Sample records for measured spot size

  1. Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In planning an x-ray imaging experiment one must have an accurate model of the imaging system to obtain optimum results. The blurring caused by the finite size of the x-ray source is often the least understood element in the system. We have developed experimental and analytical methods permitting accurate measurement and modeling of the x-ray source. The model offers a simple and accurate way to optimize the radiographic geometry for any given experimental requirement (i.e., resolution and dose at detector). Any text on radiography will mention the effects of the finite size of the x-ray source on image quality and how one can minimize this influence by the choice of a small radiographic magnification. The film blur (independent of the source blur) is often treated as a single number and combined with an effective blur dimension for the x-ray source to give a total blur on the film. In this paper, we will develop a treatment of x-ray sources based on the modulation transfer function (MTF). This approach allows us to infer the spatial distribution function of the electron beam that produces the bremsstrahlung x-rays and to predict the performance of an x-ray imaging system if we know the MTF of the detector. This treatment is much more accurate than a single number characterization. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  3. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewert, Uwe [BAM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One possibility is to use the wires in the ASTM E2002 unsharpness gage and take two orthogonal images. The signal levels in the image need to be linear with radiation exposure and so may need conversion if a nonlinear detector is used to acquire the image.

  4. X-ray imaging with monochromatic and small focal spot size sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of x-ray energy and intensity (under investigation) Measurements at the Elettra (Trieste) synchrotron Edge Response Function at ATF * Spot size * He Pipe added * 10 7 10 8...

  5. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  6. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  7. Influence of spot size on propagation dynamics of laser-produced tin plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?Color online? Images of the tin plume recorded with 280 ? mdynamics of laser-produced tin plasma S. S. Harilal a?dynamics of an expanding tin plume for various spot sizes

  8. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roach, William P.

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single ...

  9. atf2 spot size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which is characterized by the surface brightness contrast, the size, the number, the umbrapenumbra structure, the shape, and the orientation with respect to the sweeping...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particleSize Distribution

  11. Spot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils Tung-Chang Liu,1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    polarized laser beam irradiates an ultra-thin foil and accelerates nearly the whole foil by the radiationSpot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils Tung-Chang Liu,1,a) Xi of the effect of the laser spot size of a circularly polarized laser beam on the energy of quasi

  12. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  13. The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from {approx}0.1 mm to {approx}0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of {approx}80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

  14. Ultrafast laser ablation ICP-MS: role of spot size, laser fluence, and repetition rate in signal intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Ultrafast laser ablation ICP-MS: role of spot size, laser fluence, and repetition rate in signal,a Richard E. Russob and Ahmed Hassaneina Ultrafast laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass system. Though ultrafast laser ablation sample introduction provides better accuracy and precision

  15. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particleSize Distribution ARM Data

  16. Generalized measurement on size of set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua-Rong Peng; Da-Hai Li; Qiong-Hua Wang

    2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We generalize the measurement using an expanded concept of cover, in order to provide a new approach to size of set other than cardinality. The generalized measurement has application backgrounds such as a generalized problem in dimension reduction, and has reasons from the existence of the minimum of both the positive size and the positive graduation, i.e., both the minimum is the size of the set ${0}$. The minimum of positive graduation in actual measurement provides the possibility that an object cannot be partitioned arbitrarily, e.g., an interval $[0, 1]$ cannot be partitioned by arbitrarily infinite times to keep compatible with the minimum of positive size. For the measurement on size of set, it can be assumed that this minimum is the size of ${0}$, in symbols $|{0}|$ or graduation 1. For a set $S$, we generalize any graduation as the size of a set $C_i$ where $\\exists x \\in S (x \\in C_i)$, and $|S|$ is represented by a pair, in symbols $(C, N(C))$, where ${C} = \\cup {C_i}$ and $N(C)$ is a set function on $C_i$, with $C_i$ independent of the order $i$ and $N(C)$ reflecting the quantity of $C_i$. This pair is a generalized form of box-counting dimension. The yielded size satisfies the properties of outer measure in general cases, and satisfies the properties of measure in the case of graduation 1; while in the reverse view, measure is a size using the graduation of size of an interval. As for cardinality, the yielded size is a one-to-one correspondence where only addition is allowable, a weak form of cardinality, and rewrites Continuum Hypothesis using dimension as $\\omega \\dot |{0,1}| = 1$. In the reverse view, cardinality of a set is a size in the graduation of the set. The generalized measurement provides a unified approach to dimension, measure, cardinality and hence infinity.

  17. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  18. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  19. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimage ARM Dataparticle size

  20. Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stramski, Dariusz

    particle suspensions were measured using a laser diffractometer (LISST100X), an electrical impedance, the LISST provides an adequate proxy and has the capability for in situ measurements with high spatialMeasurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters R. A. Reynolds,1

  1. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Noninvasive Measurement of Ablation Crater Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    proportional to laser power, whereas crater width and the zone of thermal injury appear to be unrelatedORIGINAL RESEARCH Noninvasive Measurement of Ablation Crater Size and Thermal Injury After CO2 at 10 m resolution, and the thermal disruption after laser ablation were identified by OCT. OCT

  2. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  3. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into an actual SNS target.

  4. Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers have measured the phase behavior of green house gases in pores at the Angstrom-level, using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Yuri Melnichenko, an instrument scientist on the General Purpose Small Angle Neutron Scattering (GP SANS) Diffractometer at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor, his postdoctoral associate Lilin He and collaborators Nidia Gallego and Cristian Contescu from the Material Sciences Division (ORNL) were engaged in the work. They were studying nanoporous carbons to assess their attractiveness as storage media for hydrogen, with a view to potential use for on-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications. Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in a carbon nanoporous material for hydrogen storage is less than one nanometer. In a paper recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the collaborators used small angle neutron scattering to study how hydrogen condenses in small pores at ambient temperature. They discovered that the surface-molecule interactions create internal pressures in pores that may exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to 50. 'This is an exciting result,' Melnichenko said, 'as you achieve extreme densification in pores 'for free', i.e. without spending any energy. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored to maximize hydrogen storage capacities.' Another important factor that defines the adsorption capacity of sub-nanometer pores is their shape. In order to get accurate structural information and maximize sorption capacity, it is important that pores are small and of approximately uniform size. In collaboration with Drexel University's Yury Gogotsi who supplied the samples, Melnichenko and his collaborators used the GP SANS instrument to study how the size and shape of pores in sub-nanometer porous carbons varies, depending on the manufacturing conditions. While small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can do the job too, Melnichenko says, the SANS method broke new ground in analyzing the shape and behavior of pores at subnanometer size, when subjected to varying synthesis temperature. 'We found that these very small pores are in fact spherical, and that when we change the synthesis conditions, they become elongated, even 'slit-like', and all of this on a subnanometer scale,' Melnichenko said.

  5. On measures of size for convex cones - Optimization Online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 2 presents a battery of examples of size indices disseminated in the ..... easily obtained by using the probabilistic characterization (11) and the fact that a.

  6. Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, B.

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, single particle composition and size distributions at a high-elevation research site from March 2011 are presented.

  7. Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas-to-particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas Plateau. Size-resolved ionic aerosols (NH4 + , Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , SO4 2À , ClÀ , NO3 À CO3 2À , formate, acetate and oxalate), organic aerosols, black carbon and gaseous HNO3 and SO2 were measured

  8. Debye size microprobes for electric field measurements in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pribyl, P.; Gekelman, W.; Nakamoto, M.; Lawrence, E.; Chiang, F.; Stillman, J.; Judy, J.; Katz, N.; Kintner, P.; Niknejadi, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, Massachussetts (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Cal Poly, Pomona, California 91768 (United States)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of a host of tiny machines and sensors over the past decade. Plasma physics is in great need of small detectors for several reasons. First of all, very small detectors do not disturb a plasma, and secondly some detectors can only work because they are very small. We report on the first of a series of small (sub-Debye length) probes for laboratory plasmas undertaken at the basic Plasma Science Facility at UCLA. The goal of the work is to develop robust and sensitive diagnostic probes that can survive in a plasma. The probes must have electronics packages in close proximity. We report on the construction and testing of probes that measure the electric field.

  9. Size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles in the free troposphere over Japan: Aircraft measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Mori, I.; Mastunga, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Aircraft measurements of number-, mass- and volume-size distributions of aerosols and concentration of sulfate, nitrate and others contained in particulate matter were made in the free troposphere over Japan in 1991-1994. Number-size distribution frequently shows a peak in the area of a diameter of D {ge} 1 {mu}m in the free troposphere during observational periods. A few peaks are identified in the volume-size distribution as estimated on the basis of number-size distribution having single mode in a coarse range. Mass-size distribution frequently indicate enhancement in the coarse size range. This feature of the distribution is more frequent in those measurements made at 4.42 km than those at 2.29 km. On the basis of a backward trajectory analysis of the air mass containing those particles, soil particles originating from the Asian continent affect the features found in the size distributions as well as and vertical change in those size distributions. Particulate sulfate concentration in the free troposphere suggested that chemical transformation of particles with D {ge} 1 {mu}m advanced during long range transport of the particle possibly through coagulation of sulfate particles on coarse size particles such as Asian dust particles, adsorption of gaseous sulfate. Those measurements provide useful data et to discuss global geochemical cycle and radiative forcing of particles originated from the Asian continent.

  10. Early Life Measures of Size as Related to Weights and Productivity in Beef Cows and Carcass Traits in Steers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Samantha Fern

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate various measures of cattle size. Records from three separate studies (herds) at Texas A&M University were used to evaluate relationships of birth and weaning measures (n = 750) with size...

  11. Probe measurements and numerical model predictions of evolving size distributions in premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Filippo, A.; Sgro, L.A.; Lanzuolo, G.; D'Alessio, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle size distributions (PSDs), measured with a dilution probe and a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and numerical predictions of these PSDs, based on a model that includes only coagulation or alternatively inception and coagulation, are compared to investigate particle growth processes and possible sampling artifacts in the post-flame region of a C/O = 0.65 premixed laminar ethylene-air flame. Inputs to the numerical model are the PSD measured early in the flame (the initial condition for the aerosol population) and the temperature profile measured along the flame's axial centerline. The measured PSDs are initially unimodal, with a modal mobility diameter of 2.2 nm, and become bimodal later in the post-flame region. The smaller mode is best predicted with a size-dependent coagulation model, which allows some fraction of the smallest particles to escape collisions without resulting in coalescence or coagulation through the size-dependent coagulation efficiency ({gamma}{sub SD}). Instead, when {gamma} = 1 and the coagulation rate is equal to the collision rate for all particles regardless of their size, the coagulation model significantly under predicts the number concentration of both modes and over predicts the size of the largest particles in the distribution compared to the measured size distributions at various heights above the burner. The coagulation ({gamma}{sub SD}) model alone is unable to reproduce well the larger particle mode (mode II). Combining persistent nucleation with size-dependent coagulation brings the predicted PSDs to within experimental error of the measurements, which seems to suggest that surface growth processes are relatively insignificant in these flames. Shifting measured PSDs a few mm closer to the burner surface, generally adopted to correct for probe perturbations, does not produce a better matching between the experimental and the numerical results. (author)

  12. Measurements of Mexico City nanoparticle size distributions: Observations of new particle formation and growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Measurements of Mexico City nanoparticle size distributions: Observations of new particle formation diameter range were performed in the Mexico City metropolitan area. These measurements were made during the period 10­20 April 2003 at a ground-based, mountain pass site in the southeast corner of the Mexico City

  13. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

  14. DNA microarray (spot) .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. DNA microarray DNA (spot) . DNA probe , probe (hybridization) . DNA microarray cDNA oligonucleotide oligonucleotide cDNA probe . oligonucleotide microarray , DNA , probe . oligonucleotide microarray probe

  15. Noninvasive measurement of micron electron beam size of high energy using diffraction radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Naumenko

    2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatments of the usage of optical diffraction radiation from the relativistic electrons moving though a conductive slit for the noninvasive transverse beam size measurement encounter hard limitation of the method sensitivity for the electron energy larger than 1 GeV. We consider in this article a possibility of application in a diffraction radiation technique the artificial phase shift, which can take place when transverse electron position varies. This allows us to realize the nonivasive measurements of transverse size of supper-relativistic electron beams with the small emittance.

  16. Measurement- and comparison-based sizes of Schrödinger cat states of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Volkoff; K. B. Whaley

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend several measurement-based definitions of effective "cat-size" to coherent state superpositions with branches composed of either single coherent states or tensor products of coherent states. These effective cat-size measures depend on determining the maximal quantum distinguishability of certain states associated with the superposition state: e.g., in one measure, the maximal distinguishability of the branches of the superposition is considered as in quantum binary decision theory; in another measure, the maximal distinguishability of the initial superposition and its image after a one-parameter evolution generated by a local Hermitian operator is of interest. The cat-size scaling with the number of modes and mode intensity (i.e., photon number) is compared to the scaling derived directly from the Wigner function of the superposition and to that estimated experimentally from decoherence. We also apply earlier comparison-based methods for determining macroscopic superposition size that require a reference GHZ state. The case of a hierarchical Schr\\"{o}dinger cat state with branches composed of smaller superpositions is also analyzed from a measurement-based perspective.

  17. TIME INTEGRATED MEASUREMENTS OF THE ACTIVITY-WEIGHTED SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF RADON PROGENY by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William C. Tetley P. E; Daniel R. Westcott; Bruce A. Cununings

    The dose to the lung is dependent on the size distribution as well as the concentration of radon progeny. The principal indicator of particle size is the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient of radon progeny is the most important parameter in determining whether the particle will deposit its alpha energy in the tracheobronchial region of the respiratory tract. Due to the importance of the size distribution of progeny when characterizing health effects, a detector was developed that exploits the difference in diffusion coefficients to provide integrated measurements of the activity-weighted size distribution. Several radon chamber tests were performed in which the diffusion coefficient and unattached fraction of radon progeny were varied by the use of trace gasses and aerosol particles. The technical feasibility of this new detector design was demonstrated in all cases.

  18. Direct measurement of the size of 2003 UB313 from the Hubble Space Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. E. Brown; E. L. Schaller; H. G. Roe; D. L. Rabinowitz; C. A. Trujillo

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to directly measure the angular size of the large Kuiper belt object 2003 UB313. By carefully calibrating the point spread function of a nearby field star, we measure the size of 2003 UB313 to be 34.3$\\pm$1.4 milliarcseconds, corresponding to a diameter of 2400$\\pm$100 km or a size $\\sim5$% larger than Pluto. The V band geometric albedo of 2003 UB313 is $86\\pm7$%. The extremely high albedo is consistent with the frosty methane spectrum, the lack of red coloring, and the lack of observed photometric variation on the surface of 2003 UB313. Methane photolysis should quickly darken the surface of 2003 UB313, but continuous evaporation and redeposition of surface ices appears capable of maintaining the extreme alebdo of this body.

  19. Utility spot pricing, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweppe, Fred C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

  20. Size-dependent ultrafast structural dynamics inside phospholipid vesicle bilayers measured with 2D IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Size-dependent ultrafast structural dynamics inside phospholipid vesicle bilayers measured with 2D 25, 2013) The ultrafast structural dynamics inside the bilayers of dilauroyl- phosphatidylcholine was used as a vibrational probe and provided information on spectral diffusion (structural dynam- ics

  1. Short- and long-lived radionuclide particle size measurements in a uranium mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, Keng-Wu; Fisenne, I.M.; Hutter, A.R.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radon-222 progeny and long-lived radionuclide measurements were done in a wet underground uranium mine in Saskatchewan, Canada, on Nov. 8-12, 1995. Radon-222 in the mine varied from 2 kBq/m{sup 3} at 90 m below surface to 12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the mining areas, 240 m below surface. Radon-222 progeny activity and potential alpha energy concentration appear affected by the airborne particle number concentration and size distribution. Particle number was up to 200x10{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}. Only an accumulation mode (30-1000 nm) and some bimodal size distributions in this accumulation size range were significant. Diesel particles and combustion particles from burning propane caused a major modal diameter shift to a smaller size range (50-85 nm) compared with previous values (100-200 nm). The high particle number reduced the unattached progeny (0.5-2 nm) to >5%. The nuclei mode (2-30 nm) in this test was nonexistent, and the coarse mode (>1000 nm), except from the drilling areas and on the stopes, was mostly not measurable. Airborne particle total mass and long- lived radionuclide alpha activity concentrations were very low (80- 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 4-5 mBq/m{sup 3}) owing to high ventilation rates. Mass-weighted size distributions were trimodal, with the major mode at the accumulation size region, which accounts for 45-50% of the mass. The coarse model contains the the least mass, about 20%. The size spectra from gross alpha activities were bimodal with major mode in the coarse region (>1000 nm) and a minor accumulation mode in the 50-900 nm size range. These size spectra were different from the {sup 222}Rn progeny that showed a single accumulation mode in the 50- 85 nm size region. The accumulation mode in the long-lived radionuclide size spectrum was not found in previous studies in other uranium mines.

  2. Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Fresnel zone plate that can produce an approximate Gaussian focal spot is proposed for the focusing of 7.7 nm can be produced by a modified Fresnel zone plate with a minimum structure size of 30 nm

  3. Long-term stability of spotted regions and the activity-induced Rossiter-McLaughlin effect on V889 Herculis. A synergy of photometry, radial velocity measurements, and Doppler imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, K F; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M; Esposito, M; Ilyin, I; González-Pérez, J N

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The young active G-dwarf star V889 Herculis (HD 171488) shows pronounced spots in Doppler images as well as large variations in photometry and radial velocity (RV) measurements. However, the lifetime and evolution of its active regions are not well known. We study the existence and stability of active regions on the star's surface using complementary data and methods. Furthermore, we analyze the correlation of spot-induced RV variations and Doppler images. Photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy are used to examine stellar activity. A CLEAN-like Doppler Imaging (DI) algorithm is used to derive surface reconstructions. We study high-precision RV curves to determine their modulation due to stellar activity in analogy to the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. To this end we develop a measure for the shift of a line's center and compare it to RV measurements. We show that large spotted regions exist on V889 Her for more than one year remaining similar in their large scale structure and position. This applies to seve...

  4. Bose-Einstein correlation to measure the size of event of different types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Schegelsky; M. G. Ryskin

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Bose-Einstein correlations of identical hadrons produced in high- energy pp collisions at the LHC is a good instrument to probe the size of the domain which emits these hadrons in different classes of events. This provides an additional information on the dynamics of multiparticle production. In particular this way we may measure the radius of the colour tube/string which create the secondary pions.

  5. Bose-Einstein correlation to measure the size of event of different types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schegelsky, V A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bose-Einstein correlations of identical hadrons produced in high- energy pp collisions at the LHC is a good instrument to probe the size of the domain which emits these hadrons in different classes of events. This provides an additional information on the dynamics of multiparticle production. In particular this way we may measure the radius of the colour tube/string which create the secondary pions.

  6. Online Particle Size And Concentration Measurement In A Pressurized Coal Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiel, A.; Umhauer, H.; Kasper, G.; Christmann, W.

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy industry has to face the demand for highly efficient coal combustion power plants in order to minimize the CO{sub 2} emissions. Efforts are made in new combustion processes, where coal powder is burned at a temperature of 1400 C and a pressure of 16 bars. The hot flue gas is used for a combined gas and steam turbine process. For that reason the flue gas has to be cleaned at the operating temperature and pressure. Limiting values for a secure operation of the turbine, with acceptable abrasion of the blades by impacting particles, are a mass concentration of c{sub M} {le}3 m g/m{sub N}{sup 3} at particle sizes smaller than 3 {micro}m . A granular bed filter is used to remove the gross of fine ash particles. But until now the separation of the submicron aerosol particles at high temperatures does not meet the mentioned specifications, and is still one of the most important open tasks. Regardless what kind of separation process will be implemented to remove fine ash particles, for investigations and control it is necessary to determine the particle concentration and size after the separation. The fact that the particle concentration after the purification is quite small and the size of the particles is less than 10 {micro}m means that gravimetric measurements are not suitable to record spontaneous changes due to the combustion process because of extended sampling times. Additionally a gravimetric measurement technique at operating conditions (T = 1400 C, p = 16 bars) is questionable, because particles can be lost by thermophoretic transport to the walls, also condensation of alkali species on the particle surfaces cannot be avoided (representativity). The single-particle-light-scattering size analysis is especially suited for measurements at low particle concentrations (< 10{sup 5} particles/m{sup 3}). With the counting technique used here, single particles are detected in situ while passing an optically defined measuring volume, which is placed in an iso-kinetically taken sample flow (free working distance of 80 mm and more). The total detectable size range of such a particle counter is between 0,1 and 10 {micro}m. Based on previous successful measurements on the clean gas side of rigid ceramic barrier filters and at a coal combustion pilot plant at temperatures up to 1000 C a constructive solution of this method at high temperatures and pressures is favorable.

  7. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

  8. TRANSIENT THERMAL BEHAVIOR IN RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    temperature response during resistance spot welding was measured and discussed with various process parameters that the measurement of temperature profiles developed during the welding process is very important in this respect composition on galvanized steel, the temperature distribution during welding was monitored in a one

  9. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

  11. MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    IRB 6400 MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding Press tending Material handling Machine tending Palletizing N Poke welding All IRB 6400R-versions have Foundry Plus protection. For details, see under manipulator 6400PE 1600 kg Others 2060 - 2390 kg ENVIRONMENT Ambient temperature Manipulator 5 ­ 50°C Relative

  12. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  13. Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

  14. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CT, Bean AS. Black-spot poison ivy: A rare phenomenon. J AmJG, Lucky AW. Black spot poison ivy: A report of 5 cases andis unique for black-spot poison ivy. The UFLC-MS/MS urushiol

  15. Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caramanis, Michael C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

  16. Quantifying intrapopulation variability in stable isotope data for Spotted Seatrout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    111 Quantifying intrapopulation variability in stable isotope data for Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion of the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Abstract--Stable isotope (SI) values of carbon (13C) and nitrogen patterns of enrichment in fish caught from coastal to off- shore sites and as a function of fish size

  17. The application of size- resolved hygroscopicity measurements to understand the physical and chemical properties of ambient aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santarpia, Joshua Lee

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    THE APPLICATION OF SIZE-RESOLVED HYGROSCOPICITY MEASUREMENTS TO UNDERSTANDING THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMBIENT AEROSOL A Dissertation by JOSHUA L. SANTARPIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMBIENT AEROSOL A Dissertation by JOSHUA L. SANTARPIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

  18. Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

  19. Decision making in coastal fisheries conflict: the case of red drum and spotted seatrout legislation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Richard Travis

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stricter Measures Called For The TPWD Increases Regulations on Red and Spotted Seatrout Illegal Netting 61 65 66 Drum TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) IV CASE FINDINGS (continued) The Opposition Increases The Legislative Process Economic Impact... and spotted seatrout caught in Texas February 12 May 19 H. B. 980 S. B. 139 Called for a halt to harvest of red drum and spotted seatrout in Texas by all persons February 12 killed Red drum and spotted seat rout to be made permanently illegal...

  20. Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin and SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121+ CrossMeasuring the

  1. Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.

  2. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  3. Developing models of aerosol representation to investigate composition, evolution, optical properties, and CCN spectra using measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasparini, Roberto

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure size distributions, hygroscopicity, and volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period at the Central Facility...

  4. Developing models of aerosol representation to investigate composition, evolution, optical properties, and CCN spectra using measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasparini, Roberto

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure size distributions, hygroscopicity, and volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period at the Central ...

  5. Simultaneous measurements of soot volume fraction and particle size/microstructure in flames using a thermophoretic sampling technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeylue, U.O.; McEnally, C.S.; Rosner, D.E.; Pfefferle, L.D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new particle volume fraction measurement technique was developed using electron microscope analysis of thermophoretically sampled particles/aggregates based on a theoretical treatment of particle deposition to a cold surface immersed in a flame. This experimental method, referred to as the thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostic (TSPD), can yield all particle parameters of principal interest (particle volume fraction, particle and aggregate sizes, and fractal properties) without requiring knowledge of particle bulk density and refractive index. To assess its reliability, the TSPD technique was implemented at various heights on the centerline of a soot-containing coflowing ethylene/air nonpremixed laminar flame. Inferred soot volume fractions agreed with previous laser extinction and thermocouple particle densitometry measurements within experimental uncertainties at sampling positions where only aggregates of mature particles were present. However, TSPD-soot volume fractions were about a factor of 3 higher than light extinction results in the lower part of the flame. This significant difference was evidently a result of the presence of translucent precursor soot particles, which do not absorb as much visible light as mature particles, but can be quantified with the electron microscope. Clearly, this ability of TSPD to separately measure the concentration and morphology of each type of soot is a significant advantage over other available diagnostics, making it extremely valuable for studying particle formation in flames.

  6. Blind spots between quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Zambrano; Alfredo M Ozorio de Almeida

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overlap of a large quantum state with its image, under tiny translations, oscillates swiftly. We here show that complete orthogonality occurs generically at isolated points. Decoherence, in the Markovian approximation, lifts the correlation minima from zero much more quickly than the Wigner function is smoothed into a positive phase space distribution. In the case of a superposition of coherent states, blind spots depend strongly on positions and amplitudes of the components, but they are only weakly affected by relative phases and the various degrees and directions of squeezing. The blind spots for coherent state triplets are special in that they lie close to an hexagonal lattice: Further superpositions of translated triplets, specified by nodes of one of the sublattices, are quasi-orthogonal to the original triplet and to any state, likewise constructed on the other sublattice.

  7. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jun, E-mail: limjun@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 ?m (horizontal) × 50 ?m (vertical)

  8. ARM - Measurement - Cloud size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particle ARM Data Discoverysizephase

  9. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Danny S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pazuchanics, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Randall P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaufman, M. I. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tibbitts, A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tunnell, T. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marks, D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capelle, G. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Grover, M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marshall, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Stevens, G. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); LaLone, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An Ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/?sec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles will also be described. Finally, results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn ejecta experiments will be presented. Particle size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double pulsed experiment will be described.

  10. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, D. S. [LANL; Pazuchanics, P. [LANL; Johnson, R. [LANL; Malone, R. M. [NSTec; Kaufman, M. I. [NSTec; Tibbitts, A. [NSTec; Tunnell, T. [NSTec; Marks, D. [NSTec; Capelle, G. A. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Turley, W. D. [NSTec; LaLone, B. [NSTec

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/?sec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic, including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, we will also describe the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles. Finally, we will present results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn-ejecta experiments. Particle-size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double-pulsed experiment will be described.

  11. Frequency domain photon migration measurements: a method to size powders and detect active pharmaceutical ingredients in blending operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrance, Sharnay Etasha

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    means for process validation in the manufacture of solid pharmaceutics through its ability to characterize powder ingredients by particle size and ingredient composition. In this work, FDPM analysis techniques were utilized to extract particle size...

  12. A statistical study of bright spot reflection parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godwin, David Lee

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cal Study of Bright Spot Reflection Parameters. (December 1981) David Lee Godwin, B. S. , Pepperdine University Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. T. W. Spencer A data set consisting of two seismic lines served as the basis of study... obtained from each of the seismic lines were compared to deter- mine if the presence of commercial quantities of gas could be identified. The measurement process revealed that the interval travel time measurements between the marker horizons...

  13. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr. [Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Physics Department, University of Windsor, 292 Essex Hall, 401 Sunset Ave. N9B 3P4 Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  14. Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ( l Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation S. A. GEDEON and T. W. EAGAR Dynamic inspection monitoring of the weld current, voltage, resistance of material variations and weld process parameter modifications on resistance spot welding of coated

  15. Use of treatment log files in spot scanning proton therapy as part of patient-specific quality assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Li Yupeng; Li Xiaoqiang; Zhang Xiaodong; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to assess the monitor unit (MU) values and position accuracy of spot scanning proton beams as recorded by the daily treatment logs of the treatment control system, and furthermore establish the feasibility of using the delivered spot positions and MU values to calculate and evaluate delivered doses to patients. Methods: To validate the accuracy of the recorded spot positions, the authors generated and executed a test treatment plan containing nine spot positions, to which the authors delivered ten MU each. The spot positions were measured with radiographic films and Matrixx 2D ion-chambers array placed at the isocenter plane and compared for displacements from the planned and recorded positions. Treatment logs for 14 patients were then used to determine the spot MU values and position accuracy of the scanning proton beam delivery system. Univariate analysis was used to detect any systematic error or large variation between patients, treatment dates, proton energies, gantry angles, and planned spot positions. The recorded patient spot positions and MU values were then used to replace the spot positions and MU values in the plan, and the treatment planning system was used to calculate the delivered doses to patients. The results were compared with the treatment plan. Results: Within a treatment session, spot positions were reproducible within {+-}0.2 mm. The spot positions measured by film agreed with the planned positions within {+-}1 mm and with the recorded positions within {+-}0.5 mm. The maximum day-to-day variation for any given spot position was within {+-}1 mm. For all 14 patients, with {approx}1 500 000 spots recorded, the total MU accuracy was within 0.1% of the planned MU values, the mean (x, y) spot displacement from the planned value was (-0.03 mm, -0.01 mm), the maximum (x, y) displacement was (1.68 mm, 2.27 mm), and the (x, y) standard deviation was (0.26 mm, 0.42 mm). The maximum dose difference between calculated dose to the patient based on the plan and recorded data was within 2%. Conclusions: The authors have shown that the treatment log file in a spot scanning proton beam delivery system is precise enough to serve as a quality assurance tool to monitor variation in spot position and MU value, as well as the delivered dose uncertainty from the treatment delivery system. The analysis tool developed here could be useful for assessing spot position uncertainty and thus dose uncertainty for any patient receiving spot scanning proton beam therapy.

  16. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, R.J.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Bjorken, J.D.; /SLAC; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  17. BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS Nuri Tasdemir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS by Nuri Ta¸sdemir BS, in Electrical and Electronics in Computer Engineering Bogazi¸ci University 2007 #12;ii BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS APPROVED BY: Prof. A.C. Cem Say . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Thesis Supervisor) Prof. H. Levent Akin

  18. Using measured equipment load profiles to "right-size" HVAC systems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    load profiles to “right-size” HVAC systems and reduce energyGeorgia. ASHRAE [1999]. HVAC Applications Handbook 1999.Inefficiency of a Common Lab HVAC System,” presented at the

  19. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) (13056 ORNL, 13055 PNNL) Friction Stir Spot...

  20. CMB Cold Spot from Inflationary Feature Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a "feature-scattering" mechanism to explain the cosmic microwave background cold spot seen from {\\it WMAP} and {\\it Planck} maps. If there are hidden features in the potential of multi-field inflation, the inflationary trajectory can be scattered by such features. The scattering is controlled by the amount of isocurvature fluctuations, and thus can be considered as a mechanism to convert isocurvature fluctuations into curvature fluctuations. This mechanism predicts localized cold spots (instead of hot ones) on the CMB. In addition, it may also bridge a connection between the cold spot and a dip on the CMB power spectrum at $\\ell \\sim 20$.

  1. Development of Criteria and Identification of Particle Cluster Size Based on Measurements of Void Fraction in Gas-Solid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Roelant; Seckin Gokaltun

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) built at FIU was used to study particle motion in the riser in order to simulate flow regimes in a cold gasifier. High speed imaging was used in order to capture the dynamics of the particles flowing in the riser. The imaging method used here is called the shadow sizing technique which allowed the determination of particle areas and trajectories at various flow rates in the riser. The solid volume fraction and particle velocities calculated using the images acquired during the experiments can be related to granular temperature in order to detect formations of clusters in the riser section of the CFB. The shadow sizing technique was observed to be an effective method in detecting dynamics of particles in motion and formation of clusters when supported with high-speed imaging.

  2. Measurement of infarct size using single photon emission computed tomography and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate: a description of the method and comparison with patient prognosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, B.L.; Goldhaber, S.Z.; Kirsch, C.M.; Polak, J.F.; Friedman, B.J.; English, R.J.; Wynne, J.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of dual tracer transaxial emission computed tomography of the heart was studied with use of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells for measuring infarct size in 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 10 without infarction. Imaging was performed with a standard gamma camera and with a multidetector transaxial emission computed tomographic body scanner 3 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate. Immediately after the scanning procedure, /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate was injected to label red blood cells, and the scanning protocol was repeated. /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate was detected in the anterior wall with involvement of the interventricular septum or lateral wall in patients with electrocardiographic criteria for anterior infarction, whereas uptake was detected in the diaphragmatic left ventricular wall with involvement of the posterior, posteroseptal or posterolateral left ventricle or of the right ventricle in patients with electrocardiographic criteria for inferior or posterior infarction. Infarct size measured from transaxial images ranged from 14.0 to 117.0 g in weight. There was a direct relation between infarct size and patient prognosis in that, of the 13 patients with infarct greater than 40 g, 11 (85 percent) had complications, whereas only 2 (29 percent) of 7 patients with an infarct less than 40 g had complications during a follow-up period averaging 17.8 months (p less than 0.05).

  3. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian, E-mail: chdnch@nbu.edu.cn; Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua [Mechanics and Materials Science Research Center, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results.

  4. Hot spot-derived shock initiation phenomena in heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of solid silica particles to gelled nitromethane offers a tractable model system for interrogating the role of impedance mismatches as one type of hot spot 'seed' on the initiation behaviors of explosive formulations. Gas gun-driven plate impact experiments are used to produce well-defined shock inputs into nitromethane-silica mixtures containing size-selected silica beads at 6 wt%. The Pop-plots or relationships between shock input pressure and rundistance (or time)-to-detonation for mixtures containing small (1-4 {micro}m) and large (40 {micro}m) beads are presented. Overall, the addition of beads was found to influence the shock sensitivity of the mixtures, with the smaller beads being more sensitizing than the larger beads, lowering the shock initiation threshold for the same run distance to detonation compared with neat nitromethane. In addition, the use of embedded electromagnetic gauges provides detailed information pertaining to the mechanism of the build-up to detonation and associated reactive flow. Of note, an initiation mechanism characteristic of homogeneous liquid explosives, such as nitromethane, was observed in the nitromethane-40 {micro}m diameter silica samples at high shock input pressures, indicating that the influence of hot spots on the initiation process was minimal under these conditions.

  5. THE OCCURRENCE OF SPOT, LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS, AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of postlarval spot and Atlantic croaker within the Cape Fear River estuary, N.C., above a steam electric power, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Beaufort, NC 28516. 'Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Cape Fear. 'Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Cape Fear Studies. Ocean larval fish, November 1976-1978. Environmental

  6. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  7. Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs) Spot Market Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: While interested parties can still trade DE SRECs in the spot market, the spot market in itself is limited since most of the SRECs produced are part of the SREC Purchase Program, or the SREC...

  8. Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it to Improve Duty-cycle MPG - plus Increasing Propulsion and Reducing Cost Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and...

  9. EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 9:53am Addthis Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing...

  10. Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 4:07pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing tremendous...

  11. Prediction of cooling rate and microstructure in laser spot welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    during laser spot welding of low alloy steel. A transient heat transfer model that takes into account

  12. Population Assessment of the Northern Spotted Owl in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owl Management Plan. Within our survey areas, Spotted Owl occupancy declined by 49% between 1992.C. Conservation Foundation Carla B. Lenihan, Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management #12;Population Assessment of the Northern Spotted Owl in British Columbia 1992-2001 Page 1 Abstract In 1997, the Spotted Owl Management Plan

  13. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis – Part II: Evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochoa, Carlos; Baumgardner, Darrel; Grutter, M.; Allan, James D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Rappengluck, B.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009) in which measurements of trace gases and particles at a remote, high-altitude mountain site 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), acyl peroxy nitrate (APN) and particle size distributions (PSDs) of the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic mass (OM) were simulated with the WRF-Chem chemical transport model and compared with the measurements at the mountain site. The model prediction of the diurnal trends of the gases were well correlated with the measurements before the regional boundary layer reached the measurement site but underestimated the concentrations after that time. The differences are caused by an overly rapid growth of the boundary layer by the model with too much dilution. There also appears to be more O3 produced by photochemical production, downwind of the emission sources, than predicted by the model. The measured and modeled PSDs compare very well with respect to their general shape and diameter of the peak concentrations. The spectra are log normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode and the geometric diameter centered at 200 ±20 nm, with little observed or predicted change with respect to the origin of the air mass or the time when the RBL is above the Altzomoni research. Only the total mass changed with time and air mass origin. The invariability of the average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexico’s Megapolis.

  15. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  16. Subauroral morning proton spots (SAMPS) as a result of plasmapause-ring-current interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Østgaard, Nikolai

    Subauroral morning proton spots (SAMPS) as a result of plasmapause-ring-current interaction H. U) that rotate with 70­95% of the Earth's corotation speed. Coincident particle measurements by DMSP confirm of the previous geomagnetic storm with the lowest latitude observations after the strongest storms. The rotation

  17. A high resolution view of the jet termination shock in a hot spot of the nearby radio galaxy Pictor A: implications for X-ray models of radio galaxy hot spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Tingay; E. Lenc; G. Brunetti; M. Bondi

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Images made with the VLBA have resolved the region in a nearby radio galaxy, Pictor A, where the relativistic jet that originates at the nucleus terminates in an interaction with the intergalactic medium, a so-called radio galaxy hot spot. This image provides the highest spatial resolution view of such an object to date (16 pc), more than three times better than previous VLBI observations of similar objects. The north-west Pictor A hot spot is resolved into a complex set of compact components, seen to coincide with the bright part of the hot spot imaged at arcsecond-scale resolution with the VLA. In addition to a comparison with VLA data, we compare our VLBA results with data from the HST and Chandra telescopes, as well as new Spitzer data. The presence of pc-scale components in the hot spot, identifying regions containing strong shocks in the fluid flow, leads us to explore the suggestion that they represent sites of synchrotron X-ray production, contributing to the integrated X-ray flux of the hot spot, along with X-rays from synchrotron self-Compton scattering. This scenario provides a natural explanation for the radio morphology of the hot spot and its integrated X-ray emission, leading to very different predictions for the higher energy X-ray spectrum compared to previous studies. From the sizes of the individual pc-scale components and their angular spread, we estimate that the jet width at the hot spot is in the range 70 - 700 pc, which is comparable to similar estimates in PKS 2153-69, 3C 205, and 4C 41.17. The lower limit in this range arises from the suggestion that the jet may dither in its direction as it passes through hot spot backflow material close to the jet termination point, creating a "dentist drill" effect on the inside of a cavity 700 pc in diameter.

  18. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimage ARM Data

  19. ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimageconcentration

  20. ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiancenumber concentration ARM Datasize

  1. Measurements of elastic modulus using laser-induced surface waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, D.J.; Amimoto, S.T.; Gross, R.W.F. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Glenn, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In general, the mechanical testing methods that are utilized for alloys and polymers, e.g., dogbone, rheovibron, etc., are not applicable to thin film structures. We wish to report noncontacting measurements of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity and the elastic modulus applicable to thin films of moderate thickness. An accompanying paper extends this technique to smaller film dimensions. A 15 ns pulsed YAG laser was used as the energy source to thermoelastically excite surface waves. The propagation of the waves was then observed by a second, independent He-Ne laser at a distance from the excitation spot. using the knife edge/beam deflection technique. A cylindrical lens was used to reduce the energy loading of the YAG laser on the sample to avoid damaging the surface of the specimen. The Rayleigh wave velocity is calculated from measurements of the arrival time of the surface wave as a function of distance from the ND:YAG laser spot. The shear modulus, G, can be determined from the measured speed of the surface waves, V, the specimen density, p, and Poisson`s ratio, v, according to the following relationship: V = R(v){sm_bullet}(G/p){sup {1/2}} where R(v), expressed as (0.862 + 1.14v)/(l + v), is the ratio of the Rayleigh wave velocity to the shear wave velocity and ranges from 0.86 to 0.95 Table below lists the measured surface wave velocities and the calculated shear modulus for our experimental results and the published values. Excellent agreement is observed. The depth of the SAW is approximately equal to the SAW wavelength which is approximately the laser spot size. Typically 30 {mu}m spot sizes can be readily achieved. In conclusion, SAW velocities and the modulus of elasticity of various materials have been measured. We have demonstrated that this non-contacting method can be used to characterize moderately thin films.

  2. On the mechanism of operation of a cathode spot cell in a vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Petrov, A. A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bochkarev, M. B. [Institute of Electrophysics, UB, RAS, 106 Amundsen St., Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, S. A., E-mail: sb@nsc.gpi.ru [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, 38 Vavilov St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The erosive structures formed on a tungsten cathode as a result of the motion of the cathode spot of a vacuum arc over the cathode surface have been examined. It has been found that the average mass of a cathode microprotrusion having the shape of a solidified jet is approximately equal to the mass of ions removed from the cathode within the lifetime of a cathode spot cell carrying a current of several amperes. The time of formation of a new liquid-metal jet under the action of the reactive force of the plasma ejected by the cathode spot is about 10?ns, which is comparable to the lifetime of a cell. The growth rate of a liquid-metal jet is ?10{sup 4}?cm/s. The geometric shape and size of a solidified jet are such that a new explosive emission center (spot cell) can be initiated within several nanoseconds during the interaction of the jet with the dense cathode plasma. This is the underlying mechanism of the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc.

  3. Berkeley Lab's SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historianBenefits offorSPOT Suite Transforms

  4. ClearSpot Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpot Energy Jump to: navigation, search

  5. Photovoltaic ground fault and blind spot electrical simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems pose a fire and shock hazard. To mitigate these risks, AC-isolated, DC grounded PV systems in the United States use Ground Fault Protection Devices (GFPDs), e.g., fuses, to de-energize the PV system when there is a ground fault. Recently the effectiveness of these protection devices has come under question because multiple fires have started when ground faults went undetected. In order to understand the limitations of fuse-based ground fault protection in PV systems, analytical and numerical simulations of different ground faults were performed. The numerical simulations were conducted with Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) using a circuit model of the PV system which included the modules, wiring, switchgear, grounded or ungrounded components, and the inverter. The derivation of the SPICE model and the results of parametric fault current studies are provided with varying array topologies, fuse sizes, and fault impedances. Closed-form analytical approximations for GFPD currents from faults to the grounded current carrying conductor-known as %E2%80%9Cblind spot%E2%80%9D ground faults-are derived to provide greater understanding of the influence of array impedances on fault currents. The behavior of the array during various ground faults is studied for a range of ground fault fuse sizes to determine if reducing the size of the fuse improves ground fault detection sensitivity. The results of the simulations show that reducing the amperage rating of the protective fuse does increase fault current detection sensitivity without increasing the likelihood of nuisance trips to a degree. Unfortunately, this benefit reaches a limit as fuses become smaller and their internal resistance increases to the point of becoming a major element in the fault current circuit.

  6. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  7. Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eric Rosen, Duke University Medical Center Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer March 3, 2005 Newport News, VA - A study published in the February issue of the...

  8. An inequality for potentials and the “hot–spots” conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    inequality, by the conformal invariance of Brownian motion, implies a result of Pascu [13] on “hot–spots” for certain symmetric convex domains. ?Supported in ...

  9. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

  10. Statistical Modeling of Spot Instance Prices in Public Cloud Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Statistical Modeling of Spot Instance Prices in Public Cloud Environments Bahman Javadi, Ruppa K resources has introduced many trade-offs between price, per- formance and recently reliability. Amazon's Spot Instances (SIs) create a competitive bidding option for the public Cloud users at lower prices

  11. Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet Preweld and postweld current modifications on the resistance spot welding of galvanized steel sheet ·are analyzed using high phenomena through· out the weld process are discussed. In addition. the duration of current modifi· cation

  12. Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhulai, Sandjai

    Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies Dafydd Steele MSc Stochastics and Financial forward and spot prices for energy com- panies. The two main ways of modelling power prices are stochastic Mathematics dafydd.steele@edf-energy.com August 5, 2010 #12;Abstract The focus of this thesis is on modelling

  13. Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko, William B. McNamara III-13 the effective hot spot temperature during aqueous cavitation remains unresolved. Given the importance of aqueous cavitation (sonography and bioeffects of ultrasound, sonochemical remediation of aqueous pollutants

  14. Measuring Complementary Electronic Structure Properties of both Deposited and Gas Phase Clusters using STM, UPS, and PES: Size-Selected Clusters on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, Kit H.

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we studied size-selected cluster interactions with surfaces, with other clusters on surfaces, and with external stimuli. These studies focused on mobility as a function of cluster size, surface morphologies as a function of composition and coverage, ion-induced modification and reactivity of clusters as a function of composition, the structural evolution of cluster cuboids culminating in the characterization of theoretically-predicted “baby crystal” clusters, and unusual fractal pattern formation due to deposition.

  15. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  16. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US.

  17. Consequences of maternal effects on body and antler size of white-tailed deer By Kevin L. Monteith (B&C Official Measurer), Jonathan A. Jenks (Distinguished Professor,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -quality agricultural crops. Disparity in size of deer between these two areas is probably related to differences comparable husbandry practices. This approach ensured there were no environmental differences influencing for ages up to 7 years. Despite being in good nutritional condition, adult males that originated from

  18. High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model, the cooling power densities of the devices can alsothe cooling power densities 2–24 times. Experimentally, the14 4 OCTOBER 2004 High-power-density spot cooling using bulk

  19. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmermann, Bjorn [WOLFRAM RESEARCH INC.; Nichols, Albert L [LLNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  20. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

    2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

  1. Genome Size Varaiation in D. melanogaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfrejd, Benjamin

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    in genome size may account for some of the missing heritability. We measured female genome sizes for 34 Drosophila melanogaster inbred strains that derived from isofemale lines established from a natural population in Raleigh, NC, in addition to a group...

  2. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Hovanski, Yuri [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Grant, Glenn J [ORNL; Dahl, Michael E [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  3. Hopper Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Job Size Charts Hopper Job Size Charts Fractional Jobs The following charts show the fraction of hours used on Hopper in each of five job-core-size bins: 2014 Usage by Job Size...

  4. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Job Size Charts Edison Job Size Charts Fraction of Hours Used per Job Size This chart shows the fraction of hours used on Edison in each of 5 job-core-size bins. 2015 Usage by Job...

  5. Berkeley Lab's SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    onto barcoded sample holders at home and ship them to the ALS. At the facility, a robot arm transfers each new sample to the measurement stage, where it is automatically...

  6. System-size dependence of {lambda} and {xi} production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 40A and 158A GeV measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Nicolic, V.; Susa, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Baatar, B.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Malakhov, A. I.; Melkumov, G. L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Barna, D.; Csato, P.; Fodor, Z.; Gal, J.; Hegyi, S.; Laszlo, A.; Levai, P.; Molnar, J.; Palla, G.; Sikler, F.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)] (and others)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results on {lambda}, {lambda}, and {xi}{sup -} production in centrality selected Pb+Pb reactions at 40A and 158A GeV and in near-central C+C and Si+Si reactions at 158A GeV are presented. Transverse mass spectra, rapidity spectra, and multiplicities in dependence of the system size are discussed. Comparisons to transport models (ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics and hadron string dynamics) and to the core-corona approach are performed. Although {lambda} and {lambda} production can be described by transport models reasonably well, these models do not agree with the {xi}{sup -} measurements. However, the core-corona picture fits very well the system-size dependence of {lambda} and {xi}{sup -}, whereas it agrees less well with the {lambda} data.

  7. Aspects of the life history and population dynamics of the spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, David Noboru

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Spot are distributed from &5 to 73 m but are most abundant at 5-9 m. Spot of one cohort recruit to the Gulf primarily in two periods, May- July (Spring), at 3-7 mo, and January-March (winter), at 13-18 mo of age. Recruitment occurs in waters &5-16 m.... Collection Observed Size Ran e 955 Confidence Limits about h N 99% Conf idence Limits of bs rvations Spring Recruitment Group 1 Oct 77 D 4 Rov 77 D 137-207 166, 1 148-201 173. 1 69 331. 2 9 373. 6 161. 7-170. 5 158. 2-188. 0 117. 7-214. 5...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF "HOT-SPOTS" AS A FUNCTION OF MATERIAL REMOVAL IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel

    2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Poster - The performance of a single-cell cavity made of RRR > 200 large-grain niobium has been investigated as a function of material removal by buffered chemical polishing. Temperature maps of the cavity surface at 1.7 and 2.0 K were taken for each step of chemical etching and revealed several 'hot-spots', which contribute to the degradation of the cavity quality factor as a function of the RF surface field, mostly at high field levels. It was found that the number of 'hot-spots' decreased for larger material removal. Interestingly, the losses of the 'hot-spots' at different locations evolved differently for successive material removal. The cavity achieved peak surface magnetic fields of about of 130 mT and was limited mostly by thermal quench. By measuring the temperature dependence of the surface resistance at low field between 4.2 K and 1.7 K, the variation of niobium material parameters as a function of material removal could also be investigated. This contribution shows the results of the RF tests along with the temperature maps and the analysis of the losses caused by the 'hot-spots'.

  9. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  10. australian wholesale spot: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    australian wholesale spot First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 FirstChoice Wholesale...

  11. SPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    . In a two-component approach to pricing, a nonlinear pricing scheme is used for cost recovery and a utility for cost recovery, and (ii) an options-based approach to price the risk of deviations in the loss based QoSPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS Aparna Gupta Decision

  12. Bright Spots in the South Carolina the Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Bright Spots in the South Carolina the Economy 2012 African American Economic Summit Doug Woodward Professor of Economics #12;Overview · Why we should worry. ­ Global economy and financial contagion. ­ U.S. economy and political uncertainty. · Why we should be happy. ­ South Carolina economy healing. · Robust

  13. Spot Convenience Yield Models for Energy Michael Ludkovski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludkovski, Mike

    . This is not true for some commodities, such as electricity. Even for mature markets like crude oil where spot of fu- ture asset and current consumption values. However, unlike financial deriva- tives, storage, the agent has the option of flexibility with regards to consumption (no risk of commodity shortage

  14. Front Vehicle Blind Spot Translucentization Based on Augmented Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan-Fang

    Front Vehicle Blind Spot Translucentization Based on Augmented Reality Che-Tsung Lin, Yu-Chen Lin--Recently, WAVE/DSRC has become an attrac- tive technology for vehicular safety applications. Vehicles with WAVE/DSRC devices can communicate with their neighboring vehicles to exchange information to achieve collaborative

  15. Measurement Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Catch Composition - Pelagic codes M Male F Female I Indeterminate U Unknown (not inspected) #12;Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Photos Comment Length 1 Version 1.2 6/2011 HookNo. Species name

  16. Raman Scattering from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory Meets Experiment. Raman Scattering from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory Meets Experiment. Abstract: We compute the Raman...

  17. EGG AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPOT, LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS (SCIAENIDAE)l

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlantic and GulfofMexico coasts from Massachusetts Bay to the Bay of Campeche (Johnson 1978). Spot spawns

  18. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF CANDIDATE HOT SPOTS IN RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martini, Paul

    of a few hot spots (Simkin 1978), surveys by Saslaw, Tyson, & Crane (1978; STC) and Crane, Tyson, & Saslaw

  19. Measurement of Key Pool BOiling Parameters in nanofluids for Nuclerar Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bang, In C [ORNL; Buongiorno, Jdacopo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Hu, Lin-wen [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids, colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base fluid such as water, can afford very significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. Such engineered fluids potentially could be employed in reactors as advanced coolants in safety systems with significant safety and economic advantages. However, a satisfactory explanation of the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids is lacking. To close this gap, we have identified the important boiling parameters to be measured. These are the properties (e.g., density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, vaporization enthalpy, surface tension), hydrodynamic parameters (i.e., bubble size, bubble velocity, departure frequency, hot/dry spot dynamics) and surface conditions (i.e., contact angle, nucleation site density). We have also deployed a pool boiling facility in which many such parameters can be measured. The facility is equipped with a thin indium-tin-oxide heater deposited over a sapphire substrate. An infra-red high-speed camera and an optical probe are used to measure the temperature distribution on the heater and the hydrodynamics above the heater, respectively. The first data generated with this facility already provide some clue on the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids. Specifically, the progression to burnout in a pure fluid (ethanol in this case) is characterized by a smoothly-shaped and steadily-expanding hot spot. By contrast, in the ethanol-based nanofluid the hot spot pulsates and the progression to burnout lasts longer, although the nanofluid CHF is higher than the pure fluid CHF. The presence of a nanoparticle deposition layer on the heater surface seems to enhance wettability and aid hot spot dissipation, thus delaying burnout.

  20. IMPROVING MULTI-LATTICE ALIGNMENT BASED SPOKEN KEYWORD SPOTTING Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, William Stafford

    , such as when- ever it is inconvenient, unsafe, or impossible for the user to enter a search query using and the utterance being searched is beneficial for spoken keyword spotting. In this paper, we introduce several im- prove the performance of spoken keyword spotting. Index Terms-- Spoken keyword spotting, lattice

  1. The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Modelling and pricing in electricity markets Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Overview

  2. When Barriers to Markets Fail: Pipeline Deregulation, Spot Markets, and the Topology of the Natural Gas Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Vany, Arthur; Walls, W. David

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental Research on Deregulation, natural Gas Pipelineto MarketsFail: Pipeline Deregulation,Spot Markets,and theto Markets Fall: Deregulation, Spot Markets, And the

  3. Impulsive Spot Heating and Thermal Explosion of Interstellar Grains Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivlev, A V; Vasyunin, A; Caselli, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically, with the aim to better understand leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. It is rigorously shown that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., heating of mantles by cosmic rays), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number $\\lambda$. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: When $\\lambda$ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain -- this regime is commonly known as the whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of the physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, the calculations suggest tha...

  4. Multi-spot ignition in type Ia supernova models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roepke, F K; Niemeyer, J C; Woosley, S E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic survey of the capabilities of type Ia supernova explosion models starting from a number of flame seeds distributed around the center of the white dwarf star. To this end we greatly improved the resolution of the numerical simulations in the initial stages. This novel numerical approach facilitates a detailed study of multi-spot ignition scenarios with up to hundreds of ignition sparks. Two-dimensional simulations are shown to be inappropriate to study the effects of initial flame configurations. Based on a set of three-dimensional models, we conclude that multi-spot ignition scenarios may improve type Ia supernova models towards better agreement with observations. The achievable effect reaches a maximum at a limited number of flame ignition kernels as shown by the numerical models and corroborated by a simple dimensional analysis.

  5. Multi-spot ignition in type Ia supernova models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer; S. E. Woosley

    2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic survey of the capabilities of type Ia supernova explosion models starting from a number of flame seeds distributed around the center of the white dwarf star. To this end we greatly improved the resolution of the numerical simulations in the initial stages. This novel numerical approach facilitates a detailed study of multi-spot ignition scenarios with up to hundreds of ignition sparks. Two-dimensional simulations are shown to be inappropriate to study the effects of initial flame configurations. Based on a set of three-dimensional models, we conclude that multi-spot ignition scenarios may improve type Ia supernova models towards better agreement with observations. The achievable effect reaches a maximum at a limited number of flame ignition kernels as shown by the numerical models and corroborated by a simple dimensional analysis.

  6. Magnetic fields, spots and weather in chemically peculiar stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Kochukhov

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    New observational techniques and sophisticated modelling methods has led to dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of the interplay between the surface magnetism, atomic diffusion and atmospheric dynamics in chemically peculiar stars. Magnetic Doppler images, constructed using spectropolarimetric observations of Ap stars in all four Stokes parameters, reveal the presence of small-scale field topologies. Abundance Doppler mapping has been perfected to the level where distributions of many different chemical elements can be deduced self-consistently for one star. The inferred chemical spot structures are diverse and do not always trace underlying magnetic field geometry. Moreover, horizontal chemical inhomogeneities are discovered in non-magnetic CP stars and evolving chemical spots are observed for the first time in the bright mercury-manganese star alpha And. These results show that in addition to magnetic fields, another important non-magnetic structure formation mechanism acts in CP stars.

  7. Imaging of semiconductors using a flying laser spot scanning system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas William

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in silicon p-n junctions was a direct result of this research. Verification of the experimental findings include analysis using other characterization techniques such as X-ray topo- graphy, electrical testing and preferential chemical etching... Image (I. R. Radiation) . . 22 Flying Spot Scanner Photo Image (Visible Radiation) . 23 15 Photo Image Showing Crystal Defects 24 16 Sirtl Etch Photomicrograph of Lattice Crystal Defects 25 17 Photo Image Showing Laser Induced Lifetime Changes 26...

  8. Detection of surface carbon and hydrocarbons in hot spot regions of niobium superconducting rf cavities by Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, C.; Ford, D.; Bishnoi, S.; Proslier, T.; Albee, B.; Hommerding, E.; Korczakowski, A.; Cooley, L.; Ciovati, G.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman microscopy/spectroscopy measurements are presented on high purity niobium (Nb) samples, including pieces from hot spot regions of a tested superconducting rf cavity that exhibit a high density of etch pits. Measured spectra are compared with density functional theory calculations of Raman-active, vibrational modes of possible surface Nb-O and Nb-H complexes. The Raman spectra inside particularly rough pits in all Nb samples show clear differences from surrounding areas, exhibiting enhanced intensity and sharp peaks. While some of the sharp peaks are consistent with calculated NbH and NbH2 modes, there is better overall agreement with C-H modes in chain-type hydrocarbons. Other spectra reveal two broader peaks attributed to amorphous carbon. Niobium foils annealed to >2000°C in high vacuum develop identical Raman peaks when subjected to cold working. Regions with enhanced C and O have also been found by SEM/EDX spectroscopy in the hot spot samples and cold-worked foils, corroborating the Raman results. Such regions with high concentrations of impurities are expected to suppress the local superconductivity and this may explain the correlation between hot spots in superconducting rf (SRF) cavities and the observation of a high density of surface pits. The origin of localized high carbon and hydrocarbon regions is unclear at present but it is suggested that particular processing steps in SRF cavity fabrication may be responsible.

  9. Wear testing of friction stir spot welding tools for joining of DP 980 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridges, Chris; Miles, Michael; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Steel, Russell

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Several tooling materials have been evaluated in prior studies, including silicon nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, where a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) was used in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re (designated as Q60), and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re (designated at Q70). The sheet material used for all wear testing was DP 980. Tool profiles were measured periodically during the testing process in order to show the progression of wear as a function of the number of spots produced. Lap shear testing was done each time a tool profile was taken in order to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. For the welding parameters chosen for this study the Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  10. Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm – 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 – 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 – 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 – 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

  11. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particle ARM Data Discoverysize

  12. Usage by Job Size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi...

  13. Top Spot is an intelligent advertising product that targets your most suitable listings to the right people

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    Top Spot is an intelligent advertising product that targets your most suitable listings to the right people by suburb and price. Top Spot listings appear at the top of the search results page estate agency both before and after signing up to Top Spot. 72% MORE VIEWS^ Advertising with Top Spot

  14. Maerz, N. H., Germain, P., 1996. Block size determination around underground openings using simulations. Proceedings of the FRAGBLAST 5 Workshop on Measurement of Blast Fragmentation, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 23-24 Aug., 1996, pp. 215-223.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    -strength classification. The actual block size distribution is the product of the interaction between the joint Designation (RQD), Volumetric Joint Count (Jv), and Block Size Index (Ib). These, being index properties do, block size may be considered simply the product of three simple rock mass parameters: joint set

  15. The Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S.6, 2014 IndependentInformation Role of Spot

  16. Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables TablesPricesSpot Prices (Crude

  17. Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImager Spots and Samples

  18. March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

  19. The magnetic configuration of a delta-spot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balthasar, Horst; Louis, Rohan E; Verma, Meetu; Denker, Carsten

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sunspots, which harbor both magnetic polarities within one penumbra, are called delta-spots. They are often associated with flares. Nevertheless, there are only very few detailed observations of the spatially resolved magnetic field configuration. We present an investigation performed with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter at the Vacuum Tower Telescope in Tenerife. We observed a sunspot with a main umbra and several additional umbral cores, one of them with opposite magnetic polarity (the delta-umbra). The delta-spot is divided into two parts by a line along which central emissions of the spectral line Ca II 854.2 nm appear. The Evershed flow comming from the main umbra ends at this line. In deep photospheric layers, we find an almost vertical magnetic field for the delta-umbra, and the magnetic field decreases rapidly with height, faster than in the main umbra. The horizontal magnetic field in the direction connecting main and delta-umbra is rather smooth, but in one location next to a bright penumbral featu...

  20. Transformation from spots to waves in a model of actin pattern formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Whitelam; Till Bretschneider; Nigel J. Burroughs

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Actin networks in certain single-celled organisms exhibit a complex pattern-forming dynamics that starts with the appearance of static spots of actin on the cell cortex. Spots soon become mobile, executing persistent random walks, and eventually give rise to traveling waves of actin. Here we describe a possible physical mechanism for this distinctive set of dynamic transformations, by equipping an excitable reaction-diffusion model with a field describing the spatial orientation of its chief constituent (which we consider to be actin). The interplay of anisotropic actin growth and spatial inhibition drives a transformation at fixed parameter values from static spots to moving spots to waves.

  1. Host-specific strain of Stemphylium causes leaf spot disease of California spinach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koike, Steven T.; Henderson, Diana M.; Butler, Edward E.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spinach culti- vars developed leaf spots within 2 weeks, while the wateras onto spinach lines used in downy mildew research. A water

  2. Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence of cost and price risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, X.; Kaminsky, P.; Tomecek, P.; Yuen, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence ofeither increase or decrease inventory by buying or sellingof actively managing inventory during the period rather than

  3. Empirical analysis of the spot market implications ofprice-elastic demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulated electricity industries share one common feature: the absence of any significant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, electricity industries continue to charge most consumers an average cost based on regulated retail tariff from the era of vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are forced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in open markets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who are sometimes forbidden by regulators from signing hedging contracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time (or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price of electricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumption in response to price signals. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic, and electricity generation resources can be stretched to the point where system stability is threatened. This, then, facilitates many other problems associated with electricity markets, such as market power and price volatility. Indeed, economic theory suggests that even modestly price-responsive demand can remove the stress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To test this theory, we use actual generator bid data from the New York control area to construct supply stacks, and intersect them with demand curves of various slopes to approximate different levels of demand elasticity. We then estimate the potential impact of real-time pricing on the equilibrium spot price and quantity. These results indicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a more price-elastic demand. Such analysis can provide policymakers with a measure of how effective price-elastic demand can potentially reduce prices and maintain consumption within the capability of generation resources.

  4. Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications ofPrice-Responsive Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulatedelectricity industries share one common feature: the absence of anysignificant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, most electricity consumers stillpay an average cost based regulated retail tariff held over from the eraof vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are oftenforced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in openmarkets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who aresometimes additionally forbidden by regulators from signing hedgingcontracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time(or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price ofelectricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumptionaccordingly. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic,which together with the non storability of electricity that requiresmarket clearing over very short time steps spawn many other problemsassociated with electricity markets, such as exercise of market power andprice volatility. Indeed, electricity generation resources can bestretched to the point where system adequacy is threatened. Economictheory suggests that even modest price responsiveness can relieve thestress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To quantify thiseffect, actual generator bid data from the New York control area is usedto construct supply stacks and intersect them with demand curves ofvarious slopes to approximate the effect of different levels of demandresponse. The potential impact of real-time pricing (RTP) on theequilibrium spot price and quantity is then estimated. These resultsindicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a moreprice-responsive demand providing policymakers with a measure of howprices can be potentially reduced and consumption maintained within thecapability of generation assets.

  5. Light stops, blind spots, and isospin violation in the MSSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano; Tunstall, Lewis C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the MSSM, we examine several simplified models where only a few superpartners are light. This allows us to study WIMP-nucleus scattering in terms of a handful of MSSM parameters and thereby scrutinize their impact on dark matter direct-detection experiments. Focusing on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering, we derive simplified, analytic expressions for the Wilson coefficients associated with Higgs and squark exchange. We utilize these results to study the complementarity of constraints due to direct-detection, flavor, and collider experiments. We also identify parameter configurations that produce (almost) vanishing cross sections. In the proximity of these so-called blind spots, the amount of isospin violation is found to be much larger than typically expected in the MSSM. This feature is a generic property of parameter regions where cross sections are suppressed, and highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the nucleon couplings and the associated hadronic uncertainties. T...

  6. AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1 , Toshiro a system for automatic hot spots detection and segmentation in whole body FDG-PET images. The main in clinical PET images. 1.INTRODUCTION Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 de- oxyglucose

  7. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Ruth Francis-Floyd and Peggy Reed2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR920 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Fish1 Ruth Francis-Floyd and Peggy that causes "Ich" or "white spot disease." This disease is a major prob- lem to aquarists and commercial fish producers world wide. Ichthyophthirius is an important disease of tropical fish, goldfish, and food fish

  8. Stochastic Dominance Tests for Risk Lovers: with Application to Oil Spot and Futures Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Stochastic Dominance Tests for Risk Lovers: with Application to Oil Spot and Futures Markets for risk averters and risk lovers to study the performance of the oil spot and futures markets in both pre that there is no arbitrage opportunity between these two markets and conclude that market efficiency and market rationality

  9. The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California on the Cost of Forward), the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) program on Reliability and Markets at the U Cruz, California. #12;ABSTRACT The unexpectedly high spot prices for electricity in the summer of 2000

  10. Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part I. Material Variations and Process Modifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ( l Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part I. Material Variations and Process to determine their effects on the acceptable range of resistance spot welding conditions for galvanized steel upsloping and downsloping of the weld current, preheat current, postheat current, electrode tip geometry

  11. Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process. Abdou Kâ Diongue this method to the German electricity price market for the period August 15, 2000 - De- cember 31, 2002 and we, Pelacchi and Venturini (2002) investigate several markets. In addition, electricity spot prices exhibit

  12. Subauroral proton spots visualize the Pc1 source A. G. Yahnin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Subauroral proton spots visualize the Pc1 source A. G. Yahnin,1 T. A. Yahnina,1 and H. U. Frey2 observations from the IMAGE spacecraft revealed a new type of proton aurora ­ subauroral proton spots, which map onto the vicinity of the plasmapause. It has been suggested that this proton aurora is produced

  13. Control of Black Spot of Roses with Sulphur-Copper Dust.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyle, E. W. (Eldon W.)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -off. Black spot was controlled with dusting (less than 0.1% of leaflet infection on September 23) and 3nt to ;easoll e and - - the CONTROL OF BLACK SPOT OF ROSES WITH SULPHUR-COPPER DUST 23 Table 10. Effect of time of cutting off understock tope...

  14. What determines cell size?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanism for nuclear positioning in fission yeast based onboth budding and fission yeast that nuclear volume increasesFR, Nurse P: Nuclear size control in fission yeast. J Cell

  15. SU-E-J-72: Geant4 Simulations of Spot-Scanned Proton Beam Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanehira, T; Sutherland, K; Matsuura, T; Umegaki, K; Shirato, H [Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate density inhomogeneities which can effect dose distributions for real-time image gated spot-scanning proton therapy (RGPT), a dose calculation system, using treatment planning system VQA (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo) spot position data, was developed based on Geant4. Methods: A Geant4 application was developed to simulate spot-scanned proton beams at Hokkaido University Hospital. A CT scan (0.98 × 0.98 × 1.25 mm) was performed for prostate cancer treatment with three or four inserted gold markers (diameter 1.5 mm, volume 1.77 mm3) in or near the target tumor. The CT data was read into VQA. A spot scanning plan was generated and exported to text files, specifying the beam energy and position of each spot. The text files were converted and read into our Geant4-based software. The spot position was converted into steering magnet field strength (in Tesla) for our beam nozzle. Individual protons were tracked from the vacuum chamber, through the helium chamber, steering magnets, dose monitors, etc., in a straight, horizontal line. The patient CT data was converted into materials with variable density and placed in a parametrized volume at the isocenter. Gold fiducial markers were represented in the CT data by two adjacent voxels (volume 2.38 mm3). 600,000 proton histories were tracked for each target spot. As one beam contained about 1,000 spots, approximately 600 million histories were recorded for each beam on a blade server. Two plans were considered: two beam horizontal opposed (90 and 270 degree) and three beam (0, 90 and 270 degree). Results: We are able to convert spot scanning plans from VQA and simulate them with our Geant4-based code. Our system can be used to evaluate the effect of dose reduction caused by gold markers used for RGPT. Conclusion: Our Geant4 application is able to calculate dose distributions for spot scanned proton therapy.

  16. Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Dlott, Dana D., E-mail: dlott@illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot spots produced by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation in an energetic material, crystalline RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), were studied by thermal-imaging microscopy. The LWIR source was a CO{sub 2} laser operating in the 28-30?THz range. Hot spot generation was studied using relatively low intensity (?100?W cm{sup ?2}), long-duration (450 ms) LWIR pulses. The hot spots could be produced repeatedly in individual RDX crystals, to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of hot spot generation by LWIR, since the peak hot-spot temperatures were kept to ?30?K above ambient. Hot spots were generated preferentially beneath RDX crystal planes making oblique angles with the LWIR beam. Surprisingly, hot spots were more prominent when the LWIR wavelength was tuned to be weakly absorbed (absorption depth ?30??m) than when the LWIR wavelength was strongly absorbed (absorption depth ?5??m). This unexpected effect was explained using a model that accounts for LWIR refraction and RDX thermal conduction. The weakly absorbed LWIR is slightly focused underneath the oblique crystal planes, and it penetrates the RDX crystals more deeply, increasing the likelihood of irradiating RDX defect inclusions that are able to strongly absorb or internally focus the LWIR beam.

  17. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  18. Light stops, blind spots, and isospin violation in the MSSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Crivellin; Martin Hoferichter; Massimiliano Procura; Lewis C. Tunstall

    2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the MSSM, we examine several simplified models where only a few superpartners are light. This allows us to study WIMP-nucleus scattering in terms of a handful of MSSM parameters and thereby scrutinize their impact on dark matter direct-detection experiments. Focusing on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering, we derive simplified, analytic expressions for the Wilson coefficients associated with Higgs and squark exchange. We utilize these results to study the complementarity of constraints due to direct-detection, flavor, and collider experiments. We also identify parameter configurations that produce (almost) vanishing cross sections. In the proximity of these so-called blind spots, the amount of isospin violation is found to be much larger than typically expected in the MSSM. This feature is a generic property of parameter regions where cross sections are suppressed, and highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the nucleon couplings and the associated hadronic uncertainties. This becomes especially relevant once the increased sensitivity of future direct-detection experiments corners the MSSM into these regions of parameter space.

  19. May market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven uranium transactions totalling nearly three million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported during May, but only two, totalling less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8, involved concentrates. As no discretionary buying occurred during the month, and as near-term supply and demand were in relative balance, prices were steady, while both buyers and sellers appeared to be awaiting some new market development to signal the direction of future spot-market prices. The May 31, 1993, Exchange Value and the Restricted American market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates were both unchanged at $7.10, and $2.95 per pound U3O8, respectively. NUEXCO's judgement was that transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that were both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on May 31 at $10.05 per pound U3O8. Two near-term concentrate transactions were reported in which one US utility purchased less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8 from two separate sellers. These sales occurred at price levels at or near the May 31 Exchange Value plus RAMP. No long-term uranium transactions were reported during May. Consequently, the UF6 Value decreased $0.20 to $24.30 per kgU as UF6, reflecting some weakening of the UF6 market outside the USA.

  20. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  1. Ice particle size matters | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice particle size matters Ice particle size matters Released: May 04, 2014 Fine-tuning cloud models for improved climate predictions The Science Arctic clouds are widespread and...

  2. April market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spot market price for uranium outside the USA weakened further during April, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.35, to $7.10 per pound U3O8. This is the lowest Exchange Value observed in nearly twenty years, comparable to Values recorded during the low price levels of the early 1970s. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.40, to $2.95 per pound U3O8. Transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that are both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on April 30 at $10.05 per pound U3O8, up $0.05 from the sum of corresponding March Values. Four near-term concentrates transactions were reported, totalling nearly 1.5 million pounds equivalent U3O8. One long-term sale was reported. The UF6 Value also declined, as increased competition among sellers led to a $0.50 decrease, to $24.50 per kgU as UF6. However, the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.65, to $5.90 per kgU as UF6, reflecting an effective US market level of $30.40 per kgU. Two near term transactions were reported totalling approximately 1.1 million pounds equivalent U3O8. In total, eight uranium transactions totalling 28 million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported, which is about average for April market activity.

  3. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  4. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  5. Titan's bright spots: Multiband spectroscopic measurement of surface diversity and hazes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adamkovics, Mate

    in a methane- based meteorological cycle that is similar to the Earth's hydrological cycle [Toon et al., 1988 initiates a series of chemical reactions that result in the formation of condensible hydrocarbons aerosols settle into the tropo- sphere, they can serve as condensation nuclei for Titan's methane

  6. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marathe, Achla

    permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US Lester Hadsell; Achla

  7. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnet UpdateEarth WeekAlamosEdisonEdisonJob Size

  8. First working group meeting on the minority carrier diffusion length/lifetime measurement: Results of the round robin lifetime/diffusion length tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B. [comp.] [comp.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As was noted in the cover letter that accompanied the samples, the eleven bare silicon samples were from various manufacturers. Table I lists the codes for the samples and the manufacturer of each sample. It also notes if the sample was single or poly-crystalline. The samples had been polished on one side before being sent out for measurements, but no further processing was done. The participants of the study were asked to measure either the lifetime or diffusion length of each of the samples using their standard procedure. Table II shows the experimental conditions used by the groups who measured diffusion length. All the diffusion length measurements were performed using the Surface Photovoltage method (SPV). Table M shows the experimental conditions for the lifetime measurements. All the lifetime measurements were made using the Photoconductance Decay method (PCD) under low level injection. These tables show the diameter of the spot size used during the measurement (the effective sampling area), the locations where measurements were taken, and the number of measurements taken at each location. Table N shows the results of the measurements. The table is divided into diffusion length and lifetime measurements for each sample. The values listed are the average values reported by each group. One of the immediate artifacts seen in the data is the large variation in the lifetime measurements. The values from MIT and Mobil are generally close. However, the measurements from NCSU are typically an order of magnitude lower.

  9. Particle Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab Diesel Particle Size Distributions Particle Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab Diesel Particle Size...

  10. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, L., E-mail: lschmitz@ucla.edu; Peebles, W. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ruskov, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Tuszewski, M.; Douglass, J.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A versatile heterodyne Doppler Backscattering (DBS) system is used to measure density fluctuation levels (in the wavenumber range k?{sub s} ? 50), and the toroidal E × B flow velocity in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). Six tunable frequencies in three waveguide bands (26 GHz ? f ? 90 GHz) are launched using monostatic beam optics, via a quasi-optical beam combiner/polarizer and an adjustable parabolic focusing mirror (inside the vacuum enclosure) achieving Gaussian beam spot sizes of 3–5.5 cm at the X/O-mode cutoff. The DBS system covers plasma densities of 0.8 × 10{sup 13} ? n{sub e} ? 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup ?3}, and provides access to the FRC core (up to the field null) and across the FRC separatrix into the scrape-off layer plasma.

  11. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  12. Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    was used for water measurements and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used data on 46 laser ablation spots from 19 tektite samples and Ó The Meteoritical Society, 2011

  13. Characteristics of spot-market rate indexes for truckload transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bignell, Andrew (Andrew Souglas)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the truckload transportation industry in the United States, a number of indexes are published that attempt to measure changes in rates, but no single index has emerged as an industry standard. Industry participants, ...

  14. Sun Spot One (SS1): San Luis Valley, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  15. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Foster, John E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  16. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  17. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  18. Nonlinear Simulations of Jupiter's 5-Micron Hot Spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is surprising. Condensation can only remove NH3, H2S, and water at pressures less than 0.7, 2, and 5 bars.03 times solar at 11 bars and 0.3 times solar at 19 bars, H2S surged from 0.3 times solar at 8 bars to 2, although the measured abundances of NH3 and H2S are consistent with expecta- tions at pressures exceeding

  19. Details of the Electro-Mechanical (E/M) Impedance Health Monitoring of Spot-Welded Structural Joints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    1 Details of the Electro-Mechanical (E/M) Impedance Health Monitoring of Spot-Welded Structural sensors for health monitoring spot-welded structural joints. Experiments were performed on aluminum-electric transducer; Crack propagation; Crack detection. 1. INTRODUCTION Health monitoring of structural joints

  20. Price-based Congestion-Control in Wi-Fi Hot Spots Roberto Battiti(*), Marco Conti(**), Enrico Gregori(**), Mikalai Sabel(*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    if they are in the transmission range of an access point. A new business model, named Wi-Fi Hot Spots, is now emerging to exploit offer with Wi-Fi. To reach an efficient use of the scarce bandwidth resources, market mechanisms the potentialities of this technology. A hot spot is a "critical" business area, e.g., airports, stations, hotels

  1. Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks and long memory models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks of oil spot and futures prices using three GARCH-type models, i.e., linear GARCH, GARCH with structural that oil price fluctuations influence economic activity and financial sector (e.g., Jones and Kaul, 1996

  2. Experimental results obtained during fatigue testing of a spot-welded lap-shear structural-joint specimen are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    in a number of industries. Spot welding is the traditional method of assembly for steel-based automotive and construction of vehicular structures indicate a strong diversification of material usage, with aluminum and polymeric composites projected to play a major role. While aluminum is amenable to both spot welding

  3. Verification of the Accuracy of Sample-Size Equation Calculations for Visual Sample Plan Version 0.9C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, James R.

    2001-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is a software tool being developed to facilitate the design of environmental sampling plans using a site-map visual interface, standard sample-size equations, a variety of sampling grids and random sampling plans, and graphs to visually depict the results to the user. This document provides comparisons between sample sizes calculated by VSP Version 0.9C, and sample sizes calculated by test code written in the S-Plus language. All sample sizes calculated by VSP matched the independently calculated sample sizes. Also the VSP implementation of the ELIGPRID-PC algorithm for hot spot probabilities is shown to match previous results for 100 standard test cases. The Conclusions and Limitations section of this document lists some aspects of VSP that were not tested by this suite of tests and recommends simulation-based enhancements for future versions of VSP.

  4. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  5. A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits Chong methodology to study the vulnerability of digital ICs exposed to nano-meter noise and transient soft errors. First, we define "softness" as an important characteristic to gauge system vulnerability. Then several

  6. Revised 1/11/05 SPOTTED SEAL (Phoca largha): Alaska Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    during the breeding season, and only spotted seals are strongly associated with pack ice (Shaughnessy conducted over the Bering Sea pack ice in spring and along the western Alaska coast during summer (Rugh et overwinter in the Bering Sea along the ice edge and make east-west movements along the edge (Lowry et al

  7. Preliminary Report Biology of the Spotted Seal (Phoca largha) in Alaska from 1962 to 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is present, spotted seals are found along the pack ice edge where the ice is loosely packed (Fay 1974 in that they prefer loose pack ice and they will readily haul out on land, which they do frequently in summer (e that are dependent on sea ice during some portion of the year; the other three species include the bearded seal

  8. Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerkmann, Ralf

    Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models Gernot M¨uller Vortrag im years, electricity markets throughout the world have undergone massive changes due to deregulations risk but also against price movements. Consequently, statistical modeling and estimation of electricity

  9. Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerkmann, Ralf

    Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk Prof. Dr. Meyer. Februar 2010, 16:15 Uhr Seminarraum, Ludwigstraße 33 I The recent deregulation of electricity markets has led to the creation of energy exchanges, where the electricity is freely traded. We study the most

  10. Title of Dissertation / Thesis: PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF SPOT TRUCK-LOAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation / Thesis: PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF SPOT TRUCK-LOAD PROCUREMENT MARKETS USING SEQUENTIAL AUCTIONS Miguel Andres Figliozzi, Ph.D., 2004 Dissertation / Thesis Directed By By Miguel Andres Figliozzi Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University

  11. Integration of Contracted Renewable Energy and Spot Market Supply to Serve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Integration of Contracted Renewable Energy and Spot Market Supply to Serve Flexible Loads Anthony-mail: oren@ieor.berkeley.edu). Abstract: We present a contract for integrating renewable energy supply the Participating Intermittent Resources Program, which fa- cilitates the integration of renewable energy sources

  12. Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaimungal, Sebastian

    Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal In this article, we construct forward price curves and value a class of two asset exchange options for energy the implied market prices of risk for this commodity. 1. Introduction The energy commodity markets

  13. Fracture toughness of the molten zone of resistance spot welds Florent Krajcarz1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). In these tests, the load vs. load line displacement curve is recorded to derive the weld strength (i.e. maximal of the base metal still significantly influences the load vs. displacement curve, yet to a lesser extent than and the crack extension resistance of the molten zone of resistance spot welds under Mode I loading has been

  14. Dynamic Interactions in the Western United States Electricity Spot Markets Christine A. Jerko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by a highly interconnected transmission system and established trading regime (De Vany and Walls, 1999b this new world." Most studies of electricity pricing have investigated market structure and power, reasons), in examining spot markets in England and Wales and the Nordic countries, notes there is significant differences

  15. THE FROBENIUS INTEGRABILITY THEOREM AND THE BLIND-SPOT PROBLEM FOR MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskow, Shari

    -side automotive mirror that has no blind-spot or distortion. While reasonably good solutions have been found driver-side mirror compared with a aluminum prototype designed using the method described in [7, the issue of the driver's field of view is a crucial one for automotive safety. According to a U

  16. Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya Department not be ruled out. If outgassing does occur somewhere on Mars, water, carbon dioxide, sulfur species, methane, and to a lesser extent, halogens would be the likely molecules of outgassing, based on terrestrial analogs

  17. Modified Fresnel zone plates with sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Modified Fresnel zone plates with sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and J¨urgen Jahns Traditional Fresnel zone plates (TFZPs) and photon sieves [1, 2, 3] can be used for the focusing and imaging of soft x.e. a modified Fresnel zone plate, MFZP) can realized the same functions as a photon sieve. In particular, we

  18. DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Phil demonstrated a cooling method on a "digital microfluidics" platform whereby discrete droplets are manipulated and the effective flow rate of the droplets. The results presented here suggest that digital microfluidics

  19. Spoken Keyword Spotting via Multi-Lattice Alignment Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilmes, Jeff

    , or impossible for the user to enter a search query using a standard keyboard. For example, speech queries and a second phone lattice repre- senting a long utterance needing to be searched. We implement this joint representation. Index Terms: speech lattice, keyword spotting, graphical mod- els, lattice alignment 1

  20. Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2 October 9, 2009 for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity to price projects in energy (see [10] for an introduction). Thus, modelling jointly the evolution of gas

  1. 21 Apr 2006 IPSN / SPOTS `06 Trio: Enabling Sustainable and Scalable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    management. Use energy harvesting. Improve energy mgmt. Reduce power draw. #12;21 Apr 2006 IPSN / SPOTS `06 harvesting · Improve energy "transfer" ­ Lower operating voltage ­ Adapt load (e.g. MPP) · Decrease power ­ Increasing Lifetime through Solar Energy Solar Cell Short Circuit Current Richmond Field Station, August 24

  2. Spot weldability of TRIP assisted steels with high carbon and aluminium contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Spot weldability of TRIP assisted steels with high carbon and aluminium contents G. S. Jung1 , K. Y of their aluminium concentrations of 3?5 or 5?6 wt-% and which also have high carbon contents of 0?3 or 0?4 wt-% when-ferrite, Ductility ratio, Weldability Introduction One variant of low alloy steel that benefits from transformation

  3. Energy and system-size dependence of two- and four-particle $v_2$ measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and their implications on flow fluctuations and nonflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The STAR Collaboration; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; B. D. Anderson; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bueltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Calderon; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; P. Chung; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; L. Didenko; F. Ding; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; F. Geurts; P. Ghosh; S. Gliske; Y. N. Gorbunov; O. G. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; L. Huo; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; J. Joseph; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; D. Kettler; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; S. R. Klein; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; L. Kumar; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; L. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; Y. Lu; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; O. I. Mall; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; S. Mioduszewski; M. K. Mitrovski; Y. Mohammed; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; L. V. Nogach; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; C. B. Powell; D. Prindle; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. Redwine; R. Reed; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; N. Schmitz; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; B. Sharma; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. de Souza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; D. Thein; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; F. Videbaek; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; S. A. Voloshin; A. Vossen; M. Wada; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; W. Witzke; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; Y. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zhan; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; W. M. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva

    2011-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present STAR measurements of azimuthal anisotropy by means of the two- and four-particle cumulants $v_2$ ($v_2\\{2\\}$ and $v_2\\{4\\}$) for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at center of mass energies $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}} = 62.4$ and 200 GeV. The difference between $v_2\\{2\\}^2$ and $v_2\\{4\\}^2$ is related to $v_{2}$ fluctuations ($\\sigma_{v_2}$) and nonflow $(\\delta_{2})$. We present an upper limit to $\\sigma_{v_2}/v_{2}$. Following the assumption that eccentricity fluctuations $\\sigma_{\\epsilon}$ dominate $v_2$ fluctuations $\\frac{\\sigma_{v_2}}{v_2} \\approx \\frac{\\sigma_{\\epsilon}}{\\epsilon}$ we deduce the nonflow implied for several models of eccentricity fluctuations that would be required for consistency with $v_2\\{2\\}$ and $v_2\\{4\\}$. We also present results on the ratio of $v_2$ to eccentricity.

  4. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana, E-mail: srinbhu@vt.edu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Tang, Xian-Zhu, E-mail: xtang@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  5. Controlling atomistic processes on Pb films via quantum size effects and lattice rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binz, Steven

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The two main techniques used to record the data in this dissertation were Spot Profile Analysis - Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). A specific data analysis technique for LEED data called G(S) curves is described in depth. G(S) curves can provide a great deal of structural information about the surface; including step heights, island size, and island separation. The effects of quantum size effects (QSE) on the diffusion and critical island sizes of Pb and In on Pb #12;films are reported. Pb depositions on the 2D In phases {radical}3 and {radical}31 to see how the phases affect the Pb growth and its strong QSE are reported.

  6. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

  7. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  8. 0-7803-XXXX-X/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE 22nd IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Hot Spot Cooling using Embedded Thermoelectric Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric Coolers G. Jeffrey Snyder, Marco Soto, Randy Alley, David Koester, Bob Conner Nextreme Thermal spot temperatures when efficiently integrated with a heat spreader. Embedded thermoelectric cooling (e by today's advanced processors. Keywords Localized hot spot cooling. Thermoelectric, Peltier Cooling

  9. THE EFFECT OF PROJECTION ON DERIVED MASS-SIZE AND LINEWIDTH-SIZE RELATIONSHIPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shetty, Rahul; Kauffmann, Jens; Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Collins, David C.; Norman, Michael L. [Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California San Diego, LaJolla, CA 92093 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik W., E-mail: rshetty@ita.uni-heidelberg.d [University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power-law mass-size and linewidth-size correlations, two of 'Larson's laws', are often studied to assess the dynamical state of clumps within molecular clouds. Using the result of a hydrodynamic simulation of a molecular cloud, we investigate how geometric projection may affect the derived Larson relationships. We find that large-scale structures in the column density map have similar masses and sizes to those in the three-dimensional simulation (position-position-position, PPP). Smaller scale clumps in the column density map are measured to be more massive than the PPP clumps, due to the projection of all emitting gas along lines of sight. Further, due to projection effects, structures in a synthetic spectral observation (position-position-velocity, PPV) may not necessarily correlate with physical structures in the simulation. In considering the turbulent velocities only, the linewidth-size relationship in the PPV cube is appreciably different from that measured from the simulation. Including thermal pressure in the simulated line widths imposes a minimum line width, which results in a better agreement in the slopes of the linewidth-size relationships, though there are still discrepancies in the offsets, as well as considerable scatter. Employing commonly used assumptions in a virial analysis, we find similarities in the computed virial parameters of the structures in the PPV and PPP cubes. However, due to the discrepancies in the linewidth-size and mass-size relationships in the PPP and PPV cubes, we caution that applying a virial analysis to observed clouds may be misleading due to geometric projection effects. We speculate that consideration of physical processes beyond kinetic and gravitational pressure would be required for accurately assessing whether complex clouds, such as those with highly filamentary structure, are bound.

  10. Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, K.B.

    1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Finite element simulation of laser spot welding A. De, S. K. Maiti, C. A. Walsh and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Finite element simulation of laser spot welding A. De, S. K. Maiti, C. A. Walsh and H. K. D. H laser spot welding, taking into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties and latent formation during laser spot welding, although the `double ellipsoidal' representation requires an a priori

  12. Cloud Spectrum Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    droplets are within the laser beam long enough so they can be sized. · A running average of droplet transit, it is rejected from sizing but included in the running average. Laser Beam Fraction Correction #12;The velocity ­ Activity Fraction #12;Percentage of particle losses based on the measured FSSP activity. FSSP Particle Loss

  13. Does semantic size affect size constancy scaling using lexical stimuli? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beveridge, Madeleine

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Binocular disparity allows us to perceive the world in 3-dimensions through the process of stereopsis. In this study, we used binocular disparity to induce the size constancy illusion in lexical stimuli. 47 undergraduate ...

  14. Projectile containing metastable intermolecular composites and spot fire method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asay, Blaine W.; Son, Steven F.; Sanders, V. Eric; Foley, Timothy; Novak, Alan M.; Busse, James R.

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for altering the course of a conflagration involving firing a projectile comprising a powder mixture of oxidant powder and nanosized reductant powder at velocity sufficient for a violent reaction between the oxidant powder and the nanosized reductant powder upon impact of the projectile, and causing impact of the projectile at a location chosen to draw a main fire to a spot fire at such location and thereby change the course of the conflagration, whereby the air near the chosen location is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause a spot fire at such location. The invention also includes a projectile useful for such method and said mixture preferably comprises a metastable intermolecular composite.

  15. Artificial neural networks for centroiding elongated spots in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mello, A T; Guzman, D; Guesalaga, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of Adaptive Optics in Extremely Large Telescopes brings new challenges, one of which is the treatment of Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensors images. When using this type of sensors in conjunction with laser guide stars for sampling the pupil of telescopes with 30+ m in diameter, it is necessary to compute the centroid of elongated spots, whose elongation angle and aspect ratio are changing across the telescope pupil. Existing techniques such as Matched Filter have been considered as the best technique to compute the centroid of elongated spots, however they are not good at coping with the effect of a variation in the Sodium profile. In this work we propose a new technique using artificial neural networks, which take advantage of the neural network's ability to cope with changing conditions, outperforming existing techniques in this context. We have developed comprehensive simulations to explore this technique and compare it with existing algorithms.

  16. Modeling the formation and size distribution of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of mathematical models has been developed to predict the size distribution of fly ash particles formed in pulverized coal combustion. The large particle mode of the size distribution, typically centered about 10 to 20 ..mu..m, is predicted by a simple breakup model that is based on the complete coalescence of molten mineral inclusions within fragments of the devolatilized coal char. The ultrafine particle mode, that is typically centered about 0.1 to 0.2 ..mu..m, is modeled in terms of ash volatilization, nucleation, and coagulation. Silica and alumina are reduced to volatile suboxides through reactions at the char surface. The volatile suboxides are transported from the char surface where they are oxidized back to the stable oxides in the bulk gas, and then nucleated in accordance with homogeneous nucleation theory. The ultrafine nuclei coagulate in accordance with Brownian coagulation theory. The predicted particle size spectra have been compared to measured size distributions from a pilot-scale combustor and a full-scale utility boiler. Considering the disproportionate loss of coarse particles in the pilot-scale unit, the agreement between the predicted and measured size distributions was considered reasonably good. Both the predicted ultrafine and large particle modes agreed reasonably well with the measured particle size distribution for the full scale boiler. The validated computer models were used to study the effect of changes in the coal ash content, coal particle size, and the combustion flame temperature.

  17. Extremal sizes of subspace partitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heden, Olof; Nastase, Esmeralda; Sissokho, Papa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A subspace partition $\\Pi$ of $V=V(n,q)$ is a collection of subspaces of $V$ such that each 1-dimensional subspace of $V$ is in exactly one subspace of $\\Pi$. The size of $\\Pi$ is the number of its subspaces. Let $\\sigma_q(n,t)$ denote the minimum size of a subspace partition of $V$ in which the largest subspace has dimension $t$, and let $\\rho_q(n,t)$ denote the maximum size of a subspace partition of $V$ in which the smallest subspace has dimension $t$. In this paper, we determine the values of $\\sigma_q(n,t)$ and $\\rho_q(n,t)$ for all positive integers $n$ and $t$. Furthermore, we prove that if $n\\geq 2t$, then the minimum size of a maximal partial $t$-spread in $V(n+t-1,q)$ is $\\sigma_q(n,t)$.

  18. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Junjun, E-mail: junjun.shen@hzg.de; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining Processes, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  19. Children's Clothes - Size and Selection.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderpoorten, Ann; Kerbel, Claudia

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tooe ZTA245.7 8-1303 B873 no ? \\'3J~3L-~=============i1 ? ? ? CHILDREN'S CLOTHES, SIZE AND SELECTION ? ~========================~ Texas Agricultural Extension Service. The Texas A&M University System. Daniel C. pfannstiel, Director.... College Station, Texas ," ? (BIaBk Pa,ge in O'rigjaal Bulletinl ' / I' j '. ":SIZE AND SELECTION Ann Vanderpoorten and Claudia Kerbel* Preschool and school-age children have special...

  20. Blind Spots for neutralino Dark Matter in the MSSM with an intermediate m_A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peisi Huang; Carlos E. M. Wagner

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spin-independent neutralino Dark Matter scattering off heavy nuclei in the MSSM. We identify analytically the blind spots in direct detection for intermediate values of $m_A$. In the region where $\\mu$ and $M_{1,2}$ have opposite signs, there is not only a reduction of the lightest CP-even Higgs coupling to neutralinos, but also a destructive interference between the neutralino scattering through the exchange of the lightest CP-even Higgs and that through the exchange of the heaviest CP-even Higgs. At critical values of $m_A$, the tree-level contribution from the light Higgs exchange cancels the contribution from the heavy Higgs, so the scattering cross section vanishes. We denote these configurations as blind spots, since they provide a generalization of the ones previously discussed in the literature, which occur at very large values of $m_A$. We show that the generalized blind spots may occur in regions of parameter space that are consistent with the obtention of the proper neutralino relic density, and can be tested by non-standard Higgs boson searches and EWino searches at the LHC and future linear colliders.

  1. Fourier-phase analysis of the orbiting bright-spot model for AGN variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Karas

    1997-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Fourier power spectra and phases of a signal from a large number of radiating sources orbiting around a black hole are investigated. It is assumed that the individual sources (bright spots) are located in an accretion disc and their lifetime exceeds the corresponding orbital period. This model is relevant for the short-time X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei. Previous works on this subject were mostly concentrated on temporal characteristics and power spectra of observed light curves. In our present contribution, Fourier phases are brought into consideration and studied systematically for a broad range of input parameters. In particular, conditions for the phase coherence are discussed. It is shown that one can discriminate between the two classes of models which are currently under consideration--orbital motion of a large number of sources versus short-lived independent flares--although parameters of the model are not completely arbitrary. It is also shown that predicted power spectra depend rather strongly on the spot distribution across the disk surface. We conclude that the orbital motion of the spots cannot be the only reason for the source fluctuations, but it certainly influences observational properties of the source intrinsic variability.

  2. Trajectory-based interpretation of Young's experiment, the Arago-Fresnel laws and the Poisson-Arago spot for photons and massive particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Davidovic; A. S. Sanz; M. Bozic; D. Arsenovic; D. Dimic

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a trajectory based interpretation for Young's experiment, the Arago-Fresnel laws and the Poisson-Arago spot. This approach is based on the equation of the trajectory associated with the quantum probability current density in the case of massive particles, and the Poynting vector for the electromagnetic field in the case of photons. Both the form and properties of the evaluated photon trajectories are in good agreement with the averaged trajectories of single photons observed recently in Young's experiment by Steinberg's group at the University of Toronto. In the case of the Arago-Fresnel laws for polarized light, the trajectory interpretation presented here differs from those interpretations based on the concept of "which-way" (or "which-slit") information and quantum erasure. More specifically, the observer's information about the slit that photons went through is not relevant to the existence of interference; what is relevant is the form of the electromagnetic energy density and its evolution, which will model consequently the distribution of trajectories and their topology. Finally, we also show that the distributions of end points of a large number of evaluated photon trajectories are in agreement with the distributions measured at the screen behind a circular disc, clearly giving rise to the Poisson-Arago spot.

  3. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  4. Food consumption and digestion time estimation of spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashim, Marina; Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi (Malaysia); Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan M (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study was conducted to investigate the food consumption pattern and gastric emptying time using x-radiography technique in scats fish, Scatophagus argus feeding to satiation in laboratory conditions. Prior to feeding experiment, fish of various sizes were examined their stomach volume, using freshly prepared stomachs ligatured at the tips of the burret, where the maximum amount of distilled water collected in the stomach were measured (ml). Stomach volume is correlated with maximum food intake (S{sub max}) and it can estimate the maximum stomach distension by allometric model i.e volume=0.0000089W{sup 2.93}. Gastric emptying time was estimated using a qualitative X-radiography technique, where the fish of various sizes were fed to satiation at different time since feeding. All the experimental fish was feed into satiation using radio-opaque barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}) paste injected in the wet shrimp in proportion to the body weight. The BaSO{sub 4} was found suitable to track the movement of feed/prey in the stomach over time and gastric emptying time of scats fish can be estimated. The results of qualitative X-Radiography observation of gastric motility, showed the fish (200 gm) that fed to maximum satiation meal (circa 11 gm) completely emptied their stomach within 30 - 36 hrs. The results of the present study will provide the first baseline information on the stomach volume, gastric emptying of scats fish in captivity.

  5. Kriging by using measurements in different size Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    -2100 - esp. floods and droughts ·To assess impacts of the changes on agriculture, industry, energy, drinking as a resource WATCH Project (http://www.eu-watch.org) #12;WATCH Application Basins Climate: Cold climate (Nordic is a Storage Reservoir Inputs Rainfall Recharge River and Wetland infiltrations Lateral inflow from neighboring

  6. Assessing Impact of Shattered Artifacts on Measured Size Distributions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management »EnergyHubs | DepartmentCloud

  7. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  8. Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the adjacent FM was inferred from scanning MOKE spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interfer- ence device #1;SQUID#2; magnetometry. The relationship gov- erns the regime of exchange bias #5;averaging #1;of FM domains over AF domains#2; vs nonaveraging... with neutron reflectometry34 and inferred from magnetometry and micromagnetic model- ing of GdFe/TbFe bilayers.27,35 Despite recent successful efforts to quantify the uncom- pensated magnetization in the AF, measurement of AF do- main size has not been...

  9. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  10. Measurement of acoustoelastic effect of Rayleigh surface waves using laser ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, W.Y.; Peng, L.W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Materials and Engineering Sciences Center; Holland, S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acoustoelastic effect refers to the fact that elastic wave velocities vary with stress. Measurements of the change in stress induced velocity yield information which leads to the determination of stresses. Some work has been done to explore the possibility of using ultrasonic waves, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves as well as surface waves, for the nondestructive evaluation of stresses. This paper focuses on Rayleigh surface waves, which have the advantage of detecting both surface stresses and stress gradients. Piezoelectric or electromagnetic acoustic transducers have been used for the application of Rayleigh waves in the acoustoelastic measurement of stress. The size of these transducers and their fixtures limit the distance between transducers. Sharp edge wedges are usually bound to the pick-up piezoelectric transducers, known as the Rayleigh or surface wave device (SWD), to provide a better spatial resolution when the stress field is not uniform. The smallest distance reported is 11 mm. On the other hand, acoustic microscopes (AM) can measure localized stress for a very small area, from 30 {micro}m to 2 mm. Both SWD and AM method may lack the agility required for general applications. Laser ultrasonics (LU) is a method for optical generation and detection of ultrasound. The generation and detection areas can be focused to very small spot sizes, less than 1 mm, which allow velocity measurements to be made over a path length of a few millimeters. The LU technique is non-contact and can be applied remotely; it has many potential applications. The authors used the LU technique to measure the acoustoelastic behavior of an aluminum alloy, A16061-T6.

  11. Evolution of particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dujiu; Crawford, L.W.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor is studied in this paper. As an important mechanism of particle collision, thermophoresis is briefly discussed in this paper and the thermophoretic velocity is given. The temperature gradient that causes the thermophoretic force is established between high and low temperature particles in the flow, which results from convection and radiation heat balance between particles and wall. Particle temperature with respect to their sizes is obtained. Mechanism of agglomeration and collection efficiency of fine particles is presented. Finally, at the inlet of the ESP, theoretical particle size distribution is compared with the experimental measurements at CFFF.

  12. Evolution of particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dujiu; Crawford, L.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor is studied in this paper. As an important mechanism of particle collision, thermophoresis is briefly discussed in this paper and the thermophoretic velocity is given. The temperature gradient that causes the thermophoretic force is established between high and low temperature particles in the flow, which results from convection and radiation heat balance between particles and wall. Particle temperature with respect to their sizes is obtained. Mechanism of agglomeration and collection efficiency of fine particles is presented. Finally, at the inlet of the ESP, theoretical particle size distribution is compared with the experimental measurements at CFFF.

  13. DNA ARRAY DECODING FROM NONLINEAR MEASUREMENTS BY BELIEF PROPAGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DNA ARRAY DECODING FROM NONLINEAR MEASUREMENTS BY BELIEF PROPAGATION Mona A. Sheikh, Shriram Compressed Sensing (CS) and demonstrate its utility in DNA array decoding. In a CS DNA microarray, the array spots identify DNA sequences that are shared between multiple organisms, thereby reduc- ing the number

  14. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  15. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  16. Measurement-Measurement-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

    Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

  17. Control of Transcription by Cell Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chia-Yung

    Cell size increases significantly with increasing ploidy. Differences in cell size and ploidy are associated with alterations in gene expression, although no direct connection has been made between cell size and transcription. ...

  18. 5, 52235252, 2005 Size-resolved source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcano emission. PMF analysis of size% in the fine size range (0.56­2.5 µm). The diesel vehicle source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size

  19. Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail: mkazemi@sharif.edu; Kokabi, A.H.

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

  20. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  1. The LaueUtil toolkit for Laue photocrystallography. II. Spot finding and integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw A.; Fournier, Bertrand; Makal, Anna; Coppens, Philip (SUNYB); (LBNL)

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A spot-integration method is described which does not require prior indexing of the reflections. It is based on statistical analysis of the values from each of the pixels on successive frames, followed for each frame by morphological analysis to identify clusters of high value pixels which form an appropriate mask corresponding to a reflection peak. The method does not require prior assumptions such as fitting of a profile or definition of an integration box. The results are compared with those of the seed-skewness method which is based on minimizing the skewness of the intensity distribution within a peak's integration box. Applications in Laue photocrystallography are presented.

  2. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Liubin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xi Tingting [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas of the Ministry of Education of China and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He Duanwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  3. Observations of Ferrite/Austenite Transformations in the Heat Affected Zone of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Spot Welds Using Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T; Elmer, J; Babu, S

    2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD) measurements are made in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) spot welds. Both the {gamma} {yields} {delta} and {delta} {yields} {gamma} transformations are monitored as a function of time during the rapid spot weld heating and cooling cycles. These observations are then correlated with calculated thermal cycles. Where the peak temperatures are highest ({approx}1342 C), the {gamma} {yields} {delta} transformation proceeds to completion, leaving a ferritic microstructure at the end of heating. With lower peak temperatures, the {gamma} {yields} {delta} transformation proceeds to only partial completion, resulting in a microstructure containing both transformed and untransformed austenite. Further analyses of the individual diffraction patterns show shifts in the peak positions and peak widths as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, these changes in the peak characteristics are correlated with measured changes in the ferrite volume fraction. Such changes in the peak positions and widths during the {gamma} {yields} {delta} transformation provide an indication of changes occurring in each phase. These changes in peak properties can be correlated with the diffusion of nitrogen and other substitutional alloying elements, which are recognized as the primary mechanisms for this transformation. Upon cooling, the {delta} {yields} {gamma} transformation is observed to proceed from both the completely and partially transformed microstructural regions in the TRXRD data. An examination of the resulting microstructures confirms the TRXRD observation as the evidence shows that austenite both nucleates and grows from the ferritic microstructure at locations closest to the fusion zone boundary and grows from untransformed austenite grains at locations further from this boundary.

  4. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA); Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  5. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  6. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  7. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  8. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  9. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

  10. Platform for in situ real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes of DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platform for in situ real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes of DNA Philipp, 2009) A platform for in situ and real-time measurement of protein- induced conformational changes in ds. The platform can accommodate individual spots of microar- rayed dsDNA on individually controlled

  11. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A. [Mobil Shipping and Transportation, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  12. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  13. Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data. 2 figs.

  14. anti-white spot syndrome: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which is characterized by the surface brightness contrast, the size, the number, the umbrapenumbra structure, the shape, and the orientation with respect to the sweeping...

  15. Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding of DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Ridges, Chris; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Santella, M. L.; Steel, Russel

    2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, using a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re, and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re. The sheet material used for all wear testing was 1.4 mm DP 980. Lap shear testing was used to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. The Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  16. On the development of nugget growth model for resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Kang, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk; Cai, Lilong, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we developed a general mathematical model to estimate the nugget growth process based on the heat energy delivered into the welds by the resistance spot welding. According to the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer, and the effect of electrode force during the welding process, the shape of the nugget can be estimated. Then, a mathematical model between heat energy absorbed and nugget diameter can be obtained theoretically. It is shown in this paper that the nugget diameter can be precisely described by piecewise fractal polynomial functions. Experiments were conducted with different welding operation conditions, such as welding currents, workpiece thickness, and widths, to validate the model and the theoretical analysis. All the experiments confirmed that the proposed model can predict the nugget diameters with high accuracy based on the input heat energy to the welds.

  17. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Shumei [School of life science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanga Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

  18. An investigation of the areal sweep efficiency of the developed five-spot well pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edman, William Douglas

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (x+bx. y, t+bt))eD(x, y, t). (4) where A=1. 0 B s -(2+ y) C= i. o D(x) = -(P(x, y-Ay, t) - (2- y )P(x, y, t)+ P(x, y, tfty t)). Equation (4) is written for each grid point in a particular row. The pressure at each grid point at time (the...?"' sly it& +be io]lowing. l2 P I I I I SMSLLEST l%TTERN I UNIT OF SYMSIETRY I I I I I I I 0? I I I I 8 INJECTION WELL o PRODUCTION WELL I DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT WELL PATTE RN FIGURE I the study. APer the pressure distx'ibution for a...

  19. Laser diffraction process and apparatus for width measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    apparatus for width measurement of elongated objects Re-direct Destination: Size distribution of elongated objects is measured by forward scattering radiation from the objects...

  20. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  1. Spots and stripes: Pleomorphic patterning of stem cells via p-ERK-dependent cell chemotaxis shown by feather morphogenesis and mathematical simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maini, Philip K.

    Spots and stripes: Pleomorphic patterning of stem cells via p-ERK-dependent cell chemotaxis shown cells Placode ERK Mathematical modeling Chemotaxis A key issue in stem cell biology patterns, ranging from stripes to spots, can be obtained when the level of p-ERK activity is adjusted

  2. Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington. L. J. du Toit, Washington State University of the NP gene. In August 2003, symptoms of IYSV infection were observed in two onion bulb crops, each

  3. Size-dependent same-material tribocharging in insulating grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott R. Waitukaitis; Victor Lee; James M. Pierson; Steven L. Forman; Heinrich M. Jaeger

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of flowing granular matter have suggested that same-material tribocharging de- pends on particle size, rendering large grains positive and small ones negative. Models assuming the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this, but so far have not been validated. Tracking individual grains in an electric field, we show quantitatively that charge is transferred based on size between materially identical grains. However, the surface density of trapped electrons, measured independently by thermoluminescence techniques, is orders of magnitude too small to account for the scale of charge transferred. This suggests that another negatively charged species, such as ions, is responsible.

  4. Repetitive petawatt-class laser with near-diffraction-limited focal spot and transform-limited pulse duration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Repetitive petawatt-class laser with near-diffraction-limited focal spot and transform-loop feedback control systems in the temporal and spatial domains are used to yield Fourier-transform acceleration and x-ray generation. Keywords: petawatt, diffraction limited, transform limited, spatial

  5. P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    i ...) P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material proper- ties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current

  6. An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A. by Tim for electricity in the USA vary in fundamental ways. In particular, markets in the East, such as New England, New in the new auction markets for electricity can be described by a stochastic regime-switching model

  7. Oval BA (and the Great Red Spot) extend down to a supersolar water cloud layer in Jupiter's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Philip S.

    Oval BA (and the Great Red Spot) extend down to a supersolar water cloud layer in Jupiter in Jupiter's troposphere, with stable layers near cloud bases [4,6,7]. We use these two results to determine horizontal band in Fig. 2 shows that vortex- model derived static stability (white bars) is consistent

  8. www.octri.org/funding "Designing a Convenient and Precise Device for Home Dried Blood Spot Collection"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    www.octri.org/funding "Designing a Convenient and Precise Device for Home Dried Blood Spot-art methods require frequent laboratory visits for venous blood draws and subsequent analysis. There are no readily available methods for in-home collection of patient blood samples with the necessary accuracy

  9. Assessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas: Evidence from Daily Price Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to decouple the production and trading of the commodity natural gas from its transportation. Advocates arguedAssessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas: Evidence from Daily Price Economics Abstract: This paper assesses the degree of market integration in the U.S. natural gas market

  10. Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic T.D. Mount Department that the average price in 1999, when market-based offers were allowed, was twice as high as it was in the previous two seasons when offers had to be cost-based. The primary cause was that the price spikes in 1999 were

  11. Identifying HotSpots in Lung Cancer Data Using Association Rule Mining Ankit Agrawal and Alok Choudhary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    Identifying HotSpots in Lung Cancer Data Using Association Rule Mining Ankit Agrawal and Alok, IL 60201, USA Email: {ankitag,choudhar}@eecs.northwestern.edu Abstract--We analyze the lung cancer. The resulting rules conform with existing biomedical knowledge and provide interesting insights into lung cancer

  12. 6, 1184511875, 2006 A new SIze REsolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the aerosol size distribution into sections and solves the GDE by splitting coagulation and condensation Interactive Discussion EGU that affect the aerosol size/composition distribution are therefore crucial. ThreeACPD 6, 11845­11875, 2006 A new SIze REsolved Aerosol Model E. Debry et al. Title Page Abstract

  13. Improving spot-scanning proton therapy patient specific quality assurance with HPlusQA, a second-check dose calculation engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackin, Dennis; Li, Yupeng; Taylor, Michael B.; Kerr, Matthew; Holmes, Charles; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Li, Heng; Lii, Jim; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the use of HPlusQA, spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) dose calculation software developed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, as second-check dose calculation software for patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA). The authors also showed how HPlusQA can be used within the current PSQA framework.Methods: The authors compared the dose calculations of HPlusQA and the Eclipse treatment planning system with 106 planar dose measurements made as part of PSQA. To determine the relative performance and the degree of correlation between HPlusQA and Eclipse, the authors compared calculated with measured point doses. Then, to determine how well HPlusQA can predict when the comparisons between Eclipse calculations and the measured dose will exceed tolerance levels, the authors compared gamma index scores for HPlusQA versus Eclipse with those of measured doses versus Eclipse. The authors introduce the ??? transformation as a way to more easily compare gamma scores.Results: The authors compared measured and calculated dose planes using the relative depth, z/R × 100%, where z is the depth of the measurement and R is the proton beam range. For relative depths than less than 80%, both Eclipse and HPlusQA calculations were within 2 cGy of dose measurements on average. When the relative depth was greater than 80%, the agreement between the calculations and measurements fell to 4 cGy. For relative depths less than 10%, the Eclipse and HPlusQA dose discrepancies showed a negative correlation, ?0.21. Otherwise, the correlation between the dose discrepancies was positive and as large as 0.6. For the dose planes in this study, HPlusQA correctly predicted when Eclipse had and had not calculated the dose to within tolerance 92% and 79% of the time, respectively. In 4 of 106 cases, HPlusQA failed to predict when the comparison between measurement and Eclipse's calculation had exceeded the tolerance levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement.Conclusions: The authors found HPlusQA to be reasonably effective (79%± 10%) in determining when the comparison between measured dose planes and the dose planes calculated by the Eclipse treatment planning system had exceeded the acceptable tolerance levels. When used as described in this study, HPlusQA can reduce the need for patient specific quality assurance measurements by 64%. The authors believe that the use of HPlusQA as a dose calculation second check can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the QA process.

  14. A Simple and Fast Word Spotting Method Alon Kovalchuk, Lior Wolf, and Nachum Dershowitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Lior

    binarized target is resized to fit into a Procrustean bed (that is, a fixed-size rectangle) and represented overlapping candidate targets. Each binary target, as well as the binarized query, is resized to fit a fixed

  15. Spatial distribution and size evolution of particles in Asian outflow: Significance of primary and secondary aerosols during ACE-Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volatility suggested increasing neutralization of the aerosol during growth. Size distribution measurements; KEYWORDS: ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, aerosol size distribution, nucleation, primary and secondary aerosols, condensation and coagulation Citation: Mc Naughton, C. S., et al. (2004), Spatial distribution and size

  16. Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior and Adams, 2009b) ·Condensation, coagulation, nucleation ·40 size bins (1 nm ­ 10 µm) ·Nucleation rates the aerosol mass distribution. However, recent closure studies with field measurements show that a significant

  17. Sieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    ; accepted 18 June 2006 Abstract Measurement of the soil fragment size distribution has been found.g. wind and water erosion, infiltration and aeration) crop establishment and productivity (Skidmore et al is inversely related to the amount of applied energy, and does not necessarily reflect the size of aggregates

  18. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data with Replicated Spots: A Case Study withSynechococcusWH8102

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, E. V.; Phillippy, K. H.; Brahamsha, B.; Haaland, D. M.; Timlin, J. A.; Elbourne, L. D. H.; Palenik, B.; Paulsen, I. T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until recently microarray experiments often involved relatively few arrays with only a single representation of each gene on each array. A complete genome microarray with multiple spots per gene (spread out spatially across the array) was developed in order to compare the gene expression of a marine cyanobacterium and a knockout mutant strain in a defined artificial seawater medium. Statistical methods were developed for analysis in the special situation of this case study where there is gene replication within an array and where relatively few arrays are used, which can be the case with current array technology. Due in partmore »to the replication within an array, it was possible to detect very small changes in the levels of expression between the wild type and mutant strains. One interesting biological outcome of this experiment is the indication of the extent to which the phosphorus regulatory system of this cyanobacterium affects the expression of multiple genes beyond those strictly involved in phosphorus acquisition.« less

  20. The evolution of pellet size and shape during spheronisation of an extruded microcrystalline cellulose paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, C. L. S.; Yu, Q.; Lister, V. Y.; Rough, S. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Zhang, M.

    2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The process by which cylindrical rods of soft solid paste extrudate are converted into round pellets on a spheroniser (Marumeriser™) plate was studied by interrupting spheronisation tests and measuring the size and shape of the pellets. Batches...

  1. Comparison of the Coulter Multisizer and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer for obtaining the aerodynamic particle size of irregularly shaped dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, Joshua Wayne

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When studying air quality it is often necessary to measure the aerodynamic size distribution of particles. True aerodynamic diameter must be measured using a gravitational settling method, which is impractical. Other methods exist that use other...

  2. Mean-Risk Optimization of Electricity Portfolios Using Multiperiod Polyhedral Risk Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichhorn, Andreas

    Mean-Risk Optimization of Electricity Portfolios Using Multiperiod Polyhedral Risk Measures Andreas-risk optimization of electricity portfolios containing electricity futures as well as several com- ponents to satisfy a stochastic electricity demand: electricity spot market, two different types of supply contracts

  3. Effect of particle size on the thermo-optic properties of gold nanofluids – A thermal lens study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Basheer, N. Shemeena; Kurian, Achamma [Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta (India); George, Sajan D., E-mail: sajan.george@manipal.edu [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical gold nanoparticles having particle size in the range 30 to 50 nm are prepared using citrate reduction of gold chloride trihydrate in water. The influence of particle size on the thermal diffusivity value of gold nanofluid is measured using dual beam thermal lens technique. The present study shows that the particle size influences the effective thermal diffusivity value of the nanofluid substantially and the value decreases with decrease in particle size for the investigated samples.

  4. 6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines | Science 5 Senses 1/4...globalproductivityforum.info/.../the-use-of-acoustic-inversion-to-estimate-the-bubble-size-distribu...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines method to more accurately measure gas bubbles in pipelines. The ability to measure gas bubbles in 2010. Currently, the most popular technique for estimating the gas bubble size distribution (BSD

  5. 6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines 1/4energy-daily.com/.../The_use_of_acoustic_inversion_to_estimate_the_bubble_size_distribution_in_...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines 1 address ... yes . . . The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines devised a new method to more accurately measure gas bubbles in pipelines. The ability to measure gas

  6. Optimization Online - Lot sizing with inventory gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamish Waterer

    2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 27, 2006 ... Abstract: This paper introduces the single item lot sizing problem with inventory gains. This problem is a generalization of the classical single ...

  7. Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on the Prevention of White Spot Lesions in Patients Undergoing Active Orthodontic Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutto Fretty, Corneil Kimberly

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    of translucency of the enamel, as a result of demineralization. No cavitation is usually evident, but the surface may feel rougher than normal when checked with a sharp instrument. Sliverstone described four distinct zones of a carious lesion in enamel... followed by shorter periods of remineralization, will result in cavitation of the enamel surface.2 Etiology of White Spot Lesions WSLs are caused by the accumulation of plaque and bacteria on the enamel surfaces of teeth, and are affected...

  8. Sequential Constant Size Compressors for Reinforcement Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Sequential Constant Size Compressors for Reinforcement Learning Linus Gissl´en, Matt Luciw, Vincent with this problem: standard RL techniques using as input the hidden layer output of a Sequential Constant-Size Compressor (SCSC). The SCSC takes the form of a sequential Recurrent Auto-Associative Mem- ory, trained

  9. A Theory of Objective Sizing Ricardo Valerdi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 A Theory of Objective Sizing Ricardo Valerdi Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, we build on a concept from psychology known as the moon illusion to develop a theory of objective sizing. This theory has two main benefits: it helps explain why stakeholders have different views

  10. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Optical sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    mining operation, from the drilling and blasting to the final product; the material size dictates all- disruptive and practical for sizing any material that could be successfully imaged, including blastedWares's WipFrag system work best under controlled conditions like over moving conveyor belts, where camera

  11. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and market assessment Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size2008. “The Size of the U.S. Energy Efficiency Market. Reportmarket spending Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size

  12. Size and Crystallinity in Protein-Templated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Uchida, Masaki; Reichhardt, Courtney; Harrington, Richard; Kang, Sebyung; Klem, Michael T.; Parise, John B.; Douglas, Trevor (SBU); (Montana)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein cages such as ferritins and virus capsids have been used as containers to synthesize a wide variety of protein-templated inorganic nanoparticles. While identification of the inorganic crystal phase has been successful in some cases, very little is known about the detailed nanoscale structure of the inorganic component. We have used pair distribution function analysis of total X-ray scattering to measure the crystalline domain size in nanoparticles of ferrihydrite, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoPt, and FePt grown inside 24-meric ferritin cages from H. sapiens and P. furiosus. The material properties of these protein-templated nanoparticles are influenced by processes at a variety of length scales: the chemistry of the material determines the precise arrangement of atoms at very short distances, while the interior volume of the protein cage constrains the maximum nanoparticle size attainable. At intermediate length scales, the size of coherent crystalline domains appears to be constrained by the arrangement of crystal nucleation sites on the interior of the cage. On the basis of these observations, some potential synthetic strategies for the control of crystalline domain size in protein-templated nanoparticles are suggested.

  13. Radiation thermometer size-of-source effect testing using aperture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebmann, F.; Kolat, T. [Fluke Corporation, 799 E Utah Valley Dr., American Fork, Utah, USA, 84003 (United States)] [Fluke Corporation, 799 E Utah Valley Dr., American Fork, Utah, USA, 84003 (United States)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Size-of-source effect is an important attribute of any radiation thermometer. The effects of this attribute may be quantified in a number of different ways to include field-of-view, distance ratio, or size-of-source effect. These parameters provide needed information for the user of a radiation thermometer, as they aid in determining whether the measured object is large enough for adequate radiation thermometry measurement. Just as important, these parameters provide needed information for calibration. This information helps to determine calibration geometry, and it is needed for calibration uncertainty determination. For determination of size-of-source effect, there are a limited number of test methods furnished by the standards available today. The test methods available may be cumbersome to perform due to the cost of the required equipment and the time needed to set-up and perform the test. Other methods have been proposed. This paper discusses one such method. This method uses a circular aperture such as that used in radiation thermometer calibration. It describes the method both theoretically and mechanically. It then discusses testing done to verify this method comparing the results to those obtained while performing steps in current standards. Finally, based on this testing, the basis for a new standard test method is presented.

  14. Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

  15. The economic feasibility of computerized spot markets for feeder cattle in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glazener, Gretchen

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and innovation. These variables were analyzed with demographic information such as age, location in the state, income derived from their livestock operation, and size. In a computerized market, animals would not be purchased on sight and therefore, would... discovery the market "thickens", making it potentially more competitive. Market power may be equalized by in- creasing the number of buyers and the potential for price manipulation is decreased. The absence of spatial restrictions on the price dis...

  16. Size Matters. Eat Your Heart Out.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Size Matters. Eat Your Heart Out. Party of One? Does it seem like all students drink? While and couples therapy, group therapy, medication management, 24-hour crisis service, consultation

  17. Control of gene expression by cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chia-Yung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyploidy, increased copy number of whole chromosome sets in the genome, is a common cellular state in evolution, development and disease. Polyploidy enlarges cell size and alters gene expression, producing novel phenotypes ...

  18. Temperature dependence of the indentation size effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Oliver

    The influence of temperature on the indentation size effect is explored experimentally. Copper is indented on a custom-built high-temperature nanoindenter at temperatures between ambient and 200 °C, in an inert atmosphere ...

  19. Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 14, 2013 ... solve this problem and answer an open question in the literature: we ..... Let ei be a unit vector of size m in which the ith component is one and ...

  20. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  1. Size separation in vibrated granular matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kudrolli

    2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We review recent developments in size separation in vibrated granular materials. Motivated by a need in industry to efficiently handle granular materials and a desire to make fundamental advances in non-equilibrium physics, experimental and theoretical investigations have shown size separation to be a complex phenomena. Large particles in a vibrated granular system invariably rise to the top. However, they may also sink to the bottom, or show other patterns depending on subtle variations in physical conditions. While size ratio is a dominant factor, particle specific properties such as density, inelasticity and friction can play an important role. The nature of the energy input, boundary conditions and interstitial air have been also shown to be significant factors in determining spatial distributions. The presence of convection can enhance mixing or lead to size separation. Experimental techniques including direct visualization and magnetic resonance imaging are being used to investigate these properties. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation techniques have been developed to probe size separation. Analytical methods such as kinetic theory are being used to study the interplay between particle size and density in the vibro-fluidized regime, and geometric models have been proposed to describe size separation for deep beds. Besides discussing these studies, we will also review the impact of inelastic collision and friction on the density and velocity distributions to gain a deeper appreciation of the non-equilibrium nature of the system. While a substantial number of studies have been accomplished, considerable work is still required to achieve a firm description of the phenomena.

  2. The dune size distribution and scaling relations of barchan dune fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orencio Durán; Veit Schwämmle; Pedro G. Lind; Hans J. Herrmann

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Barchan dunes emerge as a collective phenomena involving the generation of thousands of them in so called barchan dune fields. By measuring the size and position of dunes in Moroccan barchan dune fields, we find that these dunes tend to distribute uniformly in space and follow an unique size distribution function. We introduce an analyticalmean-field approach to show that this empirical size distribution emerges from the interplay of dune collisions and sand flux balance, the two simplest mechanisms for size selection. The analytical model also predicts a scaling relation between the fundamental macroscopic properties characterizing a dune field, namely the inter-dune spacing and the first and second moments of the dune size distribution.

  3. In situ diagnostic of the size distribution of nanoparticles generated by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne-Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)] [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles located in the ablation plume produced by femtosecond laser interaction. The proposed method relies on the use of white-light extinction spectroscopy setup assisted by ultrafast intensified temporal gating. This method allows measurement of optical absorbance of a nickel nanoparticles cloud. Simulation of the extinction section of nickel nanoparticles size distributions has been developed in order to compare the measured optical absorbance to the optical extinction by theoretical and experimental nanoparticles size distributions (measured by scanning electron microscopy). A good agreement has been found between the in situ measured optical absorbance and the optical extinction cross section calculated from ex situ nanoparticles size distribution measurements.

  4. MHD processes during the cascade development of the neck and hot spot in an X-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanenkov, G. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Stepniewski, W. [Kaliski Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Poland); Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from two-dimensional MHD simulations of X-pinch implosion. The simulations were performed in the (r, z) and (x, y) geometries for homogeneous (dense plasma) and heterogeneous (core-corona) loads. The formation of a minidiode, the development of a neck and an X-radiating hot spot, and the influence of the plasma corona on the implosion dynamics of the dense X-pinch plasma were investigated. For through simulations, the conical neck model was used, whereas a detailed analysis of the X-ray burst was performed in the parabolic neck model. The MHD processes occurring during the implosion of oblique shock waves and the onset of instability of the plasma column were examined. It is found that, due to the quasi-periodic character of these processes, the neck compression proceeds in a cascade fashion. The plasma state in a hot spot just before the break of the neck is analyzed, and the possibility of generating fast particle beams is considered.

  5. Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J (Barrington, RI)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

  6. Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J (Barrington, RI)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

  7. Pore size of FCC pretreat catalyst important

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyse, B.M.; Cooper, B.H.

    1985-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of sulfur, nitrogen, and polynuclear aromatics can be optimized by varying catalyst pore dimensions and/or particle size. Increased workload and more exacting performance are demanded from today's fluid catalytic cracking feed pretreat catalysts. The desire to process heavier crudes and the inclusion of visbreaker gas oil, unsaturated fractions like coker gas oils, and even resid, have placed greater emphasis on the importance of selection of those catalysts. Also, some older plants are limited to process conditions and equipment designed for easier feedstocks. Data show that the optimum catalyst pore size for a given application depends not only on the reactivity of the feed, but also on the catalyst's diffusional properties. These properties are also factors which determine whether or not a change in catalyst particle size would be advantageous.

  8. Optimum Size of Nanorods for Heating Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Gowrishankar; Mehra, Anurag

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) have become increasingly important in heating applications such as hyperthermia treatment of cancer due to their ability to release heat when a remote external alternating magnetic field is applied. It has been shown that the heating capability of such particles varies significantly with the size of particles used. In this paper, we theoretically evaluate the heating capability of rod-shaped MNP's and identify conditions under which these particles display highest efficiency. For optimally sized monodisperse particles, the power generated by rod-shaped particles is found to be equal to that generated by spherical particles. However, for particles which have a dispersion in size, rod-shaped particles are found to be more effective in heating as a result of the greater spread in the power density distribution curve. Additionally, for rod-shaped particles, a dispersion in the radius of the particle contributes more to the reduction in loss power when compared to a dispersion in the...

  9. Response of the plasma to the size of an anode electrode biased near the plasma potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnat, E. V.; Laity, G. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Baalrud, S. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As the size of a positively biased electrode increases, the nature of the interface formed between the electrode and the host plasma undergoes a transition from an electron-rich structure (electron sheath) to an intermediate structure containing both ion and electron rich regions (double layer) and ultimately forms an electron-depleted structure (ion sheath). In this study, measurements are performed to further test how the size of an electron-collecting electrode impacts the plasma discharge the electrode is immersed in. This is accomplished using a segmented disk electrode in which individual segments are individually biased to change the effective surface area of the anode. Measurements of bulk plasma parameters such as the collected current density, plasma potential, electron density, electron temperature and optical emission are made as both the size and the bias placed on the electrode are varied. Abrupt transitions in the plasma parameters resulting from changing the electrode surface area are identified in both argon and helium discharges and are compared to the interface transitions predicted by global current balance [S. D. Baalrud, N. Hershkowitz, and B. Longmier, Phys. Plasmas 14, 042109 (2007)]. While the size-dependent transitions in argon agree, the size-dependent transitions observed in helium systematically occur at lower electrode sizes than those nominally derived from prediction. The discrepancy in helium is anticipated to be caused by the finite size of the interface that increases the effective area offered to the plasma for electron loss to the electrode.

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of quantum-size metal sulfide particles in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nedeljkovic, J.M.; Patel, R.C.; Kaufman, P.; Joyce-Pruden, C.; O'Leary, N. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past decade, small-particle' research has become quite popular in various fields of chemistry and physics. The recognition of quantum-size effects in very small colloidal particles has led to renewed interest in this area. Small particles' are clusters of atoms or molecules ranging in size from 1 nm to almost 10 nm or having agglomeration numbers from 10 up to a few hundred. In other words, small particles fall in size between single atoms or molecules and bulk materials. The agglomeration number specifies the number of individual atoms or molecules in a given cluster. The research in this area is interdisciplinary, and it links colloidal science and molecular chemistry. The symbiosis of these two areas of research has revealed some intriguing characteristics of small particles. This experiment illustrates the following: simple colloidal techniques for the preparation of two different types of quantum-size metal sulfide particles; the blue shift of the measured optical absorption spectra when the particle size is decreased in the quantum-size regime; and use of a simple quantum mechanical model to calculate the particle size from the absorption onset measured for CdS.

  11. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  12. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  13. Can amphiphile architecture directly control vesicle size?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Greenall; C. M. Marques

    2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Bilayer membranes self-assembled from simple amphiphiles in solution always have a planar ground-state shape. This is a consequence of several internal relaxation mechanisms of the membrane and prevents the straightforward control of vesicle size. Here, we show that this principle can be circumvented and that direct size control by molecular design is a realistic possibility. Using coarse-grained calculations, we design tetrablock copolymers that form membranes with a preferred curvature, and demonstrate how to form low-polydispersity vesicles while suppressing micellization.

  14. Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis T, Budapest, Hungary Abstract Diffraction peak profile analysis (or Line Profile Analysis, LPA) has recently and the strain diffraction profiles. Strain anisotropy is rationalized in terms of the contrast factors

  15. Size-independent vs. size-dependent policies in scheduling heavy-tailed distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nham, John (John T.)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of scheduling jobs on a two-machine distributed server, where the job size distribution is heavy-tailed. We focus on two distributions, for which we prove that the performance of the optimal size-independent ...

  16. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Sun Spot Two; Swink, Colorado (Data)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  17. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Sun Spot Two; Swink, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  18. Cell-size maintenance: universal strategy revealed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Suckjoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How cells maintain a stable size has fascinated scientists since the beginning of modern biology, but has remained largely mysterious. Recently, however, the ability to analyze single bacteria in real time has provided new, important quantitative insights into this long-standing question in cell biology.

  19. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  20. Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Sarah

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    of tsunamis. By implementing the use of simulation and modeling the tsunami depositional process may be fully understood. The program Python with PyLab was used to form distributions and calculate descriptive parameters with grain-size data from two past...

  1. 7, 1074310766, 2007 EC size distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    carbon in a coastal urban atmosphere in South China: characteristics, evolution processesACPD 7, 10743­10766, 2007 EC size distributions in an urban atmosphere in China Xiao-Feng Huang, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Received: 30 May 2007 ­ Accepted: 19 July 2007 ­ Published: 25 July 2007

  2. Unwinding of circular helicoidal molecules versus size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Zoli

    2015-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamical stability of a set of circular double helical molecules is analyzed by path integral techniques. The minicircles differ only in \\textit{i)} the radius and \\textit{ii)} the number of base pairs ($N$) arranged along the molecule axis. Instead, the rise distance is kept constant. For any molecule size, the computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible helicoidal configurations while the partition function is a sum over the path trajectories describing the base pair fluctuational states. The stablest helical repeat of every minicircle is determined by free energy minimization. We find that, for molecules with $N$ larger than $100$, the helical repeat grows linearly with the size and the twist number is constant. On the other hand, by reducing the size below $100$ base pairs, the double helices sharply unwind and the twist number drops to one for $N=\\,20$. This is predicted as the minimum size for the existence of helicoidal molecules in the closed form. The helix unwinding appears as a strategy to release the bending stress associated to the circularization of the molecules.

  3. Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate Employment In West Virginia 2010 Summary Results For Work 2012 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Corporation Funding for this research was provided by the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

  4. 5, 1012510154, 2005 Size distributions of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ·veh). The separation of the emission factor into passenger cars20 ((5.8±2)·1013 #/(km·veh)) and trucks ((2.5±0.9)·1015 #/(km·veh)) yielded in a 40-times higher emission factor for trucks compared to passenger cars. 1ACPD 5, 10125­10154, 2005 Size distributions of soot particles and emission factors D. Rose et al

  5. Corium droplet size in direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For those light water reactor severe accident sequences in which molten corium is postulated to melt through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head at elevated primary system pressure and enter the cavity region beneath the vessel, the flow of corium from the RPV will be followed by a sustained high-pressure blowdown of steam and hydrogen through the breach remaining in the vessel. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the cavity as droplets into other parts of the containment. An important issue is the fraction of the dispersed corium thermal and chemical energy which may be transferred directly to the containment atmosphere. An important determinant of the extent of direct containment heating is the size of the corium droplets which are dispersed into the containment atmosphere. An analysis is presented here of the mass median droplet sizes in the Argonne National Laboratory CWTI-13 and CWTI-14 reactor material-direct containment heating experiments as well as the Sandia National Laboratory SPIT-19 thermite test. The observed median droplet diameters are shown to be in good agreement with a correlation for the drop size in ordinary annular flow, and a droplet size prediction is carried out for the reactor system.

  6. LBNL -42691 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL - 42691 1 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer of or agreement with these findings, nor that of any CIEE sponsor. #12;LBNL - 42691 2 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant of the Residential Thermal Distribution Systems research done by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL

  7. Right-Size Heating and Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment size for heating and cooling to improve comfort and reduce costs, maintenance, and energy use.

  8. Rigorous model of the scattering of a focused spot by a grating and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a thick layer of polycarbonate coated with aluminum. The light is incident from the polycarbonate, and the lens is designed to correct aberrations caused by focusing through the polycarbonate. The track standard the depth of the pit is chosen equal to a quarter wavelength, measured in polycarbonate. One

  9. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Hilke E. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E., E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations.

  10. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Abstract: Water reduction under two visible...

  11. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

  12. adjustable pore size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Websites Summary: -size distribution on pore shapedimensionality and sample temperature is predicted using a simple quantum mechanicalDetermination of pore-size...

  13. The Time Evolution of Aerosol Size Distribution Over the Mexico...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Over the Mexico City Plateau. The Time Evolution of Aerosol Size Distribution Over the Mexico City Plateau. Abstract: As part of the MILAGRO field campaign, the...

  14. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate...

  15. Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  16. Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads During this webinar, Building America Research Team IBACOS...

  17. aerosol size classification: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2006 Aerosol size Physics Websites Summary: ACPD 6, 10493-10522, 2006 Aerosol size distribution source identification T. W. Chan and M Esc Printer-friendly Version...

  18. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Xie Xixian [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Yang Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  19. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  20. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  1. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  2. Protein crystallography: From X-ray diffraction spots to a three dimensional image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, T.C.; Berendzen, J.

    1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Proteins are remarkable molecular machines that are essential for life. They can do many things ranging from the precise control of blood clotting to synthesizing complex organic compounds. Pictures of protein molecules are in high demand in biotechnology because they are important for applications such as drug discovery and for engineering enzymes for commercial use. X-ray crystallography is the most common method for determining the three-dimensional structures of protein molecules. When a crystal of a protein is placed in an X-ray beam, scattering of X-rays off the ordered molecules produces a diffraction pattern that can be measured on a position-sensitive CCD or image-plate detector. Protein crystals typically contain thousands of atoms and the diffraction data are generally measured to relatively low resolution. Consequently the direct methods approaches generally cannot be applied. Instead, if the crystal is modified by adding metal atoms at specific sites or by tuning the wavelength of the X-rays to cross an absorption edge of a metal atom in the crystal, then the information from these additional measurements is sufficient to first identify the /locations of the metal atoms. This information is then used along with the diffraction data to make a three-dimensional picture of electron densities. This picture can be used to determine the position of most or all of the atoms in the protein.

  3. String theory: big problem for small size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Sahoo

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all fundamental forces exist in the nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combine quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. But due to the extremely small size of strings, nobody has been able to detect it directly in the laboratory till today. In this article, we have presented a general introduction to string theory.

  4. Quantum size effects in classical hadrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nix, J.R.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author discusses future directions in the development of classical hydrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. The present version of the theory includes only the neutral scalar ({sigma}) and neutral vector ({omega}) meson fields. In the future, additional isovector pseudoscalar ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup 0}), isovector vector ({rho}{sup +}, {rho}{sup {minus}}, {rho}{sup 0}), and neutral pseudoscalar ({eta}) meson fields should be incorporated. Quantum size effects should be included in the equations of motion by use of the spreading function of Moniz and Sharp, which generates an effective nucleon mass density smeared out over a Compton wavelength. However, unlike the situation in electrodynamics, the Compton wavelength of the nucleon is small compared to its radius, so that effects due to the intrinsic size of the nucleon dominate.

  5. Specifications Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    -performance Dell PC with 17-inch LCD monitor Software ZYGO MetroPro software running under Microsoft Windows XP, transparent, coated, uncoated, specular, and nonspecular Maximum Size (H x W x D) 3.5 x 8 x 8 in. (89 x 203 x stages), 400 watts (motorized stages) Compressed Air 60 to 80 psi (4.1 to 5.5 bar); dry and filtered

  6. Spot Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Treatment Planning Technique and Analysis of Consequences of Rotational and Translational Alignment Errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Jeff, E-mail: jmeye3@utsouthwestern.ed [University of Texas-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bluett, Jaques; Amos, Richard [University of Texas-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Conventional proton therapy with passively scattered beams is used to treat a number of tumor sites, including prostate cancer. Spot scanning proton therapy is a treatment delivery means that improves conformal coverage of the clinical target volume (CTV). Placement of individual spots within a target is dependent on traversed tissue density. Errors in patient alignment perturb dose distributions. Moreover, there is a need for a rational planning approach that can mitigate the dosimetric effect of random alignment errors. We propose a treatment planning approach and then analyze the consequences of various simulated alignment errors on prostate treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten control patients with localized prostate cancer underwent treatment planning for spot scanning proton therapy. After delineation of the clinical target volume, a scanning target volume (STV) was created to guide dose coverage. Errors in patient alignment in two axes (rotational and yaw) as well as translational errors in the anteroposterior direction were then simulated, and dose to the CTV and normal tissues were reanalyzed. Results: Coverage of the CTV remained high even in the setting of extreme rotational and yaw misalignments. Changes in the rectum and bladder V45 and V70 were similarly minimal, except in the case of translational errors, where, as a result of opposed lateral beam arrangements, much larger dosimetric perturbations were observed. Conclusions: The concept of the STV as applied to spot scanning radiation therapy and as presented in this report leads to robust coverage of the CTV even in the setting of extreme patient misalignments.

  7. have spotted. Drug addiction can be treated and abstinence achieved, and with a programmatic approach to maintaining abstinence, the illness is ar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    have spotted. Drug addiction can be treated and abstinence achieved, and with a programmatic to treat a specific problem. This knowledge can assist the employee in making an informed choice from a list of ap- proved providers. If a managed care referral is made to a therapist to treat a problem

  8. Distinguishing magnetic particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles with first-order reversal curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, Monika; Hirt, Ann M., E-mail: ann.hirt@erdw.ethz.ch [Department of Earth Sciences, Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Widdrat, Marc; Faivre, Damien [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Science Park Golm, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany); Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprém (Hungary); Uebe, Rene; Schüler, Dirk [Department Biologie I, LMU Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic nanoparticles encompass a wide range of scientific study and technological applications. The success of using the nanoparticles in various applications demands control over size, dispersibility, and magnetics. Hence, the nanoparticles are often characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and magnetic hysteresis loops. TEM analysis requires a thin layer of dispersed particles on the grid, which may often lead to particle aggregation thus making size analysis difficult. Magnetic hysteresis loops on the other hand provide information on the bulk property of the material without discriminating size, composition, and interaction effects. First order reversal curves (FORCs), described as an assembly of partial hysteresis loops originating from the major loop are efficient in identifying the domain size, composition, and interaction in a magnetic system. This study presents FORC diagrams on a variety of well-characterized biogenic and synthetic magnetite nanoparticles. It also introduces deconvoluted reversible and irreversible components from FORC as an important method for obtaining a semi-quantitative measure of the effective magnetic particle size. This is particularly important in a system with aggregation and interaction among the particles that often leads to either the differences between physical size and effective magnetic size. We also emphasize the extraction of secondary components by masking dominant coercivity fraction on FORC diagram to explore more detailed characterization of nanoparticle systems.

  9. Comparison of particle size of cracking catalyst determined by laser light scattering and dry sieve methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dishman, K.L.; Doolin, P.K.; Hoffman, J.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of interconversion of dry sieve and laser light scattering particle size values has been developed for cracking catalysts. Values obtained by light scattering techniques were consistently larger than those obtained by dry sieve analysis. The differences were primarily due to lack of sphericity of the particles. The particle size distribution determined by light scattering techniques was based on an average particle diameter. Conversely, the sieve measured the smallest diameter of the particle which can pass through the opening. Microscopic examination of commercial cracking catalysts confirmed their nonuniformity. The sphericity of the catalyst particles decreased as particle size increased. Therefore, the divergence between the laser light scattering and dry sieving value became greater as the catalyst particle size increased.

  10. Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Muller, M.R. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Jones, T.W. [Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dowd, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

  11. An Analysis of Web File Sizes: New Methods and Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    An Analysis of Web File Sizes: New Methods and Models A Thesis presented by Brent Tworetzky consider such models and how to improve their fits. This thesis contributes to file size research-improved file size estimations over type-blind models. We therefore present a range of useful new file size

  12. A p-cell approach to integer gate sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddannagari, Uday

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    uniformly spaced gate sizes would result in a large number of gate sizes and maintaining the huge volume of data for this number of gate sizes is difficult. This thesis aims to propose a practical approach to implement integer gate sizes. A parameterized...

  13. The Subtree Size Profile of Plane-oriented Recursive Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Michael

    The Subtree Size Profile of Plane-oriented Recursive Trees Michael Fuchs Department of Applied) Subtree Size Profile of PORTs January 22nd, 2011 1 / 27 #12;Profiles of Trees Rooted tree of size n. 1 2 4 3 6 5 7 8 Michael Fuchs (NCTU) Subtree Size Profile of PORTs January 22nd, 2011 2 / 27 #12;Profiles

  14. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  15. A long pulse modulator for reduced size and cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeffer, H.; Bartelson, L.; Bourkland, K.; Jensen, C.; Kerns, Q.; Prieto, P.; Saewert, G.; Wolff, D.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel modulator has been designed, built and tested for the TESLA test facility. This e{sup +} e{sup {minus}} accelerator concept uses superconducting RF cavities and requires 2ms of RF power at 10 pps. As the final accelerator will require several hundred modulators, a cost effective, space saving and high efficiency design is desired. This modulator used a modest size switched capacitor bank that droops approximately 20% during the pulse. This large droop is compensated for by the use of a resonant LC circuit. The capacitor bank is connected to the high side of a pulse transformer primary using a series GTO switch. The resonant circuit is connected to the low side of the pulse transformer primary. The output pulse is flat to within 1% for 1.9 ms during a 2.3 ms base pulse width. Measured efficiency, from breaker to klystron and including energy lost in the rise time, is approximately 85%.

  16. System Size Dependence of Particle Production at the SPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Blume

    2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results on the system size dependence of net-baryon and hyperon production as measured at the CERN SPS are discussed. The observed Npart dependences of yields, but also of dynamical properties, such as average transverse momenta, can be described in the context of the core corona approach. Other observables, such as antiproton yields and net-protons at forward rapidities, do not follow the predictions of this model. Possible implications for a search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram are discussed. Event-by-event fluctuations of the relative core to corona source contributions might influence fluctuation observables (e.g. multiplicity fluctuations). The magnitude of this effect is investigated.

  17. System size dependence of particle production at the SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blume, C., E-mail: blume@ikf.uni-frankfurt.de [J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results on the system size dependence of net-baryon and hyperon production as measured at the CERN SPS are discussed. The observed N{sub part} dependences of yields, but also of dynamical properties, such as average transverse momenta, can be described in the context of the core corona approach. Other observables, such as antiproton yields and net-protons at forward rapidities, do not follow the predictions of this model. Possible implications for a search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram are discussed. Event-by-event fluctuations of the relative core to corona source contributions might influence fluctuation observables (e.g., multiplicity fluctuations). The magnitude of this effect is investigated.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLUEM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Per Redelius

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.

  19. Impact of nano-size weathering products on the dissolution rates of primary minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Emmanuel

    Impact of nano-size weathering products on the dissolution rates of primary minerals Simon.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 USA Abstract The natural weathering rates of primary minerals are often orders of mag- nitude lower than the rates of mineral dissolution measured in laboratory

  20. Multiple Exciton Coherence Sizes in Photosynthetic Antenna Complexes viewed by Pump-Probe Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Multiple Exciton Coherence Sizes in Photosynthetic Antenna Complexes viewed by Pump, 1996X The pump-probe signal from the light-harvesting antenna LH2 of purple bacteria is analyzed using absorption,4,5 pump-probe,11-16 and three pulse echoes.8,17 These measurements show ultrafast energy transfer

  1. Towards Approximating COSMIC Functional Size from User Requirements in Agile Development Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosseim, Leila

    Processes Using Text Mining Ishrar Hussain, Leila Kosseim and Olga Ormandjieva Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada {h_hussa, kosseim, ormandj}@cse.concordia.ca Abstract. Measurement of software size from user requirements is crucial

  2. A Database of 660 Peptide Ion Cross Sections: Use of Intrinsic Size Parameters for Bona Fide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmer, David E.

    A Database of 660 Peptide Ion Cross Sections: Use of Intrinsic Size Parameters for Bona Fide by tryptic digestion of 34 common proteins. Measured cross sections have been compiled into a database that contains peptide molecular weight and sequence information. The database is used to generate average

  3. Determination of Sequence-Specific Intrinsic Size Parameters from Cross Sections for 162 Tripeptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmer, David E.

    Determination of Sequence-Specific Intrinsic Size Parameters from Cross Sections for 162 spectrometry techniques have been used to measure cross sections for 162 tripeptide sequences (27 different sets of six sequence isomers). The isomers have the general forms ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, and CBA

  4. Conglomeration of kilometre-sized planetesimals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon, Andrew; Wu, Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    (CIERA) and 3Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK Draft version January 14, 2015 ABSTRACT We study the efficiency of forming large bodies, starting from a sea of equal-sized planetesimals. This is likely... one of the earlier steps of planet formation and relevant for the formation of the asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt and extra-solar debris disks. Here we consider the case that the seed planetesimals do not collide frequently enough for dynamical...

  5. #MarketSize | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Hometcdb Home#MarketResearchReports Home#MarketSize

  6. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1998 TablesSize of

  7. The Sizes of Early-type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Janz; Thorsten Lisker

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter we present a study of the size luminosity relation of 475 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data. The analysis of our homogeneous, model-independent data set reveals that giant and dwarf early-type galaxies do not form one common sequence in this relation. The dwarfs seem to show weak or no dependence on luminosity, and do not fall on the extension of the rather steep relation of the giants. Under the assumption that the light profile shape varies continuously with magnitude, a curved relation of size and magnitude would be expected. While the galaxies do roughly follow this trend overall, we find that the dwarf galaxies are significantly larger and the low-luminosity giants are significantly smaller than what is predicted. We come to the conclusion that in this scaling relation there is not one common sequence from dwarfs to giants, but a dichotomy which can not be resolved by varying profile shapes. The comparison of our data to a semi-analytic model supports the idea of a physical origin of this dichotomy.

  8. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibilityMeasurements

  9. Power of Alternative Fit Indices for Multiple Group Longitudinal Tests of Measurement Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Stephen David

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    a Monte Carlo simulation to examine the power of change in alternative fit indices to detect two types of measurement invariance, weak and strong, across a variety of manipulated study conditions including sample size, sample size ratio, lack...

  10. Constructivism, measurement, mathematics Concepts of measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennig, Christian

    Constructivism, measurement, mathematics Concepts of measurement Measurement and statistics Conclusion Measurement as a constructive act - a statistician's view Christian Hennig March 14, 2013 Christian Hennig Measurement as a constructive act - a statistician's view #12;Constructivism, measurement

  11. The Measure of a Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palle E. T. Jorgensen

    2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    While finite non-commutative operator systems lie at the foundation of quantum measurement, they are also tools for understanding geometric iterations as used in the theory of iterated function systems (IFSs) and in wavelet analysis. Key is a certain splitting of the total Hilbert space and its recursive iterations to further iterated subdivisions. This paper explores some implications for associated probability measures (in the classical sense of measure theory), specifically their fractal components. We identify a fractal scale $s$ in a family of Borel probability measures $\\mu$ on the unit interval which arises independently in quantum information theory and in wavelet analysis. The scales $s$ we find satisfy $s\\in \\mathbb{R}_{+}$ and $s\

  12. Improving the hot-spot pressure and demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Follett, R. K.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Janezic, R.; Kelly, J. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaching ignition in direct-drive (DD) inertial confinement fusion implosions requires achieving central pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is used to study the physics of implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. It is shown that the highest hot-spot pressures (up to 40 Gbar) are achieved in target designs with a fuel adiabat of ? ? 4, an implosion velocity of 3.8?×?10{sup 7}?cm/s, and a laser intensity of ?10{sup 15}?W/cm{sup 2}. These moderate-adiabat implosions are well understood using two-dimensional hydrocode simulations. The performance of lower-adiabat implosions is significantly degraded relative to code predictions, a common feature between DD implosions on OMEGA and indirect-drive cryogenic implosions on the NIF. Simplified theoretical models are developed to gain physical understanding of the implosion dynamics that dictate the target performance. These models indicate that degradations in the shell density and integrity (caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the target acceleration) coupled with hydrodynamics at stagnation are the main failure mechanisms in low-adiabat designs. To demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic implosions on OMEGA, the target-design robustness to hydrodynamic instability growth must be improved by reducing laser-coupling losses caused by cross beam energy transfer.

  13. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  14. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Become a User Recovery ActgovMeasurements Measurement

  15. Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

  16. Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Yongjin

    The coupling of the rate of cell growth to the rate of cell division determines cell size, a defining characteristic that is central to cell function and, ultimately, to tissue architecture. The physiology of size homeostasis ...

  17. aerodynamic size range: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hours and so on. This paper explores the effect of different sizes of battery bank and photovoltaic of battery size and photovoltaic array. The study is addressed to loads in...

  18. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots. Abstract: The...

  19. Relationships between body size and abundance in ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enquist, Brian Joseph

    , but interrelated, relation- ships between size and abundance that are often con- fused in the literature. Here, we and the structure and dynamics of eco- logical communities [3­5]. In addition, because body size is one

  20. Time-resolved temperature measurement and numerical simulation of millisecond laser irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zewen; Zhang Hongchao; Shen Zhonghua; Ni Xiaowu [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2013-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal process of 1064 nm millisecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiated silicon was time-resolved temperature measured by an infrared radiation pyrometer, temperature evolutions of the spot center for wide range of laser energy densities were presented. The waveforms of temperature evolution curves contained much information about phase change, melting, solidification and vaporization. An axisymmetric numerical model was established for millisecond laser heating silicon. The transient temperature fields were obtained by using the finite element method. The numerical results of temperature evolutions of the spot center are in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the axial temperature distributions of the numerical results give a better understanding of the waveforms in the experimental results. The melting threshold, vaporizing threshold, melting duration, and melting depth were better identified by analyzing two kinds of results.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring areas of photoelectric cells and photoelectric cell performance parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osterwald, C.R.; Emery, K.A.

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser scanning system for scanning the surface of photovoltaic cell in a precise, stepped raster pattern includes electric current detecting and measuring equipment for sensing the current response of the scanned cell to the laser beam at each stepped irradiated spot or pixel on the cell surface. A computer is used to control and monitor the raster position of the laser scan as well as monitoring the corresponding current responses, storing this data, operating on it, and for feeding the data to a graphical plotter for producing a visual, color-coded image of the current response of the cell to the laser scan. A translation platform driven by stepper motors in precise X and Y distances holds and rasters the cell being scanned under a stationary spot-focused laser beam.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring areas of photoelectric cells and photoelectric cell performance parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osterwald, Carl R. (Lakewood, CO); Emery, Keith A. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser scanning system for scanning the surface of a photovoltaic cell in a precise, stepped raster pattern includes electric current detecting and measuring equipment for sensing the current response of the scanned cell to the laser beam at each stepped irradiated spot or pixel on the cell surface. A computer is used to control and monitor the raster position of the laser scan as well as monitoring the corresponding current responses, storing this data, operating on it, and for feeding the data to a graphic plotter for producing a visual, color-coded image of the current response of the cell to the laser scan. A translation platform driven by stepper motors in precise X and Y distances holds and rasters the cell being scanned under a stationary spot-focused laser beam.

  3. Impact of Secondary Users' Field Size on Spectrum Sharing Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. spatial size of the field of secondary users. In most studies, the spatial

  4. Plasmon Mapping in Metallic Nanostructures and its Application to Single Molecule Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: Imaging Electromagnetic Hot-Spots and Analyte Location

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camden, Jon P

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A major component of this proposal is to elucidate the connection between optical and electron excitation of plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures. These accomplishments are reported: developed a routine protocol for obtaining spatially resolved, low energy EELS spectra, and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra from the same nanostructures.; correlated optical scattering spectra and plasmon maps obtained using STEM/EELS.; and imaged electromagnetic hot spots responsible for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SMSERS).

  5. An inheritance and cytological study of angular leaf spot resistance in the F? generation of a gossypium three-species hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradford, Willis Warren

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions of natural and artificial infection. Resistance has been transmitted to selections from hybrids of Stoneville 20 with susceptible varieties and to their backcrosses. The results of genetic studies by Blank (1949) and Bird and Blank (1951) suggest..................... ...................... .. 19 2. Distribution of F2 progeny of ZJ?1 x Deltapine among angular leaf spot grades for number of days from inocula? tion to infection ........................... ? ? ? ? ? 20 3* Distribution of the disease grades of individual plants in F2...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank

    and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used.6 lm) and small (0.2­1.6 lm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community

  7. Size selected synthesis of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared in a chitosan matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurgel, A. L.; Soares, J. M.; Chaves, D. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, UERN, Mossoro, RN 59610-090 (Brazil); Xavier, M. M. Jr.; Morales, M. A. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, UFERSA, Mossoro, RN 59625-900 (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); Chaves, D. S.

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report the synthesis and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 6 to 20 nm were prepared in a chitosan matrix. Size selection was achieved by introducing a nonionic surfactant Tween-X, where X={l_brace}20, 60, 80, and 85{r_brace}. Aqueous dispersions of Tween-X show micelles with increasing hydrodynamic sizes as X increases. Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements at 300 K show superparamagnetic behavior for the small particles, changing gradually to a blocked magnetic regime as the particle size increases. Magnetization measurements at 300 K show increasing values for the ratio M{sub r}/M{sub Hmax} and coercive fields (H{sub c}).

  8. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  9. Size fractionation of black and organic particulate carbon from fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dod, R.L.; Mowrer, F.; Gundel, L.A.; Williamson, R.B.; Novakov, T.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission factors to total smoke particulates as well as organic and black carbon have been measured as a function of size for a set of building materials typical of those used in urban construction. Black carbon emissions (mass per fuel mass) were similar among the wood fuels studied, although the dominant form of combustion varied from flaming to smoldering. Black carbon was found predominantly in the finest size ranges (less than or equal to 0.20 ..mu..m). Polyurethane foam produced a greater emission of black carbon, and the particle size distribution of that carbon extended to much larger aerodynamic diameters than did those of the wood samples. For the fuels tested, total smoke particle emissions ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 percent of fuel mass; black carbon emissions were 0.03 to 0.3 percent of fuel mass.

  10. Mineralogy and particle size of bed sediments 173 Chapter 7 -Quantitative Mineralogy and Particle-Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mineralogy and particle size of bed sediments 173 Chapter 7 - Quantitative Mineralogy and Particle to assess particle-size distribution and mineralogical composition. Changes in particle- size distribution-ray diffraction, and their quantitative mineralogy was determined with a recently-developed computer program

  11. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

  12. Measurement of \

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Bazarko, A O; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Gonzales, J; Grange, J; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Karagiorgi, G; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Linden, S K; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Mauger, C; McGary, V T; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Nowak, J A; Osmanov, B; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, J L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Soderberg, M; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Van de Water, R G; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single \\pi^0 production on CH_2 induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC \\pi^0 events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of \\pi^0 momentum and \\pi^0 angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.40_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =808 MeV and (1.48+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.14_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =664 MeV for \

  13. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility ARMProject

  14. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility

  15. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K., E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ?0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ?2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ?2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ?3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ?2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a larger patient cohort are warranted.

  16. Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi- physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis. The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.

  17. The giant star of the symbiotic system YY Her: Rotation, Tidal wave, Solar-type cycle and Spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Formiggini; Elia M. Leibowitz

    2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the historical light curve of the symbiotic star YY Her, from 1890 up to December 2005. A secular declining trend is detected, at a rate of ~.01 magn in 1000 d, suggesting that the system could belong to the sub-class of symbiotic novae. Several outburst events are superposed on this slow decline. Three independent periodicities are identified in the light curve. A quasi-periodicity of 4650.7 d is detected for the outburst occurrence. We suggest that it is a signature of a solar-type magnetic dynamo cycle in the giant component. A period of 593.2 d modulates the quiescent light curve and it is identified as the binary period of the system. During outburst events the system shows a stable periodic oscillation of 551.4 d. We suggest that it is the rotation period of the giant.The secondary minima detected at some epochs of quiescence are probably due to dark spots on the surface of the rotating giant. The difference between the frequencies of these two last periods is the frequency of a tidal wave in the outer layers of the giant. A period which is a beat between the magnetic cycle and the tidal wave period is also apparent in the light curve. YY Her is a third symbiotic system exhibiting these cycles in their light curve, suggesting that a magnetic dynamo process is prevalent in the giant components of symbiotic stars, playing an important role in the outburst mechanism of some of these systems.

  18. Alternative Size and Lifetime Measurements for High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Pratt; Silvio Petriconi

    2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-Particle correlations based on the interference of identical particles has provided the chief means for determining the shape and lifetime of sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, Strong and Coulomb induced correlations are shown to provide equivalent information.

  19. Measurement of bubble sizes in fluidised beds using electrical capacitance tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandrasekera, T. C.; Li, Y.; Moody, D.; Schnellmann, M. A.; Dennis, J. S.; Holland, D. J.

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) provides a means for non-invasively imaging multiphase flows, such as those in fluidised beds. Traditionally ECT images are reconstructed using the assumption that the distribution of permittivity varies...

  20. Size distribution measurement of fine and ultrafine particle emission from cooking Evelyne Ghina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) for particle with diameter between d and (d+dd) including emission rate of the source, nucleation, re-suspension meat or fish lead to a total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±6)×1010 s-1 while cooking meat or fish in an oven lead to total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±4)×1010 s-1 . Cooking pasta or heat the stove

  1. DNA ruler : enhancing nanopore sizing resolution by multiple measurements on the same DNA molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Yi-Heng

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanopores are versatile sensors for label-free detection of single molecules and particles that have attracted attention for applications such as DNA sequencing and nanoparticle analysis. Detection of single molecules or ...

  2. Measuring Crystal Size in Cirrus Using 35 and 94 GHz Radars ROBIN J. HOGAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    their effect on the earth's radiation budget and to validate climate models. Currently such models tend to carry cloud water content as a prognostic variable and relate this to radiative properties by means. The small crystals at the top of the cloud scatter in the Rayleigh regime at both wavelengths, which

  3. Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified11Department of EnergyFilters for

  4. Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab (for a single 2D gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 9. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37

  5. Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 5. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37°C. 6. Following

  6. Ultrahigh throughput plasma processing of free standing silicon nanocrystals with lognormal size distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Ilker; Kramer, Nicolaas J.; Westermann, Rene H. J.; Verheijen, Marcel A. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dohnalova, Katerina; Gregorkiewicz, Tom [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smets, Arno H. M. [Photovoltaic Materials and Devices Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Sanden, Mauritius C. M. van de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2013-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method for synthesizing free standing silicon nanocrystals in an argon/silane gas mixture by using a remote expanding thermal plasma. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal that the distribution has a bimodal shape consisting of two distinct groups of small and large silicon nanocrystals with sizes in the range 2-10 nm and 50-120 nm, respectively. We also observe that both size distributions are lognormal which is linked with the growth time and transport of nanocrystals in the plasma. Average size control is achieved by tuning the silane flow injected into the vessel. Analyses on morphological features show that nanocrystals are monocrystalline and spherically shaped. These results imply that formation of silicon nanocrystals is based on nucleation, i.e., these large nanocrystals are not the result of coalescence of small nanocrystals. Photoluminescence measurements show that silicon nanocrystals exhibit a broad emission in the visible region peaked at 725 nm. Nanocrystals are produced with ultrahigh throughput of about 100 mg/min and have state of the art properties, such as controlled size distribution, easy handling, and room temperature visible photoluminescence.

  7. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA); Wessel, Richard A. (Babcock & Wilcox Company, Barberton, OH)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  8. Determining the size of the proton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. G. Kelkar; F. Garcia Daza; M. Nowakowski

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement of the Lamb shift of 49,881.88(76) GHz in muonic hydrogen in conjunction with theoretical estimates of the proton structure effects was recently used to deduce an accurate but rather small radius of the proton. Such an important shift in the understanding of fundamental values needs reconfirmation. Using a different approach with electromagnetic form factors of the proton, we obtain a new expression for the transition energy, $\\Delta = E_{2P_{{3}/{2}}}^{f=2} - E_{2S_{{1}/{2}}}^{f=1}$, in muonic hydrogen and deduce a proton radius, $r_p = 0.831$ fm.

  9. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurements using smart meter household data produce theof program households. Smart meters lower the cost of usingsample sizes with smart meter data can be far larger than

  10. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummergovField CampaignsMidlatitudegovMeasurementsSurface

  11. Notes on representing grain size distributions obtained by electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, Laszlo S., E-mail: laszlo.metz@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR 7239, CNRS/Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France); Biswas, Somjeet, E-mail: somjeetbiswas@gmail.com [Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France); Gu, Chengfan, E-mail: chengfan.gu@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Beausir, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.beausir@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR 7239, CNRS/Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain size distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction are commonly represented by histograms using either number or area fraction definitions. It is shown here that they should be presented in forms of density distribution functions for direct quantitative comparisons between different measurements. Here we make an interpretation of the frequently seen parabolic tales of the area distributions of bimodal grain structures and a transformation formula between the two distributions are given in this paper. - Highlights: • Grain size distributions are represented by density functions. • The parabolic tales corresponds to equal number of grains in a bin of the histogram. • A simple transformation formula is given to number and area weighed distributions. • The particularities of uniform and lognormal distributions are examined.

  12. Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Liquid Water Content using the Forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    droplets are within the laser beam long enough so they can be sized. A running average of the droplet the average, it is rejected from sizing but included in the running average. #12;The velocity acceptance ratio #12;Percentage of particle losses based on the measured FSSP activity. UND FSSP Particle Loss

  13. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kerosene or diesel fuel oil reduced the stand of the grass 95 percent following 4 applications in each of 4 tests. Ten thousand gallons of this mixture were used at College Station for crown-oiling scattered second gowth Johnsongrass in 49 1 acres... and kerosene kill tender second-growth ~hnsongrass when temperatures are high. lowever, they are slow in killing the grass uring low temperatures and when the grass .ears the boot stage. Oil-soluble dinitro and :her proved fortifiers can be added to diesel...

  14. Spot-spraying Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rea, H. E.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naphtha1 None. Toxicity greater than needed for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts under most conditions. Diesel fuel None. Toxicity low. Reliable oil' or for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts kerosene1 only during hot weather. Use dies e 1 and kerosene inter...- changeably in mixed sprays. '/z naphtha None. Reliable for crown-oiling l/z diesel 6-inch sprouts under most con- ditions. C-56 in C-56 (hexachlorocyclopenta- kerosene diene)' increases penetration of plant tissue. 1 qt. C-56. Toxicity equal to naphtha...

  15. Audio Spots | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederalAshley BoyleAn overheadTechnical1AttendeesNews

  16. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  17. Seed size relationships in kleingrass, Panicum coloratum L

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieschnick, Robert Charles

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEED SIZE RELATIONSHIPS IN KLEINGRASSs PANICUM COLORATUM L. A Thesis By ROBERT CHARLES KIESCHNICK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1974 Major Subject: Plant Breeding SEED SIZE RELATIONSHIPS IN KLEINGRASS, PANICUM COLORATUM L. A Thesis By ROBERT CHARLES KIESCHNI CK Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Comm&ttee Hea of Department e er Me er ABSTRACT Seed Size...

  18. Cogeneration System Size Optimization Constant Capacity and Constant Demand Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Kcomt, J. B.; Turner, W. C.

    proposed to select a combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration system and to evaluate its optimal size. Here, "optimal" size means the nominal system size (in kW ) that minimizes the total e equivalent annual cost (TEAC) to own, operate... ratio (HPR l ). Thus, Canton et.al (2) have developed a graphical method to visualize different operating scenarios. Hay (3) and the AGA Manual (I) consider the following operation modes for a plant with variable CHP loads. Each operation mode...

  19. Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper Atamturk

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 26, 2007 ... An O(n^2) Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs. Alper Atamturk (atamturk ***at*** berkeley.edu) Simge Kucukyavuz ...

  20. atmospheric aerosol size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  1. aggregate form size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of exceedence of the aggregate-size provide a meaningful estimate of the same fractal dimension. Systems aggregate because of the influence exerted by a physical or...

  2. activity size distributions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients increased Mazumder, Asit 33 A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL SUBEVENT SIZE DISTRIBUTION Geosciences Websites Summary: A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL...

  3. activity size distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients increased Mazumder, Asit 33 A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL SUBEVENT SIZE DISTRIBUTION Geosciences Websites Summary: A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL...

  4. algorithm population sizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CiteSeer Summary: Deciding the appropriate population size and number of islands for distributed island-model genetic algorithms is often critical to the algorithms success. This...

  5. avian clutch size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clutch Size Models with Daphnia Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: - hower 1995; Charnov et al. 1995; Downhower and Char- nov 1998; West et al. 2001). A novel...

  6. aiming equipment sizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods such as acoustic emission as a global method associated to a local method such as TOFD technique which permits an accurate characterization and precise sizing of flaw...

  7. Size structuring of planktonic communities : biological rates and ecosystem dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taniguchi, Darcy Anne Akiko

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and nutrient enriched ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanographyin the pelagic ecosystem. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 30:Size-structured planktonic ecosystems: constraints, controls

  8. affecting body size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Body size and reserve protection affect flight initiation Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , is an important component of antipredator behavior and a...

  9. Cost Sharing for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Duality approaches to economic lot sizing games. Working paper. H. Driesch, H. E. V. Oyen, S. M. Flapper. 2005. Recovery of car engines: the Mercedez.

  10. ash particle size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with the standing wave model. The particle size follows from the magnitude of the radiation pressure. It is shown that the outward directed radiation pressure is balanced by...

  11. average particle size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with the standing wave model. The particle size follows from the magnitude of the radiation pressure. It is shown that the outward directed radiation pressure is balanced by...

  12. A note on string size evolution in phantom cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soon-Tae Hong

    2015-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze evolution of string size in higher-dimensional cosmology with phantom field. Assuming that the Universe possesses the phantom field defined in a ten-dimensional spacetime, we predict string size which is claimed to be that of photon in nature at present. The Universe size increases as in the standard inflationary Universe model while the photon size decreases drastically at the early stage of the string evolution after the Big Bang. Moreover, the photon spin in the phantom Universe is analyzed in the framework of the stringy cosmology.

  13. Optimization Online - Optimal management and sizing of energy ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavithra Harsha

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 30, 2012 ... Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy. Pavithra Harsha ...

  14. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency A novel method for fabricating custom porous filtration media for emission control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize...

  15. alter perceived size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of two colliding dust aggregates into a coagulation model that computes the dust size distribution with time. All collisional outcomes -- sticking, fragmentation...

  16. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  17. Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NVLAP Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty #12;Assessor Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 3 Measurement Uncertainty ·Calibration and testing labs performing Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 4 Measurement Uncertainty ·When the nature of the test precludes

  18. SU-D-BRE-06: Modeling the Dosimetric Effects of Volumetric and Layer-Based Repainting Strategies in Spot Scanning Proton Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J E; Beltran, C; Herman, M G; Kruse, J J [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare multiple repainting techniques as strategies for mitigating the interplay effect in free-breathing, spot scanning proton plans. Methods: An analytic routine modeled three-dimensional dose distributions of pencil-beam proton plans delivered to a moving target. The interplay effect was studied in subsequent calculations by modeling proton delivery from a clinical synchrotron based spot scanning system and respiratory target motion, patterned from surrogate breathing traces from clinical 4DCT scans and normalized to nominal 0.5 and 1 cm amplitudes. Two distinct repainting strategies were modeled. In idealized volumetric repainting, the plan is divided up and delivered multiple times successively, with each instance only delivering a fraction of the total MU. Maximum-MU repainting involves delivering a fixed number of MU per spot and repeating a given energy layer until the prescribed MU are reached. For each of 13 patient breathing traces, the dose was computed for up to four volumetric repaints and an array of maximum-MU values. Delivery strategies were inter-compared based on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and delivery time. Results: Increasing levels of repainting generally improved plan quality and reduced dosimetric variability at the expense of longer delivery time. Motion orthogonal to the scan direction yielded substantially greater dose deviations than motion parallel to the scan direction. For a fixed delivery time, maximum-MU repainting was most effective relative to idealized volumetric repainting at small maximum-MU values. For 1 cm amplitude motion orthogonal to the scan direction, the average homogeneity metric (D5 – D95)[%] of 23.4% was reduced to 7.6% with a 168 s delivery using volumetric repainting compared with 8.7% in 157.2 s for maximum-MU repainting. The associated static target homogeneity metric was 2.5%. Conclusion: Maximum-MU repainting can provide a reasonably effective alternative to volumetric repainting for systems without the capability to switch energies rapidly.

  19. Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, California (United States)] [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, California (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)] [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size ({<=}20 cm{sup 3}) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate size for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm{sup 3}. For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm{sup 3}. There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.

  20. Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

  1. Evolution of catalyst particle size during carbon single walled nanotube growth and its effect on the tube characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harutyunyan, Avetik R.; Tokune, Toshio; Mora, Elena; Yoo, Jung-Woo; Epstein, Arthur J. [Honda Research Institute USA Inc., 1381 Kinnear Road, Columbus, Ohio 43212 (United States); Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 and Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University, 100 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of Fe catalysts, with different mean diameters, supported on alumina with different molar ratios, was studied before and after carbon single walled nanotubes growth using magnetic measurements and Raman scattering techniques (laser excitation wavelengths from 1.17 to 2.54 eV) to follow changes on catalyst particle size and composition, as well as the relationship between particle size and diameter of nanotubes grown. In all cases, an increase and redistribution of the particle size after the growth was concluded based on the blocking temperature values and Langevin function analysis. This is explained in terms of agglomeration of particles due to carbon-induced liquefaction accompanied with an increase in the catalyst mobility. For large particles no direct correlation between the catalyst size and the nanotube diameters was observed.

  2. Fracture toughness testing of Linde 1092 reactor vessel welds in the transition range using Charpy-sized specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavinich, W.A. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Yoon, K.K. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Hour, K.Y. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States). Research and Development Div.; Hoffman, C.L. [ABB-CE, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present reference toughness method for predicting the change in fracture toughness can provide over estimates of these values because of uncertainties in initial RT{sub NDT} and shift correlations. It would be preferable to directly measure fracture toughness. However, until recently, no standard method was available to characterize fracture toughness in the transition range. ASTM E08 has developed a draft standard that shows promise for providing lower bound transition range fracture toughness using the master curve approach. This method has been successfully implemented using 1T compact fracture specimens. Combustion Engineering reactor vessel surveillance programs do not have compact fracture specimens. Therefore, the CE Owners Group developed a program to validate the master curve method for Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens for future application on irradiated specimens. This method was validated for Linde 1092 welds using unirradiated Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens by comparison of results with those from compact fracture specimens.

  3. Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jacqueline Anne

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented here retrieves the cloud optical thickness and particle effective size of cirrus clouds using surface radiation measurements obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) field campaign. The algorithm used...

  4. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction Taylor Emanuelle Sweet 2013 Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation microns in size and use Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to shrink droplets to 5-10 microns

  5. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  6. THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES PIERRE HYVERNAT Abstract to improve the size-change termination principle of Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram. The points of interest-change termination principle ([1]) is a simple, yet surprisingly strong termination checker for generic programming

  7. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  8. Eect of Job Size Characteristics on Job Scheduling Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitelson, Dror

    Eect of Job Size Characteristics on Job Scheduling Performance Kento Aida Department an ap- propriate scheduling algorithm that schedules mul- tiple jobs on the computer system eciently. The goal of the work presented in this paper is to inves- tigate mechanisms how job size characteristics

  9. Sizing the illegally resident population in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Sizing the illegally resident population in the UK Home Office Online Report 58/04 MigrationLaughlan John Salt 2nd Edition #12;Sizing the illegally resident population in the UK Charles Pinkerton Gail Mc sources 3 Data sources ­ a typology 3 Methods of estimating the stock of illegal immigrants 4 Direct

  10. CHARACTERISTIC SIZE OF FLARE KERNELS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CONTINUA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to estimate the formation height of visible and near-infrared emission of an X10 flare. The sizes of flare emission cores in three wavelengths are accurately measured during the peak of the flare. The source size is the largest in the G band at 4308 A and shrinks toward longer wavelengths, namely the green continuum at 5200 A and NIR at 15600 A, where the emission is believed to originate from the deeper atmosphere. This size-wavelength variation is likely explained by the direct heating model as electrons need to move along converging field lines from the corona to the photosphere. Therefore, one can observe the smallest source, which in our case is 0.''65 {+-} 0.''02 in the bottom layer (represented by NIR), and observe relatively larger kernels in upper layers of 1.''03 {+-} 0.''14 and 1.''96 {+-} 0.''27, using the green continuum and G band, respectively. We then compare the source sizes with a simple magnetic geometry to derive the formation height of the white-light sources and magnetic pressure in different layers inside the flare loop.

  11. Size Characterization of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navin, Jason K.; Grass, Michael E.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Marsh, Anderson L.

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been utilized to characterize colloidal platinum nanoparticles synthesized in the 1-4 nm size range. The nanoparticles were prepared via a solution-based method in which the size could be controlled by varying reaction conditions, such as the alcohol used as the reductant. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, (MW = 29,000 g/mol) was employed as a capping agent to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles in solution. A model for determining the size of the metallic nanoparticle core from MALDI-TOF mass spectra has been developed and verified through correlation with particle sizes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In this model it was assumed that 1.85 nm nanoparticles are capped by one PVP chain, which was verified through experiments performed with capped and uncapped nanoparticles. Larger nanoparticles are capped by either two (2.60 and 2.94 nm) or three (3.69 nm) PVP chains. These findings clearly indicate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for fully characterizing nanoscale materials in order to elucidate structure-property relationships.

  12. Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

  13. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  14. Development of a precise size-controllable pellet injector for the detailed studies of ablation phenomena and mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Development of a precise size-controllable pellet injector for the detailed studies of ablation, pellet injection experiments have been actively carried out in many toroidal devices in the sense. In order to have a common measure of pellet ablation, the regression study has been performed

  15. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a group is similar to all other components as a group. However, some differences were observed. The Supermicro server used 27 percent more power at idle compared to the other brands. The Intel server had a power supply control feature called cold redundancy, and the data suggest that cold redundancy can provide energy savings at low power levels. Test and evaluation methods that might be used by others having limited resources for IT equipment evaluation are explained in the report.

  16. The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    array on the performance for a diesel/battery/inverter/pv system. It seeks to determine whetherThe Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS WA 6150 Abstract This paper focuses on pv/diesel/battery hybrid RAPS systems meeting loads above 50 k

  17. A method for preparation and cleaning of uniformly sized arsenopyrite particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parthasarathy, Hariprasad; Baltrus, John P; Dzombak, David A; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals, such as arsenopyrite (FeAsS), is of critical importance in many geochemical systems. A comprehensive understanding of their dissolution rates entails careful preparation of the mineral surface. Measurements of dissolution rates of arsenic from arsenopyrite are dependent on the size and degree of oxidation of its particles, among other factors. In this work, a method was developed for preparation and cleaning of arsenopyrite particles with size range of 150–250 ?m. Four different cleaning methods were evaluated for effectiveness based on the removal of oxidized species of iron (Fe), arsenic (As) and sulfur (S) from themore »surface. The percentage oxidation of the surface was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and surface stoichiometry was measured using scanning electron microscopy – energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Results indicate that sonicating the arsenopyrite particles and then cleaning them with 12N HCl followed by 50% ethanol, and drying in nitrogen was the most effective method. This method was successful in greatly reducing the oxide species of Fe while completely removing oxides of As and S from the arsenopyrite surface. Although sonication and acid cleaning have been widely used for mineral preparation, the method described in this study can significantly reduce grain size heterogeneity as well as surface oxidation, which enables greater control in surface and dissolution experiments.« less

  18. Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huei-Sen, E-mail: huei@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Dong-Yih [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gu, Jhen-Wang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: • An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. • The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. • The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. • Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

  19. Spot-Scanning Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Chordoma and Chondrosarcoma: Clinical Outcome of 26 Patients Treated at Paul Scherrer Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rombi, Barbara [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland) [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); ATreP (Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy), Trento (Italy)] [Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy; Italy; Ares, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.ares@psi.ch [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hug, Eugen B. [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland) [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Schneider, Ralf; Goitein, Gudrun; Staab, Adrian; Albertini, Francesca; Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J. [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Timmermann, Beate [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland) [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); WestGerman Proton Therapy Center Essen (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results of fractionated spot-scanning proton radiation therapy (PT) in 26 pediatric patients treated at Paul Scherrer Institute for chordoma (CH) or chondrosarcoma (CS) of the skull base or axial skeleton. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and June 2010, 19 CH and 7 CS patients with tumors originating from the skull base (17) and the axial skeleton (9) were treated with PT. Mean age at the time of PT was 13.2 years. The mean prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) for CH and 66 Gy (RBE) for CS, at a dose of 1.8-2.0 Gy (RBE) per fraction. Results: Mean follow-up was 46 months. Actuarial 5-year local control (LC) rates were 81% for CH and 80% for CS. Actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS) was 89% for CH and 75% for CS. Two CH patients had local failures: one is alive with evidence of disease, while the other patient succumbed to local recurrence in the surgical pathway. One CS patient died of local progression of the disease. No high-grade late toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Spot-scanning PT for pediatric CH and CS patients resulted in excellent clinical outcomes with acceptable rates of late toxicity. Longer follow-up time and larger cohort are needed to fully assess tumor control and late effects of treatment.

  20. Calculation of size for bound-state constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislaw D. Glazek

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elements are given of a calculation that identifies the size of a proton in the Schroedinger equation for lepton-proton bound states, using the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) in quantum field theory, executed only up to the second order of expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Already in this crude approximation, the extraction of size of a proton from bound-state observables is found to depend on the lepton mass, so that the smaller the lepton mass the larger the proton size extracted from the same observable bound-state energy splitting. In comparison of Hydrogen and muon-proton bound-state dynamics, the crude calculation suggests that the difference between extracted proton sizes in these two cases can be a few percent. Such values would match the order of magnitude of currently discussed proton-size differences in leptonic atoms. Calculations using the RGPEP of higher order than second are required for a precise interpretation of the energy splittings in terms of the proton size in the Schroedinger equation. Such calculations should resolve the conceptual discrepancy between two conditions: that the renormalization group scale required for high accuracy calculations based on the Schroedinger equation is much smaller than the proton mass (on the order of a root of the product of reduced and average masses of constituents) and that the energy splittings due to the physical proton size can be interpreted ignoring corrections due to the effective nature of constituents in the Schr\\"odinger equation.

  1. Texas Adapted Genetic Strategies for Beef Cattle X: Frame Score, Frame Size, and Weight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Body size is an important genetic factor in beef cattle production. Size is most accurately estimated by considering several factors, such as weight, skeletal size and body condition. Frame Scores are a way of estimating skeletal size based on hip...

  2. Ultra-fast x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of coalescing shock-heated matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A; Neumayer, P; Castor, J; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Morse, E C; Ng, A; Pollaine, S; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiment in this work was preformed at the Titan laser facility (S1) where a short pulse beam at a wavelength of 1053nm delivered up to 350J in 0.5 to 20 ps and a long pulse beam at 527nm, 2{omega} frequency provided energies up to 450J in 1 to 6 ns. Long pulse shaping in this experiment, similar to future capabilities at NIF, was primarily a 4ns long foot with an intensity of 1 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, followed by a 2ns long peak with an intensity of 3 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. A {approx} 600 um phase plate was used on the long pulse beam to moderate non-uniformities in the intensity profile. An illustration of the Thomson scattering setup for this experiment is provided in Fig. 1 of the main text. A nearly mono-energetic scattering source of {Delta}E/E {approx} 0.3% in the 4.5 keV Ti K-alpha line was produced via intense short-pulse laser irradiation of 1.9 x 3 x 0.01 mm Ti foils, creating energetic keV electrons in the process (S2, S3). The nearly isotropic source emission (S4) is produced in the cold solid density bulk of the foil from electron K shell ionization of neutral or weakly ionized atoms, with an emission size on the order of the laser focal spot. By optimizing the laser intensity and pulse width to 4.4 x 10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2}, a total of 2.3 x 10{sup 13} x-ray photons have been produced into 4{pi}. This value corresponds to a conversion efficiency of laser energy into Ti K-alpha x-ray energy of 5 x 10{sup -5}, see Fig. S1. These sources provide {approx}10 ps x-ray pulses as measured experimentally (S5).

  3. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamoto, Shoichi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably.

  4. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Kawamoto; Toshihiro Matsuo

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably.

  5. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period January 01, 2006 to June 30, 2006 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse completed obtaining additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in a previous reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed obtaining raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (Cd/m) information for 9 more biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated before in this project. Results of the mean mass data obtained to date are reported here, and analysis of the raw data collected by REM is in progress.

  6. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2005 to December 31, 2005 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse continued to obtain additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in the last reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has obtained raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (C{sub d}/m) information for several biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated in the last reporting period. Preliminary results of the mean mass and the shape data obtained are reported here, and more data collection is in progress.

  7. Beam Energy and System Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Coll

    2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4, 200 GeV, and p + p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub {+-},dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are non-zero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling, but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

  8. Water Desalination Using Nanoporous Single-Layer Graphene with Tunable Pore Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surwade, Sumedh P [ORNL; Smirnov, Sergei N [ORNL; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has great potential to serve as a separation membrane due to its unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability, flexibility and most importantly its one-atom thickness. In this study, we demonstrate first experimental evidence of the use of single-layer porous graphene as a desalination membrane. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced into single layer graphene using a convenient oxygen plasma etching process that permits tuning of the pore size. The resulting porous graphene membrane exhibited high rejection of salt ions and rapid water transport, thus functioning as an efficient water desalination membrane. Salt rejection selectivity of nearly 100% and exceptionally high water fluxes exceeding 105 g m-2 s-1 at 40 C were measured using saturated water vapor as a driving force.

  9. Role of size and defects in ultrafast broadband emission dynamics of ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Liu, Mingzhao; Sfeir, Matthew Y., E-mail: msfeir@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As wide bandgap materials are nanostructured for optoelectronics and energy technologies, understanding how size and defects modify the carrier dynamics becomes critical. Here, we examine broadband ultraviolet-visible subpicosecond emission dynamics of prototypical ZnO in bulk, nanowire and nanosphere geometries. Using a high-sensitivity transient emission Kerr-based spectrometer, we probe exciton dynamics in the low fluence regime to determine how defects states impact thermalization and recombination rates. In contrast to steady-state measurements, we transiently identify low-energy emission features that originate from localized excitonic states rather than mid-gap states, characterized by distinct recombination kinetics, and correlate to longer thermalization times. These states are critical for understanding the overall excited state lifetime of materials in this size regime, where crystallinity rather than dimensionality plays a primary role in dictating recombination dynamics.

  10. Actinide transport in Topopah Spring Tuff: Pore size, particle size, and diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchholtz ten Brink, M.; Phinney, D.L.; Smith, D.K.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffusive transport rates for aqueous species in a porous medium are a function of sorption, molecular diffusion, and sample tortuosity. With heterogeneous natural samples, an understanding of the effect of multiple transport paths and sorption mechanisms is particularly important since a small amount of radioisotope traveling via a faster-than-anticipated transport path may invalidate the predictions of transport codes which assume average behavior. Static-diffusion experiments using aqueous {sup 238}U tracer in tuff indicated that U transport was faster in regions of greater porosity and that apparent diffusion coefficients depended on the scale (m or {mu}m) over which concentration gradients were measured in Topopah Spring Tuff. If a significant fraction of actinides in high-level waste are released to the environment in forms that do not sorb to the matrix, they may be similarly transported along fast paths in porous regions of the tuff. To test this, aqueous diffusion rates in tuff were measured for {sub 238}U and {sub 239}Pu leached from doped glass. Measured transport rates and patterns were consistent in both systems with a dual-porosity transported moeld. In addition, filtration or channelling of actinides associated with colloidal particles may significantly affect the radionuclide transport rate in Topopah Spring tuff. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, N. S. S., E-mail: narinderjit@petronas.com.my; Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: msmuthuvalu@gmail.com [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Asirvadam, V. S., E-mail: vijanth-sagayan@petronas.com.my [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  12. Measures for a Multidimensional Multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyeyoun Chung

    2014-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the phenomenological implications of generalizing measures to a multidimensional multiverse. We consider a simple model in which the vacua are nucleated from a $D$-dimensional parent spacetime through dynamical compactification of the extra dimensions, and compute the geometric contribution to the probability distribution of observations within the multiverse for each measure. We then study how the shape of this probability distribution depends on the timescales for the existence of observers, for vacuum domination, and for curvature domination ($t_{obs}, t_{\\Lambda},$ and $t_c$, respectively.) In this work we restrict ourselves to bubbles with positive cosmological constant, $\\Lambda$. In the case of the causal patch cutoff, when the bubble universes have $p+1$ large spatial dimensions with $p \\geq 2$, the shape of the probability distribution is such that we obtain the coincidence of timescales $t_{obs} \\sim t_{\\Lambda} \\sim t_c$. Moreover, the size of the cosmological constant is related to the size of the landscape. However, the exact shape of the probability distribution is different in the case $p = 2$, compared to $p \\geq 3$. In the case of the fat geodesic measure, the result is even more robust: the shape of the probability distribution is the same for all $p \\geq 2$, and we once again obtain the coincidence $t_{obs} \\sim t_{\\Lambda} \\sim t_c$. These results require only very mild conditions on the prior probability of the distribution of vacua in the landscape. Our work shows that the observed double coincidence of timescales is a robust prediction even when the multiverse is generalized to be multidimensional; that this coincidence is not a consequence of our particular universe being (3+1)-dimensional; and that this observable cannot be used to preferentially select one measure over another in a multidimensional multiverse.

  13. On the validity of the Poisson assumption in sampling nanometer-sized aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damit, Brian E [ORNL] [ORNL; Wu, Dr. Chang-Yu [University of Florida, Gainesville] [University of Florida, Gainesville; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Poisson process is traditionally believed to apply to the sampling of aerosols. For a constant aerosol concentration, it is assumed that a Poisson process describes the fluctuation in the measured concentration because aerosols are stochastically distributed in space. Recent studies, however, have shown that sampling of micrometer-sized aerosols has non-Poissonian behavior with positive correlations. The validity of the Poisson assumption for nanometer-sized aerosols has not been examined and thus was tested in this study. Its validity was tested for four particle sizes - 10 nm, 25 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm - by sampling from indoor air with a DMA- CPC setup to obtain a time series of particle counts. Five metrics were calculated from the data: pair-correlation function (PCF), time-averaged PCF, coefficient of variation, probability of measuring a concentration at least 25% greater than average, and posterior distributions from Bayesian inference. To identify departures from Poissonian behavior, these metrics were also calculated for 1,000 computer-generated Poisson time series with the same mean as the experimental data. For nearly all comparisons, the experimental data fell within the range of 80% of the Poisson-simulation values. Essentially, the metrics for the experimental data were indistinguishable from a simulated Poisson process. The greater influence of Brownian motion for nanometer-sized aerosols may explain the Poissonian behavior observed for smaller aerosols. Although the Poisson assumption was found to be valid in this study, it must be carefully applied as the results here do not definitively prove applicability in all sampling situations.

  14. Thermal Emittance Measurement of the Cs2Te Photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, R; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal emittance of the photocathode is an interesting physical property for the photoinjector, because it decides the minimum emittance the photoinjector can finally achieve. In this paper we will report the latest results of the thermal emittance of the Cs2Te photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF gun. The measurement is performed with solenoid scan method with very low bunch charge and relative large laser spot on cathode, in order to reduce the space charge effect as much as possible, and meanwhile to eliminate the wake fields and the effect from beam halos.

  15. Measuring Joule heating and strain induced by electrical current with Moire interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Bicheng; Basaran, Cemal [Electronic Packaging Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, 102 Ketter Hall, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes a new method to locate and measure the temperature of the hot spots caused by Joule Heating by measuring the free thermal expansion in-plane strain. It is demonstrated that the hotspot caused by the Joule heating in a thin metal film/plate structure can be measured by Phase shifting Moire interferometry with continuous wavelet transform (PSMI/CWT) at the microscopic scale. A demonstration on a copper film is conducted to verify the theory under different current densities. A correlation between the current density and strain in two orthogonal directions (one in the direction of the current flow) is proposed. The method can also be used for the measurement of the Joule heating in the microscopic solid structures in the electronic packaging devices. It is shown that a linear relationship exists between current density squared and normal strains.

  16. Magnetic field measurements on the sun and implications for stellar magnetic field observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, W.H.; Giampapa, M.S.; Worden, S.P.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of solar magnetic field measurements in plages, sunspot umbrae, and sunspot penumbrae using high spectral resolution, unpolarized infrared H band spectral data are presented. A Fourier deconvolution analysis scheme similar to that utilized for stellar magnetic field measurements is adopted. As an example, a field strength of 3240 + or - 450 G is determined in a sunspot umbra combined with a value of 2000 + or - 180 G in the associated penumbra. These values are compared with a direct measurement of the spot umbra and penumbra field strengths based on the observed separation of the Zeeman components of the magnetically sensitive lines. Possible origins for the discrepancy between the results inferred by these two different techniques are discussed. The Fourier analysis results confirm the widespread occurrence of kilogauss level fields in the solar photosphere. The implications of the solar results for stellar magnetic field measurements are considered. 45 references.

  17. aerosol particle size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AD... Dileep, V.R. 2012-06-07 79 Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows...

  18. agglomerates sizes approach: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lorenzo Isella; Yannis Drossinos 2010-04-26 52 A fractal-based approach to lake size-distributions David A. Seekell,1 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary:...

  19. air gaps size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cars in a number of roads in central London is well represented by the spacing distribution of a Gaussian unitary ensemble. Abul-Magd, A Y 2006-01-01 29 The Role of Size in...

  20. array stiffness size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results were based on non-amplitude techniques and pattern display of S- and B-scan. The sizing capability is far better than ASME XI tolerances for performance demonstration and...