended steam system energy efficiency measures Based on analyses implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics payback period...

413

Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure  

SciTech Connect

Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

Koski, Kristie Jo

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Particle impact damping: influence of material and size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, particle impact damping is measured for a cantilever beam with a particle-filled enclosure attached to its free end. Many particle materials are tested: lead spheres, steel spheres, glass spheres, tungsten carbide pellets, lead dust, steel dust, and sand. The effects of particle size are also investigated. Particle diameters are varied from about 0.2 mm to 3 mm. The experimental data collected is offered as a resourceful database for future development of an analytical model of particle impact damping.

Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Experimental study of full-size automated venetian blind windows  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an experimental study on full-size automated venetian blind window systems consisting of horizontal pivoted louvers installed and hermetically sealed between two glass panes. The experimental study was carried out using a test cell of 2.43 m high, 1.48 m wide, and 1.92 m deep. Various parameters were measured instantaneously and recorded using a data acquisition system: interior and exterior air temperatures; various surface temperatures; and total and direct solar radiations. A linearized numerical model was used to verify the experimental results.

Rheault, S.; Bilgen, E. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Humidity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Quantities. Humidity Measurements. Rate our Services. Technical ... Special Tests of Humidity (36070S). Tests ...

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

417

Development of Appropriate Spot Welding Practice for Advanced High Strength Steels (TRP 0114)  

SciTech Connect

This program evaluated the effects of common manufacturing variables on spike-tempering effectiveness. The investigation used design-of-experiment (DOE) techniques, and examined both dual-phase and martensitic grades of high-strength steels (HSS). The specific grades chosen for this project were: Dual-phase (DP) 600, galvannealed (GA), 1.55 mm (DP) 600; Dual-phase (DP) 980 (uncoated), 1.55 mm (DP) 980; and Martensitic (M) 1300, 1.55 mm (M) 1300. Common manufacturing conditions of interest included tempering practice (quench and temper time), button size, simulated part fitup (sheet angular misalignment and fitup), and electrode wear (increased electrode face diameter). All of these conditions were evaluated against mechanical performance (static and dynamic tensile shear). Weld hardness data was also used to examine correlations between mechanical performance and the degree of tempering. Mechanical performance data was used to develop empirical models. The models were used to examine the robustness of weld strength and toughness to the selected processing conditions. This was done using standard EWI techniques. Graphical representations of robustness were then coupled with metallographic data to relate mechanical properties to the effectiveness of spike tempering. Mechanical properties for all three materials were relatively robust to variation in tempering. Major deviations in mechanical properties were caused by degradation of the weld itself. This was supported by a lack of correlation between hardness data and mechanical results. Small button sizes and large electrode face diameters (worn electrodes) produced large reductions in both static and dynamic strength levels when compared to standard production setups. Dynamic strength was further degraded by edge-located welds.

Brian Girvin; Warren Peterson; Jerry Gould

2004-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

418

The Sampling Variations of Hailstone Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a shifted gamma size distribution for hailstone samples is proposed. This is shown to provide a better fit than the usual exponential form, using time-resolved Alberta data. It is also concluded that there is a dependence of the shape ...

Raymond K. W. Wong; Norman Chidambaram; Lawrence Cheng; Marianne English

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Towards Palm-Size Autonomous Helicopters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

muFly EU project started in 2006 with the idea to build an autonomous micro helicopter, comparable in size and weight to a small bird. Several scientific and technological objectives were identified. This spanned from system-level integration, high efficiency ... Keywords: Graph based SLAM, Micro actuators, Micro helicopter, Multi-directional triangulation

Samir Bouabdallah; Christian Bermes; Slawomir Grzonka; Christiane Gimkiewicz; Alain Brenzikofer; Robert Hahn; Dario Schafroth; Giorgio Grisetti; Wolfram Burgard; Roland Siegwart

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Modeling Maximum Hail Size in Alberta Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional steady-state cloud model was combined with a time-dependent hail growth model to predict the maximum hailstone size on the ground. Model runs were based on 160 proximity soundings recorded within the Alberta Hail Project area ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Eugene R. Poolman

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The Distribution of Cloud Horizontal Sizes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud horizontal size distributions from near-global satellite data, from aircraft, and from a global high-resolution numerical weather prediction model, are presented for the scale range 0.1–8000 km and are shown to be well-represented using a ...

Robert Wood; Paul R. Field

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Reducing code size through address register assignment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In DSP processors, minimizing the amount of address calculations is critical for reducing code size and improving performance, since studies of programs have shown that instructions that manipulate address registers constitute a significant portion of ... Keywords: DSP, Software compilation, address registers, register assignment

G. Chen; M. Kandemir; M. J. Irwin; J. Ramanujam

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Sun Spot Two; Swink, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

424

Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Sun Spot Two; Swink, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

425

Size-independent vs. size-dependent policies in scheduling heavy-tailed distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of scheduling jobs on a two-machine distributed server, where the job size distribution is heavy-tailed. We focus on two distributions, for which we prove that the performance of the optimal size-independent ...

Nham, John (John T.)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The dune size distribution and scaling relations of barchan dune fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barchan dunes emerge as a collective phenomena involving the generation of thousands of them in so called barchan dune fields. By measuring the size and position of dunes in Moroccan barchan dune fields, we find that these dunes tend to distribute uniformly in space and follow an unique size distribution function. We introduce an analyticalmean-field approach to show that this empirical size distribution emerges from the interplay of dune collisions and sand flux balance, the two simplest mechanisms for size selection. The analytical model also predicts a scaling relation between the fundamental macroscopic properties characterizing a dune field, namely the inter-dune spacing and the first and second moments of the dune size distribution.

Orencio Durán; Veit Schwämmle; Pedro G. Lind; Hans J. Herrmann

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

427

INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect

The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations.

Schlichting, Hilke E. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E., E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

429

Measuring circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic gain control circuit functions to adjust the magnitude of an input signal supplied to a measuring circuit to a level within the dynamic range of the measuring circuit while a log-ratio circuit adjusts the magnitude of the output signal from the measuring circuit to the level of the input signal and optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio performance of the measuring circuit.

Sun, Shan C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Chaprnka, Anthony G. (Cockeysville, MD)

1977-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

Nanocalorimetry Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Establishing feedback controlled instrumentation should provide for greater accuracy in the thermodynamic measurements. The new control system ...

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Virtual Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... measurements, in some applications. The dollar value of computational predictions will be greatly enhanced. Goals. In the near ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

432

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Title Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Journal of Aerosol Science Keywords emission, motor vehicle, particle number, size distribution, tunnel Abstract Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from ~61 000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and ~2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter Dp > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 ± 1.4) x 1014 and (3.3 ± 1.3) x 1015 # kg-1 fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < Dp < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as Dp decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting

433

Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

Maris, Humphrey J (Barrington, RI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

Maris, Humphrey J (Barrington, RI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Quantum size effects in classical hadrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses future directions in the development of classical hydrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. The present version of the theory includes only the neutral scalar ({sigma}) and neutral vector ({omega}) meson fields. In the future, additional isovector pseudoscalar ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup 0}), isovector vector ({rho}{sup +}, {rho}{sup {minus}}, {rho}{sup 0}), and neutral pseudoscalar ({eta}) meson fields should be incorporated. Quantum size effects should be included in the equations of motion by use of the spreading function of Moniz and Sharp, which generates an effective nucleon mass density smeared out over a Compton wavelength. However, unlike the situation in electrodynamics, the Compton wavelength of the nucleon is small compared to its radius, so that effects due to the intrinsic size of the nucleon dominate.

Nix, J.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A simulation study to verify Stone's simultaneous water and gas injection performance in a 5-spot pattern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water alternating gas (WAG) injection is a proven technique to enhance oil recovery. It has been successfully implemented in the field since 1957 with recovery increase in the range of 5-10% of oil-initially-in-place (OIIP). In 2004, Herbert L. Stone presented a simultaneous water and gas injection technique. Gas is injected near the bottom of the reservoir and water is injected directly on top at high rates to prevent upward channeling of the gas. Stone's mathematical model indicated the new technique can increase vertical sweep efficiency by 3-4 folds over WAG. In this study, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to predict the performance of Stone's technique and compare it to WAG and other EOR injection strategies. Two sets of relative permeability data were considered. Multiple combinations of total injection rates (water plus gas) and water/gas ratios as well as injection schedules were investigated to find the optimum design parameters for an 80 acre 5-spot pattern unit. Results show that injecting water above gas may result in better oil recovery than WAG injection though not as indicated by Stone. Increase in oil recovery with SSWAG injection is a function of the gas critical saturation. The more gas is trapped in the formation, the higher oil recovery is obtained. This is probably due to the fact that areal sweep efficiency is a more dominant factor in a 5-spot pattern. Periodic shut-off of the water injector has little effect on oil recovery. Water/gas injection ratio optimization may result in a slight increase in oil recovery. SSWAG injection results in a steady injection pressure and less fluctuation in gas production rate compared to WAG injection.

Barnawi, Mazen Taher

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor image  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

image image ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor image Images of hydrometeors from which one can derive characteristics such as size and shape. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments LEARJET : Lear Jet PARTIMG : Particle imager UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager UAV-PROTEUS : UAV Proteus

438

SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & InformationAdmin Support SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & InformationAdmin Support December...

439

Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size and Expectations for Growth Title Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors...

440

Effect of Coke Particle Size on Sinter Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The effect of different Coke particle size on sinter quality has been investigated. Eight different coke particle sizes were chosen and sinter ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Analytical Solutions to the Stochastic Kinetic Equation for Liquid and Ice Particle Size Spectra. Part I: Small-Size Fraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetic equation of stochastic condensation for cloud drop size spectra is extended to account for crystalline clouds and also to include the accretion–aggregation process. The size spectra are separated into small and large size fractions ...

Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov; Judith A. Curry

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A Survey of Radar Rain Measurement Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods used to estimate rainfall rate R are surveyed. The distribution N(D) of drop sizes is of central importance in determining the reflectivity factor Z, attenuation rate K, and R. With single-parameter measurement techniques either ...

Richard J. Doviak

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Solid particle measurement by image analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A good size measurement method should meet at least three criteria. These are rotational invariance, reproducibility and embody overall shape description (elongation / flakiness or angularity). According to these three criteria, this paper analyzes and ...

Weixing Wang; BingCui

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Impedance measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... no means of measuring or monitoring the oven's ... Services at ambient conditions outside these limits are ... Service for Voltage Transformers and High ...

2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

445

length measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A greased steel surface coming in contact with newspaper, wrapping paper ... on Measurement and Inspection in Industry by Computer Aided Laser ...

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

446

Rheological measurements in reduced gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA’s KC?135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate

Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov; Ruel A. Overfelt

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Matching equipment size to the cooling load  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a heat extraction rate analysis method, using ASHRAE algorithms that enables HVAC system designers to optimally size cooling equipment. The final stage of the cooling load calculation process determines the heat extraction rate required to achieve design conditions. Put another way, this stage determines the equipment capacity required to match the cooling load profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile. It is a stage in the design process that, in practice, may not be given the attention it deserves.

Bloom, B. (Harvey Toub Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Source geometric considerations for OMEGA Dante measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Dante is a 15 channel filtered diode array which is installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The system yields the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from 50 eV to 10 keV from various targets (i.e., Hohlraum, gas pipes, etc.). The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and an unfold algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The unfold algorithm assumes an emitting source that is spatially uniform and has a constant area as a function of photon energy. The emitting x-ray source is usually considered to be the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a given diameter for Hohlraum type targets or the effective wall area of high conversion efficiency K-shell type targets. This assumption can be problematic for several reasons. High intensity regions or 'hot spots' in the x-ray are observed where the drive laser beams strike the target. The 'hot spots' create non-uniform emission seen by the Dante. Additionally, thinned walled (50 {mu}m) low-Z targets (C{sub 22}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) have an energy dependent source size since the target's walls will be fully opaque for low energies (E < 2-3 keV) yet fully transmissive at higher energies. Determining accurate yields can be challenging for these types of targets. Discussion and some analysis will be presented.

May, M. J.; Patterson, J. R.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Perez, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Sorce, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Selection, Sizing, and Testing of Stream Traps in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For maximum effectiveness in steam systems, steam traps should have operating characteristics which closely match the requirements of the applications for which they are used. A trap which holds back condensate until it is subcooled and some of the sensible heat has been utilized is unsuitable where the need is to get maximum output from an exchanger by discharging condensate as soon as it forms. Equally, a trap discharging condensate at steam temperature can exacerbate flash steam problems in cases where surplus heat exchange area exists and a subcooling trap might be more suitable. In all cases, undersized traps simply cannot drain condensate from the steam equipment at the required rate, while oversized traps which cost more will usually wear faster and begin leaking expensive steam. This emphasizes the need for carefully selecting trap sizes that are properly engineered for maximum system efficiency. And, of course, the ability of a trap to cope with varying loads and to discharge noncondensible gases is often important. The recommended procedure is to first select the trap type which has performance capabilities that satisfy specific application needs, and then to choose a size which handles the condensate load without any unnecessary excess capacity. The Selection Guide, Table 1, is not comprehensive but helps in many applications where no unusual operating conditions or severe corrosion problems exist. Choosing the correct trap size then implies estimating the steam consumption rate, which of course equals the condensate load. Sometimes the load has already been measured, or the rated output of the steam equipment is known or can be obtained from the original manufacturer. In other cases, an estimate must be made and a Table o f Load Formulas will help although it, too, cannot be comprehensive. After making the best possible estimate of the load, a safety factor is applied. This allows for any inaccuracies in the estimating, for increased condensation rates at start-up, and for lower than anticipated pressure differentials across the trap.

Armer, A.; Risko, J. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Perfect Nanocube: Precise Control of Size, Shape, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Perfect Nanocube: Precise Control of Size, Shape, and Composition. For Immediate Release: August 31, 2010. ...

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

451

An efficient approach to simultaneous transistor and interconnect sizing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the simultaneous transistor and interconnect sizing (STIS) problem. We define a class of optimization problems as CH-posynomial programs and reveal a general dominance property for all CH-posynomial programs. We show that the ... Keywords: CH-posynomial programs, STIS, circuit CAD, driver/buffer, transistor and interconnect sizing, transistor sizing, wire sizing problem

Jason Cong; Lei He

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Distance-Scaled Water Concentrations versus Mass-Median Drop Size, Temperature, and Altitude in Supercooled Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 28 000 nautical miles (n mi) of select in-flight measurements of liquid water content (LWC), droplet sizes, temperature, and other variables in supercooled clouds from a variety of research projects over portions of North America, Europe, ...

Richard K. Jeck

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Plastic Straining of Iridium Alloy DOP-26 During Cup Sizing Operations  

SciTech Connect

DOP-26 iridium alloy cups are used for fuel cladding for radioisotope power systems. The cups are deep drawn and recrystallized prior to final fabrication operations. This study characterizes the plastic deformation of cups during a sizing operation following the recrystallization heat treatment. The purpose of the sizing operation is to achieve the specified roundness, diameter, and radius dimensions of the cup. The operation introduces various levels of plastic strain in the cup. Plastic strain can be a cause of inhomogeneous or abnormal grain growth during subsequent exposure to elevated temperature during the service life of the fueled clad. This is particularly true in the case of cups which have irregularities in the cup walls from the deep drawing operations. Diameter and roundness measurements were made on two cups both before and after sizing. Plastic strain levels were calculated using the ABAQUSTM finite element software. The calculated plastic strain levels in both cups were below 0.025, a value shown to be below the critical strain for abnormal grain growth during a simulated service exposure. The calculated maximum plastic strain was found to increase with increased applied sizing load and was not sensitive to the input value for the clearance between the cup and the sizing die. The calculated geometry of the sized cups was in good agreement with the measurements on the finished cups.

Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL; Ulrich, George B [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Size-based Scheduling with Differentiated Services to Improve Response Time of Highly Varying Flow Sizes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sizes of Internet objects are known to be highly varying. We evaluate an M/G/1 queue under foreground background N (FBN ) scheduling policy for job size distributions with varying coefficient of variability (CoV) to analyze the impact of variability of job sizes to the performance of the policy. We find that FBN is very efficient in reducing the response time and minimizing the number of jobs that are penalized (i.e., have a higher response time under FBN than under processor sharing (PS)) when job sizes have a high CoV. We also propose and analyze variants of FBN called fixed priority FBN (FP \\Gamma FBN ) and differential FBN (DF \\Gamma FBN ), which introduce service differentiation by classifying jobs into high priority and low priority and then servicing the high priority before low priority jobs in an FBN related order. The numerical analysis conducted for highly varying job sizes reveals that FP \\Gamma FBN achieves a perfect service differentiation at the expense of a high penalty for the low priority small jobs. While DF \\Gamma FBN offers acceptable service differentiation, it does not penalize small jobs with low priority at all. Moreover, FP \\Gamma FBN and DF \\Gamma FBN can guarantee the service of high priority jobs even under overload.

Idris A. Rai; Guillaume Urvoy-keller; Ernst W. Biersack

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

System size dependence of particle production at the SPS  

SciTech Connect

Recent results on the system size dependence of net-baryon and hyperon production as measured at the CERN SPS are discussed. The observed N{sub part} dependences of yields, but also of dynamical properties, such as average transverse momenta, can be described in the context of the core corona approach. Other observables, such as antiproton yields and net-protons at forward rapidities, do not follow the predictions of this model. Possible implications for a search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram are discussed. Event-by-event fluctuations of the relative core to corona source contributions might influence fluctuation observables (e.g., multiplicity fluctuations). The magnitude of this effect is investigated.

Blume, C., E-mail: blume@ikf.uni-frankfurt.de [J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Laser-induced micron size clustering in thiophenol vapor  

SciTech Connect

Positively charged micron sized clusters are efficiently produced following irradiation of thiophenol vapor at 248 nm by a single KrF laser pulse of 30 ns duration. The production mechanism has been studied by examining the effect of N[sub 2], Ar, and He as diffusion media in mixtures with thiophenol, and by varying the laser pulse energy and excitation wavelength. A qualitative summary of possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the experimental results is presented providing a framework for understanding the observed cluster growth. The measurements indicate an optimum set of parameters for growth of large clusters and also show that the cluster charge can be controlled by selection of the buffer gas mixture.

Zafiropulos, V.; Kollia, Z.; Fotakis, C. (FORTH-Institute for Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, GR 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)); Stockdale, J.A.D. (L-463, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

MEASURING PROJECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiautomatic measuring projector particularly adapted for measurement of the coordinates of photographic images of particle tracks as prcduced in a bubble or cloud chamber is presented. A viewing screen aids the operator in selecting a particle track for measurement. After approximate manual alignment, an image scanning system coupled to a servo control provides automatic exact alignment of a track image with a reference point. The apparatus can follow along a track with a continuous motion while recording coordinate data at various selected points along the track. The coordinate data is recorded on punched cards for subsequent computer calculation of particle trajectory, momentum, etc.

Franck, J.V.; Broadhead, P.S.; Skiff, E.W.

1959-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

458

"Y/N","Status","Efficiency Measure(s)/ECMs","System Type","End Use","Grid","Fed or Indian","RECs Retained","Scope","Term","Purchased","Biomass1","Biomass2","Funding Source","Fleet Strategy","Vehicle","Size","Fuel","Fleet Fund","Compliance Path","GP Status","Version","HPSB","2015 Status","Power data"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y/N","Status","Efficiency Measure(s)/ECMs","System Type","End Use","Grid","Fed or Indian","RECs Retained","Scope","Term","Purchased","Biomass1","Biomass2","Funding Source","Fleet Strategy","Vehicle","Size","Fuel","Fleet Fund","Compliance Path","GP Status","Version","HPSB","2015 Status","Power data" Y/N","Status","Efficiency Measure(s)/ECMs","System Type","End Use","Grid","Fed or Indian","RECs Retained","Scope","Term","Purchased","Biomass1","Biomass2","Funding Source","Fleet Strategy","Vehicle","Size","Fuel","Fleet Fund","Compliance Path","GP Status","Version","HPSB","2015 Status","Power data" "No","Identified","Advanced Metering Systems","Biomass","Excluded","Electric On-Grid","On Federal or Indian Land, On User Site",0,"Scope 1","Long-Term (> 10)","Electric Renewable Energy","Agricultural byproducts","NA","Line Item","Acquire More Fuel-Efficient Vehicles","Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)","Buses","B100","Direct","Guiding Principles","Met",2.2,"LEED® Certified","D&D in Progress","Actual"

459

City Size Distributions For India and China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies the size distributions of urban agglomerations for India and China. We have estimated the scaling exponent for the Zipf's law with the Indian census data for the years of 1981-2001 and the Chinese census data for 1990 and 2000. Along with the biased linear fit estimate, the maximum likelihood estimate for the Pareto and Tsallis q-exponential distribution has been computed. For India, the scaling exponent is in the range of [1.88, 2.06] and for China, it is in the interval [1.82, 2.29]. The goodness-of-fit tests of the estimated distributions are performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic.

Gangopadhyay, Kausik

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

Petruzielo, Robin S [Cornell University; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater May 29, 2012 - 7:16pm Addthis Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® A properly sized water heater will meet your household's hot water needs while operating more efficiently. Therefore, before purchasing a water heater, make sure it's the correct size. Here you'll find information about how to size these systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems -- including some heat pump systems, and tankless coil and indirect water heaters -- consult a qualified contractor.

462

TRANSVERSE ECHO MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion counteracts cooling and the knowledge of diffusion rates is important for the calculation of cooling times and equilibrium beam sizes. Echo measurements are a potentially sensitive method to determine diffusion rates, and longitudinal measurements were done in a number of machines. We report on transverse echo measurements in RHIC and the observed dependence of echo amplitudes on a number of parameters for beams of gold and copper ions, and protons. In particular they examine the echo amplitudes of gold and copper ion bunches of varying intensity, which exhibit different diffusion rates from intrabeam scattering.

FISCHER, W.

2005-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

463

DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLUEM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.

Per Redelius

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Choosing wind power plant locations and sizes based on electric reliability measures using multiple-year wind speed measurements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To project the US potential to meet future electricity demands with wind energy, estimates of available wind resource and costs to access that resource are critical. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) annually estimates the US market penetration of wind in its Annual Energy Outlook series. For these estimates, the EIA uses wind resource data developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for each region of the country. However, the EIA multiplies the cost of windpower by several factors, some as large as 3, to account for resource quality, market factors associated with accessing the resource, electric grid impacts, and rapid growth in the wind industry. This paper examines the rationale behind these additional costs and suggests alternatives.

Milligan, M.R.; Artig, R.

1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

465

Influence of the Subgrid Variability of the Raindrop Size Distribution on Radar Rainfall Estimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work aims at quantifying the variability of the parameters of the power laws used for rain-rate estimation from radar data, on the basis of raindrop size distribution measurements over a typical weather radar pixel. Power laws between the ...

Joël Jaffrain; Alexis Berne

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Minimizing Instrumental Broadening of the Drop Size Distribution with the M-Fast-FSSP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified version of the Fast-FSSP (the so-called M-Fast-FSSP) is introduced. It allows minimization of the instrumental broadening of measured cloud drop size distributions caused by laser beam inhomogeneities. This is achieved by applying a ...

Sebastian Schmidt; Katrin Lehmann; Manfred Wendisch

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Rainfall Rate and Electric Charge and Size of Raindrops of Six Spring Showers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two ground-based instruments were designed and built in order to accomplish the present research. The first, based on the principle of the induction ring, measures the electric charge as well as the size of the individual raindrops. The other is ...

Serge Chauzy; Serge Despiau

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The Drop-Size Response of the CSIRO Liquid Water Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the CSIRO liquid water content (LWC) device to water drops of different sizes has been investigated in a wind tunnel. Two series of experiments were conducted. The first compared the probe-measured LWC of sprays with different ...

C. J. Biter; J. E. Dye; D. Huffman; W. D. King

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Comparison of Dual-Polarization Radar Measurements of Rain with Ground-Based Disdrometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dual-polarization radar measurements of ZH and ZDR, where ZDR = 10 logZH/ZV and ZH, ZV are the radar reflectivity factors for horizontal and vertical polarizations, respectively, are compared with values derived from raindrop-size distributions ...

J. W. F. Goddard; S. M. Cherry; V. N. Bringi

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Expansion of the cathode spot and generation of shock waves in the plasma of a volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of the cathode spot and the generation of shock waves during the formation and development of a pulsed volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium were studied by analyzing the emission spectra of the cathode plasma and the spatiotemporal behavior of the plasma glow. The transition of a diffuse volume discharge in a centimeter-long gap into a high-current diffuse mode when the gas pressure increased from 1 to 5 atm and the applied voltage rose from the statistical breakdown voltage to a 100% overvoltage was investigated. Analytical expressions for the radius of the cathode spot and its expansion velocity obtained in the framework of a spherically symmetric model agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

Omarov, O. A.; Kurbanismailov, V. S.; Arslanbekov, M. A.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.; Al-Shatravi, Ali J. G. [Dagestan State University (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Size Electric Vehicle Fleet and Reliability Test Reports to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle Fleet and Reliability Test...

472

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Size Electric Vehicle Basics to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle Basics on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing...

473

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Size Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity:...

474

Acoustic Method for Fish Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A-123: 3.01.2004–2.28.2005 Acoustic Method for Fish Countingand Fish Sizing in Tanks W.A. Kuperman and Philippe Rouxlower the costs of raising fish to marketable size. Water,

Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Diffusivity of rocks: Gas diffusion measurements and correlation to porosity and pore size distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

work. In addition, 11 repacked sediments and sands were also examined, using a conventional stainless.S. Silica, Ottawa, Illinois), were packed in stainless steel sample holders (inner diameter of 5 cm construction material 3.0 Asphalt concrete Laboratory pressed construction material 4.0 2­8 mm Hanford Site

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

476

Remote sensing of cirrus cloud particle size and optical depth using polarimetric sensor measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. Pelon, 1999b: Remote sensing of cirrus radiativepar- ticles: Remote sensing and climatic implications.S. C. Tsay, 1999: Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters

Ou, Szu-cheng C; Liou, K N; Takano, Y; Slonaker, R L

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

DNA ruler : enhancing nanopore sizing resolution by multiple measurements on the same DNA molecule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanopores are versatile sensors for label-free detection of single molecules and particles that have attracted attention for applications such as DNA sequencing and nanoparticle analysis. Detection of single molecules or ...

Sen, Yi-Heng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Remote sensing of cirrus cloud particle size and optical depth using polarimetric sensor measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Cai, 1991: Scattering phase matrices of ice crystals with44 For nonspherical ice crystals, the phase function, P 11 ,hexagonal ice crystals and compared phase-matrix elements

Ou, Szu-cheng C; Liou, K N; Takano, Y; Slonaker, R L

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The Direct Measurement of the Sizes, Shapes and Kinematics of Falling Hailstones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinematic behavior of hailstones falling in their natural environment near the surface was studied using stroboscopic photography in a mobile van. The experimental results permitted determination of the shape and dimensions, velocity, and in ...

Richard J. Matson; Arlen W. Huggins

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Detonation cell size measurements in H/sub 2/-air-H/sub 2/O mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conclusions of this study are: (1) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures at 20/sup 0/C and a total pressure of 101 kPa, detonations have been achieved between 13.5% and 70% H/sub 2/ mole fraction. This compositional range is wider than the detonability limits previously reported for smaller tubes. (2) The addition of CO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/-air mixtures greatly reduces the detonability of the mixture. (3) For a given initial temperature, air density and equivalence ratio, the addition of steam to a H/sub 2/-Air mixture greatly decreases the detonability of the mixture. (4) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, detonation of H/sub 2/-air mixtures with up to 30% steam have been recorded. (5) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures, the detonability increases with increasing initial temperature at constant density. Consequently, the diluent effect of the addition of steam to a fixed volume of an H/sub 2/-air mixture in reducing detonability is partially offset if there is a concomitant temperature increase. (6) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, a 13.0% H/sub 2/-air mixture has been detonated. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Shepherd, J.E.; Knystautas, R.; Lee, J.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Impact of Verification Grid-Box Size on Warm-Season QPF Skill Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 10-km-grid-spacing version of NCEP's Eta Model was used to simulate 11 warm-season convective systems occurring over the U.S. upper midwest. Quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from the model valid for 6-h periods were verified using 4-...

William A. Gallus Jr.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Alternative Size and Lifetime Measurements for High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-Particle correlations based on the interference of identical particles has provided the chief means for determining the shape and lifetime of sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, Strong and Coulomb induced correlations are shown to provide equivalent information.

Scott Pratt; Silvio Petriconi

2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

483

Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project overview - Cluster chemistry - Catalysts and supports * Experimental - Novel catalyst preparation * Results - Metal cluster size - Electrochemical properties * Summary...

484

Effect of Coke particle size on sinter quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, EMPMD Technical Division Student Poster Contest. Presentation Title, Effect of Coke particle size ...

485

Quartz size/shape relationships: variable size/shape relationships of detrital quartz reflect differences in source/transport parameters  

SciTech Connect

A common misconception is that as size decreases, quartz grains become progressively more angular. All possible size/shape relationships can and do occur including: 1) no relationship, 2) fine sizes, more rounded, 3) finer sized more angular, and 4) size/shape discontinuities where shape is constant over a wide range and then changes and stays constant over the remaining range. Detritus from large, long established flood plains (Mississippi, Ganges, Amazon) display a continuous change in shape with size. Detritus from primary sources generally display no size/shape effect. Small rivers commonly exhibit size/shape discontinuities. The origin of a particular size/shape relationship arises from two opposing tendencies. Finer detritus travel much faster than coarser sands. Thus silts from one provenance can overtake coarser material of different provenance. If flood plains are large and long-lived, the contribution of individual tributaries is diluted almost to indetectibility and all sizes have time enough to reach the sea. In such situations the size/shape relationship reflects a steady state of equilibrium. In smaller rivers individual tributaries can provide significant proportions of grains to flood plains with characteristic sizes and shapes leading to discrete shifts in the size/shape curve.

Ehrlich, R.; Eggers, M.R.; Goodman, E.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Hierarchical sizing and biasing of analog firm intellectual properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hierarchical sizing and biasing methodology for analog firm intellectual properties (IPs) is presented. An analog firm IP designates an unsized transistor netlist of an analog circuit. The methodology sizes and biases an analog firm IP by automatically ... Keywords: Analog design, Analog firm IP, Modeling, Reuse, Simulation, Sizing, Synthesis

Ramy Iskander; Marie-Minerve LouëRat;