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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement has been developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords which are parallel to the minor axis were measured across the spot major axis which is proportional to the fluence cross-section thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and new-developed procedures the ablation threshold for typical Nd:YAG laser parameters (1064 nm, 10 ns) has been measured as 50 mJ/cm2 which is one order of magnitude lower than that for a bulk graphite.

Lednev, Vasily N; Obraztsova, Elena D; Kudryashov, Sergey I; Bunkin, Alexey F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

ARM - Measurement - Cloud size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud size Information about the physical dimensions of a cloud, including such measurements...

3

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements . Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer External Instruments CPOL : C-Band Polarimetric Radar Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters

4

Spot Size Limited Carbon Propellant Characterization for Efficient High Isp Laser Propulsion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser propulsion has very unique advantage of producing exhausting gas (ions) of very high velocity. Specific impulse from laser plasma could easily exceed 10,000 seconds that reduce the current propellant consumption rate on space born thrusters significantly. For efficient propellant usage, it is desirable that the exhaust plasma has rather narrow velocity distribution of fast ions. In order to accomplish the requirements, thermal conduction and neutral particle losses at and vicinity of the laser heated region have to be eliminated. A concept of spot size limited propellant shape has been proposed and tested in terms of the effects of the loss reduction. Ion and neutral particle measurements from laser plasmas produced on the above mentioned carbon targets are used to characterize the performance of the propellant.

Uchida, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Kazuhisa; Yamaura, Michiteru [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan); Birou, Tomoya; Yoshida, Minoru [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)

2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

5

Disruption effects on the beam size measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D{sub y} is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10{sup 10} particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 {mu}m horizontally and 0.55 {mu}m vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H{sub D} of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit.

Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size Distribution Size Distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor Size Distribution The number of hydrometeors observed in a given size range. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams PARS2 : OTT Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer VDIS : Video Disdrometer Datastreams VDIS : Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution

7

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

8

ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Particle size distribution The number of particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

9

ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

droplet size droplet size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud droplet size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of a cloud particle Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager

10

The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from {approx}0.1 mm to {approx}0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of {approx}80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

Relative phase interactions of two copropagating laser beams in underdense plasmas at different intensities and spot sizes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mutual interactions of two copropagating laser beams at a relative phase are studied using a two-dimensional fluid code. The interactions are investigated in underdense plasma at selected beam configurations and beam parameters for two separate nonlinearities, i.e., the ponderomotive and the relativistic nonlinearity. The selected beam configurations are introduced by different initial transverse spot size perturbations (finite and infinite) and different initial transversal intensity distributions (nonuniform and uniform) over those spot sizes and the selected beam parameters are given by different initial beam intensities relevant to each nonlinearity. In the ponderomotive nonlinearity, simulation results show that no mutual interactions are demonstrated between the copropagating beams regardless of the initial beam configurations and parameters. In nonlinear relativistic simulations, the mutual interactions between the beams are clearly observed, a mutual repulsion is formed in the presence of initial intensities that are nonuniformly distributed over finite spot sizes, and an effective strongly modulated mutual attraction takes places in the presence of initial intensities that are uniformly distributed over infinite spot sizes. Moreover, it is found in these simulations that increasing the initial beam intensities improves the attraction properties between the copropagationg beams.

Mahdy, A. I. [Department of Plasma and Nuclear Fusion, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hot-spot measurements on the US-LCT coils in the IFSMTF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot-spot temperature during a quench is a major concern for superconducting coil protection. If the allowable temperature can be increased, then the dump time constant can be made longer and the dump voltage correspondingly reduced. Thus, the insulation requirement can be less stringent and the dump operation can be safer. The US-made Large Coil Task (LCT) coils are all instrumented with heaters, resistive or inductive. The hot-spot temperatures of these coils were found by repeatedly driving the conductor normal with the heaters at increasing coil currents until the normal zone propagated. The resulting hot-spot temperature was measured by the resistance of the conductor over a fixed length. The effect of dump time delay on the hot-spot temperature was also investigated. The results are compared with calculations based on various assumptions. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.; Wintenberg, R.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size David B. Kittelson Center for Diesel Research than 90% of particle number are formed during exhaust dilution ­ Particle dynamics during sampling deposition of particle with density of 1 g/um Typical Diesel Particle Size Distribution #12;Typical Diesel

Minnesota, University of

14

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

15

ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range, including liquid and ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments WSACR : Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, tuned to W-Band (95GHz) Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties

16

Operational Experiences Tuning the ATF2 Final Focus Optics Towards Obtaining a 37nm Electron Beam IP Spot Size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary aim of the ATF2 research accelerator is to test a scaled version of the final focus optics planned for use in next-generation linear lepton colliders. ATF2 consists of a 1.3 GeV linac, damping ring providing low-emittance electron beams (< 12pm in the vertical plane), extraction line and final focus optics. The design details of the final focus optics and implementation at ATF2 are presented elsewhere. The ATF2 accelerator is currently being commissioned, with a staged approach to achieving the design IP spot size. It is expected that as we implement more demanding optics and reduce the vertical beta function at the IP, the tuning becomes more difficult and takes longer. We present here a description of the implementation of the tuning procedures and describe operational experiences and performances.

White, Glen; /SLAC; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC; Woodley, Mark; /SLAC; Bai, Sha; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Bambade, Philip; /Orsay, LAL; Renier, Yves; /Orsay, LAL; Bolzon, Benoit; /Annecy, LAPP; Kamiya, Yoshio; /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Komamiya, Sachio; /Tokyo U.; Oroku, Masahiro; /Tokyo U.; Yamaguchi, Yohei; /Tokyo U.; Yamanaka, Takashi; /Tokyo U.; Kubo, Kiyoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kuroda, Shigeru; /KEK, Tsukuba; Okugi, Toshiyuki; /KEK, Tsukuba; Tauchi, Toshiaki; /KEK, Tsukuba; Marin, Eduardo; /CERN

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

17

DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

18

IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 38, NO. 6, JUNE 2002 665 Facet Reflectivity of a Spot-Size-Converter Integrated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 7 dBm are observed at the fabricated SOA, which consists of a window length of 20 m, facet angle reflectivity, semiconductor op- tical amplifier, spot-size-converter, window. I. INTRODUCTION SEMICONDUCTOR) coating requires a quarter-wave film with a refractive index equal to the square root of the refractive

19

Estimating nanoparticle size from diffraction measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Fourier transform of a Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern can be used to estimate the characteristic size of nanoparticle samples. This method is insensitive to nanoparticle structure and therefore preferable to the Scherrer formula (which is unreliable because it assumes an underlying size-limited perfect crystal structure).

Hall, B.D.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Small Spot, Brighter Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Small Spot, Brighter Beam Small Spot, Brighter Beam Small Spot, Brighter Beam Print Do you notice the brighter beam? During the most recent shutdown, all of the corrector magnets were replaced with sextupoles, reducing the horizontal emittance and increasing beam brightness. "This is part of ongoing improvement to keep the ALS on the cutting edge," says Alastair MacDowell, a beamline scientist on Beamline 12.2.2. The brightness has increased by a factor of about three in the storage ring. Beamlines on superbend or center-bend magnets will see the most noticeable increase in brightness, but the horizontal beam size and divergence have been substantially reduced at all beamlines. "We are starting to approach the resolution of many beamlines. Therefore, not every beamline will be able to resolve the full improvement," says Christoph Steier, project leader of the brightness upgrade. Though superbend and center-bend magnet source sizes are reduced by roughly a factor of three, "measured improvements so far range from a factor of 2-2.5," Steier says. He and MacDowell agree that the beamline optics are likely the limiting factor in resolving the full improvement at the beamlines.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Particle Sizing using Passive Ultrasonic Measurement of Vessel Wall Vibrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Particle Sizing using Passive Ultrasonic Measurement of Vessel Wall Vibrations Gillian Carson for particle sizing using an ultrasonic transducer to measure vessel wall vibrations and 1 #12;considers in a stirred vessel, its subse- quent impact with the vessel wall, and the resulting flexural vibrations

Mottram, Nigel

22

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 40-45 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor

23

A simple way to measure particle size in fluegases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size range of particles found in fluegases from stationary emission sources, such as combustion stacks, is an important process parameter. Particle-size range not only affects plume opacity and dispersion modeling, but it is a key factor in the selection and design of air-pollution-control equipment, such as cyclones, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. The particle-size distribution of a fluegas stream is also a useful parameter for analyzing the performance efficiency of combustion equipment and particulate-removal systems. While several laboratories use costly, laser-beam techniques to carry out this task, no standard method to date has been developed to determine the size range of particles in stationary sources. This article discusses a method (described in US EPA Method 5) in which particles in gases circulating in a stack are collected isokinetically in a filter. Once collected, the particles are measured using an optical microscope. Despite some limitations, this relatively inexpensive method gives reproducible results in many applications. Several are described.

Gomes, J.F.P. [Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oerias (Portugal)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Transmission of the size of units of quantities and verification conditions as applied to measurement systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The meaning of “transmission of the size of units of quantities” and “verification conditions” applied to measurement systems is considered.

A. A. Danilov

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Measurement of Bubble-Size Distributions by Acoustical Backscatter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multifrequency acoustical-backscatter technique is described for determining the size distribution of bubbles with radii between 8 and 130 µm. The method makes use of the resonance in the microbubbles and operates at six frequencies ranging ...

Svein Vagle; David M. Farmer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

TradeO# Between Sample Size and Accuracy: Case of Static Measurements under Interval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trade­O# Between Sample Size and Accuracy: Case of Static Measurements under Interval Uncertainty situations, we are not satisfied with the accuracy of the existing measurements. There are two possible ways to improve the measurement accuracy: . first, instead of a single measurement, we can make repeated

Ward, Karen

27

Trade-Off Between Sample Size and Accuracy: Case of Measurements under Interval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trade-Off Between Sample Size and Accuracy: Case of Measurements under Interval Uncertainty Hung T practical situations, we are not satisfied with the accuracy of the existing measurements. There are two possible ways to improve the measurement accuracy: · first, instead of a single measurement, we can make

Kreinovich, Vladik

28

Trade-Off Between Sample Size and Accuracy: Case of Static Measurements under Interval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trade-Off Between Sample Size and Accuracy: Case of Static Measurements under Interval Uncertainty situations, we are not satisfied with the accuracy of the existing measurements. There are two possible ways to improve the measurement accuracy: · first, instead of a single measurement, we can make repeated

Ward, Karen

29

Technique for measuring the reflectance of irregular, submillimeter-sized samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Details are given of a technique for measuring the reflectance at near-normal incidence of small, irregular, submillimeter-sized samples from the far IR (40 cm?1) to the...

Homes, Christopher C; Reedyk, M; Cradles, D A; Timusk, T

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Effect of Choice of Measure on the Size of a Racial Disparity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In criminological studies of racial disparities the effect of race on outcomes is assessed after statistical controls for other variables. There is no universally accepted measure of size of disparity after co...

Patrick A. Langan

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Internet Size Measurements Edoardo Biagioni, Peter Hinely, Chun Liu, Xinmin Wang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet Size Measurements Edoardo Biagioni, Peter Hinely, Chun Liu, Xinmin Wang January 2000 and the performance of the Internet. Our measurements and techniques are designed to reveal the number of hosts 2000, on the order of 23 million hosts are connected to the Internet. The mean distance from our

Biagioni, Edoardo S.

32

Early Life Measures of Size as Related to Weights and Productivity in Beef Cows and Carcass Traits in Steers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The overall objective of this study was to investigate various measures of cattle size. Records from three separate studies (herds) at Texas A&M University were used to evaluate relationships of birth and weaning measures (n = 750) with size...

Cunningham, Samantha Fern

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THESIS SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL of the requirements For the Degree of Master of Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado June 2004 #12;ii COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY July 26, 2004 WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE THESIS PREPARED UNDER OUR

Pierce, Jeffrey

35

Novel probe for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a novel instrument for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions in the size range of 3-200 {mu}m is presented. The system uses high magnification optics, housed in a stainless steel probe, which can be inserted into a process stream or vessel, where images of the dispersed phase particles are recorded. A pulsed light source is used to freeze the motion of the particles in the field of view and present an image of the dispersion onto a charge-coupled device camera chip. The images are digitized and stored for later processing. Automated image analysis routines have been developed for extracting particle size information from the acquired images. An extensive validation of the instrument has been performed for spherical particles, which has produced several important findings. First, a size bias in the depth of field (DOF) exists which favors larger particles. An experiment procedure was developed for the direct measurement of DOF size biases. Additionally, the behavior of the instrument is dependent on the environmental conditions, such as dispersed phase concentration and the difference in index of refraction between continuous phase and dispersed phase.

Francis, Michael K.; Calabrese, Richard V.; Phongikaroon, Supathorn [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuel Complex, MS 6180, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Canopy hot-spot as crop identifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Illuminating any reflective rough or structured surface by a directional light source results in an angular reflectance distribution that shows a narrow peak in the direction of retro-reflection. This is called the Heiligenschein or hot-spot of vegetation canopies and is caused by mutual shading of leaves. The angular intensity distribution of the hot-spot, its brightness and slope, are therefore indicators of the plant's geometry. We propose the use of hot-spot characteristics as crop identifiers in satellite remote sensing because the canopy hot-spot carries information about plant stand architecture that is more distinctive for different plant species than, for instance, their spectral reflectance characteristics. A simple three-dimensional Monte Carlo/ray tracing model and an analytic two-dimensional model are developed to estimate the angular distribution of the hot-spot as a function of the size of the plant leaves. The results show that the brightness-distribution and slope of the hot-spot change distinctively for different leaf sizes indicating a much more peaked maximum for the smaller leaves.

Gerstl, S.A.W.; Simmer, C.; Powers, B.J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Utility spot pricing, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

Schweppe, Fred C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Novel approach for particle velocity and size measurement under plasma conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel technique is proposed for the simultaneous in?flight measurement of the velocity and size of individual particles under plasma conditions. The method is based on the observation of each particle through its own emission and the analysis in the time domain of the waveform of the light burst generated as it crosses an observation window of known dimensions. A theoretical analysis of the parameters affecting the visibility of the particles in an argon plasma showed that depending on the particle diameter and its surface temperature its thermal visibility factor will drop sharply from 1.0 to almost zero with the increase of the background plasma temperature.Measurements are carried out using nickel particles (d? p =78 ?m ?=18.0 ?m) injected axially into an inductively coupled rf plasma (?f=3 MHz P=15 kW) operated using argon as the plasma gas at atmospheric pressure and under soft vacuum conditions (p=760 and 150 Torr). The results are in good agreement with particle velocity data obtained using laser Doppler anemometry. The measured in?flight particle size distribution is consistent with optical microscopic measurement of the particle size distribution of the injected powder.

Tadahiro Sakuta; Maher I. Boulos

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Betatron radiation based measurement of the electron-beam size in a wakefield accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a spatial and spectral characterization of a laser-plasma based betatron source which allows us to determine the betatron oscillation amplitude of the electrons which decreases with increasing electron energies. Due to the observed oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8{+-}0.3){mu}m we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6{+-}0.3){mu}m.

Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander; Reuter, Maria [Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich- Schiller- Universitaet, Jena (Germany); and others

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

40

Vent sizing of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) system under fire scenario considering emergency flooding measure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) can release large amounts of thermal energy and result in high temperature and pressure during runaway reactions. Calorimeters and related methodologies have been made for preventing runaway reactions of CHP. However, protective measures such as flooding and emergency relief system have not been studied intensively to protect CHP systems from runaway reactions of CHP. In this paper, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to study the runaway reactions of CHP in 12 wt%, 28 wt% and 48 wt% concentration and CHP solution mixing with water under adiabatic and heat input conditions. Chemical systems according to runaway reaction of CHP in cumene have been identified as non tempered systems. However, tempering occurs at about 180 °C with pad pressure of 9 bar in open cell tests after water addition. The Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) methods were used to size the relief system of 120 m3 reactor with 60 t CHP solution content considering flooding. The required relief rate decreases significantly and the mass flow rate per unit flow area decreases slightly with the addition of water. So the vent diameter of reactors can be reduced when water has been added. The results show that the flooding and emergency relief system can be effective to protect 120 m3 reactors from runaway reactions of CHP under fire scenario in the concentration around 28 wt% or less. It is suggested that the relief system of CHP reactors should be sized properly considering fire scenario. If emergency flooding measure is involved for relief sizing, the measure must be credible. The volume of reactor and maximum concentration of CHP should be defined properly.

Feng Sun; Fan Zhang; Man-Ping Jin; Ning Shi; Wei Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Natural Gas Spot Prices:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 of 26 4 of 26 Notes: Spot wellhead prices last summer averaged well over $4.00 per thousand cubic feet during a normally low-price season. During the fall, these prices stayed above $5.00 per thousand cubic feet, more than double the year-ago average price. In January, the spot wellhead price averaged a record $8.98 per thousand cubic feet. Spot prices at the wellhead have never been this high for such a prolonged period. The chief reason for these sustained high gas prices was, and still is, uneasiness about the supply situation. Concern about the adequacy of winter supplies loomed throughout most of the summer and fall as storage levels remained significantly depressed. Last December, the most severe assumptions about low storage levels became real, when the spot price

42

Reactor hot spot analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Vilim, R.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Wholesale/Spot Henry Hub Spot Price ........  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Wholesale/Spot Wholesale/Spot Henry Hub Spot Price ........ 2.52 2.35 2.97 3.50 3.59 4.13 3.66 3.83 3.92 3.67 3.92 4.08 2.83 3.81 3.90 Residential New England ...................... 13.08 14.05 16.86 13.62 13.05 13.88 17.27 14.17 14.04 15.15 18.40 15.22 13.73 13.84 14.91 Middle Atlantic .................... 11.34 13.46 16.92 11.76 10.98 13.32 17.88 13.58 12.80 14.60 18.94 14.39 12.20 12.56 13.95 E. N. Central ...................... 8.30 10.68 15.52 8.57 7.74 10.79 15.82 9.37 8.80 11.38 17.13 10.31 9.20 9.15 10.13 W. N. Central ..................... 8.45 11.99 16.39 9.08 8.10 10.47 17.24 9.38 8.79 11.27 17.99 10.23 9.60 9.35 10.11 S. Atlantic ........................... 12.37 17.68 22.08 12.24 11.10 15.05 22.27 13.49 12.56 18.03 24.66 14.95 13.71 13.12 14.77 E. S. Central ....................... 10.26 14.69 17.56 10.41 9.25 12.36 18.26 11.50

44

Novel method for quantifying the cell size of marine phytoplankton based on optical measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phytoplankton size is important for the pelagic food web and oceanic ecosystems. However, the size of phytoplankton is difficult to quantify because of methodological constraints. To...

Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Zhou, Wen; Sun, Zhaohua; Xu, Zhantang; Wang, Guifen; Hu, Shuibo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) What's it for: measuring the size of particles typically in the sub micron region,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) · What's it for: measuring the size of particles typically weight of organic compounds. #12;·DLS Measurement: the speed at which the particles are diffusing due to Brownian motion is measured by recording the rate at which the intensity of the scattered light fluctuates

Subramanian, Venkat

46

MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IRB 6400 MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding Press tending Material handling Machine tending Palletizing with high material strength. The arms are mechanically balanced and equipped with double bearings. Advanced DATA, IRB 6400 INDUSTRIAL ROBOT WORKING RANGE AND LOAD DIAGRAM IRB 6400PE IRB 6400R IRB 6400S PR10036EN

De Luca, Alessandro

47

The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

Anders, Andre

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

48

Hot Spot | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spot Dictionary.png Hot Spot: Anomalous volcanic regions that can occur within a tectonic plate and are thought to be caused by mantle plumes Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle...

49

Spot-spraying Johnsongrass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of naphtha and diesel fuel oil is the oil spray most generally used. Various other oil mixtures may be used for economy, for increased contact toxicity, or for a combination of contact toxicity and residual effectiveness. Oil sprays kill on contact... mixture of 40 pounds of sodium TCA and 20 pounds of sodium dalapon can be used for spot-treating sparsely infested cotton fields. It is a knock-out spray under some conditions. Maleic hydrazide (MH-30) is a translocated growth inhibitor with no residual...

Rea, H. E.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSIO-N SERVICE G. G. Gibson, Director, College Station, Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] I the bast I ir used the low I . .. 1 the fol or mort , needed SPOT-OILING JOHNSONGRASS H. E. Rea, M. J. Norris..., and Fred C. Elliott* Texas A. & M. College System ~HNSONGRASS CAN BE killed to the i ground by the application of 1 / 3 teaspoonful of a herbicidal oil to the crown of each stem. Eradication of established Johnsongrass can be obtained in a single...

Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Size-specific opal-bound nitrogen isotope measurements in North Pacific sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sonication, and these samples also showed a d15 Ndb decrease with increasing size. Simple isotope mass-balance calculations of Holocene Ber- ing Sea sediments indicate that most of the d15 Ndb variations among the larger

Gilli, Adrian

52

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Particle Size and Optical Depth Using Polarimetric Sensor Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a conceptual approach toward the remote sensing of cirrus cloud particle size and optical depth using the degree of polarization and polarized reflectance associated with the first three Stokes parameters, I, Q, and U, for the ...

S. C. Ou; K. N. Liou; Y. Takano; R. L. Slonaker

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

QPO emission from moving hot spots on the surface of neutron stars: a model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......measurable from the spot-omega diagram described below and thus, as...P 0. 3.2 The spot-omega diagram We need a tool to describe the...2009). Figure 11 Spot-omega diagram for the case ), . In this case...misaligned dipole magnetic field. 3D MHD simulations have shown that......

Matteo Bachetti; Marina M. Romanova; Akshay Kulkarni; Luciano Burderi; Tiziana di Salvo

2010-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Advances in surface magnetic field measurement technique for detection and sizing of surface-breaking cracks in offshore structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In detecting and sizing cracks in metal structures, the two common techniques of eddy-current and potential-drop, suffer from a number of problems which may not be acceptable in offshore environments. This paper describes recent advances in the surface magnetic field measurement (SMFM) technique as an alternative method for integrity evaluation of offshore metal structures.

Mirshekar-Syahkal, D. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); Sadeghi, S.H.H. [Amirkabir Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hottest spot temperature allowance to be used for the different insulation system temperature classes is a major unknown facing IEEE Working Groups developing standards and loading guides for ventilated dry type transformers. In 1944, the hottest spot temperature allowance for ventilated dry type transformers was established as 30 C for 80 C average winding temperature rise. Since 1944, insulation temperature classes have increased to 220 C but IEEE standards continue to use a constant 30 C hottest spot temperature allowance. IEC standards use a variable hottest spot temperature allowance from 5 to 30 C. Six full size test windings were manufactured with imbedded thermocouples and 133 test runs performed to obtain temperature rise data. The test data indicated that the hottest spot temperature allowance used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA is too low. This is due to the large thermal gradient from the bottom to the top of the windings caused by natural convection air flow through the cooling ducts. A constant ratio of hottest spot winding temperature rise to average winding temperature rise should be used in product standards for all insulation temperature classes. A ratio of 1.5 is suggested for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA. This would increase the hottest spot temperature allowance from 30 C to 60 C and decrease the permissible average winding temperature rise from 150 C to 120 C for the 220 C insulation temperature class.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...size-fractionated manner using cascade impactors, which depend...mean free path of the gas molecules o er a signi...5, tra c-related gases, particle number and...and contracts with the Natural Environment Research Council...this period, exhaust gas emissions will be rich...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High-Resolution UV Relay Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements Using Holography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shock waves passing through a metal sample can produce ejecta particulates at a metal-vacuum interface. Holography records particle size distributions by using a high-power, short-pulse laser to freeze particle motion. The sizes of the ejecta particles are recorded using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. Because the holographic plate would be destroyed in an energetic environment, a high-resolution lens has been designed to relay the interference fringes to a safe environment. Particle sizes within a 12-mm-diameter, 5-mm-thick volume are recorded onto holographic film. To achieve resolution down to 0.5 ?m, ultraviolet laser (UV) light is needed. The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 lp/mm resolution and operates at f/0.89 will be described. To set up this lens system, a doublet lens is temporarily attached that enables operation with 532-nm laser light and 1100 lp/mm resolution. Thus, the setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording is done with UV light. During setup, the 532-nm beam provides enough focus shift to accommodate the placement of a resolution target outside the ejecta volume; this resolution target does not interfere with the calibrated wires and pegs surrounding the ejecta volume. A television microscope archives images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires, interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens will be presented, and resolution variation through the 5-mm depth of field will be discussed.

Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Frogget, Brent C.; Grover, Mike; Kaufman, Morris I.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Sorenson, Danny S.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Tibbits, Aric; Turley, William D.

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Size-Resolved Density Measurements of Particulate Emissions from an Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine: Effect of Aggregate Morphology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first in situ size-resolved density measurements of particles produced by premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and compare these with conventional diesel particles. The densities of size-classified particles were determined by measurements with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). Particle masses of the different size classes were evaluated with a proposed DMA-APM response function for aggregates. Our results indicate that the effective densities of PCCI and conventional diesel particles were approximately the same for 50 and 100 nm electrical mobility diameters (0.9 and 0.6 g/cc, respectively), but the PCCI particle effective density (0.4 g/cc) was less than the conventional (0.5 g/cc) for 150 nm. The lowest effective particle densities were observed for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels somewhat less than that required for PCCI operation. The inherent densities of conventional particles in the 50 and 100 nm size classes were 1.22 and 1.77 g/cc, which is in good agreement with Park et al. (2004). PCCI inherent particle densities for these same size classes were higher (1.27 and 2.10 g/cc), suggesting that there may have been additional adsorbed liquid hydrocarbons. For 150 nm particles, the inherent densities were nearly the same for PCCI and conventional particles at 2.20 g/cc. We expect that the lower effective density of PCCI particles may improve particulate emissions control with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The presence of liquid hydrocarbons may also promote oxidation in DPFs.

Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

How to spot a nuke  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How to spot a nuke How to spot a nuke 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit How to spot a nuke Neutrons set loose by a high-power laser can identify illicit nuclear materials inside closed containers. November 25, 2013 How to spot a nuke Could you identify dangerous nuclear materials inside this box if it weren't labeled? We can. Laser-driven blast of neutrons reveals concealed nuclear bomb materials Los Alamos scientists recently demonstrated a new laser-based technique for producing a burst of neutrons capable of revealing the presence of illicit nuclear materials, such as plutonium. "No one knew it could actually be done," said Andrea Favalli, one of the team leaders, "until we worked out the details, fabricated the parts, and performed the test." The

63

Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

Caramanis, Michael C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Echo?Ranging Device Used to Measure the Size of a Well at Camp Century  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The echo?ranging device used to determine the size of a heat?sink well at Camp Century Greenland is briefly described. A rotating bariumtitanate narrow?beam transducer served as both transmitter and receiver. Short 500?kc/sec acoustic pulses were generated at the transducer by shock excitation. The device was designed to operate to a maximum range of 500 ft when suspended from a 1200?ft cable. A graphic recorder presented the echo time as a horizontal cross section of the well. The configuration of the well was determined by repeating the horizontal scan at successive depths. Tests at Camp Century revealed that the well was approximately 200 ft in diam with a water depth of approximately 100 ft. Good repeatability and an accuracy of less than 6 in. was demonstrated. The volume of the well was determined to be approximately 2 million cu ft. [Work supported by the U. S. Army.

O. Charles Mullineaux

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Measuring size dependent electrical properties from nanoneedle structures: Pt/ZnO Schottky diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work reports the fabrication and testing of nanoneedle devices with well-defined interfaces that are amenable to a variety of structural and electrical characterization, including transmission electron microscopy. Single Pt/ZnO nanoneedle Schottky diodes were fabricated by a top down method using a combination of electro-polishing, sputtering, and focused ion beam milling. The resulting structures contained nanoscale planar heterojunctions with low ideality factors, the dimensions of which were tuned to study size-dependent electrical properties. The diameter dependence of the Pt/ZnO diode barrier height is explained by a joule heating effect and/or electronic inhomogeneity in the Pt/ZnO contact area.

Mao, Shimin; Anderson, Daniel D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shang, Tao [Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Park, Byoungnam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1 Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Dillon, Shen J., E-mail: sdillon@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

SUB-MICROMETER RESOLUTION TRANSVERSE ELECTRON BEAM SIZE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM BASED ON OPTICAL TRANSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRANSITION RADIATION A. Aryshev*, N. Terunuma, and J. Urakawa KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan Transition Radiation (OTR) appearing when a charged particle crosses a boundary between two media radiation (SR) PSF was applied at Swiss Light Source. The difficulty related to the SR measurements

Sheldon, Nathan D.

69

Raindrop axis ratios, fall velocities and size distribution over Sumatra from 2D-Video Disdrometer measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution are important in broad list of applications. However, they are not frequently observed in the equatorial region. This paper elucidated the characteristics of raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution based on 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data that have been collected in the equatorial Indonesia, particularly at Kototabang (hereafter called KT), west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). A comprehensive follow-up of the previous study on the natural variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) is presented. Precipitation was classified through 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation. The dependence of raindrop falling velocity and axis ratio on rainfall type was not clearly observed. Overall, measured raindrop fall velocities were in good agreement with Gunn–Kinzer's data. Raindrop axis ratio at KT was more spherical than that of artificial rain and equilibrium model, and close to the values reported in the turbulent high shear zone of surface layer which can be partially due to the effect of the instrument errors (e.g., location and container shape). Of some natural variations of DSD investigated, the dependence of DSD on rainfall rate and rainfall type as well as diurnal variation was clearly visible. A striking contrast between the stratiform and convective rains is that the size distributions from the stratiform (convective) rains tend to narrow (broaden) with increasing rainfall rates. For rainfall rate R < 10 mm/h, the size distribution of stratiform was broader than that of convective. On the other hand, at higher rainfall rate more large-sized drops were found in convective rain. During the convective rain, very large-sized drops were found mainly at the very start of rain event while for the stratiform they were found to be associated with a strong bright band. In diurnal basis, the \\{DSDs\\} in the morning hours were narrower than those in the evening which was indicated by smaller Dm values in the morning hours than their counterparts in the evening. Rainfall type dependence and diurnal variation of DSD lead to significant variation of Z–R relations so that they must be considered to increase the accuracy of Z–R conversion from weather radar in this region. Consistent with the previous study, lack of seasonal DSD variability was also found in this work that would be due to significant local convective and orographic effect at this region throughout the year. However, Dm values in our result were larger than the typical orographic DSD.

Marzuki; Walter L. Randeu; Toshiaki Kozu; Toyoshi Shimomai; Hiroyuki Hashiguchi; Michael Schönhuber

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Measuring the Electric Charge and Zeta Potential of Nanometer-Sized Objects Using Pyramidal-Shaped Nanopores  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measuring the Electric Charge and Zeta Potential of Nanometer-Sized Objects Using Pyramidal-Shaped Nanopores ... f(ka) is a correction factor that depends on Debye length, 1/k, and particle’s diameter, a, and can be curve fitted by the following equation(4)where k = ((2q2z2n?)/(?kBT))1/2, q is the elementary charge, z is the valence of the EDL’s ions, n? is the bulk ionic concentration, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature. ... In addn., etch resistance of the resist verified and the resist pattern transferred to a metal thin film. ...

Nima Arjmandi; Willem Van Roy; Liesbet Lagae; Gustaaf Borghs

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

71

Evaluating the barriers to specific industrial energy efficiency measures: an exploratory study in small and medium-sized enterprises  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Industrial energy efficiency has raised to the top of European energy policy agenda, and particular efforts should be placed to tackle the barriers to energy efficiency of small and non-energy intensive industrial users. To enhance the adoption rate of a specific industrial energy efficiency measure, it is crucial to properly evaluate the barriers. Without a proper level of detail – considering both the measure's specificity and the evaluation's perspective – company managers are hampered when making investment decisions, and policymakers are prevented from developing the most effective policies. The paper aims at highlighting that the value of a given intervention-dependent barrier may differ when evaluating it at the company level, by technology area, or with respect to a specific measure. To achieve this objective, an exploratory investigation of Italian small and medium-sized enterprises into the metalworking sector has been performed with respect to selected cross-cutting technologies. Although general barriers appear as most relevant at the company level, large differences appear when considering intervention-dependent barriers by technology area as well as at the energy efficiency measure level. The research presents innovative results, as the literature and policymakers have not accounted so far for how the value of barriers can effectively vary with respect to a single measure, but have only considered barriers at company level. Additionally, the paper highlights that differences can be appreciated when evaluating the intervention-dependent barriers according to some firm characteristics (i.e. size, production complexity, and innovativeness). The study concludes with suggestions for policymakers as well as industrial decision-makers.

Enrico Cagno; Andrea Trianni

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Predicting hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformer windings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test data indicates that hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA are too low. A mathematical model to predict hottest spot temperature rises in ventilated dry type transformers was developed. Data from six layer type test windings and a 2500 kva prototype was used to refine the model. A correlation for the local heat transfer coefficient in the cooling ducts was developed. The model was used to study the effect of various parameters on the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The number of conductor layers, insulation thickness, and conductor strand size were found to have only a minor effect on the ratio. Winding height was found to be the main parameter influencing the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The study based on the mathematical model confirmed previous conclusions based on test data that the hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA should be revised.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

Chen, Yu-Jiuan

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

74

Simultaneous measurement of bubble size, velocity and void fraction in two-phase bubbly flows with time-resolved X-ray imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Key parameters of two-phase flows, such as void fraction and microscale bubble size, shape and velocity, were simultaneously measured using time-resolved X-ray imaging.

Jung, S.Y.

2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

75

Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.

Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

76

Natural Gas Spot Price Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 of 17 7 of 17 Notes: Despite signs that domestic natural gas production has begun to turn around (the Texas Railroad Commission now reports year-to-date (through Sep.) gains in Texas gas production of 1.2 percent, compared to a 4.7-percent decline for the same months in 1999 versus 1998) the reality of the U.S. gas market is that supply responses have been too little, too late to prevent record-high spot prices and prospects for very high average prices this winter. We now expect to see peak monthly spot wellhead prices this winter of over $6.00 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) (December). Last month we maintained confidence that conditions would improve enough to keep the $5.10 per mcf recorded in October as the peak for this heating season. With partial data available, a monthly average value of about $5.60 per mcf looks likely for

77

HotSpot | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HotSpot HotSpot HotSpot Current Central Registry Toolbox Version(s): 2.07.1 Code Owner: Department of Energy, Office of Emergency Operations and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Description: The HotSpot Health Physics Code is used for safety-analysis of DOE facilities handling nuclear material. Additionally, HotSpot provides emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation of the radiation effects associated with atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The HotSpot atmospheric dispersion models are designed for near-surface releases, short-range (less than 10 km) dispersion, and short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations in

78

Bipolar magnetic spots from dynamos in stratified spherical shell turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent work by Mitra et al. (2014) has shown that in strongly stratified forced two-layer turbulence with helicity and corresponding large-scale dynamo action in the lower layer, a magnetic field occurs in the upper layer in the form of sharply bounded bipolar magnetic spots. Here we extend this model to spherical wedge geometry covering the northern hemisphere up to 75{\\deg} latitude and an azimuthal extent of 180{\\deg}. The kinetic helicity and therefore also the large-scale magnetic field are strongest at low latitudes. For moderately strong stratification, several bipolar spots form that fill eventually the full longitudinal extent. At early times, the polarity of spots reflects the orientation of the underlying azimuthal field, as expected from {\\Omega}-shaped flux loops. At late times their tilt changes such that there is a radial field of opposite orientation at different latitudes separated by about 10{\\deg}. Our model demonstrates for the first time the spontaneous formation of spots of sizes much la...

Jabbari, Sarah; Kleeorin, Nathan; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Rogachevskii, Igor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................ 102.88 93.42 92.24 87.96 94.34 94.10 105.84 96.30 95.67 95.33 95.67 93.33 94.12 97.64 95.00 Brent Spot Average ........................................................... 118.49 108.42 109.61 110.09 112.49 102.58 110.27 108.29 106.33 105.00 103.00 102.00 111.65 108.41 104.08 Imported Average .............................................................. 108.14 101.18 97.18 97.64 98.71 97.39 103.07 100.03 99.64 99.33 99.69 97.35 101.09 99.85 99.04 Refiner Average Acquisition Cost ...................................... 107.61 101.44 97.38 97.27 101.14 99.45 105.24 100.44 100.15 99.82 100.18 97.83 100.83 101.61 99.50 Liquid Fuels (cents per gallon) Refiner Prices for Resale Gasoline .........................................................................

80

Seismic Tilt-noise Measured In-situ By A Mid-size Highly-sensitive Laser Gyroscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mid-size laser gyroscope (sensitivity 2·10-9rad/s /Hz1/2) has been recently installed in the central area of VIRGO gravitational antenna...

Allegrini, Maria; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolo'; Bosi, Filippo; Carelli, Giorgio; Di Virgilio, Angela; Maccioni, Enrico; Passaquieti, Roberto; Stefani, Fabio

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The application of size- resolved hygroscopicity measurements to understand the physical and chemical properties of ambient aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

humidity of 85% were used to partition this more hygroscopic mode into soluble and insoluble fractions to assess the presence and size of any insoluble inclusions in the particles. For these calculations, it was assumed that the aqueous solution activity... humidity of 85% were used to partition this more hygroscopic mode into soluble and insoluble fractions to assess the presence and size of any insoluble inclusions in the particles. For these calculations, it was assumed that the aqueous solution activity...

Santarpia, Joshua Lee

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

82

Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of material variations and weld process parameter modifications on resistance spot welding of coated( l Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation S. A. GEDEON and T. W. EAGAR Dynamic inspection monitoring of the weld current, voltage, resistance

Eagar, Thomas W.

83

Use of treatment log files in spot scanning proton therapy as part of patient-specific quality assurance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to assess the monitor unit (MU) values and position accuracy of spot scanning proton beams as recorded by the daily treatment logs of the treatment control system, and furthermore establish the feasibility of using the delivered spot positions and MU values to calculate and evaluate delivered doses to patients. Methods: To validate the accuracy of the recorded spot positions, the authors generated and executed a test treatment plan containing nine spot positions, to which the authors delivered ten MU each. The spot positions were measured with radiographic films and Matrixx 2D ion-chambers array placed at the isocenter plane and compared for displacements from the planned and recorded positions. Treatment logs for 14 patients were then used to determine the spot MU values and position accuracy of the scanning proton beam delivery system. Univariate analysis was used to detect any systematic error or large variation between patients, treatment dates, proton energies, gantry angles, and planned spot positions. The recorded patient spot positions and MU values were then used to replace the spot positions and MU values in the plan, and the treatment planning system was used to calculate the delivered doses to patients. The results were compared with the treatment plan. Results: Within a treatment session, spot positions were reproducible within {+-}0.2 mm. The spot positions measured by film agreed with the planned positions within {+-}1 mm and with the recorded positions within {+-}0.5 mm. The maximum day-to-day variation for any given spot position was within {+-}1 mm. For all 14 patients, with {approx}1 500 000 spots recorded, the total MU accuracy was within 0.1% of the planned MU values, the mean (x, y) spot displacement from the planned value was (-0.03 mm, -0.01 mm), the maximum (x, y) displacement was (1.68 mm, 2.27 mm), and the (x, y) standard deviation was (0.26 mm, 0.42 mm). The maximum dose difference between calculated dose to the patient based on the plan and recorded data was within 2%. Conclusions: The authors have shown that the treatment log file in a spot scanning proton beam delivery system is precise enough to serve as a quality assurance tool to monitor variation in spot position and MU value, as well as the delivered dose uncertainty from the treatment delivery system. The analysis tool developed here could be useful for assessing spot position uncertainty and thus dose uncertainty for any patient receiving spot scanning proton beam therapy.

Li Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Li Yupeng; Li Xiaoqiang; Zhang Xiaodong; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

SizeSpotSigs: an effective deduplicate algorithm considering the size of page content  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detecting if two Web pages are near replicas, in terms of their contents rather than files, is of great importance in many web information based applications. As a result, many deduplicating algorithms have been proposed. Nevertheless, analysis and experiments ... Keywords: AF_spotsigs, deduplicate, information retrieval, near duplicate detection, sizespotsigs

Xianling Mao; Xiaobing Liu; Nan Di; Xiaoming Li; Hongfei Yan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

System size and energy dependence of high pT hadron production measured with PHENIX experiment at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHENIX has measured high transverse momentum (pT) identified hadrons in different collision species and energies in the last five RHIC runs. The systematic study of the high pT hadron production provides an idea on interaction of hard scattered partons and the matter created in relativistic heavy ion collision. The eta/pi0 ratio is measured in Au+Au collisions, which gives a hint on the system thermalization and particle production. A future measurement of hadron and photon measurement is discussed.

Takao Sakaguchi

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

86

Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Forecasting Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels MICHAEL YE, ∗ JOHN ZYREN, ∗∗ AND JOANNE SHORE ∗∗ Abstract This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermedi- ate crude oil spot price using OECD petroleum inventory levels. Theoretically, petroleum inventory levels are a measure of the balance, or imbalance, between petroleum production and demand, and thus provide a good market barometer of crude oil price change. Based on an understanding of petroleum market fundamentals and observed market behavior during the post-Gulf War period, the model was developed with the objectives of being both simple and practical, with required data readily available. As a result, the model is useful to industry and government decision-makers in forecasting price and investigat- ing the impacts of changes on price, should inventories,

87

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently. Crude oil rose about 36 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to the middle of January 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, heating oil spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled slightly higher as the New York Harbor market began to

88

Retail Price Changes Lag Spot Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Notes: While EIA cannot claim to explain all of the factors that drive retail gasoline prices, we have had a fair amount of success in exploring the relationship between wholesale and retail prices. In particular, we have looked closely at the "pass-through" of changes in spot prices to the retail market. This graph shows a weighted national average of spot prices for regular gasoline -both conventional and reformulated (shown in red), and EIA's weekly survey price for retail regular (again both conventional and reformulated). As you can see, spot prices tend to be more volatile (and would be even more so on a daily basis), while these changes are smoother by the time they reach the retail pump. Furthermore, by looking at the peaks, you can see the retail prices seem to lag the spot price changes

89

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: SPOT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SPOT SPOT SPOT screen image Quantifies existing or intended electric lighting performance, evaluate annual daylighting characteristics and help establish the optimal photosensor placement in a given space relative to annual performance and annual energy savings. The Sensor Placement and Optimization Tool, or SPOT, was developed with classroom daylighting in mind, but can be used for all types of spaces. Screen Shots Keywords daylighting, electric lighting, photosensor, energy savings Validation/Testing Various individuals have tested the software. Testing and validation continues. Documentation of the test and validation results are available on the web site. Expertise Required Energy engineering or lighting design background is helpful for analysis of results. A working familiarity with Excel may be helpful, but it is not

90

The robustness of dynamic vehicle performance to spot weld failures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spot welds are the dominant joining method in the vehicle assembly process. As the automated assembly process is not perfect, some spot welds may be absent when the vehicle leaves the assembly line. Furthermore, spot welds are highly susceptible to fatigue, ... Keywords: Failure, Fatigue, Finite element analysis, Robustness, Spot welds, Structural dynamics

S. Donders; M. Brughmans; L. Hermans; C. Liefooghe; H. Van der Auweraer; W. Desmet

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

POWER '99 Conference 1 Stochastic Models of Electricity Spot Price  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spread call options. power spot price delivery at PV gas spot price SoCal system 8000 heat rate When power. When the spot market implied heat rate is below the unit operating heat rate, generator should1 POWER '99 Conference 1 Stochastic Models of Electricity Spot Price and their Applications Shijie

California at Berkeley. University of

92

How the active and diffusional nature of brain tissues can generate monopole signals at micrometer sized measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate mechanisms which could generate transient monopole signals in measuring current source density (CSD), as it had been indicated to occur in recent small volume experiments. A simple model is defined for this purpose. It is emphasized that the active nature of the neural biological activity, with its ability to generate ionic density imbalances, might be able to induce appreciable monopole signals in CSD detectors at micrometer scales. Thus, it follows that when both diffusive and ohmic transport are considered to be present in neural tissues, potential measures in micrometer regions can include appreciable electric monopole signals, for sufficiently small values of the ratio (\\sigma a^{2})/(\\epsilon D), where "\\sigma" is the conductivity, "\\epsilon" is the dielectric constant, "D" is the diffusion constant and "a" is the linear dimension of the ionic charge densities generated by the neural processes. Ranges of possible magnitudes for these parameters in the considered experimental studies are e...

Cabo, Alejandro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Measuring the Fracture Toughness of TZM and ODS Molybdenum Alloys Using Standard and Sub-Sized Bend Specimens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) and TZM molybdenum have excellent creep resistance and strength at high temperatures in inert atmospheres. Fracture toughness and tensile testing was performed at temperatures between -150 degrees C and 450 degrees C to characterize 6.35 mm thick plate material of ODS and TZM molybdenum. A transition from low fracture toughness values (5.8 to 29.6 MPa square root m) to values greater than 30 MPa square root m is observed for TZM molybdenum in the longitudinal orientation at 100 degrees C and in the transverse orientation at 150 degrees C. These results are consistent with data reported in literature for molybdenum. A transition to low fracture toughness values (less than 30 MPa square root m) was not observed for longitudinal ODS molybdenum at temperatures greater than or equal to -150 degrees C, while a transition to low fracture toughness values (12.6 to 25.4 MPa square root m) was observed for the transverse orientation at room-temperature. The fi ne spacing of La-oxide precipitates that are present in ODS molybdenum result in a transition temperature that is significantly lower than any molybdenum alloy reported to date, with upper bound fracture toughness values that bound the literature data. A comparison of fracture toughness values obtained using a 1T, 0.5T, and 0.25T Charpy shows that a 0.5T Charpy could be used as a sub-sized specimen geometry.

Cockeram, B. V.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Relationship between Hot Spot Residues and Ligand Binding Hot Spots in Protein-Protein Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, while identification of a hot spot by alanine scanning establishes the potential to generate substantial, termed "hot spots", that comprise the subset of residues that contribute the bulk of the binding free proposed as prime targets for drug binding.1,4 The established approach to the identification of such hot

Vajda, Sandor

95

Effects of dilution conditions on diesel particle size distribution and filter mass measurements in case of marine fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Particle emission characteristics were studied from heavy-duty diesel engine operating on fuels with sulfur levels relevant to marine operation, i.e. 0.05% S and 3% S respectively. Effects of primary dilution temperature (PDT) and primary dilution ratio (PDR) were investigated together with effect of filter media and time of filter conditioning. PDT increase was found slowing down nucleation rate due to increase of saturation vapor pressures of volatile species. In turn, increasing PDR reduces partial pressure of exhaust species and hence weakens both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. All these effects are amplified by high sulfur content in marine fuels which increases available amount of nucleation-prone vapor-phase semivolatile compounds. At the same time, water condensation artifact was observed at PDR = 3. No filter type was found to be overwhelmingly superior as certain positive and/or negative measurement artifacts are inherently associated with all filter materials. The filter conditioning time was also found to cause substantial PM mass variation, as control over VOC take up from (or lost to) laboratory air and hydration of sulfuric acid is required. The standard 24 hour conditioning time was found insufficient to reach complete PM mass equilibrium, so longer time is required when measuring from high-sulfur fuels.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jørgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Testing a class of non-Kerr metrics with hot spots orbiting SgrA$^*$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SgrA$^*$, the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center, exhibits flares in the X-ray, NIR, and sub-mm bands that may be interpreted within a hot spot model. Light curves and images of hot spots orbiting a black hole are affected by a number of special and general relativistic effects, and they can be potentially used to check whether the object is a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, in a previous study we have shown that the relativistic features are usually subdominant with respect to the background noise and the model-dependent properties of the hot spot, and eventually it is at most possible to estimate the frequency of the innermost stable circular orbit. In this case, tests of the Kerr metric are only possible in combination with other measurements. In the present work, we consider a class of non-Kerr spacetimes in which the hot spot orbit may be outside the equatorial plane. If the hot spot is sufficiently close to the massive object, the image affected by Doppler blueshift is brighter than the other one and this provides a specific observational signature in the hot spot's centroid track. We conclude that accurate astrometric observations of SgrA$^*$ with an instrument like GRAVITY should be able to test this class of metrics, except in the more unlikely case of a small viewing angle.

Dan Liu; Zilong Li; Cosimo Bambi

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

97

Discriminative Keyword Spotting David Grangier1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ, USA 2 IDIAP Research Institute, Martigny, Switzerland 3 Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA This chapter introduces a discriminative method for detecting and spotting keywords and transition models, or the Expectation-Maximization (EM) training procedure, which is prone to convergence

Tomkins, Andrew

98

Doppler-free Yb spectroscopy with the fluorescence spot technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple technique to measure the resonant frequency of the 398.9-nm {sup 1}S{sub 0}{leftrightarrow}{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition for the different Yb isotopes. The technique, which works by observing and aligning fluorescence spots, has enabled us to measure transition frequencies and isotope shifts with an accuracy of 60 MHz. We provide wavelength measurements for the transition that differ from previously published work. Our technique also allows for the determination of Doppler-shifted transition frequencies for photoionization experiments when the atomic beam and the laser beam are not perpendicular and furthermore allows us to determine the average velocity of the atoms along the direction of the atomic beam.

Nizamani, Altaf H.; McLoughlin, James J.; Hensinger, Winfried K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, East-Sussex, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Training Program EHS ~ 244: Resistance Spot Welding Safety Training  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4: Resistance Spot Welding Safety Training 4: Resistance Spot Welding Safety Training Course Syllabus Subject Category: Resistance Spot Welding Course Prerequisite: None Course Length: 25 minutes Medical Approval: No Delivery Mode: Web-Based Course Goal: Participants will be introduced to resistance spot welding processes, hazards, and safe work practices. Course Objectives: By the end of this course, you will be able to: * Identify resistance spot welding processes * Identify hazards, safe work practices, and personal protective equipment associated with resistance spot welding * Recognize the purpose of resistance spot welding schedules * Locate resistance spot welding schedule Subject Matter Expert: Joe Dionne x 7586 Training Compliance: 29 CFR 1910 Subparts O & Z, 29 CFR 1926 Subparts J & Z

100

Sourcing Flexibility, Spot Trading, and Procurement Contract Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the structure and pricing of option contracts for an industrial good in the presence of spot trading. We combine the analysis of spot trading and buyers' disparate private valuations for different suppliers' ...

Pei, Pamela Pen-Erh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 9:53am Addthis Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing...

102

Dealing in practice with hot-spots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hot-spot phenomenon is a relatively frequent problem occurring in current photovoltaic generators. It entails both a risk for the photovoltaic module's lifetime and a decrease in its operational efficiency. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of widely accepted procedures for dealing with them in practice. This paper presents the IES-UPM observations on 200 affected modules. Visual and infrared inspection, electroluminescence, peak power and operating voltage tests have been accomplished. Hot-spot observation procedures and well defined acceptance and rejection criteria are proposed, addressing both the lifetime and the operational efficiency of the modules. The operating voltage has come out as the best parameter to control effective efficiency losses for the affected modules. This procedure is oriented to its possible application in contractual frameworks.

Moretón, Rodrigo; Leloux, Jonathan; Carrillo, José Manuel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Decision making in coastal fisheries conflict: the case of red drum and spotted seatrout legislation in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stricter Measures Called For The TPWD Increases Regulations on Red and Spotted Seatrout Illegal Netting 61 65 66 Drum TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) IV CASE FINDINGS (continued) The Opposition Increases The Legislative Process Economic Impact... of the controversial House B i 1 1 1000 in the Texas Legislature. H B. 1000 was signed into law in May, 1981 and prohibits the possession or transportation for the purpose of sale red drum or spotted seatrout taken from waters under the jurisdiction of the state...

Christian, Richard Travis

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Repeatability of measurements of residential magnetic fields and wire codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several epidemiological studies have been based on wire codes (i.e., categories of electrical wiring configurations near residences) or on in-home spot measurements of magnetic flux density (MFD) as surrogates for short- and long-term exposure of children and adults to residential magnetic fields. We used wire code and MFD measurements that were made in 81 Colorado homes in 1985 and again in 1990 to assess their repeatability over periods of 0-24 h and 5 years. These homes, a subset of those lived in by subjects from the case-control study of Savitz et al. [Am J Epidemiol 128:21-38, 1988], were divided into four approximately equally sized groups that were differentiated by wire code and by case-control status. Eight homes were assigned wire codes in 1990 that differed from the 1985 coding of Savitz and colleagues [1988]; of these, seven were coded as high-current configuration (HCC) and one as low-current configuration (LCC) in 1985. Overall, 37 homes were coded as HCC in 1990 compared with 38 homes in 1985. Coding differences were due to differing distance measurements (four homes), differing thick vs. thin categorization of primary-distribution line-conductor sizes (two homes), differing first-span vs. second-span categorization of secondary wires (one home), and physical changes in proximate electrical wiring (one home). Coefficients of correlation between MFD spot measurements that were separated in time by 0-24 h range between 0.70 and 0.90. The coefficient between spot measurements made in 1985 and then again in 1990 is 0.70. These coefficients are similar for HCC and LCC homes and do not depend on whether residential appliances were turned on or off. The data show (at least for the portion of Colorado studied) that residential wire code and, more surprisingly, spot MFD measurements, are fairly reliable over 0-24-h and 5-year periods.

Dovan, T.; Kaune, W.T.; Savitz, D.A. (ENERTECH Consultants, Campbell, CA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Detection, tracking and analysis of turbulent spots and other coherent structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transition. 1 Jacques Lewalle2 and David E. Ashpis3 Abstract Transition on turbine blades is an important of this preliminary study was to evaluate which spot properties can be quanti ed based on hot lm data, and which seem station, which provides smooth data to measure the phase relative to the rst stage blade passing

Lewalle, Jacques

106

Testing a class of non-Kerr metrics with hot spots orbiting SgrA$^*$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SgrA$^*$, the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center, exhibits flares in the X-ray, NIR, and sub-mm bands that may be interpreted within a hot spot model. Light curves and images of hot spots orbiting a black hole are affected by a number of special and general relativistic effects, and they can be potentially used to check whether the object is a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, in a previous study we have shown that the relativistic features are usually subdominant with respect to the background noise and the model-dependent properties of the hot spot, and eventually it is at most possible to estimate the frequency of the innermost stable circular orbit. In this case, tests of the Kerr metric are only possible in combination with other measurements. In the present work, we consider a class of non-Kerr spacetimes in which the hot spot orbit may be outside the equatorial plane. If the hot spot is sufficiently close to the massive object, the image affected by Doppler blueshift...

Liu, Dan; Bambi, Cosimo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Aspects of the life history and population dynamics of the spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Spot are distributed from &5 to 73 m but are most abundant at 5-9 m. Spot of one cohort recruit to the Gulf primarily in two periods, May- July (Spring), at 3-7 mo, and January-March (winter), at 13-18 mo of age. Recruitment occurs in waters &5-16 m... at any one time and only one of either normally predominates. Spring recruits are not abundant after about 9-10 mo of age but may reach 18 mo, whereas winter recruits are not abundant after 19-21 mo but may reach 36 mo. Mean size of Spring recruits...

Hata, David Noboru

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

108

Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: SPOT Agency/Company /Organization: Architectural Energy Corporation Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.archenergy.com/SPOT/ Cost: Free Language: English References: http://www.archenergy.com/SPOT/ SPOT(tm) is intended to assist a designer in quantifying the existing or intended electric lighting and annual daylighting characteristics of a given space and to help establish the optimal photosensor placement for the space relative to annual performance and annual energy savings. The software was developed with classroom daylighting in mind, but can be used

109

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per barrel or 40 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to January 17, 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and the beginning of a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, distillate spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled higher as the New York Harbor market began to draw on product from other areas. They closed at 83 cents per gallon, an increase of 11 cents from the prior Friday. Crude oil had risen about 4 cents from

110

Photovoltaic ground fault and blind spot electrical simulations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems pose a fire and shock hazard. To mitigate these risks, AC-isolated, DC grounded PV systems in the United States use Ground Fault Protection Devices (GFPDs), e.g., fuses, to de-energize the PV system when there is a ground fault. Recently the effectiveness of these protection devices has come under question because multiple fires have started when ground faults went undetected. In order to understand the limitations of fuse-based ground fault protection in PV systems, analytical and numerical simulations of different ground faults were performed. The numerical simulations were conducted with Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) using a circuit model of the PV system which included the modules, wiring, switchgear, grounded or ungrounded components, and the inverter. The derivation of the SPICE model and the results of parametric fault current studies are provided with varying array topologies, fuse sizes, and fault impedances. Closed-form analytical approximations for GFPD currents from faults to the grounded current carrying conductor-known as %E2%80%9Cblind spot%E2%80%9D ground faults-are derived to provide greater understanding of the influence of array impedances on fault currents. The behavior of the array during various ground faults is studied for a range of ground fault fuse sizes to determine if reducing the size of the fuse improves ground fault detection sensitivity. The results of the simulations show that reducing the amperage rating of the protective fuse does increase fault current detection sensitivity without increasing the likelihood of nuisance trips to a degree. Unfortunately, this benefit reaches a limit as fuses become smaller and their internal resistance increases to the point of becoming a major element in the fault current circuit.

Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

112

Pinch spot formation in high atomic number z discharges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear, quasi-two-dimensional model for pinch spot formation in radiation-dominated, high atomic number z pinches is presented that reproduces the experimental electrical and radiation characteristics. The high line-radiation rates of such discharges produce localized, high-density pinch spots in contrast to the spindle pinches predicted for hydrogenic discharges.

D. Mosher and D. Colombant

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

113

A NONGAUSSIAN ORNSTEINUHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A NON­GAUSSIAN ORNSTEIN­UHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND DERIVATIVES for analytical pricing of electricity forward and futures contracts. Electricity forward and futures contracts to capture the observed dynamics of electricity spot prices. We also discuss the pricing of European call

Kallsen, Jan

114

Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies Dafydd Steele MSc Stochastics and Financial forward and spot prices for energy com- panies. The two main ways of modelling power prices are stochastic markets (coal, gas and power). The fundamental model is a mixed-integer programming stack model

Bhulai, Sandjai

115

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Title Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Liu, Gao, John B. Kerr, and Stephen G. Johnson Journal Synthetic Metals Volume 144 Pagination 1-6 Keywords dark spot, failure mechanism, interface, ito surface, oled Abstract The failure behaviors of ITO/PEDOT;PSS/polyfluorene/Al devices are different depending on the surface roughness of the sputtered ITO anode film. The spikes on ITO surface are responsible for the initial local shorts of the device, which develop into dark spots very quickly. Indium adsorption is observed on the polymer and Al cathode interface. A chemical etching procedure is used to smoothen the ITO surface without changing the ITO thickness and the sheet resistance. Devices made out of smooth ITO show minimum changes at polymer-cathode interface during operation.

116

The formation of a single-pulse electrospark deposition spot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The investigation of the formation mechanism of the rotating-type electrospark deposition (ESD) was presented, based on studying the single-pulse electrospark deposition spot. Four different substrate/electrode couples were selected to produce single-pulse deposition spots. The similar morphology of the spots and element migration tendency were detected. A heuristic physical model was established to interpret this deposition process. The concept of “gush and splash effect” was originally proposed and proved as the dominant factor in the formation mechanism of the single-pulse electrospark deposition spot. In addition, the rotation behavior of the electrode was identified to impact on the formation of the single-pulse deposition spot.

Jun Liu; Ruijun Wang; Yiyu Qian

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Measurements and simulations of focused beam for orthovoltage therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Megavoltage photon beams are typically used for therapy because of their skin-sparing effect. However, a focused low-energy x-ray beam would also be skin sparing, and would have a higher dose concentration at the focal spot. Such a beam can be produced with polycapillary optics. MCNP5 was used to model dose profiles for a scanned focused beam, using measured beam parameters. The potential of low energy focused x-ray beams for radiation therapy was assessed. Methods: A polycapillary optic was used to focus the x-ray beam from a tungsten source. The optic was characterized and measurements were performed at 50 kV. PMMA blocks of varying thicknesses were placed between optic and the focal spot to observe any variation in the focusing of the beam after passing through the tissue-equivalent material. The measured energy spectrum was used to model the focused beam in MCNP5. A source card (SDEF) in MCNP5 was used to simulate the converging x-ray beam. Dose calculations were performed inside a breast tissue phantom. Results: The measured focal spot size for the polycapillary optic was 0.2 mm with a depth of field of 5 mm. The measured focal spot remained unchanged through 40 mm of phantom thickness. The calculated depth dose curve inside the breast tissue showed a dose peak several centimeters below the skin with a sharp dose fall off around the focus. The percent dose falls below 10% within 5 mm of the focus. It was shown that rotating the optic during scanning would preserve the skin-sparing effect of the focused beam. Conclusions: Low energy focused x-ray beams could be used to irradiate tumors inside soft tissue within 5 cm of the surface.

Abbas, Hassan, E-mail: Hassan.Abbas@Yale.Edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, 344 Lane Street Hamden, Connecticut 06514 (United States)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, 344 Lane Street Hamden, Connecticut 06514 (United States); Mahato, Dip N., E-mail: dip.n.mahato@intel.com [Intel Corporation, Mail-Stop RA3-410, 2501 NW 229th Avenue, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Satti, Jahangir, E-mail: sattij@mail.amc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albany Medical Center, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albany Medical Center, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208 (United States); MacDonald, C. A., E-mail: c.macdonald@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Measurement of marine picoplankton cell size by using a cooled, charge-coupled device camera with image-analyzed fluorescence microscopy.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. MEASURING MARINE PICOPLANKTON...object in relation to a measuring grid can have a significant...E) associated with measuring the area of a circle...sampling would yield a standard deviation of about 0...Any error in the two-dimensional image will be increased...

C L Viles; M E Sieracki

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - angular leaf spot Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold Leaf SpotMelting Out Red Thread Dollar Spot Brown Patch Gray Leaf... Spot Anthracnose Pythium Blight Leaf Rust Powdery Mildew Slime Mold Fairy...

120

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

localization that limits the present measurements. The knowledge thus gained will have input not only to fusion research, but to may ques- tions of basic plasma physics....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of...

122

Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm14grant.pdf More Documents & Publications Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High...

123

LED Lighting Freeform Lens for achieving Octagon Spot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To decreasing the design error caused by the point source model, a method combining freeform and aspherical surface is presented. A LED spotlight lens for realizing octagon spot is...

Shaoyun, Yin; Sun, Xiuhui; Xia, Liangping; Du, Chunlei

124

Techniques for spot microsampling and analysis of corrosion site fluid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents techniques for the extraction and analysis of crevice fluid microsamples. Results are presented from ambient temperature benchtop proof-of-principle testing with the spot microsample extraction technique and from the high temperature test method.

Lynch, Garry J.; Niehaus, William C.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Steels (AHSS) Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February...

126

The Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories James L. Smith, Rex Thompson, and Thomas Lee June 24, 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information...

127

November 15, 2002 10:7 WSPC/Trim Size: 9in x 6in for Proceedings SaabYorkPaper PERFORMANCE AND BACKGROUND MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND BACKGROUND MEASUREMENTS OF THE CDMS II TOWER I DETECTORS AT THE STANFORD UNDERGROUND FACILITY T. SAAB , P at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) shallow depth site in the fall of 2001. With a payload consisting of 4. An extensive description of the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) can be found in 2 . 2. Results From

California at Berkeley, University of

128

Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

129

System-size dependence of Lambda and Xi production in nucleus--nucleus collisions at 40A and 158A GeV measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results on Lambda, Anti-lambda, and Xi- production in centrality selected Pb+Pb reactions at 40A and 158A GeV and in near-central C+C and Si+Si reactions at 158A GeV are presented. Transverse mass spectra, rapidity spectra, and multiplicities in dependence of the system size are discussed. Comparisons to transport models (UrQMD2.3 and HSD) and to the core-corona approach are performed. While Lambda and Anti-lambda production can be described by transport models reasonably well, these models do not agree with the Xi- measurements. On the other hand, the core-corona picture fits very well the system-size dependence of Lambda and Xi-, while it agrees less well with the Anti-lambda data.

NA49 Collaboration

2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

130

Berkeley Lab's SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

samples onto barcoded sample holders at home and ship them to the ALS. At the facility, a robot arm transfers each new sample to the measurement stage, where it is automatically...

131

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 4:07pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing tremendous energy savings by cutting down consumption. Using an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant from the Recovery Act, the city was able to have the building retrofitted and install a building management system. The system allows library staff to control the indoor climate of the library from one location to reduce operating costs of the facility. Addthis Related Articles Captured data from the monitoring system at the public library shows that energy usage was highest at 10:30a.m., a time when a number of patrons in the library would be using computers and lighting. | Photo courtesy of Texas Institute for Sustainable Technology Research

132

Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for...

133

Io hot spots - infrared photometry of satellite occultations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Io's active hot spots, which are presently mapped on the basis of IR photometry of this moon's occultation by other Gallilean satellites, are obtained with greatest spatial resolution near the sub-earth point. A model is developed for the occultation lightcurves, and its fitting to the data defines the apparent path of the occulting satellite relative to Io; the mean error in apparent relative position of occulting satellites is of the order of 178 km. A heretofore unknown, 20-km diameter hot spot is noted on Io's leading hemisphere. 31 references.

Goguen, J.D.; Matson, D.L.; Sinton, W.M.; Howell, R.R.; Dyck, H.M.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

What determines cell size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as: Marshall WF, et al. : What determines cell size? BMC7007/10/101 FORUM Open Access What determines cell size?biologists have been wondering what determines the size of

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

An evaluation of spot tests for boron and the development of a superior spot test for boron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

three factors are well defined this 1;. st need not be faulty. A satisfactory spot test could then be defined as one that is: I) easy to perform, 2) has a well defined sensitivity, $) is detailed. as to procedure and inter- fering substances, and. 4... of hese involve the use of turmeric paper to . vhioh the test solu', i~n is ad ed ancL then dried. , and most involve '-he prolonged drying of the paper in air or in a des-icator. '2his is a rather lengthy procedure for a spot test. Peigl L...

Van Tuyl, Dixon Peacock

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

Minimum-Hot-Spot Query Trees for Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an energy- efficient query routing tree. (a) Energy harvesting for battery- less nodes for the (b) Voltree to the querying node. Energy-efficient query routing trees are needed in a plethora of systems such as PeopleMinimum-Hot-Spot Query Trees for Wireless Sensor Networks Georgios Chatzimilioudis Dept

Zeinalipour, Demetris

137

Spot welding of steel and aluminum using insert sheet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automobile industries have been increasingly interested in the use of aluminum and thus joining of steel and aluminum becomes of importance. The joining of the two types of metal raises a problem of brittle welds caused by the formation of intermetallic compounds. The authors solved the problem by using an insert sheet. This paper deals with the resistance spot welding of steel and aluminum sheets using insert sheets. The insert sheet used in the present development was a steel/aluminum clad sheet of the 0.8 mm thickness with 50% steel and 50% aluminum. The clad sheet was produced by warm rolling of steel and aluminum with a direct resistance heating process. Steel to be warm rolled was of EDDQ of the 0.4 mm thickness and aluminum was of JIS A1050 of 0.6 mm thickness. The mechanical properties of the insert clad sheets were in between those of the steel sheets and the aluminum sheets, while the clad sheets showed much better formability than the aluminum sheets. Resistance spot welding was conducted for 0.8 mm thick EDDQ steel sheets and 1.0 mm thick aluminum alloy (AL-5.5%Mg) sheets under the welding force of 1.96 kN, welding current ranging between 4.2 and 20.1 kA, and welding time from 0.5 to 10 cycles. The steel was spot welded to the steel side of the insert sheet while the aluminum was welded to the aluminum side. What the authors investigated were the applicable welding current range, nugget diameter, tensile shear strength, U-tension strength, and macro- and microstructures. In conclusion, steel sheets can be spot welded to aluminum sheets without difficulty by using clad sheets as insert materials while the strength level of the dissimilar metal spot welds is close to that of aluminum joints.

Oikawa, H.; Saito, T.; Yoshimura, T. [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

A New Species of Rhytisma Causes Tar Spot on Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) in Panama  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fungus causing tar spots on leaves of Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) in Panama is described as a new species, Rhytisma panamense. The fungus forms gregarious black stromata on pale yellow spots on the a...

Cheng-Lin Hou; Tanja Trampe; Meike Piepenbring

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-white spot syndrome Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

white spot syndrome Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anti-white spot syndrome Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, June...

140

Development of New Ultrasonic Inspection Technique for Spot Welds with Matrix Arrayed Probe and SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A portable type of 3D ultrasonic inspection system, named “Matrixeye”, was applied to the spot welds, in which a matrix-arrayed probe was used as a sensing unit, and the welding zone in the spot welds was visuali...

T. Ikeda; H. Karasawa; S. Matsumoto; S. Satonaka; C. Iwamoto

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Measurement of Size Distributions of Bacterial Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The pulses persisted for 200 to 300,usec and were followed by a slight undershoot...were: first differentiators, 0.8 ,usec: integrator, 0.8 pusec; second differentiator...chi-square. Only one setting (0.8 ,usec) of the first dif- ferentiator gave adequate...

R. J. Harvey; Allen G. Marr

1966-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Delivery and Hedging Delivery ties the futures price to the spot price.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Delivery and Hedging · Delivery ties the futures price to the spot price. · On the delivery date, the settlement price of the futures contract is determined by the spot price. · Hence, when the delivery period is reached, the futures price should be very close to the spot price. · Changes in futures prices usually

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

143

The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Modelling and pricing in electricity markets Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Overview

Pfeifer, Holger

144

A k-factor GIGARCH process: Estimation and Application on electricity market spot prices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A k-factor GIGARCH process: Estimation and Application on electricity market spot prices. Abdou Kâ time series of market data, such as electricity spot price, exhibit long-memory, in the sense of slowly this approach to electricity prices (spot prices) from the German energy market (European Energy e

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

IMPROVING MULTI-LATTICE ALIGNMENT BASED SPOKEN KEYWORD SPOTTING Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as when- ever it is inconvenient, unsafe, or impossible for the user to enter a search query using and the utterance being searched is beneficial for spoken keyword spotting. In this paper, we introduce several im- prove the performance of spoken keyword spotting. Index Terms-- Spoken keyword spotting, lattice

Noble, William Stafford

146

Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product - Crude  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Gasoline inventories indicate how tight the gasoline product market is in any one region. When the gasoline market is tight, it affects the portion of gasoline price is the spread between spot product price and crude oil price. Note that in late 1998-and early 1999 spreads were very small when inventories were quite high. Contrast summers of 1998 or 1999 with summer 2000. Last summer's tight markets, resulting low stocks and transition to Phase 2 RFG added price pressure over and above the already high crude price pressure on gasoline -- particularly in the Midwest. As we ended last winter, gasoline inventories were low, and the spread between spot prices and crude oil were higher than typical as a result. Inventories stayed well below average and the spread during the

147

X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

Gilbert, Hubert W. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Size structuring of planktonic communities : biological rates and ecosystem dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bight and central equatorial Pacific show increasing growth rates with size, while those cells measured in the Somali Basin,

Taniguchi, Darcy Anne Akiko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Evidence of randomness in United States spot oil prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates U.S. crude oil spot-market prices to determine if they were cyclical, autoregressive, or random in nature. The fact that oil-price volatility emerged only with the rise of spot markets meant that data for this type of an analysis were not previously available. The hypothesis tested was that U.S. crude oil price changes are neither cyclical nor autocorrelated, and are, therefore, random. Daily data on U.S. crude oil spot market prices (for the period of December 3, 1984 to November 4, 1988) were analyzed using spectral analysis; this converts time-series data into a frequency series, where it can be analyzed using more-powerful statistical methods. The spectral results of the price series gave a maximum power spectrum of 0.026, which is considerably smaller than the significance level of 0.052, considered acceptable using a 99% confidence level. The conclusion reached was that there was no significant cyclicality or autocorrelation in the data. This indicated that the U.S. crude oil prices are efficient, and that it would not be possible to predict crude oil price changes by using historical price data, seasonality, or business cycles.

Howard, B.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Detection of surface carbon and hydrocarbons in hot spot regions of niobium superconducting rf cavities by Raman spectroscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Raman microscopy/spectroscopy measurements are presented on high purity niobium (Nb) samples, including pieces from hot spot regions of a tested superconducting rf cavity that exhibit a high density of etch pits. Measured spectra are compared with density functional theory calculations of Raman-active, vibrational modes of possible surface Nb-O and Nb-H complexes. The Raman spectra inside particularly rough pits in all Nb samples show clear differences from surrounding areas, exhibiting enhanced intensity and sharp peaks. While some of the sharp peaks are consistent with calculated NbH and NbH2 modes, there is better overall agreement with C-H modes in chain-type hydrocarbons. Other spectra reveal two broader peaks attributed to amorphous carbon. Niobium foils annealed to >2000°C in high vacuum develop identical Raman peaks when subjected to cold working. Regions with enhanced C and O have also been found by SEM/EDX spectroscopy in the hot spot samples and cold-worked foils, corroborating the Raman results. Such regions with high concentrations of impurities are expected to suppress the local superconductivity and this may explain the correlation between hot spots in superconducting rf (SRF) cavities and the observation of a high density of surface pits. The origin of localized high carbon and hydrocarbon regions is unclear at present but it is suggested that particular processing steps in SRF cavity fabrication may be responsible.

Cao, C.; Ford, D.; Bishnoi, S.; Proslier, T.; Albee, B.; Hommerding, E.; Korczakowski, A.; Cooley, L.; Ciovati, G.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Estimating VaR and ES of the spot price of oil using futures-varying centiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper illustrates the power of modern statistical modelling in estimating measures of market risk, here applied to the Brent and WTI spot price of oil. Both Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) are cast in terms of conditional centiles based upon semi-parametric regression models. Using the GAMLSS statistical framework, we stress the important aspects of selecting a highly flexible parametric distribution (skewed Student's t-distribution) and of modelling both skewness and kurtosis as non-parametric functions of the price of oil futures. Furthermore, an empirical application characterises the relationship between spot oil prices and oil futures - exploiting the futures market to explain the dynamics of the physical market. Our results suggest that NYMEX WTI has heavier tails compared with the ICE Brent. Contrary to the common platitude of the industry, we argue that 'somebody knows something' in the oil business.

Giacomo Scandroglio; Andrea Gori; Emiliano Vaccaro; Vlasios Voudouris

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm – 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 – 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 – 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 – 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Wear testing of friction stir spot welding tools for joining of DP 980 Steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Several tooling materials have been evaluated in prior studies, including silicon nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, where a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) was used in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re (designated as Q60), and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re (designated at Q70). The sheet material used for all wear testing was DP 980. Tool profiles were measured periodically during the testing process in order to show the progression of wear as a function of the number of spots produced. Lap shear testing was done each time a tool profile was taken in order to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. For the welding parameters chosen for this study the Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

Ridges, Chris; Miles, Michael; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Steel, Russell

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

154

Understanding plastic deformation in thermal glasses from single-soft-spot dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By considering the low-frequency vibrational modes of amorphous solids, Manning and Liu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 108302 (2011)] showed that a population of "soft spots" can be identified that are intimately related to plasticity at zero temperature under quasistatic shear. In this work we track individual soft spots with time in a two-dimensional sheared thermal Lennard Jones glass at temperatures ranging from deep in the glassy regime to above the glass transition temperature. We show that the lifetimes of individual soft spots are correlated with the timescale for structural relaxation. We additionally calculate the number of rearrangements required to destroy soft spots, and show that most soft spots can survive many rearrangements. Finally, we show that soft spots are robust predictors of rearrangements at temperatures well into the super-cooled regime. Altogether, these results pave the way for mesoscopic theories of plasticity of amorphous solids based on dynamical behavior of individual soft spots.

Samuel S. Schoenholz; Andrea J. Liu; Robert A. Riggleman; Joerg Rottler

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

155

Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Spot Prices Spot Prices (Crude Oil in Dollars per Barrel, Products in Dollars per Gallon) Period: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product by Area 12/09/13 12/10/13 12/11/13 12/12/13 12/13/13 12/16/13 View History Crude Oil WTI - Cushing, Oklahoma 97.1 98.32 97.25 97.21 96.27 97.18 1986-2013 Brent - Europe 110.07 108.91 109.47 108.99 108.08 110.3 1987-2013 Conventional Gasoline New York Harbor, Regular 2.677 2.698 2.670 2.643 2.639 2.650 1986-2013 U.S. Gulf Coast, Regular 2.459 2.481 2.429 2.398 2.377 2.422 1986-2013 RBOB Regular Gasoline Los Angeles 2.639 2.661 2.569 2.543 2.514 2.527 2003-2013 No. 2 Heating Oil New York Harbor

157

Transformation from spots to waves in a model of actin pattern formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Actin networks in certain single-celled organisms exhibit a complex pattern-forming dynamics that starts with the appearance of static spots of actin on the cell cortex. Spots soon become mobile, executing persistent random walks, and eventually give rise to traveling waves of actin. Here we describe a possible physical mechanism for this distinctive set of dynamic transformations, by equipping an excitable reaction-diffusion model with a field describing the spatial orientation of its chief constituent (which we consider to be actin). The interplay of anisotropic actin growth and spatial inhibition drives a transformation at fixed parameter values from static spots to moving spots to waves.

Stephen Whitelam; Till Bretschneider; Nigel J. Burroughs

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

158

Unit root properties of crude oil spot and futures prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, we examine whether WTI and Brent crude oil spot and futures prices (at 1, 3 and 6 months to maturity) contain a unit root with one and two structural breaks, employing weekly data over the period 1991–2004. To realise this objective we employ Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root tests with one and two endogenous structural breaks proposed by Lee and Strazicich [2003. Minimum Lagrange multiplier unit root test with two structural breaks. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 1082–1089; 2004. Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break. Working Paper no. 04–17, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University]. We find that each of the oil price series can be characterised as a random walk process and that the endogenous structural breaks are significant and meaningful in terms of events that have impacted on world oil markets.

Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Characterization of plasma ion source utilizing anode spot with positively biased electrode for stable and high-current ion beam extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operating conditions of a rf plasma ion source utilizing a positively biased electrode have been investigated to develop a stably operating, high-current ion source. Ion beam characteristics such as currents and energies are measured and compared with bias currents by varying the bias voltages on the electrode immersed in the ambient rf plasma. Current-voltage curves of the bias electrode and photographs confirm that a small and dense plasma, so-called anode spot, is formed near an extraction aperture and plays a key role to enhance the performance of the plasma ion source. The ion beam currents from the anode spot are observed to be maximized at the optimum bias voltage near the knee of the characteristic current-voltage curve of the anode spot. Increased potential barrier to obstruct beam extraction is the reason for the reduction of the ion beam current in spite of the increased bias current indicating the density of the anode spot. The optimum bias voltage is measured to be lower at higher operating pressure, which is favorable for stable operation without severe sputtering damage on the electrode. The ion beam current can be further enhanced by increasing the power for the ambient plasma without increasing the bias voltage. In the same manner, noble gases with higher atomic number as a feedstock gas are preferable for extracting higher beam current more stably. Therefore, performance of the plasma ion source with a positively biased electrode can be enhanced by controlling the operating conditions of the anode spot in various manners.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Highly Shocked Polymer Bonded Explosives at a Nonplanar Interface: Hot-Spot Formation Leading to Detonation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Detonation Qi An, William A. Goddard III,* Sergey V. Zybin, Andres Jaramillo-Botero, and Tingting Zhou the ReaxFF reactive force field to examine shock-induced hot-spot formation followed by detonation and pressure in the hot-spot region, until detonation. By contrast, the first step for PETN is NO2 release

Goddard III, William A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in a Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in a Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Luke Uribarri flow rate) of onset voltage fluctuations in a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster operating with three anode materials, and an anode spot model is presented which provides a physical explanation for the properties

Choueiri, Edgar

162

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke Uribarri and E (MPDTs) operating with three anode materials, and an anode spot model is presented which provides below and above onset with anodes of cop- per, graphite, and lead are analyzed using the statistical

Choueiri, Edgar

163

A NON-GAUSSIAN ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A NON-GAUSSIAN ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK PROCESS FOR ELECTRICITY SPOT PRICE MODELING AND DERIVATIVES for analytical pricing of electricity forward and futures contracts. Electricity forward and futures contracts to capture the observed dynamics of electricity spot prices. We also discuss the pricing of European call

Kallsen, Jan

164

Spot Convenience Yield Models for the Energy Markets Rene Carmona and Michael Ludkovski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spot Convenience Yield Models for the Energy Markets Ren´e Carmona and Michael Ludkovski Abstract of convenience yield recently proposed as a viable alternative. 1. Introduction As the energy markets continue and phrases. Spot price, convenience yield, energy markets. 1 #12;2 REN´E CARMONA AND MICHAEL LUDKOVSKI

Carmona, Rene

165

Onset Voltage Hash and Anode Spots in Quasi-Steady Magnetoplasmadynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Onset Voltage Hash and Anode Spots in Quasi-Steady Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke Uribarri: Edgar Y. Choueiri November 2008 #12;ONSET VOLTAGE HASH AND ANODE SPOTS IN QUASI noise ("hash") and anode damage in a self-field, quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT

Choueiri, Edgar

166

Relationship Between Anode Spots and Onset Voltage Hash in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relationship Between Anode Spots and Onset Voltage Hash in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters operating above onset and the time-resolved appearance of destructively released anode material in the thruster plume. Such a relationship gives support to previously discussed anode spotting

Choueiri, Edgar

167

SpotSigs: robust and efficient near duplicate detection in large web collections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated by our work with political scientists who need to manually analyze large Web archives of news sites, we present SpotSigs, a new algorithm for extracting and matching signatures for near duplicate detection in large Web crawls. Our spot ... Keywords: high-dimensional similarity search, inverted index pruning, optimal partitioning, stopword signatures

Martin Theobald; Jonathan Siddharth; Andreas Paepcke

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Coherent Control of Nanoscale Light Localization in Metamaterial: Creating and Positioning Isolated Subwavelength Energy Hot Spots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a subwavelength local- ization of optical energy. A desired nanoscale light hot spot can be engineered simplyCoherent Control of Nanoscale Light Localization in Metamaterial: Creating and Positioning Isolated Subwavelength Energy Hot Spots T. S. Kao,1 S. D. Jenkins,2 J. Ruostekoski,2 and N. I. Zheludev1,* 1

Zheludev, Nikolay

169

Ecological assessment of Phragmites australis wetlands using multi-season2 SPOT-5 scenes3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ecological assessment of Phragmites australis wetlands using multi-season2 SPOT-5 scenes3 4 5 indices; multitemporal46 imagery; Phragmites australis; vegetation structure, SPOT-5 satellite; state).59 Common reed Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steudel) is the most widely distributed60 flowering plant

Boyer, Edmond

170

ATF Users Meeting 2002 Vitaly.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

measure beam sizes >200 m and quads for smaller sizes Accelerator Test Facility Layout BPM resolution limit Electron beam horizontal spot size as a function of charge, measured...

171

Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - June 11,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - June 11, 2010 Evaluation of HotSpot, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory - June 11, 2010 June 11, 2010 Letter from Andy Lawrence to John Nasstrom accepting the revised Hotspot In your letter dated April 16, 2010, you summarized the work done by the Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendations from the 2007, Software Evaluation of HotSpot, and DOE, Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation, for inclusion of V2.07 in the DOE Safety Software Central Registry. Based on this work, you futher requested that HotSpot be included in the DOE Central Registry. Letter from Andy Lawrence to John Nasstrom accepting the revised Hotspot More Documents & Publications

172

CoRoT's view on variable B8/9 stars: spots versus pulsations: Evidence for differential rotation in HD 174648  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context. There exist few variability studies of stars in the region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between the A and B-star pulsational instability strips. With the aid of the high precision continuous measurements of the CoRoT space satellite, low amplitudes are more easily detected, making a study of this neglected region worthwhile. Aims. We collected a small sample of B stars observed by CoRoT to determine the origin of the different types of variability observed. Methods. We combine literature photometry and spectroscopy to measure the fundamental parameters of the stars in the sample, and compare asteroseismic modelling of the light curves with (differentially rotating) spotted star models. Results. We found strong evidence for the existence of spots and differential rotation in HD 174648, and formulated hypotheses for their origin. We show that the distinction between pulsations and rotational modulation is difficult to make solely based on the light curve, especially in slowly rotating stars.

Degroote, P; Samadi, R; Aerts, C; Kurtz, D W; Noels, A; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Bloemen, S; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Auvergne, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Particle Size Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NISTrecommended p r a c t i c e g u i d e Special Publication 960-1 #12;i Particle Size Characterization Ajit.S. Department of Commerce Donald L. Evans, Secretary Technology Administration Karen H. Brown, Acting Under Steve Freiman, Said Jahanmir, James Kelly, Patrick Pei and Dennis Minor and of the Ceramics Division

174

Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks and long memory models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

downturns as a result of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Top Spot is an intelligent advertising product that targets your most suitable listings to the right people  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Top Spot is an intelligent advertising product that targets your most suitable listings estate agency both before and after signing up to Top Spot. 72% MORE VIEWS^ Advertising with Top Spot Premium design ­ bold colour and larger "Hero Shot" photo Smarter, efficient and targeted advertising

Peters, Richard

176

Determination of heliostat and concentrator size for solar furnace facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are basically two types of solar furnaces -- a vertical-beam or a horizontal-beam facility. A vertical-beam facility uses movable heliostats to redirect the incoming solar energy vertically upward to a stationary parabolid. A horizontal-beam furnace uses the heliostat to redirect the incoming energy horizontally to the paraboloid. This paper presents a method to determine the optimum size of the heliostat and/or concentrator to meet predetermined design criteria. Usually the concentrator size is fixed by the temperature and flux-density required at the test plane and the problem is to size the heliostat so the facility can be used for a certain length of time each day during the entire year. However, the method can also be used when the heliostat size is fixed and the concentrator size must be determined. The analysis considers energy incident from the sun being reflected from a flat spectral surface (heliostat) onto a concentrating surface (concentrator), which then redirects the energy to a focal spot that can then be used as a high temperature, high-flux density source. The analysis uses the basic relations of geometric optics and considers only the central ray of the incoming cone of energy from the sun. Errors involved with this assumption will be minimal for most cases, but if deemed necessary, the reflected cone can be accounted for in the reflected ray from the heliostat.

Mulholland, G.P.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Down-sizing Forever  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evidence for cosmic down-sizing has been growing over the last decade. It is now clear that the major star-forming epoch for the largest galaxies occurred earlier than for smaller galaxies. This not only runs counter to the popular hierarchical clustering picture, but points to an even more radical revision of our ideas of the evolution of cosmological structure. Galaxies do not form at all.

Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Display Size Wireless LAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.) - Security sofware ­ESET Smart Security. No Reuse PC with English OS for this time. PC PC Code Image Brand PC PC Code Image Brand Model F008 Panasonic CF-W2 Pentium733 M 1.10GHz 256MB 40GB 12.1 inch 1.0kg System Memory HDD Display Size Weight OS Accessory LAN Wireless LAN Remarks PC PC Code Image Brand

Katsumoto, Shingo

179

Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic robotic spotting Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spotting Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Dynamic Networks for Motion Planning in Multi-Robot Space Systems Summary: on a simple example involving 3 robots, with no obstacles. A...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Computing electricity spot price prediction intervals using quantile regression and forecast averaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine possible accuracy gains from forecast averaging in the context of interval forecasts of electricity spot prices. First, we test whether constructing empirical prediction intervals (PI) from combined electricity

Jakub Nowotarski; Rafa? Weron

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - availability hot spot Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

20.00 2006 IEEE 22nd IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Hot Spot Cooling using Embedded Thermoelectric Coolers Summary: 0-7803-XXXX-X0620.00 2006 IEEE 22nd IEEE SEMI-THERM...

183

The influence of purification protocol and pH on tomato spotted wilt virions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two purification protocols were tested for their influence on yield of tomato spotted wilt virions. Protocol "A" was developed by Black et al (2), modified by Mohammed et al (34), and described by Gonsalves and Trujillo (16). Protocol "B...

Shimek, Christina Marie

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Wetland monitoring using classification trees and SPOT-5 seasonal time series. Aurlie Davranche1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to estimate the area of4 marshes covered with common reeds (Phragmites australis) and submerged macrophytes5 Phragmites australis, remote sensing, SPOT-5, submerged macrophytes, wetland monitoring.29 30 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Reedbed monitoring using classification trees and SPOT-5 seasonal time series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Phragmites australis, Remote sensing, SPOT-5. Abstract The Camargue, the Rhône river delta in south of France to model the presence of common reed (Phragmite australis) stands in Camargue. The development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Particle and Size Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The long and short sides were called directional tangential cutting edge or random diameter. When the number of measured particles was large enough, results could reflect the average cross section of particle sam...

Zhonglin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Intra-individual Variation of Plasma Adipokine Levels and Utility of Single Measurement of These Biomarkers in Population-Based Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...anthropometric measurements, and general demographic...58.6) Total energy intake (kcal...stability of single spot measurements using ICCs and the...each season (192 measurements for all seasons). Units for adipokine levels...

Sang-Ah Lee; Asha Kallianpur; Yong-Bing Xiang; Wanqing Wen; Qiuyin Cai; Dake Liu; Sergio Fazio; MacRae F. Linton; Wei Zheng; and Xiao Ou Shu

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Usage by Job Size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Usage by Job Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi Jacquard Seaborg User Account (Repo) Execution Queue All Debug Interactive Premium Regular Short Regular Long Regular Small Regular Medium Regular Big Regular Extra Big Killable Low Transfer IO Task Special System Serial Big Memory Westmere === Inactive === Magellan Serial Magellan Short Magellan Small Magellan Medium Magellan Big Magellan Long Regular 1 Regular 1 Long Regular 16 Regular 32 Regular 48 Full Config Seaborg Serial Batch 16 Batch 32 Batch 64 Submit Queue all interactive debug premium regular low DOE Office all ASCR BER BES FES HEP NP Summary for jobs that completed after Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 @ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

190

Spontaneous initiation of detonations in while dwarf environments: Determination of critical sizes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some explosion models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), such as the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) or the double detonation sub-Chandrasekhar (DDSC) models, rely on the spontaneous initiation of a detonation in the degenerate {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O material of a white dwarf (WD). The length scales pertinent to the initiation of the detonation are notoriously unresolved in multidimensional stellar simulations, prompting the use of results of one-dimensional simulations at higher resolution, such as those performed for this work, as guidelines for deciding whether or not conditions reached in the higher dimensional full star simulations successfully would lead to the onset of a detonation. Spontaneous initiation relies on the existence of a suitable gradient in self-ignition (induction) times of the fuel, which we set up with a spatially localized nonuniformity of temperature - a hot spot. We determine the critical (smallest) sizes of such hot spots that still marginally result in a detonation in WD matter by integrating the reactive Euler equations with the hydrodynamics code FLASH. We quantify the dependences of the critical sizes of such hot spots on composition, background temperature, peak temperature, geometry, and functional form of the temperature disturbance, many of which were hitherto largely unexplored in the literature. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of modeling of SNe Ia.

Seitenzahl, I. R.; Meakin, C. A.; Townsley, D. M.; Lamb, D. Q.; Truran, J. W. (Physics); (Univ. of Chicago); (Max-Planck Inst. for Astrophysics); (Univ. of Arizona)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Density measurements Viscosity measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density measurements Viscosity measurements Temperature measurements Pressure measurements Flow rate measurements Velocity measurements Sensors How to measure fluid flow properties ? Am´elie Danlos Ravelet Experimental methods for fluid flows: an introduction #12;Density measurements Viscosity

Ravelet, Florent

192

Characteristics of spot-market rate indexes for truckload transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the truckload transportation industry in the United States, a number of indexes are published that attempt to measure changes in rates, but no single index has emerged as an industry standard. Industry participants, ...

Bignell, Andrew (Andrew Souglas)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Sun Spot One (SS1): San Luis Valley, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

195

The effect of the financial sector on the evolution of oil prices: Analysis of the contribution of the futures market to the price discovery process in the WTI spot market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this article is to empirically measure the contribution of the futures market to the price discovery process in the spot market for benchmark crude oils, specifically that for West Texas Intermediate (WTI). For this purpose, we test the hypothesis that the recent evolution of the financial markets has affected the future oil market so as to increase its contribution to the price discovery process of the spot market. We modeled the relation between WTI spot and future prices as a cointegration relation. By using the Kalman filter technique, it was possible to obtain a time-varying measure of the contribution of future markets to the price discovery mechanism. The results show that in the case of WTI, the contribution of the futures market has been increasing, especially between 2003 and 2008 and then again after the start of 2009, evidencing the growing importance of factors particular to the financial markets in determining oil prices in recent years. During 2009, the spot prices adjusted to agents' future expectations rather than to the current supply and demand conditions.

Renan Silvério; Alexandre Szklo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The Observer March 2003 page 3 CSU Fresno 16" SCT at f/38 & Jupiter's Great Red Spot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Observer March 2003 page 3 CSU Fresno 16" SCT at f/38 & Jupiter's Great Red Spot By Greg Morgan in March that the Great Red Spot will be making a central meridian crossing along with the shadow of one in the region of the Great Red Spot. Similarly, on Tuesday evening April 1st , from 10:24 PM to 1:48 AM PDT, Io

Ringwald, Frederick A.

197

Nanoparticle sizing method based on fluorescence anisotropy analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Demand for applications of nanoparticles in electric architecture has been increasing. Nanoparticles provide new opportunities for improving circuit response. We discuss a novel method for evaluating nanoparticle sizes based on fluorescence anisotropy analysis. Particle size evaluation is possible through measurements of the rotational diffusion coefficient, which is sensitive to particle size. We develop a system for measuring rotational diffusion coefficients by using a fluorescent probe to label a particle. We report fundamental experiments that verify the feasibility of the proposed method. The rotational diffusion coefficients of gold nanoparticles with diameters ranging 6–20 nm were measured using the proposed method. The measured rotational diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing particle size. This finding indicates that nanoparticles smaller than 15 nm can be measured with fine resolution.

Terutake Hayashi; Yuki Ishizaki; Masaki Michihata; Yasuhiro Takaya; Shin-Ichi Tanaka

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots July 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99.

199

,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)",1,"Weekly","12/13/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdw.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdw.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:22 PM"

200

New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots New EM Technology: Spray Lights up Contamination Hot Spots July 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. An image intensified camera system captured an image of the simulated debris material in dark conditions. The ORNL researchers conducted a test in which they sprayed the scintillating phosphor on simulated debris material marked with technetium-99.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty Roosting Spot for These Nocturnal Mammals is Just Batty November 7, 2012 - 3:05pm Addthis A Yuma bat flying inside the clearwell at 100-F Area. | Photo courtesy of the Office of Environmental Management. A Yuma bat flying inside the clearwell at 100-F Area. | Photo courtesy of the Office of Environmental Management. David Sheeley Editor/Writer for Environmental Management's Office of External Affairs What are the key facts? Yuma bats reside in a clearwell, a concrete structure formerly used to filter water from the Columbia River for cooling a reactor. Yuma bats have buff-colored bodies that are about 1.5 to 2 inches long with a wingspan of up to 9 inches. Think about the places where bats roost, and abandoned cab-ins, attics,

202

Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: Lobes and Hot Spots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here the first Simbol-X simulations of the extended components, lobes and hot spots, of the radio galaxies. We use the paradigmatic case of Pictor A to test the capabilities of Simbol-X in this field of studies. Simulations demonstrate that Simbol-X will be able not only to perform spatially resolved studies on the lobes of radio galaxies below 10 keV but also to observe, for the first time, hard X-ray emission from the hot spots. These extremely promising results show the considerable potentiality of Simbol-X in studying interaction phenomena between relativistic plasma and surrounding environment.

Migliori, G. [SISSA/ISAS, via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Grandi, P.; Raimondi, L.; Torresi, E. [INAF/IASF Bologna, viale Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Angelini, L. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Palumbo, G. G. C. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

203

Sibling competition and hunger increase allostatic load in spotted hyaenas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...probably increasing allostatic load in dominants [3]. Within-brood...competition [11] on allostatic load in twins of a free-ranging...reasons, we expect allostatic load measured by faecal glucocorticoid...males and 19 females). These data (see electronic supplementary...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Nuclear sizes and the isotope shift  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Darwin-Foldy nuclear-size corrections in electronic atoms and nuclear radii are discussed from the nuclear-physics perspective. The interpretation of precise isotope-shift measurements is formalism dependent, and care must be exercised in interpreting these results and those obtained from relativistic electron scattering from nuclei. We strongly advocate that the entire nuclear-charge operator be used in calculating nuclear-size corrections in atoms rather than relegating portions of it to the nonradiative recoil corrections. A preliminary examination of the intrinsic deuteron radius obtained from isotope-shift measurements suggests the presence of small meson-exchange currents (exotic binding contributions of relativistic order) in the nuclear charge operator, which contribute approximately 12%.

J. L. Friar; J. Martorell; D. W. L. Sprung

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

A statistical study of bright spot reflection parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coefficient as a function of frequency for three different gas saturations Figure 3 - Extraction of seismic properties plot Figure 4 - Base map of the seismic data set. Figure 5 - Seismic 'line A. Figure 6 - Seismic line B. Figure 7 - Seismic data from... measurements obtained from marker horizon D - seismic line A . 60 Figure 24 - The mean value data obtained from horizon D seismic line A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Figure 25 - Variance data obtained from horizon D - seismic line...

Godwin, David Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The world wide energy commodities markets have created a need for a deeper quan- titative understandingEnergy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal a a Department of Statistics and Mathematical Finance Program, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street

Jaimungal, Sebastian

207

The Onset of Voltage Hash and its Relationship to Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Onset of Voltage Hash and its Relationship to Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters, 08544 A phenomenological model is developed to elucidate the relationship between voltage hash and anode electromagnetic force density leads to a mass depletion in the anode region which, in turn, leads to a disparity

Choueiri, Edgar

208

A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits Chong@ece.ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Circuits using nano-meter technologies are becoming increasingly vulnerable to signal interference methodology to study the vulnerability of digital ICs exposed to nano-meter noise and transient soft errors

California at San Diego, University of

209

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2 October 13, 2010 for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity and electricity prices is a relevant issue. Numerous diffusion-type and econometric models have been proposed

Boyer, Edmond

210

Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process. Abdou Kâ Diongue this method to the German electricity price market for the period August 15, 2000 - De- cember 31, 2002 and we; Electricity prices; Forecast; GIGARCH process. Corresponding author: Universite Gaston Berger de Saint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2 October 9, 2009 for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity and electricity prices is a relevant issue. Numerous diffusion-type and econometric models have been proposed

212

Fusion of SPOT5 multispectral and Ikonos panchromatic images R. ALONSO REYES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fusion of SPOT5 multispectral and Ikonos panchromatic images R. ALONSO REYES Atmosphere, Remote & Modélisation, Centre Energétique, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Sophia Antipolis, France Keywords: Fusion methods spatial and spec- tral resolutions. The field of data fusion of remotely sensed data grown also very fast

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Exploiting Regular Hot-Spots for Drive-thru Internet Jorg Ott and Dirk Kutscher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-spot installations is ever-increasing: besides hotels, caf´es and the like particularly airports, train stations, gas]. While 1 Examples include Agip gas stations and MAXI service areas in Germany, Neste A24 gas stations stations, and service areas are covered, i.e., places serving commuters and travellers on the road. 1

Ott, Jörg

214

SPIRIT-IPY: List of Publications SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, A. and Gallee, H.: Modeling the mass and surface heat budgets in a coastal blue ice area of AdelieSPIRIT-IPY: List of Publications SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year

Berthier, Etienne

215

Integrated thermal-microstructure model to predict the property gradients in resistance spot steel welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated model approach was proposed for relating resistance welding parameters to weldment properties. An existing microstructure model was used to determine the microstructural and property gradients in resistance spot welds of plain carbon steel. The effect of these gradients on the weld integrity was evaluated with finite element analysis. Further modifications to this integrated thermal-microstructure model are discussed.

Babu, S.S.; Riemer, B.W.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Variable rate spreader for real-time spot-application of granular fertilizer in wild blueberry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The commercial variable rate (VR) fertilizer spreader can change fertilizer rates in different management zones using global positioning system (GPS) guided prescription maps. The VR fertilizer spreader allows the independent control only on half of ... Keywords: Controller, Digital photography, Fertilizer, Sensing and control system, Spot-application, Wild blueberry

Hassan S. Chattha; Qamar U. Zaman; Young K. Chang; Scott Read; Arnold W. Schumann; Gordon R. Brewster; Aitazaz A. Farooque

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Short-lived spots in solar-like stars as observed by CoRoT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context. CoRoT light curves have an unprecedented photometric quality, having simultaneously a high signal-to-noise ratio, a long time span and a nearly continuous duty-cycle. Aims. We analyse the light-curves of four bright targets observed in the seismology field and study short-lived small spots in solar-like stars. Methods. We present a simple spot modeling by iterative analysis. Its ability to extract relevant parameters is ensured by implementing relaxation steps to avoid convergence to local minima of the sum of the residuals between observations and modeling. The use of Monte-Carlo simulations allows us to estimate the performance of the fits. Results. Our starspot modeling gives a representation of the spots on these stars in agreement with other well tested methods. Within this framework, parameters such as rigid-body rotation and spot lifetimes seem to be precisely determined. Then, the lifetime/rotation period ratios are in the range 0.5 - 2, and there is clear evidence for differential rotation.

Mosser, B; Lanza, A F; Hulot, J C; Catala, C; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk Prof. Dr. Meyer. Februar 2010, 16:15 Uhr Seminarraum, LudwigstraÃ?e 33 I The recent deregulation of electricity markets has led to the creation of energy exchanges, where the electricity is freely traded. We study the most

Gerkmann, Ralf

219

Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models Gernot M¨uller Vortrag im years, electricity markets throughout the world have undergone massive changes due to deregulations risk but also against price movements. Consequently, statistical modeling and estimation of electricity

Gerkmann, Ralf

220

DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Phil demonstrated a cooling method on a "digital microfluidics" platform whereby discrete droplets are manipulated and the effective flow rate of the droplets. The results presented here suggest that digital microfluidics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Mapping the Energy Distribution of SERRS Hot Spots from Anti-Stokes to Stokes Intensity Ratios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mapping the Energy Distribution of SERRS Hot Spots from Anti- Stokes to Stokes Intensity Ratios in the anti-Stokes to Stokes intensity ratios in single-molecule surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, a methodology to estimate the distribution of resonance energies

Brolo, Alexandre G.

222

Experimental Observation of Hot Spots in a Filippov-Type Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we have presented the experimental results of hot spots observation in different working conditions in Filippov-type Plasma Focus Device “Dena” (90 kJ, 25...2, Ar, Kr and Ne the formation of hot spo...

S. Goudarzi; A. Raeisdana

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Third harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensity inter- actions, i.e., fast ignition fusion, laser based ion acceleration etc., where fluctuationsThird harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions, Glasgow, UK 4 Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Chilton, Didcot, Didcot, UK 5

Strathclyde, University of

224

Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Sizing assignments: a contribution from software engineering to computer science education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method of predicting the sizes of programs from a measure of problem size is shown, and research testing the effectiveness of the method is reported. A regression model for predicting average program size as measured by mean_LOC is shown to perform ...

David F. Haas; Leslie J. Waguespack, Jr.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effect of focal size on the laser ignition of compressed natural gas–air mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser ignition of compressed natural gas–air mixtures was investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) as well as in a single cylinder engine. Laser ignition has several potential advantages over conventional spark ignition system. Laser ignition relies on the fact that optical breakdown (plasma generation) in gases occurs at high intensities of ?1011 W/cm2. Such high intensities can be achieved by focusing a pulsed laser beam to small focal sizes. The focal spot size depends on several parameters such as laser wavelength, beam diameter at the converging lens, beam quality and focal length. In this investigation, the focal length of the converging lens and the beam quality were varied and the corresponding effects on minimum ignition energy as well as pressure rise were recorded. The flame kernel was visualized and correlated with the rate of pressure rise inside the combustion chamber. This investigation will be helpful in the optimization of laser and optics parameters in laser ignition. It was found that beam quality factor and focal length of focusing lens have a strong impact on the minimum ignition energy required for combustion. Combustion duration depends on the energy density at the focal spot and size of the flame kernel.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Ernst Wintner; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Can Government Regulate Portion Sizes?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...it struck down the law on the basis of the separation-of-powers issue. According to the dissenting opinion, however, "the Rule easily passes this test." Neither lower court had found that regulating portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was irrational (although both courts similarly struck down... A New York City Board of Health regulation limiting portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was struck down this year, but the case may help address fundamental questions about whether restricting portion sizes is defensible on public health and legal grounds.

Pomeranz J.L.; Brownell K.D.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

228

Hardware Sizing for Software Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in real-life there is a need to predict the capacity when budgeting hardware, assessing technical risk, validating technical architecture, sizing packaged applications, predicting production system capacity requirements, and calculating the cost...

Swaminathan, Ganesh

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

229

Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasma in front of a positively biased electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stability of an anode spot plasma, which is an additional high density plasma generated in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in ambient plasma, is a critical issue for its utilization to various types of ion sources. In this study, operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasmas are experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of the bias current flowing into the positively biased electrode and the properties of ambient plasma reveal that unstable nature of the anode spot is deeply associated with the reduction of double layer potential between the anode spot plasma and the ambient plasma. It is found that stability of the anode spot plasma can be improved with increasing the ionization rate in ambient plasma so as to compensate the loss of electrons across the double layer or with enlarging the area of the biased electrode to prevent electron accumulation inside the anode spot. The results obtained from the present study give the guideline for operating conditions of anode spot plasmas as an ion source with high brightness.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Dang, Jeong-Jeung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Determination of an equivalent pore size from acoustic flow measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydraulic radius r h is defined as the ratio of a channel’s cross?sectional area to its perimeter. This parameter is important for specification of the performance of a porous medium that can be used as a regenerator in a Stirling engine or refrigerator. It is easy to calculate r h for pores of regular geometry but difficult in more complex media. Two techniques which use oscillating flow to determine this parameter will be presented and compared. One technique extracts r h by finding the low velocity limit of the standard expression for viscous pressure drop in the Poiseuille flow regime. The other involves a plot of the nondimensional viscousflow resistance ?p vis/?x??u versus the reciprocal of the viscous penetration depth 1/?? in the laminar flow regime. When r h ?? the flow resistance is frequency dependent and the dynamics is characterized by both r h and ??. It is possible to identify an effective hydraulic radius by equating it to the value of ?? where that transition occurs. [Work supported by ONR.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Measurement and Evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Under the guidance of the sampling theory, correct sampling procedures are taken, after which measurement can be performed with a variety of methods to determine the particle size, number, and distribution. After...

Zhonglin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Linear and non-linear Granger causality between oil spot and futures prices: A wavelet based test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study is the first attempt to investigate both the linear and non-linear Granger causality between wavelet transformed spot and futures oil prices. Our findings consistently indicate bidirectional causality between the spot and futures oil markets at different time scales, under linear and non-linear causality assumptions, and also during the recent financial crisis. Our results tend to shed further light on the ongoing controversy over the relative price discovery role played by spot market as opposed to futures market in oil price fluctuations, especially during periods of high uncertainty.

Mohammed Alzahrani; Mansur Masih; Omar Al-Titi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhda.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhda.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:19 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35611,2.49 35976,2.09 36341,2.27 36707,4.31 37072,3.96 37437,3.38 37802,5.47 38168,5.89 38533,8.69 38898,6.73

235

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Daily","12/16/2013" Daily","12/16/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdd.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdd.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35437,3.82 35438,3.8 35439,3.61 35440,3.92 35443,4 35444,4.01 35445,4.34 35446,4.71 35447,3.91

236

Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy: Does Breast Size Matter?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of breast size on dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical toxicity in whole-breast hypofractionated radiation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy between 2005 and 2009 were screened, and qualifying consecutive patients were included in 1 of 2 cohorts: large-breasted patients (chest wall separation >25 cm or planning target volume [PTV] >1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=97) and small-breasted patients (chest wall separation <25 cm and PTV <1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=32). All patients were treated prone or supine with hypofractionated IMRT to the whole breast (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) followed by a boost dose (9.6 Gy in 4 fractions). Dosimetric and clinical toxicity data were collected and analyzed using the R statistical package (version 2.12). Results: The mean PTV V95 (percentage of volume receiving >= 95% of prescribed dose) was 90.18% and the mean V105 percentage of volume receiving >= 105% of prescribed dose was 3.55% with no dose greater than 107%. PTV dose was independent of breast size, whereas heart dose and maximum point dose to skin correlated with increasing breast size. Lung dose was markedly decreased in prone compared with supine treatments. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 0, 1, and 2 skin toxicities were noted acutely in 6%, 69%, and 25% of patients, respectively, and at later follow-up (>3 months) in 43%, 57%, and 0% of patients, respectively. Large breast size contributed to increased acute grade 2 toxicity (28% vs 12%, P=.008). Conclusions: Adequate PTV coverage with acceptable hot spots and excellent sparing of organs at risk was achieved by use of IMRT regardless of treatment position and breast size. Although increasing breast size leads to increased heart dose and maximum skin dose, heart dose remained within our institutional constraints and the incidence of overall skin toxicity was comparable to that reported in the literature. Taken together, these data suggest that hypofractionated radiation therapy using IMRT is a viable and appropriate therapeutic modality in large-breasted patients.

Hannan, Raquibul, E-mail: Raquibul.Hannan@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thompson, Reid F.; Chen Yu; Bernstein, Karen; Kabarriti, Rafi; Skinner, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Chin C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Landau, Evan; Miller, Ekeni; Spierer, Marnee; Hong, Linda; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Laser wakefield generated X-ray probe for femtosecond time-resolved measurements of ionization states of warm dense aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a laser wakefield generated X-ray probe to directly measure the temporal evolution of the ionization states in warm dense aluminum by means of absorption spectroscopy. As a promising alternative to the free electron excited X-ray sources, Betatron X-ray radiation, with femtosecond pulse duration, provides a new technique to diagnose femtosecond to picosecond transitions in the atomic structure. The X-ray probe system consists of an adjustable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope for focusing the Betatron emission to a small probe spot on the sample being measured, and a flat Potassium Acid Phthalate Bragg crystal spectrometer to measure the transmitted X-ray spectrum in the region of the aluminum K-edge absorption lines. An X-ray focal spot size of around 50 ?m was achieved after reflection from the platinum-coated 10-cm-long KB microscope mirrors. Shot to shot positioning stability of the Betatron radiation was measured resulting in an rms shot to shot variation in spatial pointing on the sample of 16 ?m. The entire probe setup had a spectral resolution of ?1.5 eV, a detection bandwidth of ?24 eV, and an overall photon throughput efficiency of the order of 10{sup ?5}. Approximately 10 photons were detected by the X-ray CCD per laser shot within the spectrally resolved detection band. Thus, it is expected that hundreds of shots will be required per absorption spectrum to clearly observe the K-shell absorption features expected from the ionization states of the warm dense aluminum.

Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Fourmaux, S.; Saraf, A.; Otani, K.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada)] [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ng, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stylized facts concerning electricity prices: high volatility, mean-reversion, seasonality, and frequent extreme jumps in prices (Huisman and Mahieu, 2003). See Bunn (2004) for more studies concerning modeling electricity prices. De Vany and Walls (1999... or five trading days) convergence with respect to external shocks. Jerko, Mjelde, and Bessler (2004) using directed graphs to examine the contemporaneous causal flows 9 among spot markets suggested electricity price information flows...

Park, Haesun

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

Harris, B.W.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

240

Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

Shen, Junjun, E-mail: junjun.shen@hzg.de; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining Processes, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The role of trader positions in spot and futures prices for WTI  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We extend the analysis of causal relations between trader positions and oil prices and the process of price discovery by estimating a cointegrating vector autoregression (CVAR) model that expands the cash-and-carry relation between spot and futures prices to quantify long- and short-run relations among oil prices, trader positions, interest rates, and oil inventories. Results indicate that oil inventories and trader positions are needed to generate cointegration between spot and futures prices. The presence of trader positions and oil inventories suggest that both play a role in price discovery. Furthermore, the cointegrating relation for price loads into the equation for both oil prices and trader positions. This suggests a bi-directional simultaneous adjustment process between oil prices and trader positions. This expands the unidirectional causal relation from oil prices to trader positions that is generated by previous studies. Additional results suggest that price discovery occurs in the market for heavily traded near-month futures contracts, but discovery for thin far-month futures markets occurs in the spot market. Together, these results suggest mechanisms by which speculation could affect oil prices but the results presented here are moot regarding their effects.

Marek Kolodziej; Robert K. Kaufmann

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Compare All CBECS Activities: Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

By Building Size By Building Size Compare Activities by ... Building Size Total Floorspace by Building Type There was approximately 67.3 billion square feet of commercial floorspace in the U.S. in 1999. Because there are many of them, office buildings comprised the largest amount of commercial floorspace. Figure showing total floorspace by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Square Feet per Building by Building Type Inpatient health buildings were by far the largest building type, on average, while food service and food sales buildings were the smallest. Figure showing square feet per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Establishments per Building by Building Type

243

Post-Harvest Control of Two-Spotted Spider Mites in Nikki Rothwell, District Fruit IPM Educator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with two distinct black spots; irregular dark splotches may appear after feeding. Male TSSM are more as both species can have greenish colored stages. TSSM infestations are often accompanied by silk webbing

244

Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on the Prevention of White Spot Lesions in Patients Undergoing Active Orthodontic Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on white spot lesion (WSL) formation utilizing a typical orthodontic treatment interval for the applications. Methods...

Hutto Fretty, Corneil Kimberly

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

245

Managing Two-Spotted Spider Mites on Soybeans Ken Ostlie, Extension Entomologist, and Bruce Potter, IPM Specialist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Managing Two-Spotted Spider Mites on Soybeans Ken Ostlie, Extension Entomologist, and Bruce Potter? Spider mite populations are held in balance by natural enemies, weather and host quality. Drought

Minnesota, University of

246

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE VARIABLE RATE SPRAYER FOR SPOT-APPLICATION OF AGROCHEMICALS IN WILD BLUEBERRY FIELDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An automated prototype variable rate (VR) sprayer was developed for control of eight individual nozzles on a 6.1 m sprayer boom for spot-application (SA) of… (more)

Esau, Travis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Coherent control of nanoscale light localization: creating and positioning isolated sub-wavelength energy hot-spots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new paradigm was suggested for achieving prescribed light localization with nanoscale accuracy. Well isolated energy hot-spots as small as ?/10 can be created and positioned at...

Kao, Tsung Sheng; Jenkins, Stewart; Ruostekoski, Janne; Zheludev, Nikolay

248

Direct Simulations of Homogeneous Bubble Nucleation: Agreement with CNT and no Local Hot Spots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results from direct, large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of homogeneous bubble (liquid-to-vapor) nucleation. The simulations contain half a billion Lennard-Jones (LJ) atoms and cover up to 56 million time-steps. The unprecedented size of the simulated volumes allows us to resolve the nucleation and growth of many bubbles per run in simple direct micro-canonical (NVE) simulations while the ambient pressure and temperature remain almost perfectly constant. We find bubble nucleation rates which are lower than in most of the previous, smaller simulations. It is widely believed that classical nucleation theory (CNT) generally underestimates bubble nucleation rates by very large factors. However, our measured rates are within two orders of magnitude of CNT predictions - only at very low temperatures does CNT underestimate the nucleation rate significantly. Introducing a small, positive Tolman length leads to very good agreement at all temperatures, as found in our recent vapor-to-liquid nucle...

Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

250

Patient-Specific Quality Assurance for Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Spot Scanning Proton Therapy Using Single-Field Uniform Dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe our experiences with patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for patients with prostate cancer receiving spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT) using single-field uniform dose (SFUD). Methods and Materials: The first group of 249 patients with prostate cancer treated with SSPT using SFUD was included in this work. The scanning-beam planning target volume and number of monitor units were recorded and checked for consistency. Patient-specific dosimetric measurements were performed, including the point dose for each plan, depth doses, and two-dimensional (2D) dose distribution in the planes perpendicular to the incident beam direction for each field at multiple depths. The {gamma}-index with 3% dose or 3-mm distance agreement criteria was used to evaluate the 2D dose distributions. Results: We observed a linear relationship between the number of monitor units and scanning-beam planning target volume. The difference between the measured and calculated point doses (mean {+-} SD) was 0.0% {+-} 0.7% (range, -2.9% to 1.8%). In general, the depth doses exhibited good agreement except at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak. The pass rate of {gamma}-index (mean {+-} SD) for 2D dose comparison was 96.2% {+-} 2.6% (range, 90-100%). Discrepancies between the measured and calculated dose distributions primarily resulted from the limitation of the model used by the treatment planning system. Conclusions: We have established a patient-specific QA program for prostate cancer patients receiving SSPT using SFUD.

Zhu, X. Ronald, E-mail: xrzhu@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Poenisch, Falk; Song, Xiaofei; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Ciangaru, George; Taylor, M. Brad; Lii, Ming Fwu; Martin, Craig; Arjomandy, Bijan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lee, Andrew K.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quynh nhu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gillin, Michael T.; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

8, 78477881, 2008 Size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 7847­7881, 2008 Size distributions and sources of WSOC in urban background area H. Timonen, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air H. Timonen 1 , S Chemistry Division National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80305-3000, USA

Boyer, Edmond

252

Measurement-Measurement-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

253

Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

High spring temperatures decrease peach fruit size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

useful in dif?cult fruit- and crop level interactions inin light of the increasing fruit size distribution and waterpressure for large-size fruits. CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE •

Lopez, Geraldo; Johnson, R. Scott; DeJong, Theodore M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Size of Cloud from Shadow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size of Cloud from Shadow Size of Cloud from Shadow Name: mike Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: I see a cloud and I see its shadow in a field - knowing high sun angles - is there a way of telling how far away the cloud is or how big? - I am thinking if the shadow is 30' wide and the sun is at 2:00 pm- ? Replies: Hi Mike, Try this, draw a small circle representing the Sun. Somewhere below this circle and maybe to the right, draw an oblong, make this oblong bigger than the circle. Now connect the leftmost edge of the circle with the leftmost edge of the oblong with a straight line. Do the same for the rightmost edges. The oblong now represent the shadow of a cloud on the ground, and the lines represent the rays of the sun passing along the edges of the cloud.

256

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

New methods devised specify the size and color of the spots monkeys see when striate cortex (area V1) is electrically stimulated  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...quest for creating a prosthetic device for the blind (48–50...amplified through an audio system; listening to the sounds created by the...stimulated. | Creating a prosthetic device for the blind is a central...feasibility of producing a prosthetic device based on electrical stimulation...

Peter H. Schiller; Warren M. Slocum; Michelle C. Kwak; Geoffrey L. Kendall; Edward J. Tehovnik

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Control of Black Spot of Roses with Sulphur-Copper Dust.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 648 APRIL, 1944 CONTROL OF BLACK SPOT OF ROSES WITH SULPHUR-COPPER DUST E. W. LYLE Division of Plant Pathology and Physiology l ,i- ' 7, r... - . /.~ric[~i L~jj c,, J: . i, , . t : :V~S @ollogs Stat hn, ieias AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS F. C. BOLTON, Acting President D-16-444-4M Fig. 1. Rose plants from commercial fields. On left, plant dusted with sulphur-copper mix- ture...

Lyle, E. W. (Eldon W.)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Steel with Transition Material - From Process to Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes work to date on resistance spot welding (RSW) of aluminum alloy to mild steel from process development to performance evaluation. A cold-rolled strip material is introduced as a transition material to aid the resistance welding process. The optimal welding parameters and electrode selections were established using a combination of experimental and analytical approaches. The mechanical behaviors of welded samples was evaluated using static and dynamic strength tests and cyclic fatigue tests. A statistical analysis was also performed to analyze the effect of different failure modes on the sample's peak load and energy absorption.

Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Shao, H; Kimchi, Menachem; Menachem Kimchi and Wanda Newman

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

Neighbouring male spotted bowerbirds are not related, but do maraud each other  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Lanctot et al. 1998), or by determining the size and structure of aggregations that males form (Westcott

Dasmahapatra, Kanchon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Prior research has demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and via inhalation of infectious aerosols. Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. To detect airborne HRV, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine the assay detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 10,000-fold. This assay was used to quantify the size distribution of an artificially-produced HRV aerosol captured with an Andersen six-stage cascade impactor. In future studies, we hope to use the methods developed here to characterize the size distribution of naturally occurring viral-aerosols

262

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

VERTICAL BEAM SIZE CONTROL IN TLS AND TPS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertical beam size control is an important issue in the light source operations. The horizontal-vertical betatron coupling and vertical dispersion were measured and corrected to small values in the TLS 1.5 GeV storage ring. Estimated beam sizes are compared with the measured values. By employing an effective transverse damping system, the vertical beam blow-up due to transverse coherent instabilities, such as the fast-ion beam instability, was suppressed. As a result, the light source is very stable. In NSRRC we are designing an ultra low emittance 3-GeV storage ring and its designed vertical beam size could be as small as a few microns. The ground and mechanic vibration effects, and coherent instabilities could spoil the expected photon brightness due to blow-up of the vertical beam size if not well taken care of. The contributions of these effects to vertical beam size increase will be evaluated and the counter measures to minimize them will be proposed and reported in this paper.

KUO, C.C.; CHEN, J.R.; CHOU, P.J.; CHANG, H.P.; HSU, K.T.; LUO, G.H.; TSAI, H.J.; WANG, D.J.; WANG, M.H.

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

264

LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A. [Mobil Shipping and Transportation, Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

265

Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA); Norris, Jerome T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Efficient universal programmable quantum measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A universal programmable detector is a device that can be tuned to perform any desired measurement on a given quantum system, by changing the state of an ancilla. With a finite dimension d for the ancilla only approximate universal programmability is possible, with "size" d=f(1/e) increasing function of the "accuracy" 1/e. In this letter we show that, much better than the exponential size known in the literature, one can achieve polynomial size. An explicit example with linear size is also presented. Finally, we show that for covariant measurements exact programmability is feasible.

Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Gyrocenter Shift of Low-Temperature Plasmas and the Retrograde Motion of Cathode Spots in Arc Discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gyrocenter shift phenomenon explained the mechanism of radial electric field formation at the high confinement mode transition in fusion devices. This Letter reports that the theory of gyrocenter shift is also applicable to low temperature high collisional plasmas such as arc discharges by the generalization of the theory resulting from a short mean free path compared with the gyroradius. The retrograde motion of cathode spots in the arc discharge is investigated through a model with the expanded formula of gyrocenter shift. It is found that a reversed electric field is formed in front of the cathode spots when they are under a magnetic field, and this reversed electric field generates a rotation of cathode spots opposite to the Amperian direction. The ion drift velocity profiles calculated from the model are in agreement with the experimental results as functions of magnetic flux density and gas pressure.

Lee, K. C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

270

Non-impactor-Based Methods for Sizing of Aerosols Emitted from Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products (OINDPs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is to review non-impactor-based methods for measuring particle size distributions of orally inhaled and nasal pharmaceutical aerosols. The assessment of the size distributions of sp...

Jolyon Mitchell; Richard Bauer; Svetlana Lyapustina; Terrence Tougas…

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

272

Hot spots and transition from d-wave to another pairing symmetry in the electron-doped cuprate superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a simple theoretical explanation for a transition from d-wave to another superconducting pairing observed in the electron-doped cuprates. The dx2-y2 pairing potential ?, which has the maximal magnitude and opposite signs at the hot spots on the Fermi surface, becomes suppressed with the increase of electron doping, because the hot spots approach the Brillouin zone diagonals, where ? vanishes. Then, dx2-y2 pairing is replaced by either singlet s-wave or triplet p-wave pairing. We argue in favor of the latter and propose experiments to uncover it.

V. A. Khodel; Victor M. Yakovenko; M. V. Zverev; Haeyong Kang

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

273

In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons Art and Science A Breakthrough in Interface Science APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots MARCH 11, 2008 Bookmark and Share Research and Design Magazine "The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has been kept busy of late." That's the first sentence of R&D Magazine's recent overview of research results from the APS. The article highlights "a new ultrafast synchrotron x-ray full-field phase contrast imaging technique and used it to reveal

274

Modelling power spot prices in deregulated European energy markets: a dual long memory approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last decade, with deregulation and introduction of competition in power markets, prices forecasting have become a real challenge for all market participants. However, forecasting is a rather complex task since electricity prices involve many features comparably with financial ones. Electricity markets have a highly volatile nature. They are indeed a more unpredictable than that of other commodities referred to as extreme volatile. In this paper, the two most emerging European electricity markets are considered. A preliminary analysis of the time series attests to the presence of a long range dependance behaviour. Therefore, prices processes are modelled using ARFIMA-FIGARCH under Gaussian and non-Gaussian distributions. Such models are sufficiently flexible to handle the long memory phenomena often encountered in both conditional mean and conditional variance in electricity spot prices. Forecasting is subsequently performed on the basis of adequate models.

Najeh Chaâbane; Foued Saâdaoui; Saloua Benammou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Romanian Energy System Structure and its Impact on the Electricity Spot Market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The international economic literature offers a significant number of publications approaching the European energy markets functioning, including comparative studies. The development and performances of the Romanian electricity spot market were less investigated, mainly because of the relatively short period of its functioning. The paper quantifies the impact of the electricity generation utilities’ structure by primary energy resources, on bidding prices resulted after the closure of the day ahead market. The multidimensional regression method was utilized for the models development. As a result, three distinct econometric models were obtained for different hourly periods of the day (off peak hours, peak hours, daily average) for working days and other three models for the weekend days. Based on these models, negative and positive correlations were established between the electricity prices and the seasonal contribution of the different categories of energy facilities to the demand curve coverage.

Mateescu Mihaela; Marina B?dileanu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding of DP 980 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, using a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re, and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re. The sheet material used for all wear testing was 1.4 mm DP 980. Lap shear testing was used to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. The Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

Miles, Michael; Ridges, Chris; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Santella, M. L.; Steel, Russel

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Ion flux from vacuum arc cathode spots in the absence and presence of a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because plasma production at vacuum cathode spots is approximately proportional to the arc current, arc current modulation can be used to generate ion current modulation that can be detected far from the spot using a negatively biased ion collector. The drift time to the ion detector can used to determine kinetic ion energies. A very wide range of cathode materials have been used. It has been found that the kinetic ion energy is higher at the beginning of each discharge and approximately constant after 150 {micro}s. The kinetic energy is correlated with the arc voltage and the cohesive energy of the cathode material. The ion erosion rate has in inverse relation to the cohesive energy, enhancing the effect that the power input per plasma particle correlates with the cohesive energy of the cathode material. The influence of three magnetic field configurations on the kinetic energy has been investigated. Generally, a magnetic field increases the plasma impedance, arc burning voltage, and kinetic ion energy. However, if the plasma is produced in a region of low field strength and streaming into a region of higher field strength, the velocity may decrease due to the mirror effect. A magnetic field can increase the plasma temperature but may reduce the density gradients by preventing free expansion into vacuum. Therefore, depending on the configuration, a magnetic field may increase or decrease the kinetic energy of ions. Additionally, the angular distribution of the ion flux and ion kinetic energy has been investigated in the absence of an external magnetic field. The result can be fitted by a superposition of an isotropic and a cosine distribution.

Anders, Andre; Yushkov, George Yu.

2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

278

Introduction The composition and size of atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nearly an order of magnitude in all size bins, with pronounced increases in larger size bins. · The Raman&M University Chart 1: The 0.3 m size bin exceeds 1x10 particles per 0.5000ft³ and particle count overlaps. Chart 2: The 0.3m bin count predominates and there are significant differences between size bin counts

279

Instabilities of a three-dimensional localized spot Marcin Leda, Vladimir K. Vanag, and Irving R. Epstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Zhabotinsky reaction in water-in-oil microemulsion. We find three types of instabili- ties: splitting of a single spot be classified as either supercritical or subcritical. In reaction-diffusion systems, supercritical instabilities of a ho- mogeneous steady state SS can give rise to small-amplitude patterns, while subcritical

Epstein, Irving R.

280

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies, stripes on zebras, tri-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies variety. The Gray{Scott equations were formulated originally by Gray and Scott in 1983; we shall advantage of this principle. References P. Gray and S. K. Scott, papers in Chem. Eng. Sci. 38 (1983), 29

Trefethen, Nick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pieces , electrical contact resistance, material properties, phase changes and heat dissipationi ...) P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar Department of Materials Science and Engineering Hassachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139

Eagar, Thomas W.

282

Quantitative grain size evaluation using ultrasonic backscattered echoes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grain size characterization using ultrasonicbackscattered signals is an important problem in nondestructive testing of materials. In this paper a heuristic model which relates the statistical characteristics of the measured signal to the mean ultrasonicwavelet and attenuation coefficient in different regions of the sample is investigated. The losses in the backscattered signal are examined using temporal averaging correlation and probability distribution functions of the segmented data. Furthermore homomorphic processing is used in a novel application to estimate the mean ultrasonicwavelet (as it propagates through the sample) and the frequency?dependent attenuation. In the work presented heat?treated stainless steel samples with various grain sizes are examined. The processed experimental results support the feasibility of the grain size evaluation techniques presented here using the backscattered grain signal.

Jafar Saniie; Nihat M. Bilgutay

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

284

Rapid Coal Analysis. Part I: Particle Size Effects in Slurry Methods Based on Flame AA and Swing-Mill Grinding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser diffraction particle size measurements are used to study aerodynamic mass transport losses of a finely ground aqueous coal slurry aerosol in the spray chamber of a conventional...

Mohamed, N; McCurdy, D L; Wichman, M D; Fry, R C; O'Reilly, James E

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Size of Buildings Size of Buildings Size of Buildings The 1999 CBECS estimated that 2,348,000 commercial buildings, or just over half (50.4 percent) of total buildings, were found in the smallest building size category (1,001 to 5,000 square feet) (Figure 1). Only 7,000 buildings occupied the largest size category (over 500,000 square feet). Detailed tables Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999 Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999. If having trouble viewing this page, please contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The middle size categories (10,001 to 100,000 square feet) had relatively more floorspace per category than smaller or larger size categories (Figure 2). The greatest amount of floorspace, about 11,153,000 square feet (or 17 percent of total floorspace) was found in the 10,001 to 25,000 square feet category. Figure 2. Distribution of Floorspace by Size of Building, 1999

287

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings

Martin, Thomas E.

288

Measurement of the Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Molybdenum Disulfide Single Crystal by the Time-resolved Magneto-optic Kerr Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with perpendicular magnetization serves as the heater and thermometer in the experiment. The low thermal conductivity for determining the thermal conductivity of materials but the sensitivity of TDTR to the lateral or in-plane thermal conductivity of a sample is low when conventional choices are made for laser spot sizes, #12

Cahill, David G.

289

Temperature and Size Lab General Background and Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of oxygen used per unit time or · V · CO2 , the volume of CO2 production per unit time or M · CO2 the number of mols of CO2 produced per unit time. In this lab we will learn the principles of measurement of compressing lots of difference in size into a small graph: 1. Q · = a(W)b or Log Q · = log a + b * Log W

Prestwich, Ken

290

Effect of the Interaction between Magnetic Particles on the Critical Single-Domain Size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On theoretical grounds, the critical single-domain size of a ferromagnetic particle is expected to be influenced by the interaction of other neighboring particles. Measurements of the coercive force of some ?-Fe2O3 powders containing particles of different sizes and shapes at various concentrations provide experimental evidence for the existence of such an effect.

A. H. Morrish and L. A. K. Watt

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

SHORT COMMUNICATION Habitat patch size and isolation as predictors of occupancy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SHORT COMMUNICATION Habitat patch size and isolation as predictors of occupancy and number Abstract How fully a suitable habitat patch is utilized by organisms depends crucially on patch size a "habitat patch", measuring its boarders, and relatively low detection probability of the inhabitants

Agnarsson, Ingi

292

" Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

establishments using the North American" "Industry Classification System (NAICS). " " (b) Employment Size categories were supplied by the" "Bureau of the Census." " NFNo...

293

Bubble size effect on effervescent atomization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This paper presents the results from a number of studies conducted in an effort to gain insight into how to control bubble size during gas… (more)

Shepard, Thomas G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Sizing sliding gate valves for steam service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding gate valves have been used in thousands of applications during the past 40 yr. While steam control is a common application for these valves, thy are also used to control other gases and liquids. The sliding gate design provides straight-through flow, which minimizes turbulence, vibration, and noise. Seats are self-cleaning and self-lapping to provide a tight, long-lasting shutoff. A correctly sized valve is essential for accurate control. Valve size should be determined by service and system requirements, not by the size of the existing pipeline. Sizing a valve on the basis of pipeline size usually results in an oversized valve and poor control. Generally, regulator size is smaller than pipe size. Whenever complete information is known (inlet pressure, outlet pressure, or pressure drop, and required flow), determine the valve flow coefficient (C{sub v}) using the equations in ANSI/ISA S75.01 or a flow sizing chart. Tables of values for various types of valves are available from manufacturers. However, when complete system requirements are not known, valve oversizing is prevented by determining the design capacity of piping downstream from the valve. The valve should not be sized to pass more flow than the maximum amount the pipe can handle at a reasonable velocity. An example calculation is given.

Bollinger, R. [Jordan Value, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

295

French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed.

Kibriya, Nabil, E-mail: nabskib@yahoo.co.uk; Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); How, Thien [University of Liverpool, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G. [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Drop-size distribution for crosscurrent breakup of a liquid jet in a convective airstream  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an apparatus has been designed and constructed. A laser diffraction particle analyzer technique is used to spatially measure the spray Sauter-Mean Diameters. The Rosin-Rammler two parameter model is assumed for the droplet size distribution. Injection pressure...

Lyn, Gregory Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Latent heating contribution from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and intensities in the tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Latent Heating (LH) from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and convective intensities are quantified with 15 years of LH retrievals from Version 7 Precipitation Radar (PR) products of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)...

Chuntao Liu; Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Edward Zipser

298

Kinetics of size changes of individual Bacillus thuringiensis spores in response to changes in relative humidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...measurements of sizes of Bacillus spores can discriminate...freeze-dried and crushed Bacillus subtilis spores as a function...of two components of Bacillus sphaericus spores, which they...cells and spores of B. subtilis after various...

Andrew J. Westphal; P. Buford Price; Terrance J. Leighton; Katherine E. Wheeler

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Gap-Size Distribution Functions of a Random Sequential Adsorption Model of Segments on the Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We performed extensive simulations accompanied by a detailed study of a two-segment size random sequential model on the line. We followed the kinetics towards the jamming state, but we paid particular attention to the characterization of the jamming state structure. In particular, we studied the effect of the size ratio on the mean-gap size, the gap-size dispersion, gap-size skewness, and gap-size kurtosis at the jamming state. We also analyzed the above quantities for the four possible segment-to-segment gap types. We ranged the values of the size ratio from one to twenty. In the limit of a size ratio of one, one recovers the classical car-parking problem. We observed that at low size ratios the jamming state is constituted by short streaks of small and large segments, while at high values of the size ratio the jamming state structure is formed by long streaks of small segments separated by a single large segment. This view of the jamming state structure as a function of the size ratio is supported by the various measured quantities. The present work can help provide insight, for example, on how to minimize the interparticle distance or minimize fluctuations around the mean particle-to-particle distance.

N. A. M. Araujo; A. Cadilhe

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

300

Analysis of testing the single-fluxon dynamics in a long Josephson junction by a dissipative spot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A change of the [ital I]-[ital V] characteristics of a long Josephson junction, operating in the zero-field single-fluxon regime, under the action of a hot spot'' (e.g., created by a focused electron beam) is calculated analytically by means of the perturbation theory, and also investigated numerically. The change of the average voltage at a given value of the bias current is calculated as a function of the hot spot-position. The overlap Josephson junction geometry is considered in detail, while the inline one is briefly discussed. A good accord between analytical and numerical results is found. The results are relevant for the interpretation of the low-temperature scanning electron microscopy experiments on imaging the fluxon dynamic states in a long Josephson junction.

Malomed, B.A. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, I-84801 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)); Ustinov, A.V. (Institute for Thin Films and Ion Technology, Research Centre (KFA), D-52425 Juelich (Germany))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in conductivity corresponding to the scanning direction. Also, we demonstrate Nb- V as a low thermal conductivity thermal conductivity tensor and the illuminating spots have arbitrary intensity profiles

Cahill, David G.

303

Mean-Risk Optimization of Electricity Portfolios Using Multiperiod Polyhedral Risk Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mean-Risk Optimization of Electricity Portfolios Using Multiperiod Polyhedral Risk Measures Andreas-risk optimization of electricity portfolios containing electricity futures as well as several com- ponents to satisfy a stochastic electricity demand: electricity spot market, two different types of supply contracts

Eichhorn, Andreas

304

Quantitative structure–activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: Wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

Karel Chroust; Martina Pavlová; Zbyn?k Prokop; Jan Mendel; Kate?ina Božková; Zden?k Kubát; Veronika Zaj?´?ková; Ji??´ Damborský

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Temperature-size rule is mediated by thermal plasticity of critical size in Drosophila melanogaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...at higher temperatures, supporting...that oxygen supply may play a...different temperatures and control thermal plasticity...Nijhout. 2011 Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent...of rearing temperature and oxygen...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Dynamics of plasma jets and electrode spots in the pulsed source of a high-purity plasma obtained from a dielectric material at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of investigation of the distinctive features of the dynamics of outflow of plasma jets and of formation of electrode spots in the source of a high-purity plasma obtained from a dielectric material at

V. B. Avramenko; A. M. Kuz’mitski…

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Sequence diversity of the nucleoprotein gene of iris yellow spot virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) isolates from the western region of the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), a tentative virus species in the genus Tospovirus and family Bunyaviridae, is considered a rapidly emerging threat to onion production in the western United States (US). The present...

H. R. Pappu; L. J. du Toit; H. F. Schwartz; S. K. Mohan

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Identification and characterization of biologically distinct isolates of Iris yellow spot virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), a serious pathogen of onion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) causes an economically important disease in onion bulb and seed crops. While considerable information on the genetic diversity of the virus is available, little is k...

Sudeep Bag; H. F. Schwartz; H. R. Pappu

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Global analysis of population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics of genetic diversity, and evolutionary lineages of Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus is an economically important viral pathogen of Allium crops worldwide. A global analysis of known IYSV nucleocapsid gene (N gene) sequences was carried out to determine the comparative population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics with reference to its genetic diversity and evolution. A total of 98 complete N gene sequences (including 8 sequences reported in this study) available in GenBank and reported from 23 countries were characterized by in-silico RFLP analysis. Based on RFLP, 94% of the isolates could be grouped into NL or BR types while the rest belonged to neither group. The relative proportion of NL and BR types was 46% and 48%, respectively. A temporal shift in the IYSV genotypes with a greater incremental incidence of IYSVBR was found over IYSVNL before 2005 compared to after 2005. The virus population had at least one evolutionarily significant recombination event, involving IYSVBR and IYSVNL. Codon substitution studies did not identify any significant differences among the genotypes of IYSV. However, N gene codons were minimally positively selected, moderately negatively selected denoting the action of purifying selection, thus rejecting the theory of neutral mutation in IYSV population. However, one codon position (139) was found to be positively selected in all the genotypes. Population selection statistics in the IYSVBR, IYSVNL genotypes and in the population as a whole also revealed the action of purifying selection or population expansion, whereas \\{IYSVother\\} displayed a decrease in population size. Genetic differentiation studies showed inherent differentiation and infrequent gene flow between IYSVBR and IYSVNL genotypes corroborating the geographical confinement of these genotypes. Taken together the study suggests that the observed diversity in IYSV population and temporal shift in IYSVBR genotype is attributable to genetic recombination, abundance of purifying selection, insignificant positive selection and population expansion. Restricted gene flow between the two major IYSV genotypes further emphasizes the role of genetic drift in modeling the population architecture, evolutionary lineage and epidemiology of IYSV.

Romana Iftikhar; Shunmugiah V. Ramesh; Sudeep Bag; Muhammad Ashfaq; Hanu R. Pappu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Landscape Patterns Around Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) Nest Sites in Oregon's Central Coast Ranges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Owls appeared to be influenced by the amount of old- conifer forest around nest sites and the patch size of old-conifer stands where nests were located. Owl nest sites had more old-conifer forest than but apparently less than old-conifer forest. The remaining five cover-types were either used in proportion

311

Thermocharge of a hot spot in an electrolyte solution Arghya Majee and Alois Wrger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was realized through a thermal barrier in a microchannel [1] and the droplet size of a thermocapillary valve-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobil- ity. The Seebeck coefficient S depends on the electrolyte and may take either sign reported non-uniform variation of the Soret coefficient with the ionic strength [23] is characteristic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Reproductive success of Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in relation to common environmental noise ? biotic, non-military aircraft, and weather-related  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From 2000 to 2005 noise in Mexican spotted owl habitat in the Gila National Forest NM was monitored using an array of Larson-Davis (LD) sound level meters (SLMs). Thirty-nine SLMs were deployed across a 20 km x 24 km area collecting 2-s time interval data mid-April to July resulting in over 350 000 hr of data. Time-history profiles could be used to attribute many events to sources reliably when SNR exceeded the background by 5-10 dB. The events were categorized as biotic (insects and chorusing birds) thunder regional commercial jet aircraft and local air traffic (recreational and firefighting). Measured by the proportion of 2-s samples with LAeq > 60 dB biotic sources and thunder were the most important. Regional commercial jet traffic was the most significant anthropogenic source accounting for 2% of the total. Based on cumulative sound exposure thunder was the greatest contributor. Regression techniques were used to relate owl reproductive success to noise metrics by source. Biotic noise was the only significant correlate highly and positively related to owl reproductive success. The most reasonable interpretation was a strong relationship between biotic noise and owl prey base [Work supported by U.S. Air Force ACC/CEVP.

Ann E. Bowles; Samuel L. Denes; Chris Hobbs; Kenneth J. Plotkin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

installed on all three resoitors. Between February 27 and necessary at a 1.2 m (4.0 it) depth for a reason-and May 15, 1980 all the time metern, the house watt-ably sized earth coil in this location.hour meter, and the indoor temperature as measured by Th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.hour meter, and the indoor temperature as measured by The design procedure for the length of the eartha glass. Thea the CROC5 heating seson werelyfth day from the running time meter. heat input QH(i) ist The second at by using a differnt set of "xperimental measurements (air handler time meter for B1, and house Q (i) " B

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

314

Size and load dependence of nanoscale electric contact resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nanoscale electrical resistance between a platinum-coated atomic force microscope tip and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is measured as a function of normal load and tip radius. These measurements are complemented by molecular dynamics simulations that relate load and radius to contact area. Simulation-predicted contact area and experimentally-measured resistance are used to calculate contact resistivity. The results show that the effect of load on resistance can be captured by the real contact area, while tip size, although in part captured by area, affects contact resistivity itself, potentially through interface distance. Our study provides new insight into the effect of load and geometry on nanoscale electric contact and, more significantly, highlights the role of atomic-scale contact features in determining contact resistance.

Zhijiang Ye; Hyeongjoo Moon; Min Hwan Lee; Ashlie Martini

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Estimating population size by genotyping faeces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...CA 91360, USA Population size is a fundamental biological parameter that is di cult...In Ecological census techniques, a handbook (ed. W. J. Sutherland), pp. 11...In Ecological census techniques, a handbook (ed. W. J. Sutherland), pp. 1...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 14, 2013 ... We study the lot-sizing problem with piecewise concave production ..... solution with the largest j value such that sj?1 = 0 and st > 0 for t = j,...,n.

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

317

Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particle size analyzer (LPSA) using This thesis follows the style of Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2 different solutions; and 3) determine if a functional relationship exists between PSD results from the pipette method and the results...

Arnett, Morgan P.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

318

ERP System Adoption - Does the Size Matter?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the relationship of enterprise size to the constraints and objectives of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems adoption. The survey data based on the responses of 44 companies indicates that significant differences exist ...

Sanna Laukkanen; Sami Sarpola; Petri Hallikainen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance, and Size Effects in Copper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of the Hall coefficient of several annealed polycrystalline Cu strips of resistivity ratio ?(273°K)?(4.2°K)?450 and thicknesses ranging from 0.05 to 1.6 mm have revealed the existence of a marked size effect at low temperatures. The effect is orders of magnitude greater than that to be expected on the basis of free-electron theory. It is suggested that earlier low-temperature data on the Hall effect of thin high-purity samples are subject to uncertainties arising from such effects. Size effects were also evident in the transverse magnetoresistance. At high fields, a tendency toward saturation in the transverse magnetoresistance was observed for thick samples. The temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient has also been studied.

Ted G. Berlincourt

1958-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Size Optimizations for Java C. Scott Ananian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis int foo() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } 7 7 77 ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨¨ e e ee rrr rrSize Optimizations for Java Programs C. Scott Ananian cananian@lcs.mit.edu Laboratory for Computer() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } Size Optimizations for Java Programs ­ p.9 #12;Intraprocedural

Ananian, C. Scott

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321

Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cosmological model unless elliptical and disk galaxies grew in size by a surprisingly large factor ~6 from z~3 to 0. The fact that both LCDM and R_h=ct fit the cluster-size measurements quite well casts some doubt on the suggestion that the unexpected result with individual galaxies may be due to the use of an incorrect expansion scenario, rather than astrophysical causes, such as mergers and/or selection effects.

Jun-Jie Wei; Xue-Feng Wu; Fulvio Melia

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

322

Field-size dependence of doses of therapeutic carbon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To estimate the physical dose at the center of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) for various conditions of the irradiation system, a semiempirical approach was applied. The dose at the center of the SOBP depends on the field size because of large-angle scattering particles in the water phantom. For a small field of 5x5 cm{sup 2}, the dose was reduced to 99.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% of the dose used for the open field in the case of 290, 350, and 400 MeV/n carbon beams, respectively. Based on the three-Gaussian form of the lateral dose distributions of the carbon pencil beam, which has previously been shown to be effective for describing scattered carbon beams, we reconstructed the dose distributions of the SOBP beam. The reconstructed lateral dose distribution reproduced the measured lateral dose distributions very well. The field-size dependencies calculated using the reconstructed lateral dose distribution of the therapeutic carbon beam agreed with the measured dose dependency very well. The reconstructed beam was also used for irregularly shaped fields. The resultant dose distribution agreed with the measured dose distribution. The reconstructed beams were found to be applicable to the treatment-planning system.

Kusano, Yohsuke; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Komori, Masataka; Ikeda, Noritoshi; Tachikawa, Yuji; Ito, Atsushi; Uchida, Hirohisa [Tokai University Unified Graduate School, Graduate School of Science and Technology, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1207, Japan and Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

System size and energy dependence of $?$ meson production at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a system size and energy dependence of $\\phi$ meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=62.4 GeV and 200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that the number of participant scaled $\\phi$ meson yields in heavy ion collisions over that of p+p collisions are larger than 1 and increase with collision energy. We compare the results with those of open-strange particles and discuss the physics implication.

J. H. Chen

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

324

Measurement-based quantum repeaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

vibration measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

vibration measurement ? Erschütterungsmessung, Schwingungsmessung f [Schwingungsmessungen dienen dazu, die Schwingungsanfälligkeit von Bauwerken realitätsnah zu erfassen

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and Verification Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Document provides guidance pertaining to government witnessing of measurement and verification (M&V) activities in Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. Witnessing of M&V activities is a part of the process of reviewing and approving M&V deliverables and the on-site inspections, spot measurements, short-term monitoring, and performance tests described in the M&V plan.

327

The stickiness of micrometer-sized water-ice particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates) water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-size region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of $\\mathrm{\\mu}$m-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between $114 \\, \\mathrm{K}$ and $260 \\, \\mathrm{K}$. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below $\\sim 210 \\, \\mathrm{K}$), $\\mathrm{\\mu}$m-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of $9.6 \\, \\mathrm{m \\, s^{-1}}$, which is approximately ten times higher than the stic...

Gundlach, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Occlusion Effects and the Distribution of Interstellar Cloud Sizes and Masses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The frequency distributions of sizes of ``clouds" and ``clumps" within clouds are significantly flatter for extinction surveys than for CO spectral line surveys, even for comparable size ranges. A possible explanation is the blocking of extinction clouds by larger foreground clouds (occlusion), which should not affect spectral line surveys much because clouds are resolved in velocity space along a given line of sight. We present a simple derivation of the relation between the true and occluded size distributions, assuming clouds are uniformly distributed in space or the distance to a cloud comples is much greater than the size of the complex. Because the occlusion is dominated by the largest clouds, we find that occlusion does not affect the measured size distribution except for sizes comparable to the largest size, implying that occlusion is not responsible for the discrepancy if the range in sizes of the samples is large. However, we find that the range in sizes for many of the published observed samples is actually quite small, which suggests that occlusion does affect the extinction sample and/or that the discrepancy could arise from the different operational definitions and selection effects involved in the two samples. Size and mass spectra from an IRAS survey (Wood \\etal\\ 1994) suggest that selection effects play a major role in all the surveys. We conclude that a reliable determination of the ``true" size and mass spectra of clouds will require spectral line surveys with very high signal-to-noise and sufficient resolution and sampling to cover a larger range of linear sizes, as well as careful attention to selection effects.

J. Scalo; A. Lazarian

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Bimodal Island Size Distribution in Heteroepitaxial Growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bimodal size distribution of two-dimensional islands is inferred during interface formation in heteroepitaxial growth of bismuth ferrite on (001) oriented SrTiO3 by sputter deposition. Features observed by in situ x-ray scattering are explained by a model where coalescence of islands determines the growth kinetics with negligible surface diffusion on SrTiO3. Small clusters maintain a compact shape as they coalesce, while clusters beyond a critical size impinge to form large irregular connected islands and a population of smaller clusters forms in the spaces between the larger ones.

P.?V. Chinta and R.?L. Headrick

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

330

In situ diagnostic of the size distribution of nanoparticles generated by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We aim to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles located in the ablation plume produced by femtosecond laser interaction. The proposed method relies on the use of white-light extinction spectroscopy setup assisted by ultrafast intensified temporal gating. This method allows measurement of optical absorbance of a nickel nanoparticles cloud. Simulation of the extinction section of nickel nanoparticles size distributions has been developed in order to compare the measured optical absorbance to the optical extinction by theoretical and experimental nanoparticles size distributions (measured by scanning electron microscopy). A good agreement has been found between the in situ measured optical absorbance and the optical extinction cross section calculated from ex situ nanoparticles size distribution measurements.

Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne-Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)] [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

331

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Title Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Journal of Aerosol Science Keywords emission, motor vehicle, particle number, size distribution, tunnel Abstract Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from ~61 000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and ~2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter Dp > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 ± 1.4) x 1014 and (3.3 ± 1.3) x 1015 # kg-1 fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < Dp < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as Dp decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting

332

Improved gap size estimation for scaffolding algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and 950 bp. The contigs were set to a fixed size of 3000 bp...three read libraries and four sets of contigs). The results of...parts of the distribution fail to cover the gap and only the longest...we simulated four different sets of contigs from the genome with......

Kristoffer Sahlin; Nathaniel Street; Joakim Lundeberg; Lars Arvestad

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Arbovirus infection increases with group size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increase with host group size (e.g. Poulin 1991a,b; Hoogland 1995; Brown & Brown...1839 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (2001) Poulin, R. 1991a Group-living and infestation...in passerines. Condor 93, 418^423. Poulin, R. 1991b Group-living and the richness...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

One Size Does Not Fit All  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that it is good to share both data and technology, and that a one size fits all philosophy...modems, commercial phone systems, intranet communications, solar panels, batteries...Monitoring System from Boulder Real Time Technologies provides a new robust platform for near-real-time...

Roger Hansen

335

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor image  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

image image ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor image Images of hydrometeors from which one can derive characteristics such as size and shape. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments LEARJET : Lear Jet PARTIMG : Particle imager UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager UAV-PROTEUS : UAV Proteus

336

Biodiversity and body size are linked across metazoans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nematodes (Kirchner et al. 1980), amphipods (Poulin Hamilton 1995) and copepods (Poulin 1995). The size range for vertebrates has greatly...1983Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University Press Poulin, R. 1995Clutch size and egg size in free-living...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

338

Measurement fundamentals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation. While there are several methods and different types of equipment used to perform petroleum measurement, the basic process stays the same. The basic measurement process is the act of comparing an unknown quantity, to a known quantity, in order to establish its magnitude. The process can be seen in a variety of forms; such as measuring for a first-down in a football game, weighing meat and produce at the grocery, or the use of an automobile odometer.

Webb, R.A. [Marathon Pipe Line Co., Findlay, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Species diversity and the scale of the landscape mosaic: do scales of movement and patch size aect diversity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Species diversity and the scale of the landscape mosaic: do scales of movement and patch size aect on the measurement of local butter¯y species diversity. In landscapes where patch sizes are smaller, the type of patch adjacent to the patch surveyed can in¯uence both local species richness and incidence

Debinski, Diane M.

340

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICLES IN THE OCEAN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Norsk-Hvalfangst-Tid. 45 ( 9) : 469480. McLA~N,. I. A. 1965. Some relationships bc- tween temperature and egg size, body size, development rate and fecundity ...

1999-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Particle Size Vertical Profile Using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

inhomogeneity in terms of ice crystal sizes and shapes. The vertical variation of ice crystal size can alter the radiative heatingcooling profiles in cirrus cloudy...

342

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

343

Nonmonotone line search methods with variable sample size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nonmonotone line search framework is embedded with a variable sample size ... the line search combines well with the variable sample size scheme as.

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

344

Critical angle refractometry and sizing of bubble clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The principle of the critical angle refractometry and sizing technique is extended to characterize the size distribution and the mean refractive index of clouds of bubbles. For a...

Onofri, Fabrice; Krysiek, Mariusz; Mroczka, Janusz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Angular Size-Redshift: Experiment and Calculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper the next attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Euclidean behavior of the boundary in the angular size-redshift cosmological test. It is shown experimentally that this can be explained by the selection determined by anisotropic morphology and anisotropic radiation of extended radio sources. A catalogue of extended radio sources with minimal flux densities of about 0.01 Jy at 1.4 GHz was compiled for conducting the test. Without the assumption of their size evolution, the agreement between the experiment and calculation was obtained both in the Lambda CDM model (Omega_m=0.27 , Omega_v=0.73.) and the Friedman model (Omega = 0.1 ).

Amirkhanyan, V R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Vibration of submillimeter-size supported droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the fundamental vibration mode of supported submillimeter-size droplets. Using an analogy with a simple oscillator we derive a semianalytical expression for the eigenfrequency and the scaling law of the energy dissipation within the droplet. The experimental results obtained for mercury drops deposited on glass are compared with the model. The agreement is satisfactory for the eigenfrequencies on the whole range of size we considered (from 0.04 to 0.9mm). The scaling law for the dissipation is recovered for radii larger than 0.1mm but fails for smaller droplets. We finally discuss possible applications related to the use of vibrations to effectively reduce the hysteresis of the wetting angle and therefore increase the mobility of the supported droplets.

Franck Celestini and Richard Kofman

2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

Evaluation of the Au Size Effect: CO Oxidation Catalyzed by Au/TiO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size dependence of activity in gold catalysts was examined. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to determine mean particle size, and a flow reactor was used to assess activity of the catalysts for CO oxidation as a function of temperature. A sequence of calcination steps was used to systematically increase the mean Au particle size while repeated measurements of the activity were conducted. In this way the size dependence could be obtained in a single catalyst to avoid differences due to variations in support, synthesis conditions, Au loading, or incidental impurities. Two Au catalysts with different Au loadings were prepared on TiO{sub 2} by deposition precipitation and used for the measurements. For Au particles with mean particle size, d, in the range of 2-10 nm, the measured TOF at 298 K varies as d{sup -1.7{+-}0.2} and d{sup -0.9{+-}0.2} for the 7.2 and 4.5 wt% Au/TiO{sub 2} (P25) catalysts, respectively. Variation between samples emphasizes the conclusion that the activity is sensitive to many factors that may mask the true structure dependence. It is concluded that the observed decrease in activity with increasing particle size beyond 2 nm is controlled by the population of low-coordinate sites, rather than by size-dependent changes in overall electronic structure of the nanoparticle. No evidence was found for maximum activity for small particle sizes, although arguments are offered for why such a maximum was expected but was not observed.

Overbury,S.; Schwartz, V.; Mullins, D.; Yan, W.; Dai, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Missile sizing for ascent-phase intercept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer code has been developed to determine the size of a ground-launched, multistage missile which can intercept a theater ballistic missile before it leaves the atmosphere. Typical final conditions for the inteceptor are 450 km range, 60 km altitude, and 80 sec flight time. Given the payload mass (35 kg), which includes a kinetic kill vehicle, and achievable values for the stage mass fractions (0.85), the stage specific impulses (290 sec), and the vehicle density (60 lb/ft{sup 3}), the launch mass is minimized with respect to the stage payload mass ratios, the stage burn times, and the missile angle of attack history subject to limits on the angle of attack (10 deg), the dynamic pressure (60,000 psf), and the maneuver load (200,000 psf deg). For a conical body, the minimum launch mass is approximately 1900 kg. The missile has three stages, and the payload coasts for 57 sec. A trade study has been performed by varying the flight time, the range, and the dynamic pressure Emits. With the results of a sizing study for a 70 lb payload and q{sub max} = 35,000 psf, a more detailed design has been carried out to determine heat shield mass, tabular aerodynamics, and altitude dependent thrust. The resulting missile has approximately 100 km less range than the sizing program predicted primarily because of the additional mass required for heat protection. On the other hand, launching the same missile from an aircraft increases its range by approximately 100 km. Sizing the interceptor for air launch with the same final conditions as the ground-launched missile reduces its launch mass to approximately 1000 kg.

Hull, D.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics; Salguero, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemically-powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors that propel themselves in solution are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. Recent experiments have shown that, even on the molecular scale, small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to self-propulsion. Simulations of very small {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic motors in bulk solution have shown similar effects. Applications of such small motors in the cell or in microfluidic devices require knowledge of how these motors interact with boundaries. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic chemically-powered motors confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent exclusion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research presents information needed for potential applications that use these motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

Peter H. Colberg; Raymond Kapral

2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Mie scattering from submicron-sized CO2 clusters formed in a supersonic expansion of a gas mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed mathematical model is presented for a submicron-sized cluster formation in a binary gas mixture flowing through a three-staged conical nozzle. By measuring the angular...

Jinno, S; Fukuda, Y; Sakaki, H; Yogo, A; Kanasaki, M; Kondo, K; Faenov, A Ya; Skobelev, I Yu; Pikuz, T A; Boldarev, A S; Gasilov, V A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Single particle size and fluorescence spectra from emissions of burning materials in a tube furnace to simulate burn pits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A single-particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer were used to measure the fluorescence spectra and particle size distribution from the particulate emissions of 12 different burning

Yong-Le Pan; Joshua D. T. Houck; Pamela A. Clark; Ronald G. Pinnick

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement Instrument Sponsor Aircraft State PositionVelocity @ 10Hz Trimble DSM(tm) AAF PitchRollAzimuth Trimble Advanced Navigation System (TANS)10Hz AAF...

354

Shell Measures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Commercial Commercial Industrial Lighting Energy Smart Grocer Program HVAC Program Shell Measures Commercial Kitchen & Food Service Equipment Plug Load New...

355

Contamination by chlorinated pesticides, \\{PCBs\\} and \\{PBDEs\\} in Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) in western South Atlantic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chlorinated pesticides, \\{PCBs\\} and \\{PBDEs\\} were analysed in nine blubber samples of Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, incidentally captured during fishing operations in southern and southeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2007. The majority of compounds analysed were detected, suggesting widespread contamination over the region. Although the samples came from a location far from main coastal industrial areas, the results revealed an influence from such sources. Therefore, levels of \\{PCBs\\} (774–23 659 ng g?1 lipid wt.) and \\{PBDEs\\} (23–1326 ng g?1 lipid wt.) detected seem to be related to the movement of individuals throughout near-shore and offshore waters. The sample from a lactating female exhibited a lower level of contamination and a distinct pattern, indicating selective transfer favouring less lipophilic compounds.

Juliana Leonel; Satie Taniguchi; Dalton K. Sasaki; Mauro J. Cascaes; Patrick S. Dias; Silvina Botta; Marcos C. de O. Santos; Rosalinda C. Montone

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A predictive model of yellow spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) encounter rates at basking sites in lowland eastern Bolivia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper develops a model predicting encounter rates of the yellow-spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) based on human hunting pressure and an ecological classification of potential basking sites. We estimate Poisson regression models for turtles observed in basking surveys. Field surveys were conducted in eastern lowland Bolivia in 2000 and 2011. Our model predicts a significant correlation between turtle encounter rates and two ecological classifications – steep cliff with vegetation and muddy flats that we believe are important habitat types for these turtles. Additionally, our model supports the hypothesis that human population has a significant but less negative impact on observed turtle encounter rates. Analyses of turtle encounter rates and factors that influence it are critical for the conservation of P. unifilis turtles and the broader Amazonian ecological system.

Kristen Conway-Gómez; Michael Reibel; Christopher Mihiar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Mechanical strength evaluation for Nd-YAG laser and electric resistance spot weld (ERSW) joint under multiaxial loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents a comparison between laser weld (LBW) and electric resistance spot weld (ERSW) processes used for assemblies of components in a body-in-white (BIW) at a world class automotive industry. It is carried out by evaluating the mechanical strength modeled both by experimental and numerical methods. An “Arcan” multiaxial test was designed and manufactured in order to enable 0°, 45° and 90° directional loadings. The welded specimens were uncoated low carbon steel sheets (Sy = 170 MPa) used currently at the automotive industry, with two different thicknesses: 0.80 and 1.20 mm. A numerical analysis was carried out using the finite element method (FEM) through LS-DYNA code.

Haroldo Akira Kavamura; Gilmar Ferreira Batalha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Size distribution functions for rock fragments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The capacity of 17 functions to represent the size distribution of fragmented rock is assessed on 1234 data sets of screened fragments from blasted and crushed rock of different origins, of sizes ranging from 0.002 to 2000 mm. The functions evaluated are Weibull, Grady, log-normal, log-logistic and Gilvarry, in their plain, re-scaled and bi-component forms, and also the Swebrec distribution and its bi-component extension. In terms of determination coefficient, the Weibull is the best two-parameter function for describing rock fragments, with a median R2 of 0.9886. Among re-scaled, three-parameter distributions, Swebrec and Weibull lead with median R2 values of 0.9976 and 0.9975, respectively. Weibull and Swebrec distributions tie again as best bi-component, with median R2 of 0.9993. Re-scaling generally reduces the unexplained variance by a factor of about four with respect to the plain function; bi-components further reduce this unexplained variance by a factor of about two to three. Size-prediction errors are calculated in four zones: coarse, central, fines and very fines. Expected and maximum errors in the different ranges are discussed. The extended Swebrec is the best fitting function across the whole passing range for most types of data. Bimodal Weibull and Grady distributions follow, except for the coarse range, where re-scaled forms are preferable. Considering the extra difficulty in fitting a five-parameter function with respect to a three-parameter one, re-scaled functions are the best choice if data do not extend far below 20% passing. If the focus is on the fine range, some re-scaled distributions may still do (Weibull, Swebrec and Grady, with maximum errors of 15–20% at 8% passing), but serious consideration should be given to bi-component distributions, especially extended Swebrec, bimodal Weibull and bimodal Grady.

José A. Sanchidrián; Finn Ouchterlony; Pablo Segarra; Peter Moser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Effect of thesaurus size on schema matching quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thesaurus is used in many Information Retrieval (IR) applications such as data integration, data warehousing, semantic query processing and schema matching. Schema matching or mapping is one of the most important basic steps in data integration. It is the process of identifying the semantic correspondence or equivalent between two or more schemas. Considering the fact of the existence of many thesauri for identical knowledge domain, the quality and the change in the results of schema matching when using different thesauri in specific knowledge field are not predictable. In this research, we studied the effect of thesaurus size on schema matching quality by conducting many experiments using different thesauri. In addition, a new method in calculating the similarity between vectors extracted from thesaurus database is proposed. The method is based on the ratio of individual shared elements to the elements in the compound set of the vectors. Moreover, we explained in details the efficient algorithm used in searching thesaurus database. After describing the experiments, results that show enhancement in the average of the similarity is presented. The completeness, effectiveness, and their harmonic mean measures were calculated to quantify the quality of matching. Experiments on two different thesauri show positive results with average Precision of 35% and a less value in the average of Recall. The effect of thesaurus size on the quality of matching was statically insignificant; however, other factors affecting the output and the exact value of change are still in the focus of our future study.

Thabit Sabbah; Ali Selamat; Mahmood Ashraf; Tutut Herawan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cos...

Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.

Ambrosi, G; Baba, H; Bamba, A; Barceló, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Brunetti, L; Carmona, E; Chabanne, E; Chikawa, M; Colin, P; Conteras, J L; Cortina, J; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Deleglise, G; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Dubois, F; Fiasson, A; Fink, D; Fouque, N; Freixas, L; Fruck, C; Gadola, A; García, R; Gascon, D; Geffroy, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grañena, F; Gunji, S; Hagiwara, R; Hamer, N; Hanabata, Y; Hassan, T; Hatanaka, K; Haubold, T; Hayashida, M; Hermel, R; Herranz, D; Hirotani, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Ioka, K; Jablonski, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, T; Kodani, K; Kohri, K; Konno, Y; Koyama, S; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; López-Moya, M; López, R; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Manalaysay, A; Mariotti, M; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Monteiro, I; Moralejo, A; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Nakajima, D; Nakamori, T; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nozato, A; Ohira, Y; Ohishi, M; Ohoka, H; Okumura, A; Orito, R; Panazol, J L; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pauletta, G; Podkladkin, S; Prast, J; Rando, R; Reimann, O; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Saito, K; Saito, T; Saito, Y; Sakaki, N; Sakonaka, R; Sanuy, A; Sasaki, H; Sawada, M; Scalzotto, V; Schultz, S; Schweizer, T; Shibata, T; Shu, S; Sieiro, J; Stamatescu, V; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Sugawara, R; Tajima, H; Takami, H; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, M; Tejedor, L A; Terada, Y; Teshima, M; Totani, T; Ueno, H; Umehara, K; Vollhardt, A; Wagner, R; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamazaki, R; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

09-07-13 07:53More snapping turtles spotted in Ottawa: residents Page 1 sur 5http://www.cbc.ca/canada/ottawa/story/2009/07/10/ottawa-turtle-eggs-rideau.html#socialcomments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

09-07-13 07:53More snapping turtles spotted in Ottawa: residents Page 1 sur 5http://www.cbc.ca/canada/ottawa/story/2009/07/10/ottawa-turtle-eggs-rideau.html#socialcomments More snapping turtles spotted in Ottawa the Rideau River say they've seen more snapping turtles since construction on the city's sewers began

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

363

"Y/N","Status","Efficiency Measure(s)/ECMs","System Type","End Use","Grid","Fed or Indian","RECs Retained","Scope","Term","Purchased","Biomass1","Biomass2","Funding Source","Fleet Strategy","Vehicle","Size","Fuel","Fleet Fund","Compliance Path","GP Status","Version","HPSB","2015 Status","Power data"  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y/N","Status","Efficiency Measure(s)/ECMs","System Type","End Use","Grid","Fed or Indian","RECs Retained","Scope","Term","Purchased","Biomass1","Biomass2","Funding Source","Fleet Strategy","Vehicle","Size","Fuel","Fleet Fund","Compliance Path","GP Status","Version","HPSB","2015 Status","Power data" Y/N","Status","Efficiency Measure(s)/ECMs","System Type","End Use","Grid","Fed or Indian","RECs Retained","Scope","Term","Purchased","Biomass1","Biomass2","Funding Source","Fleet Strategy","Vehicle","Size","Fuel","Fleet Fund","Compliance Path","GP Status","Version","HPSB","2015 Status","Power data" "No","Identified","Advanced Metering Systems","Biomass","Excluded","Electric On-Grid","On Federal or Indian Land, On User Site",0,"Scope 1","Long-Term (> 10)","Electric Renewable Energy","Agricultural byproducts","NA","Line Item","Acquire More Fuel-Efficient Vehicles","Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)","Buses","B100","Direct","Guiding Principles","Met",2.2,"LEED® Certified","D&D in Progress","Actual"

364

Research on patterns in the fluctuation of the co-movement between crude oil futures and spot prices: A complex network approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The price of crude oil is fluctuating. Researchers focus on the fluctuation of crude oil prices or relationship between crude oil futures and spot prices. However, the relationship also presents fluctuation which draws our attention. This paper designed a complex network approach for examining the dynamics of the co-movement between crude oil futures and spot prices. We defined the co-movement modes by a coarse-graining procedure and analyzed the transformation characteristics between the modes by weighted complex network models and evolutionary models. We analyzed the parameters of these models by using the West Texas Intermediate crude oil future prices and the Daqing (China) crude oil spot prices from November 25, 2002 to March 22, 2011 as sample data. The results indicate that the co-movement modes of the crude oil futures and spot prices are clustered around a few critical modes during the evolution. The co-movement of the crude oil prices has the characteristic of grouping, and the conversion of the co-movement modes requires an average of 5–7 days. There are some important transitional phases in the evolution of prices, and the results validate the current trend of rising oil prices. This research may provide information for the oil price decision-making process, and more importantly, provides a new approach for examining the co-movement between variables.

Haizhong An; Xiangyun Gao; Wei Fang; Yinghui Ding; Weiqiong Zhong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Original papers: Development of prototype automated variable rate sprayer for real-time spot-application of agrochemicals in wild blueberry fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An automated prototype variable rate (VR) sprayer was developed for control of 8 individual nozzles on a 6.1m sprayer boom for in-season, site-specific application of agrochemicals on weeds. The sprayer boom was divided into 8 sections and mounted behind ... Keywords: Controllers, Herbicides, Precision agriculture, Sensors, Spot-application, Weeds

Qamar Uz Zaman; Travis J. Esau; Arnold W. Schumann; David C. Percival; Young Ki Chang; Scott M. Read; Aitazaz A. Farooque

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A comparison of automated land cover/use classification methods for a Texas bottomland hardwood system using lidar, spot-5, and ancillary data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decisions affecting these disappearing systems. SPOT-5 imagery from 2005 was combined with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from 2006 and several ancillary datasets to map a portion of the bottomland hardwood system found in the Sulphur River Basin...

Vernon, Zachary Isaac

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Shape-induced phenomena in finite-size antiferromagnets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is common knowledge that the direction of the easy axis in a finite-size ferromagnetic sample is controlled by its shape. In the present paper we show that a similar phenomenon should be observed in compensated antiferromagnets with strong magnetoelastic coupling. The destressing energy which originates from the long-range magnetoelastic forces is analogous to the demagnetization energy in ferromagnetic materials and is responsible for the formation of the equilibrium domain structure and the anisotropy of macroscopic magnetic properties. In particular, the crystal shape may be a source of additional uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which removes the degeneracy of the antiferromagnetic vector or the artificial fourth-order anisotropy in the case of a square cross-section sample. In the special case of antiferromagnetic nanopillars, shape-induced anisotropy can be substantially enhanced due to lattice mismatch with the substrate. These effects can be detected by magnetic rotational torque and antiferromagnetic resonance measurements.

Helen V. Gomonay and Vadim M. Loktev

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

368

System Size Dependence of Particle Production at the SPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent results on the system size dependence of net-baryon and hyperon production as measured at the CERN SPS are discussed. The observed Npart dependences of yields, but also of dynamical properties, such as average transverse momenta, can be described in the context of the core corona approach. Other observables, such as antiproton yields and net-protons at forward rapidities, do not follow the predictions of this model. Possible implications for a search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram are discussed. Event-by-event fluctuations of the relative core to corona source contributions might influence fluctuation observables (e.g. multiplicity fluctuations). The magnitude of this effect is investigated.

C. Blume

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

369

Hot-Spot Engineering in Polygonal Nanofinger Assemblies for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

†Intelligent Infrastructure Lab and ‡NanoElectronics Research Group, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304, United States ... This hybrid approach of combining top-down fabrication with self-assembly enables the formation of complex nanoplasmonic structures with sub-nanometer gaps between gold nanoparticles. ... In this approach, the object of interest was represented as a set of polarizable spheres on a cubic grid with a lattice period a = 1 nm, and we assumed that all the Au nanospheres were identical to each other and had the same diameter of 136 nm to match the physical measurement of the structures in the SEM images. ...

Fung Suong Ou; Min Hu; Ivan Naumov; Ansoon Kim; Wei Wu; Alexander M. Bratkovsky; Xuema Li; R. Stanley Williams; Zhiyong Li

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Abstract Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CC + to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH...

371

A Measuring  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

clozapine. Relation to extrapyramidal side ffects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49538-544. Smith M, Wolf AP, Brodie JD, et. al. Serial '*F-N- methylspiroperidol PET studies to measure...

372

Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification of Varying Particle Sizes in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Light gases, char, and tar evolution as function of the bed temperature and particle size have been compared to literature data. ... A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes Biomass Bioenergy 2003, 24 ( 2) 125– 140 ... Some aspects of primary methods and the research and development in this area are reviewed and cited in the present paper. ...

Katherine R. Gaston; Mark W. Jarvis; Perrine Pepiot; Kristin M. Smith; William J. Frederick, Jr.; Mark R. Nimlos

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

373

Climate change impacts in multispecies systems: drought alters food web size structure in a field experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...multispecies systems: drought alters food web size structure in a field experiment Guy...intergenerational field manipulations of entire food webs are scarce, yet such approaches are essential...replicated field trial, to measure food web responses to simulated climate change...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

15 - Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the various methods and equipments used in the measurement of liquids and gases in pipelines. Streams that transport mixed natural gas liquids require the use of mass measurement to accurately account for the volume of the components, which make up the mix. Mass measurement eliminates the effects of non-ideal mixing and the need for compressibility factors. The measurement system that provides basic simplicity, reliability, wide acceptance, and the capability of handling variable mix streams without breaking new frontiers in measurement methods is the orifice flow measuring element with online density meter and microprocessor flow computer. The orifice is a static device generally inert to the measured fluid conditions, and calibration consists of simple dimensional measurement and conformance to specified physical tolerances. The second element, the density meter, is an external unit that is easily isolated from the flowing stream for calibration, inspection, and maintenance. The relative insensitivity of CO2 density to small changes in pressure in the primary flow to the orifice meters permits locating the density meter upstream of the meter manifold, thereby serving several meters. The microprocessor flow computer, or third element of the system, is essential to achieve the advantages of integrated mass flow, which comes from the ability of the computer to make computations in essentially "real time." A development program to improve the overall uncertainty of orifice metering was initiated by Shell Pipeline Corporation. The program's goal was to develop an economical method for proving ethylene orifice meters under actual operating conditions. Shell's ethylene systems are operated in the dense phase fluid region due to lower transportation costs. The ethylene meter stations operate in two regions, the dense-phase fluid and single-phase gas regions.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater May 29, 2012 - 7:16pm Addthis Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® A properly sized water heater will meet your household's hot water needs while operating more efficiently. Therefore, before purchasing a water heater, make sure it's the correct size. Here you'll find information about how to size these systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems -- including some heat pump systems, and tankless coil and indirect water heaters -- consult a qualified contractor.

376

Determination of size-specific U-factors and solar heat gain coefficients from rated values at established sizes -- A simplified approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organizations such as the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) in the United States and the Canadian Standards Association in Canada have done a vast amount of work to develop standardized procedures for rating the thermal performance of window systems. These procedures provide an excellent means of comparing one window product to another. One limitation to the use of the information produced in these rating procedures is that the data are produced through measurement or simulation for a fixed window size. To use these data in building energy computer simulations, the U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) data need to be available for the actual window sizes used in a building. The window labeling information provided through the window rating procedures in the US and Canada is not enough to calculate size-specific U-factor or SHGC values. Using minimal information that is provided from the rating procedures and making a few simplifying assumptions will allow for /an approximation of the size-specific U-factor and SHGC values. The work presented in this paper outlines a simplified approach to determining size-specific U-factor and SHGC values.

Baker, J.A. [WestLab, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Henry, R. [CANMET/Natural Resources, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

X-ray diffraction studies of the structure of nanometer-sized crystalline materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, nanometer-sized crystalline materials have been proposed to represent a new solid-state structure which exhibits neither long-range order (like crystals) nor short-range order (like glasses). It was the purpose of this study to test this idea by x-ray diffraction experiments. Nanometer-sized crystalline materials are polycrystals in which the size of the crystallites is a few (1–10) nanometers. Structurally, these materials consist of the following two components, the volume fraction of which is about 50% each: a crystalline component, formed by all atoms located in the lattice of the crystallites, and an interfacial component comprising the atoms situated in the interfaces. It is this interfacial component which was proposed to exhibit an atomic arrangement without short- or long-range order. In order to test this idea, the interference function of nanometer-sized crystalline iron (6-nm crystal size) was measured by x-ray diffraction. The measured interference function was compared with the interference function computed by assuming the interfacial component to be short-range ordered or to consist of randomly displaced atoms (no short- or long-range order). It was found that the experimental interference function can only be matched by the computed one if the interfacial component is assumed to have no short- or long-range order.

X. Zhu, R. Birringer, U. Herr, and H. Gleiter

1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Experimental manipulation of female reproduction reveals an intraspecific egg size clutch size trade-off  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...production and, in turn, decreasing the plasma pool of yolk precursors below the level...females showed decreased egg size and plasma yolk-precursor levels, both were within...1991 The evolution of parental care. Princeton University Press. Delville, Y. & Balthazart...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Choosing wind power plant locations and sizes based on electric reliability measures using multiple-year wind speed measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To project the US potential to meet future electricity demands with wind energy, estimates of available wind resource and costs to access that resource are critical. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) annually estimates the US market penetration of wind in its Annual Energy Outlook series. For these estimates, the EIA uses wind resource data developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for each region of the country. However, the EIA multiplies the cost of windpower by several factors, some as large as 3, to account for resource quality, market factors associated with accessing the resource, electric grid impacts, and rapid growth in the wind industry. This paper examines the rationale behind these additional costs and suggests alternatives.

Milligan, M.R.; Artig, R.

1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

380

Sandia National Laboratories: Glitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyGlitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells in Utility-Scale Solar Power Systems Glitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells in Utility-Scale Solar Power Systems Building a Microgrid Greg...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Brain size of Homo floresiensis and its evolutionary implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Research articles 1001 70 144 133 Brain size of Homo floresiensis and its evolutionary...challenge in our understanding of human brain evolution. Some researchers hypothesize dramatic dwarfing of relative brain size from Homo erectus presumably without...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Prediction of effective genome size in metagenomic samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel computational approach shows a link between genome size and habitat from analysis of environmental metagenomic DNA reads.

Jeroen Raes; Jan O Korbel; Martin J Lercher; Christian von Mering; Peer Bork

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Improving the hot-spot pressure and demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosions on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reaching ignition in direct-drive (DD) inertial confinement fusion implosions requires achieving central pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is used to study the physics of implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. It is shown that the highest hot-spot pressures (up to 40 Gbar) are achieved in target designs with a fuel adiabat of ? ? 4, an implosion velocity of 3.8?×?10{sup 7}?cm/s, and a laser intensity of ?10{sup 15}?W/cm{sup 2}. These moderate-adiabat implosions are well understood using two-dimensional hydrocode simulations. The performance of lower-adiabat implosions is significantly degraded relative to code predictions, a common feature between DD implosions on OMEGA and indirect-drive cryogenic implosions on the NIF. Simplified theoretical models are developed to gain physical understanding of the implosion dynamics that dictate the target performance. These models indicate that degradations in the shell density and integrity (caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the target acceleration) coupled with hydrodynamics at stagnation are the main failure mechanisms in low-adiabat designs. To demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic implosions on OMEGA, the target-design robustness to hydrodynamic instability growth must be improved by reducing laser-coupling losses caused by cross beam energy transfer.

Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Follett, R. K.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Janezic, R.; Kelly, J. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Real-time control of a microfluidic channel for size-independent deformability cytometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanical properties of cells can be correlated with various cell states and are now considered as an important class of biophysical markers. Effectiveness of existing high-throughput microfluidic techniques for investigating cell mechanical properties is adversely affected by cell-size variation in a given cell population. In this work, we introduce a new microfluidic system with real-time feedback control to evaluate single-cell deformability while minimizing cell-size dependence of the measurement. Using breast cancer cells (MCF-7), we demonstrate the potential of this system for stiffness profiling of cells in complex, diverse cell populations.

Guofeng Guan; Peter C Y Chen; Weng Kung Peng; Ali Asgar Bhagat; Chong Jin Ong; Jongyoon Han

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Effect of grain size and hydrogen passivation on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline silicon films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The properties of mixed-phase (nanocrystalline/amorphous) silicon layers produced by reactive RF-sputtering are described. The chemical composition and nanostructure (i.e., Nanocrystal (NC) size and volume fraction) of the films were studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Samples with different fractions of the nanocrystalline phase and NC mean size were produced by changing the deposition parameters, without post-growth annealing. The electrical conductivity of the films, measured as function of temperature, is discussed in relation to their nanostructure.

M.F. Cerqueira; T.V. Semikina; N.V. Baidus; E. Alves

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Estimating Dataset Size Requirements for Classifying DNA Microarray Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Dataset Size Requirements for Classifying DNA Microarray Data S. Mukherjee*+#1 , P methodology for estimating dataset size requirements for classifying microarray data using learning curves is introduced. The goal is to use existing classification results to estimate dataset size requirements

Poggio, Tomaso

387

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Impact of Verification Grid-Box Size on Warm-Season QPF Skill Measures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 10-km-grid-spacing version of NCEP's Eta Model was used to simulate 11 warm-season convective systems occurring over the U.S. upper midwest. Quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from the model valid for 6-h periods were verified using 4-...

William A. Gallus Jr.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Advanced Size Measurements and Aerodynamic Classification of Solid Recovered Fuel Particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid recovered fuels are highly heterogeneous mixtures generated from high calorific fractions of nonhazardous waste materials intended to be fired in existing coal power plants and industrial furnaces (CEN/TC 343 N 9rev3, Solid Recovered Fuel, 2003). ... There are numerous definitions for the term SRF, but the recent one put forth by CEN/TC 3431 defined it as “fuel prepared from non-hazardous waste to be used for energy recovery in waste incineration and co-incineration plants”. ...

Gregory Dunnu; Thomas Hilber; Uwe Schnell

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

390

Archeops: A balloon experiment to measure CMB anisotropies with a broad range of angular sizes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is the oldest photon radiation that can be observed, having been emitted when the Universe was about 300,000 year old. It is a blackbody at 2.73 K, and is almost perfectly isotropic, the anisotropies being about one part to 100,000. However, these anisotropies, detected by the COBE satellite in 1992, constrain the cosmological parameters such as the curvature of the Universe. Archeops is a balloon-borne experiment designed to map these anisotropies. The instrument is composed of a 1.5 m telescope and bolometers cooled at 85 mK to detect radiation between 150 and 550 GHz. To lower atmosphere parasitic signal, the instrument is lifted at 32 km altitude with a stratospheric balloon during the arctic night. This instrument is also a preparation for the Planck satellite mission, as its design is similar. We discuss here the results of the first scientific flight from Esrange (near Kiruna, Sweden) to Russia on January 29th 2001, which led to a 22 % (sub)millimetre sky coverage unprecedented at this resolution.

A. Benoit; the Archeops Collaboration

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Alternative Size and Lifetime Measurements for High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-Particle correlations based on the interference of identical particles has provided the chief means for determining the shape and lifetime of sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, Strong and Coulomb induced correlations are shown to provide equivalent information.

Scott Pratt; Silvio Petriconi

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

392

Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...combustion in energy production 10% commercial and residential combustion 7% industrial combustion 6% non-combustion processes 13% road transport 60% Figure 2. Pie chart illustrating the sources of PM0 :1 emissions in the UK in 1996...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Effect of filament supports on emissive probe measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have constructed an emissive probe with a thin tungsten filament spot-welded across two nickel wires insulated with ceramic paint. We show that the ceramic supports covering the nickel wires have a large effect on the potential measurements in low-density plasmas. It is found that the potential measured by the emissive probe is more negative than the potential derived from a Langmuir probe current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve when the plasma density is so low that the emitting filament remains immersed in the sheaths of the ceramic supports. The length of the filament L needs to be larger than about 2 Debye lengths (L > 2{lambda}{sub De}) in order to avoid the influence of the ceramic supports and to achieve reliable plasma potential measurements using emissive probes.

Wang, X.; Howes, C. T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Horanyi, M. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Robertson, S. [NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Method to study fracture fluid polymer degradation using size exclusion chromatography. [Size exclusion chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Size Exclusion Chromatography system is described which can be used to study conditions affecting the degradation of fracturing fluid polymers. In general, the effects of breaker type and concentration, temperature, and other additives to the fracturing fluid system can be monitored using this technique. Identification of effective conditions for polymer degradation may result in better design of fracturing fluids in order to minimize fracture and formation damage. 18 references, 20 figures, 6 tables.

Gall, B.L.; Raible, C.J.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wh. INTRODUCTION A diesel hybrid system, incorporating a battery and inverter, can often provide power at a lower profile used for this study Fixed Power System Parameters The diesel and inverter were both sizedThe Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS

396

Plasmon Mapping in Metallic Nanostructures and its Application to Single Molecule Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: Imaging Electromagnetic Hot-Spots and Analyte Location  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major component of this proposal is to elucidate the connection between optical and electron excitation of plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures. These accomplishments are reported: developed a routine protocol for obtaining spatially resolved, low energy EELS spectra, and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra from the same nanostructures.; correlated optical scattering spectra and plasmon maps obtained using STEM/EELS.; and imaged electromagnetic hot spots responsible for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SMSERS).

Camden, Jon P

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

397

Method and apparatus for measuring areas of photoelectric cells and photoelectric cell performance parameters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser scanning system for scanning the surface of a photovoltaic cell in a precise, stepped raster pattern includes electric current detecting and measuring equipment for sensing the current response of the scanned cell to the laser beam at each stepped irradiated spot or pixel on the cell surface. A computer is used to control and monitor the raster position of the laser scan as well as monitoring the corresponding current responses, storing this data, operating on it, and for feeding the data to a graphic plotter for producing a visual, color-coded image of the current response of the cell to the laser scan. A translation platform driven by stepper motors in precise X and Y distances holds and rasters the cell being scanned under a stationary spot-focused laser beam.

Osterwald, Carl R. (Lakewood, CO); Emery, Keith A. (Fort Collins, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Small- and Medium-Sized Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building

399

Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

Yousef, Adel K. M. [Faculty of Engineering , University of Diyala, Diyala-Baqouba (Iraq); Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A. [Institute of laser for postgraduate studies, Baghdad University, Baghdad (Iraq)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

400

Finite-size scaling in thin Fe/Ir(100) layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The critical temperature of thin Fe layers on Ir(100) is measured through M\\"o{\\ss}bauer spectroscopy as a function of the layer thickness. From a phenomenological finite-size scaling analysis, we find an effective shift exponent lambda = 3.15 +/- 0.15, which is twice as large as the value expected from the conventional finite-size scaling prediction lambda=1/nu, where nu is the correlation length critical exponent. Taking corrections to finite-size scaling into account, we derive the effective shift exponent lambda=(1+2\\Delta_1)/nu, where Delta_1 describes the leading corrections to scaling. For the 3D Heisenberg universality class, this leads to lambda = 3.0 +/- 0.1, in agreement with the experimental data. Earlier data by Ambrose and Chien on the effective shift exponent in CoO films are also explained.

Malte Henkel; Stéphane Andrieu; Philippe Bauer; Michel Piecuch

1998-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Energy and System Size Dependence of Strangeness Production from SPS to RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strange particle production is an important experimental observable that allows the study of the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The STAR experiment at RHIC has a unique capability of measuring identified strange particles over a wide range of acceptance providing a rich set of data to perform a systematic study. In addition to the data from Au+Au collisions, strange particles from p+p and d+Au collisions are also available for comparison and normalization. A new set of data from Cu+Cu reactions at 62 GeV and 200 GeV provides the chance to compare the system size dependence observed in Au+Au collisions with this smaller system size. In addition to the comparison of the yields, a statistical thermal model was used to extract freeze-out characteristics for the different system sizes and collision energies.

Jun Takahashi; for the STAR collaboration

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

402

Influence of the grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in superduplex stainless steel UNS S32750  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, the effect of grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in a superduplex stainless steel was investigated. The materials studied were heat treated isothermally at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C for times up to 120 min. Hardness tests, light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were carried out to detect sigma and other harmful precipitate phases. The ferritic and austenitic grain sizes in the solution treated condition of the two steels analyzed were measured by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Cyclic polarization corrosion tests were performed to evaluate the effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance. The results presented show that the precipitation of deleterious phases such as {chi}, {sigma} and {gamma}{sub 2}, which can occur during welding and forming operations, is retarded by grain growth.

Pardal, J.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Passo da Patria, 156-CEP 24210-240, Niteroi/Brazil (Brazil); Tavares, S.S.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Passo da Patria, 156-CEP 24210-240, Niteroi/Brazil (Brazil)], E-mail: ssmtavares@terra.com.br; Fonseca, M. Cindra; Souza, J.A. de; Corte, R.R.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Passo da Patria, 156-CEP 24210-240, Niteroi/Brazil (Brazil); Abreu, H.F.G. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Metalugica e de Materiais, Campus do Pici Bl. 702, Fortaleza, CE, CEP 60.455-760 (Brazil)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ?0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ?2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ?2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ?3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ?2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a larger patient cohort are warranted.

Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K., E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had Kd values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected Kd values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured Kd values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the Kd values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kd values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents are present in the gravels.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Clayton, Ray E.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

405

Size distribution of metals in particulate matter formed during combustion of residual fuel oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between July 1992 and January 1993 three full-scale test programs were performed by Carnot for the Electric Power Research Institute and the Fuel Oil Users` Support (FOUS) Group, as part of a program for development and testing of various stack emissions models. One of the components of the program was determination of the concentrations of individual elements as a function of the size of particles suspended in flue gas. The size distributions of species are important because several aspects of system performance depend upon particulate matter size and composition: (1) the rate of ash deposition in the convection section, and activity of deposits for high temperature corrosion and SO{sub 3} formation, (2) the efficiency of precipitators for collection of individual elements, and (3) scattering of visible light and contribution of particles to stack plume opacity. Size distributions of major ash constituents were measured at the entrance and exit of the dust collectors during each of the field tests. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first reports of such measurements in residual oil-fired utility boilers. The focus, in the present paper, is on the composition of the particles entering the dust collectors.

Walsh, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rovesti, W.C. [Electric Power Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Freeman, R.F. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Oswego, NY (United States); Olen, K.R.; Washington, K.T.; Patrick, S.T.; Campbell, G.L.; Harper, D.S. [Florida Power & Light Co., West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Teetz, R.D.; Bennett, T.E. [Long Island Lighting Co., Glenwood Landing, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Stable carbon fractionation in size-segregated aerosol particles produced by controlled biomass burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Six different biomass fuel types (wood pellets, sunflower stalk pellets, straw pellets, buckwheat shells, mixed biomass waste pellets, and grain screenings) and wastewater sludge pellets were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size-segregated particles. Aerosol particles were sampled using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles (size <1 µm) in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The isotopic fractionation between aerosol particles and original biomass material varied from ?0.94±0.23‰ to 1.12±0.16‰. The largest negative fractionation ?0.94±0.23‰ was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation (1.12±0.16‰) was observed during the grain screenings combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with the isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in size-segregated aerosol particles suggested that combustion processes could strongly affect isotopic fractionation in aerosol particles of different sizes thereby potentially affecting an interpretation of ambient atmospheric observations.

A. Garbaras; A. Masalaite; I. Garbariene; D. Ceburnis; E. Krugly; V. Remeikis; E. Puida; K. Kvietkus; D. Martuzevicius

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Rater reliability of fragile X mutation size estimates: A multilaboratory analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Notwithstanding the use of comparable molecular protocols, description and measurement of the fra(X) (fragile X) mutation may vary according to its appearance as a discrete band, smear, multiple bands, or mosaic. Estimation of mutation size may also differ from one laboratory to another. We report on the description of a mutation size estimate for a large sample of individuals tested for the fra(X) pre- or full mutation. Of 63 DNA samples evaluated, 45 were identified previously as fra(X) pre- or full mutations. DNA from 18 unaffected individuals was used as control. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and DNA fragments from each of four laboratories were sent to a single center where Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. Photographs from autoradiographs were returned to each site, and raters blind to the identity of the specimens were asked to evaluate them. Raters` estimates of mutation size compared favorably with a reference test. Intrarater reliability was good to excellent. Variability in mutation size estimates was comparable across band types. Variability in estimates was moderate, and was significantly correlated with absolute mutation size and band type. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Fisch, G.S. [Kings County Hospital Center and SUNY/Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [Kings County Hospital Center and SUNY/Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Carpenter, N. [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States); Maddalena, A. [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others] [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States); and others

1996-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

408

Dust Grain-Size Distributions From MRN to MEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Employing the Maximum Entropy Method algorithm, we fit interstellar extinction measurements which span the wavelength range 0.125-3 micron. We present a uniform set of MEM model fits, all using the same grain materials, optical constants and abundance constraints. In addition, we are taking advantage of improved UV and IR data and better estimates of the gas-to-dust ratio. The model fits cover the entire range of extinction properties that have been seen in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The grain models employed for this presentation are the simplistic homogeneous spheres models (i.e., Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck 1977) with two (graphite, silicate) or three (graphite, silicate, amorphous carbon) components. Though such usage is only a first step, the results do provide interesting insight into the use of grain size as a diagnostic of dust environment. We find that the SMC Bar extinction curve cannot be fit using carbon grains alone. This is a challenge to the recent observational result indicating little silicon depletion in the SMC.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; Michael J. Wolff; Ulysses J. Sofia; K. D. Gordon; K. A. Misselt

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

409

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles prepared by microfluidics and conventional methods. Modulated particle size and rheology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractHypothesis Microfluidic techniques are expected to provide narrower particle size distribution than conventional methods for the preparation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Besides, it is hypothesized that the particle size distribution of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles influences the settling behaviour and rheological properties of its aqueous dispersions. Experiments For the preparation of PLGA particles, two different methods, microfluidic and conventional oil-in-water emulsification methods were employed. The particle size and particle size distribution of PLGA particles prepared by microfluidics were studied as a function of the flow rate of the organic phase while particles prepared by conventional methods were studied as a function of stirring rate. In order to study the stability and structural organization of colloidal dispersions, settling experiments and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out on aqueous dispersions of PLGA particles with different particle size distributions. Findings Microfluidics technique allowed the control of size and size distribution of the droplets formed in the process of emulsification. This resulted in a narrower particle size distribution for samples prepared by MF with respect to samples prepared by conventional methods. Polydisperse samples showed a larger tendency to aggregate, thus confirming the advantages of microfluidics over conventional methods, especially if biomedical applications are envisaged

Aurora Perez; Rebeca Hernandez; Diego Velasco; Dan Voicu; Carmen Mijangos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Spot the number plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......which forms part of the ROMANSE project in Southampton, and has also...potential for infringing civil liberties. Also, in the costcutting...this direction. The ROMANSE project in Southampton seeks to control...which forms part of the ROMANSE project in Southampton, and has also......

Chris Gillham

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assess Potential Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Assess

412

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick A., E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.ed [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

413

Acoustic Method for Fish Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks W.A. Kuperman and Philippedistributed among its 97 tanks to maximize feed-conversionrequires inventory- ing tanks regularly. Currently, this is

Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize high-capture efficiency with low backpressure. p-25strzelec.pdf More Documents & Publications...

415

On nano size structures for enhanced bone formation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Purpose The general aim of the present thesis was to investigate early bone response to titanium implants modified with nano size structures. Therefore, 1. a… (more)

Meirelles, Luiz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico-and nano ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico- and nano-detrital organic particles (DOP) in two lakes of different trophic status. Carrias, Jean-François ...

417

Sizing High Speed Micro Generators for Smart Grid Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents a step by step sizing procedure of High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (HSPMSGs) for smart grid applications to be driven by micro-turbines....

Adel El Shahat; Ali Keyhani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations, and Indirect Aerosol Effects P. H. Daum and Y. Liu Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York...

419

Optimization Online - Varying the Population Size of Artificial ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 2, 2005 ... Varying the Population Size of Artificial Foraging Swarms on Time Varying ... Abstract: Swarm Intelligence (SI) is the property of a system ...

Carlos Fernandes

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

420

John S. Wright Forestry Center Room Sizes, Capacities, and Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix 1 John S. Wright Forestry Center Room Sizes, Capacities, and Rates Room College the Wright Center contact: Marlene Mann, Administrative Assistant Forestry and Natural Resources Voice: 765

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber rod measurements Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the microwave measurements, the rods were... to absorb outgoing waves, and the spatial grid size is 116a, where a is ... Source: Mojahedi, Mohammad - Department of Electrical...

422

Evaluation of the Au size effect: CO oxidation catalyzed by Au/TiO2.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size dependence of activity in gold catalysts was examined. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to determine mean particle size, and a flow reactor was used to assess activity of the catalysts for CO oxidation as a function of temperature. A sequence of calcination steps was used to systematically increase the mean Au particle size while repeated measurements of the activity were conducted. In this way the size dependence could be obtained in a single catalyst to avoid differences due to variations in support, synthesis conditions, Au loading, or incidental impurities. Two Au catalysts with different Au loadings were prepared on TiO{sub 2} by deposition precipitation and used for the measurements. For Au particles with mean particle size, d, in the range of 2-10 nm, the measured TOF at 298 K varies as d{sup -1.7{+-}0.2} and d{sup -0.9{+-}0.2} for the 7.2 and 4.5 wt% Au/TiO{sub 2} (P25) catalysts, respectively. Variation between samples emphasizes the conclusion that the activity is sensitive to many factors that may mask the true structure dependence. It is concluded that the observed decrease in activity with increasing particle size beyond 2 nm is controlled by the population of low-coordinate sites, rather than by size-dependent changes in overall electronic structure of the nanoparticle. No evidence was found for maximum activity for small particle sizes, although arguments are offered for why such a maximum was expected but was not observed.

Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Yan, Wenfu [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Measuring Terrorism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terrorism will be high on the political agenda for many years to come. Various policies are open to a government fighting terrorism but, in any case, considerable costs are involved. In the competition for political support, the costs and benefits of anti-terrorism policies will be debated. Better information about terrorism and its consequences can improve policy outcome if there is electoral competition. Over the last few years, economic scholars have analysed the effects terrorist acts have on various aspects of the economy. The findings of these impact studies are summarised in this paper. They capture, however, only part of the overall utility losses. Hence, several approaches to value public goods and conceptual issues concerning their application to terrorism are discussed. In particular, the hedonic market approach, the averting behaviour method, the contingent valuation method and vote and popularity functions are reviewed. Further, an exploratory analysis of estimating individuals ’ utility losses using life satisfaction or happiness data is presented. This paper also discusses a substantially different approach combining measurement and decision-making, namely popular referenda.

Bruno S. Frey; Simon Luechinger

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

volumes. Innovation frequencies also correlated with laboratory measures of learning, increasing our confidence in the innovation measure, and with social learning frequencies,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

our confidence in the innovation measure, and with social learning frequencies, suggesting that innovation and social learning propensities have evolved together. Species range size did not correlatevolumes. Innovation frequencies also correlated with laboratory measures of learning, increasing

Reader, Simon

426

On the sensitivity, selectivity, sensory information and optimal size of resistive chemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information theoretical tools are applied for the study of the sensitivity and selectivity enhancements of resistive fluctuation-enhanced sensors. General considerations are given for the upper limit of selectivity enhancement. The signal-to-noise ratio and information channel capacity of fluctuation-enhanced chemical sensors is compared to that of classical sensors providing a single output. The considerations are done at the generic level with a few concrete examples and include the estimation of scaling relations between the sensor size, speed of measurements, sampling rate, measurement time, signal power and noise power.

Laszlo B. Kish; Janusz Smulko; Peter Heszler; Claes-Goran Granqvist

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energy and System Size Dependence of Photon Production at Forward Rapidities at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy and system size dependence of pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) and multiplicity distributions of photons are measured in the region -2.3 $\\leq$ $\\eta$ $\\leq$ -3.7 for Cu + Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV. Photon multiplicity measurements at forward rapidity have been carried out using a Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) in the STAR experiment. Photons are found to follow longitudinal scaling for Cu + Cu collisions for 0-10% centrality. A Comparison of pseudorapidity distributions with HIIJING model is also presented.

Monika Sharma; Sunil Dogra; Neeraj Gupta

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

428

ARM - Measurement - Cloud condensation nuclei  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

condensation nuclei condensation nuclei ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud condensation nuclei Small particles (typically 0.0002 mm, or 1/100 th the size of a cloud droplet) about which cloud droplets coalesce. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CCN : Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Field Campaign Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System

429

Measurement of Gas Hydrate by Laser Raman Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four types of natural sand (respectively 250–350, 180–250, 125 ... ) are used as media to synthesize methane hydrate that is measured by laser Raman spectrometry. ... show that sediment grain sizes do not influen...

Changling Liu; Qingguo Meng; Yuguang Ye

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Magnetotelluric measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ideas of flux quantization and Josephson tunneling are reviewed, and the operation of the dc SQUID as a magnetometer is described. The SQUID currently used for magnetotellurics has a sensitivity of 10/sup -14/ T Hz/sup -1/2/, a dynamic range at 10/sup 7/ in a 1 Hz bandwidth, a frequency response from 0 to 40 kHz, and a slewing rate of 5 x 10/sup -5/T s/sup -1/. Recent improvements in sensitivity are discussed: SQUIDS are rapidly approaching the limit imposed by the uncertainty principle. The essential ideas of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements are outlined, and it is shown how the remote reference method can lead to major reductions in bias errors compared to more conventional schemes. The field techniques of the Berkeley group are described. The practical application of MT requires that amplitude and phase spectra of apparent resistivities be transformed into a geologically useful distribution of subsurface resistivities. In many areas where MT is being applied today, the technique may not provide the information needed because stations are too few and widely spaced, or because we are unable to interpret data influenced by complex 3-D resistivity features. The results of two surveys, one detailed, the other regional, over the Klamath Basin, Oregon, are examined. The detailed survey is able to resolve small (1 km wide) structural features that are missed or add a component of spatial aliasing to the regional data. On the other hand, the regional survey avoids truncation effects that may occur when the survey undersamples an area.

Clarke, J.; Goldstein, N.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

NREL: Measurement and Instrumentation Data Center (MIDC) Home Page  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

these stations: NREL these stations: NREL Restore original map zoom magnification Click station on map above or select from drop down and click go NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (BMS) NREL National Wind Technology Center (M2) NREL Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility RSR Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC) SOLRMAP Southwest Solar Research Park SOLRMAP University of Arizona (OASIS) SOLRMAP La Ola Lanai (RSR) SOLRMAP Kalaeloa Oahu (RSR) SOLRMAP Tri-State Escalante (RSR) SOLRMAP Loyola Marymount University (RSR) SOLRMAP Utah Geological Survey - State Energy Program (Cedar City) SOLRMAP Utah Geological Survey - State Energy Program (Milford) SOLRMAP Sun Spot Two - Swink (RSR) Oahu Solar Measurement Grid Sun Spot One - San Luis Valley (RSR) Nevada Power Clark Station University of Nevada - Las Vegas Lowry Range Solar Station (RSR) Xcel Energy Comanche Station (RSR) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (RSR) US Virgin Islands Bovoni 2 US Virgin Islands Longford Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA) Sacramento Municipal Utility District (Anatolia) University of Texas Panamerican Solar Radiation Lab Humboldt State University (SoRMS) University of Oregon (GPS-based PWV) Elizabeth City State University Bluefield State College South Park Mountain Data San Clemente Island Data Lamar Low-Level Jet Project ARM Radiometer Characterization System (RCS) Go

432

Market Size and Pharmaceutical Innovation Pierre Dubois, Olivier de Mouzony  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

market size and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry using improved, and newer, methods and data. We and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. More precisely we shall estimate the elasticity of innovation (asMarket Size and Pharmaceutical Innovation Pierre Dubois, Olivier de Mouzony , Fiona Scott

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

433

Temperature alters food web body-size structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ecology 1001 60 69 Temperature alters food web body-size structure Jean P. Gibert John...The consequences of these effects for food web structure are unclear because the relationships between temperature and aspects of food web structure such as predator-prey body-size...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Lower bounds on sample size in structural equation modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computationally intensive structural equation modeling (SEM) approaches have been in development over much of the 20th century, initiated by the seminal work of Sewall Wright. To this day, sample size requirements remain a vexing question in SEM based ... Keywords: AMOS, Common factor bias, Gini correlation, LISREL, PLS, Partial least squares, Rule of 10, SEM, Sample size, Structural equation modeling

J. Christopher Westland

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Molecular Squares as Molecular Sieves: Size-Selective Transport Through  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular Squares as Molecular Sieves: Size-Selective Transport Through Porous-Membrane squaresº: cyclic structures typically featuring metal-ion cor- ners and difunctional bridging ligands processes: size-selective molecular transport from a guest-containing solution to one initially free

436

Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes underlying the biomass size spectrum, the distribution of biomass across body size classes...species. When the energy transfer is governed...Dickie 2001 The biomass spectrum. A predator-prey...and T. Platt 1978 Energy flux in the pelagic...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

438

Limited-Information Modeling of Loggerhead Turtle Population Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limited-Information Modeling of Loggerhead Turtle Population Size John M. Grego University of South June 28, 2012 Abstract We attempt to estimate the size of a population of female loggerhead turtles. For these loggerhead turtle data, information about individual turtles is not available. Rather, we observe only

Hitchcock, David B.

439

SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services &  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & Information/Admin Support SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & Information/Admin Support December 12, 2012 - 10:22am Addthis John Hale III John Hale III Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Earlier this week, the U.S. Small Business Administration announced that they have revised size definitions for small businesses in Administrative and Support & Waste Management and Remediation Services categories, saying these revisions "reflect changes in marketplace conditions." The new standards are published in the Federal Register. Increases to size standards will enable some growing small businesses in these sectors to retain their small business status; will give federal

440

Identification of ‘Carbon Hot-Spots’ and Quantification of GHG Intensities in the Biodiesel Supply Chain Using Hybrid LCA and Structural Path Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Identification of ‘Carbon Hot-Spots’ and Quantification of GHG Intensities in the Biodiesel Supply Chain Using Hybrid LCA and Structural Path Analysis ... Life cycle assessments (LCA) of biodiesel to evaluate its environmental impacts have, however, remained questionable, mainly because of the adoption of a traditional process analysis approach resulting in system boundary truncation and because of issues regarding the impacts of land use change and N2O emissions from fertilizer application. ... In this study, a hybrid LCA methodology is used to evaluate the life cycle CO2 equivalent emissions of rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel. ...

Adolf A. Acquaye; Thomas Wiedmann; Kuishang Feng; Robert H. Crawford; John Barrett; Johan Kuylenstierna; Aidan P. Duffy; S. C. Lenny Koh; Simon McQueen-Mason

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

An inheritance and cytological study of angular leaf spot resistance in the F? generation of a gossypium three-species hybrid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dissemination of angular leaf spot. However, Rolf (1935) and Tennyson (1936) believe the seed to be the primary source of infection. Tennyson found that under favorable conditions the seedling infection resulting from internal contamination may reach 20... percent or more. Rolf (1930-32) observed that most of the infection is found on the outer seed coat with only three percent of the infection within the seed. Rogers (19U3) and Ray (19U7) report that seed treatment is benefi? cial for controlling...

Bradford, Willis Warren

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

442

Design of a Particle Shadowgraph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions (PSDD) in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An accurate particle size and density distribution (PSDD) for nuclear tank wastes is an essential piece of information that helps determine the engineering requirements for a host of waste management unit operations including tank mixing, pipeline transport, and filtration. The existing approach has involved a laborious approach in which individual particles are identified using SEM/XRD methods and the density of these materials obtained from the technical literature. Further, some methods simply approximate individual particle densities by assuming chemical composition rather than actual measurements of particle density. A particle shadowgraph velocimetry and size (PSVS) system has been designed to obtain representative PSDDs for a broad range of Hanford tank waste materials existing as both individual particles and agglomerates. The PSVS utilizes optical hardware, a temperature controlled settling column, and particle introduction chamber to accurately and reproducibly obtain images of settling particles. Image analysis software then provides a highly accurate determination of both particle terminal velocity and equivalent spherical particle diameter. The particle/agglomerate density is then calculated from Newton’s terminal settling theory. The PSVS was designed to accurately image particle/agglomerate sizes between 10-1000µm and particle/agglomerate densities ranging from 1.4-11.5g/cm3 where the maximum terminal velocity does not exceed 20cm/s. Preliminary testing was completed and results were in good agreement with terminal settling theory. Recent results of this method development are presented, as well as experimental design, and future proposed work.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Howe, Daniel T.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

443

Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a group is similar to all other components as a group. However, some differences were observed. The Supermicro server used 27 percent more power at idle compared to the other brands. The Intel server had a power supply control feature called cold redundancy, and the data suggest that cold redundancy can provide energy savings at low power levels. Test and evaluation methods that might be used by others having limited resources for IT equipment evaluation are explained in the report.

Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Size Characterization of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been utilized to characterize colloidal platinum nanoparticles synthesized in the 1-4 nm size range. The nanoparticles were prepared via a solution-based method in which the size could be controlled by varying reaction conditions, such as the alcohol used as the reductant. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, (MW = 29,000 g/mol) was employed as a capping agent to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles in solution. A model for determining the size of the metallic nanoparticle core from MALDI-TOF mass spectra has been developed and verified through correlation with particle sizes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In this model it was assumed that 1.85 nm nanoparticles are capped by one PVP chain, which was verified through experiments performed with capped and uncapped nanoparticles. Larger nanoparticles are capped by either two (2.60 and 2.94 nm) or three (3.69 nm) PVP chains. These findings clearly indicate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for fully characterizing nanoscale materials in order to elucidate structure-property relationships.

Navin, Jason K.; Grass, Michael E.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Marsh, Anderson L.

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Calculation of size for bound-state constituents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elements are given of a calculation that identifies the size of a proton in the Schroedinger equation for lepton-proton bound states, using the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) in quantum field theory, executed only up to the second order of expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Already in this crude approximation, the extraction of size of a proton from bound-state observables is found to depend on the lepton mass, so that the smaller the lepton mass the larger the proton size extracted from the same observable bound-state energy splitting. In comparison of Hydrogen and muon-proton bound-state dynamics, the crude calculation suggests that the difference between extracted proton sizes in these two cases can be a few percent. Such values would match the order of magnitude of currently discussed proton-size differences in leptonic atoms. Calculations using the RGPEP of higher order than second are required for a precise interpretation of the energy splittings in terms of the proton size in the Schroedinger equation. Such calculations should resolve the conceptual discrepancy between two conditions: that the renormalization group scale required for high accuracy calculations based on the Schroedinger equation is much smaller than the proton mass (on the order of a root of the product of reduced and average masses of constituents) and that the energy splittings due to the physical proton size can be interpreted ignoring corrections due to the effective nature of constituents in the Schr\\"odinger equation.

Stanislaw D. Glazek

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Analytical solutions for steady and unsteady state particle size distributions in FBC and CFBC boilers for non-breaking char particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Continuous analytical solutions for the particle size distributions of char in steady and unsteady states in fluidized beds, when the inlet fuel feed is presented by monosize, lognormal, Rosin-Rammler or gamma distributions, are derived from a population balance model. The stationary size distribution is directly related to the rate of reduction of the particle size. Combustion and attrition reduce the particle size. Thus, it is possible to extract the dependence of the rate of reduction of radius (affected by a fuel’s reactivity and attrition) on radius from a measured steady-state particle size distribution. Unsteady particle size distributions are derived for impulse, step and square pulse changes in the fuel feed, when the oxygen level in the reactor is maintained constant.

J.J. Saastamoinen; A. Tourunen; J. Hämäläinen; T. Hyppänen; M. Loschkin; A. Kettunen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Integrated Measurement of the Mass and Surface Charge of Discrete Microparticles Using a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

averages over multiple particles. Hence, accuracy in estimating the particle's charge, which is dependent measurement and that of the size measure- ment, because they have inherently different optimum orifice lengths

Manalis, Scott

448

Effect of size heterogeneity on community identification in complex networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Identifying community structure can be a potent tool in the analysis and understanding of the structure of complex networks. Up to now, methods for evaluating the performance of identification algorithms use ad-hoc networks with communities of equal size. We show that inhomogeneities in community sizes can and do affect the performance of algorithms considerably, and propose an alternative method which takes these factors into account. Furthermore, we propose a simple modification of the algorithm proposed by Newman for community detection (Phys. Rev. E 69 066133) which treats communities of different sizes on an equal footing, and show that it outperforms the original algorithm while retaining its speed.

Danon, L.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Arenas, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Effect of size heterogeneity on community identification in complex networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identifying community structure can be a potent tool in the analysis and understanding of the structure of complex networks. Up to now, methods for evaluating the performance of identification algorithms use ad-hoc networks with communities of equal size. We show that inhomogeneities in community sizes can and do affect the performance of algorithms considerably, and propose an alternative method which takes these factors into account. Furthermore, we propose a simple modification of the algorithm proposed by Newman for community detection (Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 69} 066133) which treats communities of different sizes on an equal footing, and show that it outperforms the original algorithm while retaining its speed.

Danon, L; Díaz-Guilera, A; Arenas, Alex; Danon, Leon; Diaz-Guilera, Albert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Seed size strongly affects cascades on random networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The average avalanche size in the Watts model of threshold dynamics on random networks of arbitrary degree distribution is determined analytically. Existence criteria for global cascades are shown to depend sensitively on the size of the initial seed disturbance. The dependence of cascade size upon the mean degree z of the network is known to exhibit several transitions—these are typically continuous at low z and discontinuous at high z; here it is demonstrated that the low-z transition may in fact be discontinuous in certain parameter regimes. Connections between these results and the zero-temperature random-field Ising model on random graphs are discussed.

James P. Gleeson and Diarmuid J. Cahalane

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Beam Energy and System Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4, 200 GeV, and p + p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub {+-},dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are non-zero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling, but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

STAR Coll

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

Energy Input per Unit Length – High Accuracy Kinematic Metrology in Laser Material Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser material processes require constant energy input per unit length. Besides focal z-position, spot size, laser power and other process parameters, the relative travel speed (feed rate) of the laser spot on the work piece has the highest influence on the resulting energy input per unit length. In this paper a new metrology method is introduced, which enables users in industry and research to measure the real travel speed of the laser spot and the resulting contour of the trajectory.

Christoph Franz; Peter Abels; Raphael Rolser; Michael Becker

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Property:Incentive/EligSysSize | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:Incentive/EligSysSize Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/EligSysSize Property Type Text Description Eligible System Size. Pages using the property "Incentive/EligSysSize" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 3 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) + 150 kW A AEP (Central and SWEPCO) - Coolsaver A/C Tune Up (Texas) + AEP Texas residential and business customers with units up to 25 tons. AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) + Must have a minimum of 1 year simple payback or maximum of 7 years simple payback without the incentive AEP Ohio - Renewable Energy Credit (REC) Purchase Program (Ohio) + Must have a rated capacity of 100kW or less

454

A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chain and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)

Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio; Toledo, Olga Moraes [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, Av. P. H. Rolfs, s/n. 36570-000 Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Diniz, Antonia Sonia Alves C.; Machado Neto, Lauro de Vilhena B. [Group of Studies in Energy - GREEN Solar, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais - PUC Minas, Rua Dom Jose Gaspar no. 500, Predio 03, Sala 218 - Coracao Eucaristico 30535-610 Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Warming alters community size structure and ecosystem functioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain Global warming can affect all levels of biological...structure|ecosystem functioning|global warming|body mass|size spectrum...The ecological implications of global warming have been documented across many...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Interactions of photosynthesis with genome size and function  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...about half of the cell protein. There...involve oxidation of organic compounds. Here...is to decrease production of carbon dioxide from organic matter, while...larger minimum cell size, than organisms...photosynthesis (exposure to solar radiation) on...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Optimal Urban Population Size: National vs Local Economic Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper explores whether the population size of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in Korea is efficient in terms of the national economy. To undertake this analysis, a recursively dynamic interregional computable general ...

Nam, Kyung-min

458

Influence of boric acid additive size on green lubricant performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...towards green manufacturing processes, there...boric acid powder additives with canola oil...change present manufacturing process lines...powder-based lubricant additives As conceptually...of boric acid additive size on green...towards green manufacturing processes, there...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Strangeness Enhancement and System Size in the Hadronic Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strange particle enhancement in relativistic ion collisions is discussed with particular attention to the dependence on the size of the volume and/or the baryon number of the system.

Azwinndini Muronga; Jean Cleymans

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

460

Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article examines effects of sample size and other design features on correspondence between factors obtained from analysis of sample data and those present in the population from which the samples were drawn. We extend ...

MacCallum, R. C.; Widaman, K. F.; Preacher, K. J.; Hong, Sehee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured spot size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Short rotation forestry feedstock: Influence of particle size segregation on biomass properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Short rotation forestry (SRF) is a promising feedstock for production of biofuels via the thermochemical route. Five poplar biomasses (SRF of different clones and ages, and debarked wood) were ground and separated into three particle size fractions: 0.4 mm. The characterization of these samples was performed to evaluate the quality and homogeneity of SRF feedstocks. Some major properties related to thermochemical processes were measured: chemical composition, organic and inorganic elemental compositions. The heterogeneity in SRF feedstock properties, resulting from high bark content, appeared to be transferred to particle size fractions. The results obtained highlighted that fine particles below 0.2 mm had very specific properties, close to those of bark. The removal of this fraction would result in a more homogeneous feedstock, avoiding the issue caused by segregation risk for process stability. Such removal of small particles would also modify the biomass properties by reducing bark amount, improving the suitability of SRF feedstock for thermochemical conversion.

S. Jacob; D. Da Silva Perez; C. Dupont; J.-M. Commandré; F. Broust; A. Carriau; D. Sacco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ferromagnetic Resonance of Micro- and Nano-sized Hexagonal Ferrite Powders at Millimeter Waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complex magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity of micro- and nano-sized powdered barium (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) hexaferrites have been studied in a broadband millimeter wave frequency range (30-120 GHz). Transmittance measurements have been performed using a free space quasi-optical millimeter wave spectrometer, equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators. Real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity for both types of micro- and nanoferrites have been calculated using analysis of recorded high precision transmittance spectra. Frequency dependences of the magnetic permeability have been obtained from Schloemann's equation for partially magnetized ferrites. These materials show promise as tunable millimeter wave absorber, based on their size-dependent absorption.

Korolev, Konstantin A.; McCloy, John S.; Afsar, Mohammed N.

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

463

The influence of fractal size distribution of covers on radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tailings produced during mining and milling of uranium ores represent potentially large volumes of low level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with mill tailings is radon emanation. Covering tailings is widely applied to reduce radon exhalation rate. In this paper, the fractal theories and field covering tests are used to study the fractal characters of size distribution of six types of covering materials, including waste rock, sand, laterite, kaolin, mixture of sand and laterite, and mixture of waste rock and laterite, and their influences on radon exhalation. The size distributions of uranium tailings and the six aforementioned covering materials all exhibit a good fractal structure. The contents of fine grain increase with the increasing value of fractal dimension. The results of field radon measurement show that the radon emanation rate of tailings without covers is 14.7–18.6 Bq/m2 s. Covering tests were carried out of the six abovementioned covering materials with thickness of 0.4 m, 0.8 m, 1.2 m, 1.6 m and 2.0 m. The results indicate that the application of these materials for cover layers can decrease the radon exhalation rate markedly. The effectiveness of a cover layer in reducing radon exhalation is related to its fractal texture of size distribution. Under the same thickness conditions, the attenuation coefficient of radon exhalation rate increases with the increasing fractal dimension of size distribution of covers. The empirical expressions of the attenuation coefficients in relation to fractal dimension D of size distribution and thickness x of covers is obtained for evaluating the effectiveness of final covers for uranium tailings impoundments.

Kaixuan Tan; Zehua Liu; Liangshu Xia; Junwen Lv; Hanqiao Hu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

SOFTWARE RELATEDSOFTWARE-RELATED MEASUREMENT:MEASUREMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOFTWARE RELATEDSOFTWARE-RELATED MEASUREMENT:MEASUREMENT: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES CEM KANER, J and lazy? Most managers who I know have tried at least oney g measurement program--and abandoned them: · Measurement theory and how it applies to software development metrics (which, at their core, are typically

465

Comparisons of pore size distribution: A case from the Western Australian gas shale formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pore structure of shale samples from Triassic Kockatea and Permian Carynginia formations in the Northern Perth Basin, Western Australia is characterized. Transport properties of a porous media are regulated by the topology and geometry of inter-connected pore spaces. Comparisons of three laboratory experiments are conducted on the same source of samples to assess such micro-, meso- and macro-porosity: Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP), low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and nitrogen adsorption (N2). High resolution FIB/SEM image analysis is used to further support the experimental pore structure interpretations at sub-micron scale. A dominating pore throat radius is found to be around 6 nm within a mesopore range based on MICP, with a common porosity around 3%. This relatively fast experiment offers the advantage to be reliable on well chips or cuttings up the pore throat sizes >2 nm. However, nitrogen adsorption method is capable to record pore sizes below 2 nm through the determination of the total pore volume from the quantity of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure. But the macro-porosity and part of the meso-porosity is damaged or even destroyed during the sample preparation. BET specific surface area results usually show a narrow range of values from 5 to 10 m2/g. Inconsistency was found in the pore size classification between MICP and N2 measurements mostly due to their individual lower- and upper-end pore size resolution limits. The water filled pores disclosed from NMR T2 relaxation time were on average 30% larger than MICP tests. Evidence of artificial cracks generated from the water interactions with clays after re-saturation experiments could explain such porosity over-estimation. The computed pore body to pore throat ratio extracted from the Timur–Coates NMR model, calibrated against gas permeability experiments, revealed that such pore geometry directly control the permeability while the porosity and pore size distribution remain similar between different shale gas formations and/or within the same formation. The combination of pore size distribution obtained from MICP, N2 and NMR seems appropriate to fully cover the range of pore size from shale gas and overcome the individual method limits.

Adnan Al Hinai; Reza Rezaee; Lionel Esteban; Mehdi Labani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Sub-Pixel Response Measurement of Near-Infrared Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wide-field survey instruments are used to efficiently observe large regions of the sky. To achieve the necessary field of view, and to provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio for faint sources, many modern instruments are undersampled. However, precision photometry with undersampled imagers requires a detailed understanding of the sensitivity variations on a scale much smaller than a pixel. To address this, a near-infrared spot projection system has been developed to precisely characterize near-infrared focal plane arrays and to study the effect of sub-pixel non uniformity on precision photometry. Measurements of large format near-infrared detectors demonstrate the power of this system for understanding sub-pixel response.

N. Barron; M. Borysow; K. Beyerlein; M. Brown; C. Weaverdyck; W. Lorenzon; M. Schubnell; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch

2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

467

Mathematicians Land Top Spot in New Ranking of Best and Worst Occupations in the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than just some boring subject that everybody has to take in school," says Ms. Courter, a research considers pay, which was determined by measuring each job's median income and growth potential The Worst 1. Mathematician 200. Lumberjack 2. Actuary 199. Dairy Farmer 3. Statistician 198. Taxi Driver 4

Raines, Brian

468

Vibration Measurement and Monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Successful vibration measurement and analysis require an intimate familiarity with types of measurement, transducer characteristics and application, plus the...

V. Schlegel

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Heterodyne vibration measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analytic expressions are derived for the vibration amplitude and frequency in a heterodyne measurement method. The measurement accuracy is estimated.

A. A. Titov

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Measuring Topological Robustness of Networks under Sustained Targeted Attacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we introduce a measure to analyse the structural robustness of complex networks, which is specifically applicable in scenarios of targeted, sustained attacks. The measure is based on the changing size of the largest component as the network ... Keywords: complex networks, robustness, social networks

Mahendra Piraveenan; Shahadat Uddin; Kon Shing Kenneth Chung

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZES OF RED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sizes of galaxies are known to be closely related with their masses, luminosities, redshifts, and morphologies. However, when we fix these quantities and morphology, we still find large dispersions in the galaxy size distribution. We investigate the origin of these dispersions for red early-type galaxies using two SDSS-based catalogs. We find that the sizes of faint galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 10.3 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}> -19.5, where {sup 0.1} M{sub r} is the r-band absolute magnitude, k-corrected to z = 0.1) are affected more significantly by luminosity, while the sizes of bright galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}> 11.4 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}< -21.4) are by dynamical mass. At fixed mass and luminosity, the sizes of low-mass galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.45 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -19.8) are relatively less sensitive to their colors, color gradients, and axis ratios. On the other hand, the sizes of intermediate-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.85 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -20.4) and high-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 11.25 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -21.0) galaxies significantly depend on those parameters, in the sense that larger red early-type galaxies have bluer colors, more negative color gradients (bluer outskirts), and smaller axis ratios. These results indicate that the sizes of intermediate- and high-mass red early-type galaxies are significantly affected by their recent minor mergers or rotations, whereas the sizes of low-mass red early-type galaxies are affected by some other mechanisms. Major dry mergers also seem to have influenced on the size growth of high-mass red early-type galaxies.

Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyuseok, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Presentation of a modified design equation for sizing lateral spillway channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Civil Engineering PRESENTATION OF A MODIFIED DESIGN EQUATION FOR SIZING LATERAL SPILLWAY CHANNELS A Thesis by FRANK GERRARD PAYNE Approved as to style and content by: m D. nolds (Chair of C mittee... in Equation [4-1]. A device was constructed in the Texas A&N University Civil Engineering shop for measuring depth of flow in the clarifier launder. This device is illustrated in Figure 4-2 on the following page. The base of the device was placed...

Payne, Frank Gerrard

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NVLAP Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty #12;Assessor Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 3 Measurement Uncertainty ·Calibration and testing labs performing Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 4 Measurement Uncertainty ·When the nature of the test precludes

474

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions. [Coulter Multisizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Table B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings, 1999" B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings ","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",4657,2348,1110,708,257,145,59,23,7 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",327,119,61,52,49,30,10,5,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",174,138,"Q","Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

476

Buildings","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B7. Building Size, Floorspace, 1999" B7. Building Size, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",67338,6774,8238,11153,9311,10112,8271,6851,6628 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",8651,338,444,883,1803,2144,1484,1311,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",994,302,"Q","Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

477

Buildings*","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings*","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,2552,889,738,241,129,65,25,7 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",386,162,56,60,48,39,16,5,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",226,164,44,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

478

Buildings","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A5. Building Size, Number of Buildings for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" A5. Building Size, Number of Buildings for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",4859,2586,948,810,261,147,74,26,8 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",386,162,56,60,48,39,16,5,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",226,164,44,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

479

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 Planned changes in a Federal agency's size, missions, transportation needs, and vehicle inventory all impact the strategic portfolio planning efforts that target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation for vehicles and mobile equipment. Under Section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and Section 8 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, agencies are required to develop a plan that will reduce fleet GHG emissions to meet Federally mandated petroleum reduction and alternative fuel increase targets. Agencies can use these plans as a basis for determining potential changes in fleet size and

480

Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Agency/Company /Organization: Asian Development Bank Focus Area: Governance - Planning - Decision-Making Structure Topics: Best Practices Complexity/Ease of Use: Not Available Website: sti-india-uttoolkit.adb.org/ Transport Toolkit Region(s): Asia Related Tools Promoting Clean Cars: Case Study of Stockholm and Sweden MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) The World Bank - Transport ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This resource is designed to help decision makers and practitioners in states and municipal governments who are concerned with urban transport

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481

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: February 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Ongoing changes in the operation of distribution grids call for a new way to plan grid modifications. This presentation gives an overview of possible methods of long-term planning for the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (distributed generation, storage and controllable loads) in a given grid. The placement and sizing of the units have to be considered, making this a complex optimization problem with discrete and continuous variables. In the optimization problem, multiple objectives are often conflicting, e.g. minimal grid losses, maximal use of the resources and voltage stability. An evolutionary algorithm (genetic algorithms) is used

482

Buildings","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A6. Building Size, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" A6. Building Size, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",71658,6922,7033,12659,9382,10291,10217,7494,7660 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",9874,409,399,931,1756,2690,2167,1420,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",1255,409,356,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

483

Buildings*","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B7. Building Size, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" B7. Building Size, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,6789,6585,11535,8668,9057,9064,7176,5908 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",9874,409,399,931,1756,2690,2167,1420,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",1255,409,356,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

484

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Effects of Aerosol Size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Polarization in the Oxygen A-Band Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany A vector radiative transfer code with successive order of scattering method was used to simulate the high-resolution polarization spectra in the oxygen A-band. The effects of aerosol size distribution and vertical profile on the radiance and polarization at the top and bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed. The impacts of instrument specification on information content are also analyzed. Polarized radiances were dominated (>95%) by the first and second orders of scattering. The contributions of scattering from different levels to the TOA and surface observation are analyzed. The

485

Mid-Size Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Mid-Size Wind Turbines Jump to: navigation, search A Vergnet GEV MP C 275-kW turbine at the Sandywoods Community, Rhode island. Photo from Stefan Dominioni/Vergnet S.A., NREL 26490. The U.S. Department of Energy defines mid-size wind turbines as 101 kilowatts to 1 megawatt.[1] Resources Kwartin, R.; Wolfrum, A.; Granfield, K.; Kagel, A.; Appleton, A. (2008). An Analysis of the Technical and Economic Potential for Mid-Scale Distributed Wind. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed September 27, 2013. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Midsize Wind Turbine Research. Accessed September 27, 2013. This webpage discusses efforts to develop and commercialize mid-size wind turbines in the United States. References

486

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members September 16, 2007 - 2:33pm Addthis Nations Sign On to International Cooperation for Safe Expansion of Nuclear Energy Worldwide VIENNA, AUSTRIA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and senior international officials from 16 nations today agreed to increase international nuclear energy cooperation through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). China, France, Japan, Russia and the United States, who are original GNEP partners, as well as Australia, Bulgaria, Ghana, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Ukraine signed a "Statement of Principles", which addresses the prospects of expanding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including enhanced

487

Excitons and Excess Electrons in Nanometer Size Molecular Polyoxotitanate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Excitons and Excess Electrons in Nanometer Size Molecular Polyoxotitanate Excitons and Excess Electrons in Nanometer Size Molecular Polyoxotitanate Clusters: Electronic Spectra, Exciton Dynamics, and Surface States Jianhua Bao, Zhihao Yu, Lars Gundlach, Jason B. Benedict, Philip Coppens, Hung Cheng Chen, John R. Miller and Piotr Piotrowiak J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 4422-4430 (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The behavior of excitons and excess electrons in the confined space of a molecular polyoxotitanate cluster Ti17(mu4-O)4(mu3-O)16(mu2-O)4(OPri)20 (in short Ti17) was studied using femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption, pulse radiolysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to pronounced quantum size effects, the electronic spectra of the exciton, Ti17*, and the excess electron carrying radical anion, Ti17(center dot-), are blue-shifted in

488

Microsoft Word - Nano-sized Ion Exchange Particles.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reducing Ion Exchange Particles to Nano-Size Shows Big Potential Reducing Ion Exchange Particles to Nano-Size Shows Big Potential AIKEN, S.C. (January 30, 2012) - Sometimes bigger isn't better. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory have successfully shown that they can replace useful little particles of monosodium titanate (MST) with even tinier nano-sized particles, making them even more useful for a variety of applications. MST is an ion exchange material used to decontaminate radioactive and industrial wastewater solutions, and has been shown to be an effective way to deliver metals into living cells for some types of medical treatment. Typically, MST, and a modified form known as mMST developed by SRNL and Sandia National Laboratories, are in the form of fine powders, spherically-shaped particles about 1 to 10 microns in diameter

489

Diffusion maximum as a function of size in dense liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the diffusion of small guest particles of different sizes i