National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for measured downhole temperatures

  1. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  2. Diagnosis of Acid Placement from Downhole Temperature Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Xuehao

    2012-10-19

    average area B(Vi) function of interstitial velocity 0 HClC concentration of HCl Cn covariance matrix Cpf heat capacity of the wellbore fluid Cps heat capacity of acid solution CpR heat capacity of rock c(t) time-dependent function... for estimating injection temperature D depth D(t) time function in the wormhole model Dtotal total depth of the wellbore section d observed data vector e residual vector ek specific kinetic energy ep specific potential energy eR specific...

  3. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  4. Feasibility and Design Studies for a High Temperature Downhole Tool

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Project objective: Perform feasibility and design studies for a high temperature downhole tool; which uses nuclear techniques for characterization purposes; using measurements and modeling/simulation.

  5. DOWNHOLE ENTHALPY MEASUREMENT IN GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-186 DOWNHOLE ENTHALPY MEASUREMENT IN GEOTHERMAL WELLS WITH FIBER OPTICS Nilufer Atalay June 2008 Financial support was provided through the Stanford Geothermal Program under Idaho National University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering and Earth Sciences STANFORD

  6. Application of the Ensemble Kalman Filter to Estimate Fracture Parameters in Unconventional Horizontal Wells by Downhole Temperature Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzales, Sergio Eduardo

    2013-07-23

    performance in hydraulic fractured wells in real time by the aid of fiber optic. However, no applications have yet been attempted to describe or estimate the fracture parameters using distributed temperature sensing as the observation parameter. The Ensemble...

  7. Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Plamp

    2008-06-30

    As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

  8. High-Temperature Downhole Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to:Hershey,High-Temperature Downhole Tools Jump to:

  9. Advances in downhole sampling of high temperature solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayhurst, G.K.; Janecky, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    A fluid sampler capable of sampling hot and/or deep wells has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In collaboration with Leutert Instruments, an off-the-shelf sampler design was modified to meet gas-tight and minimal chemical reactivity/contamination specifications for use in geothermal wells and deep ocean drillholes. This downhole sampler has been routinely used at temperatures up to 300{degrees}C and hole depths of greater than 5 km. We have tested this sampler in various continental wells, including Valles Caldera VC-2a and VC-2b, German KTB, Cajon Pass, and Yellowstone Y-10. Both the standard commercial and enhanced samplers have also been used to obtain samples from a range of depths in the Ocean Drilling Project's hole 504B and during recent mid-ocean ridge drilling efforts. The sampler has made it possible to collect samples at temperatures and conditions beyond the limits of other tools with the added advantage of chemical corrosion resistance.

  10. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, Matthew; Hazelton, Craig; Kano, Kimi

    2010-12-31

    The development of highly reliable downhole equipment is an essential element in enabling the widespread utilization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The downhole equipment used in these systems will be required to operate at high voltages and temperatures on the order of 200 to 250°C (and eventually to 300?C). These conditions exceed the practical operating ranges of currently available thermoplastic wire insulations, and thus limit the operating lifetime of tools such as Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs). In this work, high-temperature insulations based on composite materials were developed and demonstrated. The products of this work were found to exhibit electrical resistivities and dielectric breakdown strengths that PEEK at temperatures above 250C. In addition, sub-scale motor windings were fabricated and tested to validate the performance of this technology

  11. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager Waveguide-based Ultrasonic and Far-field Electromagnetic Sensors for Downhole Reservoir Characterization High Temperature ESP Monitoring...

  12. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alamos National Laboratory High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling May 19, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or...

  13. Downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  14. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  15. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  16. Interpreting Horizontal Well Flow Profiles and Optimizing Well Performance by Downhole Temperature and Pressure Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhuoyi

    2011-02-22

    . Because of geothermal gradient, formation temperature along the depth of the wellbore changes significantly. At such a situation, some small thermal effects, such as fluid thermal expansion and viscous dissipation heating, can be ignored compared... data. For horizontal wells, because geothermal temperature changes are relatively small, the dominating effects on the wellbore temperature changes may be thermal expansion, viscous dissipative heating, and thermal conduction. Model for temperature...

  17. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature ESP motor windings for use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems and operation at 300?C.

  18. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  19. Downhole telemetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, R.A.; Kadlec, E.R.

    1994-11-08

    A downhole telemetry system is described for optically communicating to the surface operating parameters of a drill bit during ongoing drilling operations. The downhole telemetry system includes sensors mounted with a drill bit for monitoring at least one operating parameter of the drill bit and generating a signal representative thereof. The downhole telemetry system includes means for transforming and optically communicating the signal to the surface as well as means at the surface for producing a visual display of the optically communicated operating parameters of the drill bit. 7 figs.

  20. Downhole telemetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, Randy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Kadlec, Emil R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A downhole telemetry system is described for optically communicating to the surface operating parameters of a drill bit during ongoing drilling operations. The downhole telemetry system includes sensors mounted with a drill bit for monitoring at least one operating parameter of the drill bit and generating a signal representative thereof. The downhole telemetry system includes means for transforming and optically communicating the signal to the surface as well as means at the surface for producing a visual display of the optically communicated operating parameters of the drill bit.

  1. Downhole Data Transmission System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-04-06

    A system for transmitting data through a string of down-hole components. In accordance with one aspect, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each downhole component includes a pin end and a box end, with the pin end of one downhole component being adapted to be connected to the box end of another. Each pin end includes external threads and an internal pin face distal to the external threads. Each box end includes an internal shoulder face with internal threads distal to the internal shoulder face. The internal pin face and the internal shoulder face are aligned with and proximate each other when the pin end of the one component is threaded into a box end of the other component.

  2. Three phase downhole separator process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cognata, Louis John (Baytown, TX)

    2008-06-24

    Three Phase Downhole Separator Process (TPDSP) is a process which results in the separation of all three phases, (1) oil, (2) gas, and (3) water, at the downhole location in the well bore, water disposal injection downhole, and oil and gas production uphole.

  3. Downhole transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  4. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  5. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  6. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  7. Downhole thermoacoustic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, O. L.; Malchenok, V. O.; Maxutov, R. A.; Mordukhaev, K. M.; Ostrovsky, A. P.

    1985-12-17

    A downhole thermoacoustic device comprises a heater with a terminal chamber, connected to a source or radiator of acoustic oscillation, including a hollow housing having mounted therein a longitudinal shaft carrying coils with cores in the form of a plurality of flat rings of a magnetostrictive material, operable as the active elements adapted to generate acoustic oscillation. Accommodated intermediate the coils is a member for focusing the acoustic field, in the form of a sleeve, while the longitudinal shaft carries a tube-shaped reflector of acoustic oscillation internally of the core of each coil. The top and bottom portions of the hollow housing of the radiator of acoustic oscillation have mounted therein damping elements including sleeves of a resilient material, while a heat-insulating member including a sleeve with a fluted surface is provided intermediate the terminal chamber of the heater and the hollow housing of the radiator.

  8. Downhole Data Transmission System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2003-12-30

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  9. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  10. 275 C Downhole Microcomputer System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Hutchens; Hooi Miin Soo

    2008-08-31

    An HC11 controller IC and along with serial SRAM and ROM support ICs chip set were developed to support a data acquisition and control for extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions greater than 275 C. The 68HC11 microprocessor is widely used in well logging tools for control, data acquisition, and signal processing applications and was the logical choice for a downhole controller. This extreme temperature version of the 68HC11 enables new high temperature designs and additionally allows 68HC11-based well logging tools and MWD tools to be upgraded for high temperature operation in deep gas reservoirs, The microcomputer chip consists of the microprocessor ALU, a small boot ROM, 4 kbyte data RAM, counter/timer unit, serial peripheral interface (SPI), asynchronous serial interface (SCI), and the A, B, C, and D parallel ports. The chip is code compatible with the single chip mode commercial 68HC11 except for the absence of the analog to digital converter system. To avoid mask programmed internal ROM, a boot program is used to load the microcomputer program from an external mask SPI ROM. A SPI RAM IC completes the chip set and allows data RAM to be added in 4 kbyte increments. The HC11 controller IC chip set is implemented in the Peregrine Semiconductor 0.5 micron Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process using a custom high temperature cell library developed at Oklahoma State University. Yield data is presented for all, the HC11, SPI-RAM and ROM. The lessons learned in this project were extended to the successful development of two high temperature versions of the LEON3 and a companion 8 Kbyte SRAM, a 200 C version for the Navy and a 275 C version for the gas industry.

  11. Acoustical Communications for Wireless Downhole Telemetry Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farraj, Abdallah

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation investigates the use of advanced acoustical communication techniques for wireless downhole telemetry systems. Using acoustic waves for downhole telemetry systems is investigated in order to replace the wired communication systems...

  12. Downhole tool adapted for telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

    2010-12-14

    A cycleable downhole tool such as a Jar, a hydraulic hammer, and a shock absorber adapted for telemetry. This invention applies to other tools where the active components of the tool are displaced when the tool is rotationally or translationally cycled. The invention consists of inductive or contact transmission rings that are connected by an extensible conductor. The extensible conductor permits the transmission of the signal before, after, and during the cycling of the tool. The signal may be continuous or intermittent during cycling. The invention also applies to downhole tools that do not cycle, but in operation are under such stress that an extensible conductor is beneficial. The extensible conductor may also consist of an extensible portion and a fixed portion. The extensible conductor also features clamps that maintain the conductor under stresses greater than that seen by the tool, and seals that are capable of protecting against downhole pressure and contamination.

  13. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  14. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  15. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

  16. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  17. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  18. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Richard G. (Las Cruces, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  19. Downhole component with a pressure equalization passageway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Reynolds, Jay T.; Breihan, James W.; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-08-22

    The present invention includes a downhole component adapted for transmitting downhole data. The downhole component includes a threaded end on a downhole component. The threaded end furthermore includes an interior region, and exterior region, and a mating surface wherein a cavity is formed. A data transmission element is disposed in the cavity and displaces a volume of the cavity. At least one passageway is formed in the threaded region between interior and exterior regions. The passageway is in fluid communication with both the interior and exterior regions and thereby relieves pressure build up of thread lubricant upon tool joint make up.

  20. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  1. Field application of an interpretation method of downhole temperature and pressure data for detecting water entry in horizontal/highly inclined gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achinivu, Ochi I.

    2009-05-15

    and temperature gauges and fiber optic sensors. The monitoring instruments are increasingly incorporated as part of the intelligent completion in oil wells where they provide bottomhole temperature, pressure and sometimes volumetric flow rate along the wellbore...

  2. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  3. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1994-09-06

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drill string in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drill string at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone. 6 figs.

  4. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  5. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, R.A.; Lockwood, G.J.; Gonzales, M.

    1998-03-03

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe. 6 figs.

  6. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, Randy A. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Grant J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gonzales, Meliton (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe.

  7. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  8. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 şC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 şC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  9. Downhole vibration sensing by vibration energy harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trimble, A. Zachary

    2007-01-01

    This thesis outlines the design of a prototype electromagnetic induction vibration energy harvesting device for use in a downhole environment. First order models of the necessary components for a generic vibration energy ...

  10. Phase-controlled rectification for permanent-magnet downhole alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, Patrick L

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops a method of phase-controlled rectification to be used with permanent-magnet downhole alternators. The design faces unique challenges imposed by the downhole environment. The thesis discusses the design, ...

  11. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Daly, Jeffery E. (Cypress, TX)

    2009-05-05

    A system for transmitting information between downhole components has a first downhole component with a first mating surface and a second downhole component having a second mating surface configured to substantially mate with the first mating surface. The system also has a first transmission element with a first communicating surface and is mounted within a recess in the first mating surface. The first transmission element also has an angled surface. The recess has a side with multiple slopes for interacting with the angled surface, each slope exerting a different spring force on the first transmission element. A second transmission element has a second communicating surface mounted proximate the second mating surface and adapted to communicate with the first communicating surface.

  12. Drilling Optimization Utilizing Surface Instrumentaton for Downhole Event Recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Cohen; Greg Deskins

    2006-02-01

    This DOE project was undertaken to develop and test an instrumented data-acquisition sub that is mounted in a drill string below the top drive and used to detect downhole events. Data recorded at the surface during drilling operations would then be processed and presented to the driller to discern undesirable drilling conditions and help optimize drilling rates and maximize the life of components in the BHA. This instrumented sub was originally conceived and developed solely as a single-point collection center for rig data that would be used in a number of Noble's products. The sub was designed to collect hook load, rotary torque, rotary speed, rotary position, drill pipe pressure, mud temperature, triaxial vibration, and triaxial magnetometer data. The original design and fabrication was by Sandia National Labs under Noble's direction, which was then tested with Sandia's diagnostics-while-drilling downhole package. After initial results were analyzed, the team surmised that important information describing performance and condition of the bottom-hole assembly (BHA) was embedded in the data recorded by the instrumented sub, and began investigating the potential of using surface measurements from the sub to highlight problems occurring downhole before they could be discerned by the driller. Later, a proposal was submitted to DOE for funding to more broadly investigate use of the system for detecting downhole problems while drilling. Soon after DOE awarded this contract, the Noble team responsible for the previous developments was disbanded and their work terminated (due to factors unrelated to the sub development). This change halted the complementary work that Noble had planned to conduct during the DOE project, and necessitated that all the development work be completed by the DOE project. More effort was expended on the project to develop a field-ready prototype than was originally foreseen. The sub's design had to be significantly modified during the project based on results of field tests. The original slip ring for communication was replaced with a radio link, which makes the sub easier to move to different rigs and simplifies the set-up process. In addition, the sub's previous design would prevent it being used on oil and gas rigs due to potential explosion hazard. The sub was redesigned so that during operation all electrical components on the sub are under a blanket of nitrogen. A pressure switch is used so that, should a leak develop, the sub will shut itself down until any problems are repaired. A total of four series of field tests were conducted. The first (mentioned above) was part of the original Noble-sponsored program and in conjunction with Sandia's diagnostics-while-drilling system. Although these tests highlighted important problems, they showed significant promise for the concept, and the sub was returned to Sandia for early repairs and modifications. After the DOE project took possession of the sub, it was tested three more times in the field. The first two DOE tests had the same objective, which was to establish that the sub could function correctly on the rig and deliver usable data, and to develop procedures for setting up and operating the sub and support computer on a rig. During the first test most of the time was spent troubleshooting the sub. Several significant problems were revealed, demonstrating that the current design was not robust enough to survive typical oil field operations. The sub was then redesigned to increase its robustness and allow it to run safely in areas where explosive gases might be present. Once these changes were implemented, the sub was sent to a second shake-down field test. The new design was found to be greatly improved. The sub operated throughout the test, and quality of the data was significantly higher. Near the end of this project, a final field test was conducted with the objective of creating (or simulating) specific problem conditions and recording data to determine if signatures could be recorded and identified that, after analysis, might signify particula

  13. Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2005-07-05

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

  14. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-02-21

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

  15. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  16. Remote down-hole well telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Freund, Samuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-07-20

    The present invention includes an apparatus and method for telemetry communication with oil-well monitoring and recording instruments located in the vicinity of the bottom of gas or oil recovery pipes. Such instruments are currently monitored using electrical cabling that is inserted into the pipes; cabling has a short life in this environment, and requires periodic replacement with the concomitant, costly shutdown of the well. Modulated reflectance, a wireless communication method that does not require signal transmission power from the telemetry package will provide a long-lived and reliable way to monitor down-hole conditions. Normal wireless technology is not practical since batteries and capacitors have to frequently be replaced or recharged, again with the well being removed from service. RF energy generated above ground can also be received, converted and stored down-hole without the use of wires, for actuating down-hole valves, as one example. Although modulated reflectance reduces or eliminates the loss of energy at the sensor package because energy is not consumed, during the transmission process, additional stored extra energy down-hole is needed.

  17. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe R. (Provo, UT)

    2004-10-05

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  18. Downhole Vibration Monitoring and Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2007-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. The key feature of this system is its use of a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) to allow the damping coefficient to be changed extensively, rapidly and reversibly without the use of mechanical valves, but only by the application of a current. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. Much of the effort was devoted to the design and testing of the MRF damper, itself. The principal objectives of Phase II were: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in a drilling laboratory. Phase II concluded on January 31, 2006, and a final report was issued. Work on Phase III of the project began during the first quarter, 2006, with the objectives of building precommercial prototypes, testing them in a drilling laboratory and the field; developing and implementing a commercialization plan. All of these have been accomplished. The Downhole Vibration Monitoring & Control System (DVMCS) prototypes have been successfully proven in testing at the TerraTek drilling facility and at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (RMOTC.) Based on the results of these tests, we have signed a definitive development and distribution agreement with Smith, and commercial deployment is underway. This current version of the DVMCS monitors and controls axial vibrations. Due to time and budget constraints of this program, it was not possible to complete a system that would also deal with lateral and torsional (stick-slip) vibrations as originally planned; however, this effort is continuing without DOE funding.

  19. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  1. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Tubel

    2003-03-24

    The first quarter of the Downhole Power Generation and Wireless Communications for Intelligent Completions Applications was characterized by the evaluation and determination of the specifications required for the development of the system for permanent applications in wellbores to the optimization of hydrocarbon production. The system will monitor and transmit in real time pressure and temperature information from downhole using the production tubing as the medium for the transmission of the acoustic waves carrying digital information. The most common casing and tubing sizes were determined by interfacing with the major oil companies to obtain information related to their wells. The conceptual design was created for both the wireless gauge section of the tool as well as the power generation module. All hardware for the wireless gauge will be placed in an atmospheric pressure chamber located on the outside of a production tubing with 11.4 centimeter (4-1/2 inch) diameter. This mounting technique will reduce cost as well as the diameter and length of the tool and increase the reliability of the system. The power generator will use piezoelectric wafers to generate electricity based on the flow of hydrocarbons through an area in the wellbore where the tool will be deployed. The goal of the project is to create 1 Watt of power continuously.

  2. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  3. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided.

  4. Polished Downhole Transducer Having Improved Signal Coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    Apparatus and methods to improve signal coupling in downhole inductive transmission elements to reduce the dispersion of magnetic energy at the tool joints and to provide consistent impedance and contact between transmission elements located along the drill string. A transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including an annular core constructed of a magnetically conductive material. The annular core forms an open channel around its circumference and is configured to form a closed channel by mating with a corresponding annular core along an annular mating surface. The mating surface is polished to provide improved magnetic coupling with the corresponding annular core. An annular conductor is disposed within the open channel.

  5. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  6. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  7. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehl, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  8. Downhole pipe selection for acoustic telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1995-12-19

    A system is described for transmitting signals along a downhole string including a plurality of serially connected tubular pipes such as drill or production pipes, a transmitter for transmitting a signal along the string and a receiver for receiving the signal placed along the string at a location spaced from said transmitting means, wherein the pipes between the transmitter and the receiver are ordered according to length of tube to minimize loss of signal from said transmitter to said receiver. 7 figs.

  9. Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall; David R. (Provo, UT), Fox; Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-04-03

    A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

  10. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  11. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: 1. Optical fibers that resist hydrogen Ťdarkening? for several months instead of hours and days at 300 deg. C and higher. 2. Tube encapsulated cable (TEC) construction that functions as a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) and a power source for a downhole pressure sensor.

  12. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  13. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  14. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  15. Energy Storage and Generation for Extreme Temperature and Pressure and Directional Measurement While Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Signorelli, Riccardo; Cooley, John

    2015-10-14

    FastCAP Systems Corporation has successfully completed all milestones defined by the award DE-EE0005503. Under this program, FastCAP developed three critical subassemblies to TRL3 demonstrating proof of concept of a geothermal MWD power source. This power source includes an energy harvester, electronics and a novel high temperature ultracapacitor (“ultracap”) rechargeable energy storage device suitable for geothermal exploration applications. FastCAP’s ruggedized ultracapacitor (ultracap) technology has been proven and commercialized in oil and gas exploration operating to rated temperatures of 150°C. Characteristics of this technology are that it is rechargeable and relatively high power. This technology was the basis for the advancements in rechargeable energy storage under this project. The ultracap performs reliably at 250°C and beyond and operates over a wide operating temperature range: -5°C to 250°C. The ultracap has significantly higher power density than lithium thionyl chloride batteries, a non-rechargeable incumbent used in oil and gas drilling today. Several hermetically sealed, prototype devices were tested in our laboratories at constant temperatures of 250°C showing no significant degradation over 2000 hours of operation. Other prototypes were tested at Sandia National Lab in the month of April, 2015 for a third party performance validation. These devices showed outstanding performance over 1000 hours of operation at three rated temperatures, 200°C, 225°C and 250°C, with negligible capacitance degradation and minimal equivalent series resistance (ESR) increase. Similarly, FastCAP’s ruggedized electronics have been proven and commercialized in oil and gas exploration operating to rated temperatures of 150°C. This technology was the basis for the advancements in downhole electronics under this project. Principal contributions here focused on design for manufacture innovations that have reduced the prototype build cycle time by a factor of 10x. The electronics have demonstrated a substantially reduced design cycle time by way of process and material selection innovations and have been qualified for 250°C / 10 Grms for at least 200 hours. FastCAP has also invented a rotary inertial energy generator (RIEG) to harvest various mechanical energy sources that exist downhole. This device is flow-independent and has been demonstrated as a proof of concept to survive geothermal well temperatures under this project. The herein energy harvester has been developed to provide operational power by harvesting rotational mechanical energy that exists downhole in geothermal drilling. The energy harvester has been tested at 250°C / 10 Grms for 200 hours. Deployment of these technologies in geothermal drilling and exploration applications could have an immediate and significant impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of drilling processes, particularly with regard to use of advanced logging and monitoring techniques. The ultimate goal of this work is to reduce drilling risk to make geothermal energy more attractive and viable to the customer. Generally speaking, we aim to support the transfer of MWD techniques from oil and gas to geothermal exploration with considerations toward the practical differences between the two. One of the most significant obstacles to the deployment of advanced drilling and production techniques in the geothermal context are limitations related to the maximum operating temperatures of downhole batteries used to provide power for downhole sensors, steering tools, telemetry equipment and other MWD/LWD technologies. FastCAP’s higher temperature ultracapacitor technology will provide power solutions for similar advanced drilling and production techniques, even in the harsher environments associated with geothermal energy production. This ultracapacitor will enable downhole power solutions for the geothermal industry capable of the same reliable and safe operation our team has demonstrated in the oil and gas context. Without batteries, geothermal MWD is left without a downhole power

  16. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  17. Data Transmission System For A Downhole Component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2005-01-18

    The invention is a system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each component has a first and second end, with a first communication element located at the first end and a second communication element located at the second end. Each communication element includes a first contact and a second contact. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second communication elements, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The system also includes a first and second connector for connecting the first and second communication elements respectively to the coaxial cable. Each connector includes a conductive sleeve, lying concentrically within the conductive tube, which fits around and makes electrical contact with the conductive core. The conductive sleeve is electrically isolated from the conductive tube. The conductive sleeve of the first connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the first communication element, the conductive sleeve of the second connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the second communication element, and the conductive tube is in electrical contact with both the second contact of the first communication element and the second contact of the second communication element.

  18. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  19. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  20. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  1. Signal connection for a downhole tool string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-08-29

    A signal transmission connection for a tool string used in exploration and production of natural resources, namely: oil, gas, and geothermal energy resources. The connection comprises first and second annular elements deployed in cooperative association with each other. The respective elements comprise inductive transducers that are capable of two-way signal transmission between each other, with downhole components of the tool string, and with ground-level equipment. The respective inductive transducers comprise one or more conductive loops housed within ferrite troughs, or within ferrite trough segments. When energized, the conductive loops produce a magnetic field suitable for transmitting the signal. The second element may be rotational in drilling applications. The respective elements may be fitted with electronic equipment to aid and manipulate the transmission of the signal. The first element may also be in communication with the World Wide Web.

  2. State of the art reactor temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grieb, B.J. [GAYESCO, Larkspur, CA (United States); Strebel, M. [GAYESCO, Houston, TX (United States); Bertram, R. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Johnson, P.S. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    More reactive catalyst as well as the need for increased efficiencies and decreased emissions have led to the development of temperature monitoring systems with greatly increased capabilities. Subjects considered are limitations of conventional systems, point density, discreteness of measurement points, accuracy, response time, safety, financial return and enhanced process control with resulting improved operator confidence and expanded diagnostic capabilities. Operational experience by two different hydrocracker licensers is discussed.

  3. Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, Don F. (Albuquerque, NM); St. Clair, Jack A. (Albuquerque, NM); Togami, Henry K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

  4. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  5. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thiesen, Todd J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the continuous high temperature measurement of materials in vessels lined with rammed or cast refractory materials. A refractory housing member is integral with the refractory lining of the vessel and contains a plurality of high temperature sensing means, such as thermocouples. A face of the housing is flush with the refractory lining and contacts the high temperature material contained in the vessel. Continuous temperature measurement is achieved by a means which is coupled to the thermocouples for indicating the temperature.

  6. Fabrication, assembly, bench and drilling tests of two prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bookwalter, R.; Duettra, P.D.; Johnson, P.; Lyons, W.C.; Miska, S.

    1987-04-01

    The first and second prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors have been fabricated, assembled and tested. All bench tests showed that the motor will produce horsepower and bit speeds approximating the predicted values. Specifically, the downhole pneumatic turbine motor produced approximately 50 horsepower at 100 rpm, while being supplied with about 3600 SCFM of compressed air. The first prototype was used in a drilling test from a depth of 389 feet to a depth of 789 feet in the Kirtland formation. This first prototype motor drilled at a rate exceeding 180 ft/hr, utilizing only 3000 SCFM of compressed air. High temperature tests (at approximately 460/sup 0/F) were carried out on the thrust assembly and the gearboxes for the two prototypes. These components operated successfully at these temperatures. Although the bench and drilling tests were successful, the tests revealed design changes that should be made before drilling tests are carried out in geothermal boreholes at the Geysers area, near Santa Rosa, California.

  7. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  8. NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF DEEP TISSUE TEMPERATURE CHANGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yodh, Arjun G.

    deep tissue temperature using subtle spectral features of the water peak at 975 nm.3 A signi- ging (DOSI) to measure deep tissue temperature, using spectral features of the water absorption peakNON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF DEEP TISSUE TEMPERATURE CHANGES CAUSED BY APOPTOSIS DURING BREAST

  9. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany); Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D. [Ruhrkohle Bergbau AG, Bottrop (Germany). Prosper Coking Plant; Platts, M. [Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  10. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well during a routine removal activity. The tool cannot operate in this condition and remains in the well. There was no response measured during or afterwards to either the produced fluids from the five production wells or in the injection characteristics of the two injection wells in the pilot test area. Monitoring the pilot area injection and production wells ceased when the field test was terminated March 14, 2003. Thus, a key goal of this project, which was to determine the effects of vibration stimulation on improving oil recovery from a mature waterflood, was not obtained. While there was no improved oil recovery effect measured, there was insufficient vibration stimulation time to expect a change to occur. No conclusion can be drawn about the effectiveness of vibration stimulation in this test.

  11. Full vector low-temperature magnetic measurements of geologic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Joshua M; Solheid, Peter A; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L; Jackson, Mike J; Bowles, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    511. FEINBERG ET AL. : THREE-AXIS LOW-TEMPERATURE REMANENCEof pyrrhotite as determined by low- and high-field experi-10.1029/, Full vector low-temperature magnetic measurements

  12. Improvements in Shallow (Two-Meter) Temperature Measurements...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Measurements and Data Interpretation Abstract The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy has been working on improvements in shallow (two-meter) temperature surveys in two...

  13. Temperature coefficients for PV modules and arrays: Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    methods, difficulties, and results King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E. 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR CELL ARRAYS; SOLAR CELLS; MEASURING METHODS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE;...

  14. Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering and Scientific Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  15. Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hybrid fsps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurements Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid fsps...

  16. Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature measurements in MTF plasmas using Pulsed Polarimetry final report Authors: Smith, Roger J. Publication Date: 2014-08-11 OSTI Identifier: 1149491 Report Number(s): 001...

  17. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2001-09-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS)/DOE Annual Workshop in Oklahoma City May 8,9 2001 has been submitted for publication to the OGS. A technical paper draft has been submitted for the ASME/ETCE conference (Feb 2002) Production Technology Symposium. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors. In addition, a proposed technical paper has been submitted for this meeting.

  19. Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    mainly because of thermal reasons. Satel- lite thermal management systems, hot sections of propulsion,turbomachineryflowsimulators, jet engine demonstrators, composite manufacturing facilities, and rocket engines ­ all require a large balanced by the kinetic energy of the individual particles. Temperature in a material can be regarded

  20. Relaxation calorimetry technique for measuring low temperature specific heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei, Eva Y.

    Relaxation calorimetry technique for measuring low temperature specific heat R. W. Newsome, Jr the temperature dependence of the specific heat of a 10 thick 0.62 mg copolymer film of vinylidene fluoride. INTRODUCTION Design improvements over recent years enable some calorimeters to precisely measure the specific

  1. Drilling jar for use in a downhole network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; McPherson, James; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods for integrating transmission cable into the body of selected downhole tools, such as drilling jars, having variable or changing lengths. A wired downhole-drilling tool is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a housing and a mandrel insertable into the housing. A coiled cable is enclosed within the housing and has a first end connected to the housing and a second end connected to the mandrel. The coiled cable is configured to stretch and shorten in accordance with axial movement between the housing and the mandrel. A clamp is used to fix the coiled cable with respect to the housing, the mandrel, or both, to accommodate a change of tension in the coiled cable.

  2. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC Porto—Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Física, da Faculdade de Cięncias, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5?×?10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3?×?10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  4. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  5. Use of Downhole Motors in Geothermal Drilling in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyle, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of downhole motors in the Tiwi geothermal field in the Philippines, The discussion includes the application Of a Dyna-Drill with insert-type bits for drilling through surface alluvium. The economics of this type of drilling are compared to those of conventional rotary drilling. The paper also describes the use of a turbodrill that drills out scale as the well produces geothermal fluids.

  6. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel sensor design based on acoustics. Determine in real-timeand in a single sensor packagemultiple parameters: temperature, pressure, fluid flow; and fluid properties, such as density, viscosity, fluid composition.

  7. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.

    1999-01-19

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature. 5 figs.

  8. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Ericson, M. Nance (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  9. Static downhole characteristics of well CGEH-1 at Coso Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are in the upper-cased portion of the well. Downhole chemical sampling suggests that the borehole still contains remnants of drilling materials. The well has never been...

  10. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  11. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

    2007-09-15

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  12. Measurement of ICF fuel ion temperature on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Chrien, R.E.

    1994-02-01

    A new diagnostic for measuring the average fuel ion temperature in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets at the time of peak burn has been constructed by Los Alamos and installed on the Nova Laser System at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This ion-temperature diagnostic measures the time-of-flight of fusion neutrons and determines the thermonuclear-reaction-weighted ion temperature through the time-of-arrival distribution. Preliminary experiments have been designed and performed to test the diagnostic. These tests measured the ion temperature of targets designed to have varying temperatures and yields. Additionally, an experiment has been designed to examine the cause of the increase in yield degradation (compared to clean 1-D calculations) as the capsule convergence is increased. Understanding the cause of yield degradation in high convergence implosions is necessary to increase the confidence of the target performance for the next generation National Ignition Facility planned by the US ICF Program.

  13. Study of Windows Effects for Shock Wave Temperature Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. D. Turley, G. Stevens, L. Veeser, D. Holtkamp, A. Seifter

    2011-05-25

    Temperature measurements of shocked plutonium are needed for improved understanding of its equation of state (EOS) and will enable better understanding and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapon stockpile.

  14. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  15. Category:Downhole Fluid Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,Cammack Village,8199089°,AnalyticalCuttings AnalysisDownhole Fluid

  16. Multipoint Pressure and Temperature Sensing Fiber Optic Cable for Monitoring CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Challener, William

    2014-12-31

    This report describes the work completed on contract DE-FE0010116. The goal of this two year project was to develop and demonstrate in the laboratory a highly accurate multi-point pressure measurement fiber optic cable based on MEMS pressure sensors suitable for downhole deployment in a CO2 sequestration well. The sensor interrogator was also to be demonstrated in a remote monitoring system and environmental testing was to be completed to indicate its downhole survivability over a lengthy period of time (e.g., 20 years). An interrogator system based on a pulsed laser excitation was shown to be capable of multiple (potentially 100+) simultaneous sensor measurements. Two sensors packages were completed and spliced in a cable onto the same fiber and measured. One sensor package was subsequently measured at high temperatures and pressures in supercritical CO2, while the other package was measured prior and after being subjected to high torque stresses to mimic downhole deployment. The environmental and stress tests indicated areas in which the package design should be further improved.

  17. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  18. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2002-06-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period March 31, 2002 to June 30, 2002. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation Well 111-W-27 is located in section 8 T26N R6E of the North Burbank Unit (NBU), Osage County Oklahoma. It was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The rig moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has performed several core studies on the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements have been conducted. In addition Phillips has prepared a Core Petrology Report, detailing the lithology, stratigraphy and sedimentology for Well 111-W27, NBU. Phillips has also conducted the sonic stimulation core tests, the final sonic stimulation report has not yet been released. Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, began collecting both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area since May 2001. The original 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been thoroughly tested and it has been concluded that it needs to be redesigned. An engineering firm from Fayetteville AR has been retained to assist in developing a new design for the DHVT. The project participants requested from the DOE, a no-cost extension for the project through December 31, 2002. The no-cost extension amendment to the contract was signed during this reporting period. A technical paper SPE 75254 ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation, Osage County, Oklahoma'' was presented at the 2002 SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, in Tulsa OK, April 17, 2002. A one-day short course was conducted at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-14, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI, Brett Davidson and Tim Spanos, Prism Production Technologies, were the instructors. The sixteen attendees also participated in the half-day field trip to the test facility near Tulsa.

  20. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

  1. Development of coherent Raman measurements of temperature in condensed phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Bolme, Cindy A; Moore, David S

    2010-12-08

    We report theoretical considerations and preliminary data on various forms of coherent Raman spectroscopy that have been considered as candidates for measurement of temperature in condensed phase experiments with picosecond time resolution. Due to the inherent broadness and congestion of vibrational features in condensed phase solids, particularly at high temperatures and pressures, only approaches that rely on the ratio of anti-Stokes to Stokes spectral features are considered. Methods that rely on resolution of vibrational progressions, calibration of frequency shifts with temperature and pressure in reference experiments, or detailed comparison to calculation are inappropriate or impossible for our applications. In particular, we consider femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), femtosecond/picosecond hybrid coherent Raman spectroscopy (multiplex CARS), and optical heterodyne detected femtosecond Raman induced Kerr Effect spectroscopy (OHD-FRIKES). We show that only FSRS has the ability to measure temperature via an anti-Stokes to Stokes ratio of peaks.

  2. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Tubel

    2003-07-05

    The third quarter of the project was dedicated to creating the detailed design for the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of the surface system and acoustic detector for the downhole tool for 2 way communications. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) All detailed drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and the drawings were forward to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) The power generator was incorporated to the mandrel of the wireless gauge reducing the length of the tool by 25% and manufacturing cost by about 35%. (3) The new piezoelectric acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly provides a new technique to manufacture large diameter piezoelectric based acoustic generators. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development progressed significantly. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the piezoelectric wafer assembly was designed and manufactured. The transformer has been received and it will go through testing and evaluation during the next quarter.

  3. Simultaneous temperature and velocity Lagrangian measurements in turbulent thermal convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liot, O; Zonta, F; Chibbaro, S; Coudarchet, T; Gasteuil, Y; Pinton, J -F; Salort, J; Chillŕ, F

    2015-01-01

    We report joint Lagrangian velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent thermal convection. Measurements are performed using an improved version (extended autonomy) of the neutrally-buoyant instrumented particle that was used by to performed experiments in a parallelepipedic Rayleigh-Benard cell. The temperature signal is obtained from a RFtransmitter. Simultaneously, we determine particle's position and velocity with one camera, which grants access to the Lagrangian heat flux. Due to the extended autonomy of the present particle, we obtain well converged temperature and velocity statistics, as well as pseudo-eulerian maps of velocity and heat flux. Present experimental results have also been compared with the results obtained by a corresponding campaign of Direct Numerical Simulations and Lagrangian Tracking of massless tracers. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show the accuracy and reliability of our experimental measurements. Finally, the analysis of lagrangian velocity and t...

  4. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Haugen, Gilbert R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

  5. Luminescence imaging for aerodynamic temperature and pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallery, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A luminescent temperature sensitive paint containing the molecule rhodamine B base (rhBb) is described whose emission intensity can be monitored by video camera to produce qualitative and quantitative two dimensional surface temperature maps. This paint was designed for use with the pressure sensitive paint containing platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), but is also a useful tool when used alone in the measurement of heat flow, boundary layer transition, and quantitative surface temperature during wind tunnel studies. The ability of the rhBb paint to produce a continuous temperature map makes it possible to locate structures in the temperature field on an airfoil that are otherwise undetected by surface mounted thermocouples spaced a finite distance apart. A dual temperature/pressure sensitive paint was investigated with both the rhBb and PtOEP dyes incorporated into the silicone polymer paint base of the pressure sensor. Photodegradation and batch variations in the polymer were found to compromise the calibration parameters of the PtOEP paint and therefore the accuracy of pressure predictions. Suggestions are made for improving the prediction ability of the paint. The molecule europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) is also discussed as a temperature sensor for a two layer temperature/pressure paint. EuTTA can not be directly incorporated into the silicone paint base of the PtOEP paint (as the rhBp paint can), but performs well in non-oxygenpermeable coatings. Benefits of the EuTTA temperature paint include: (1) decreased photodegradation, (2) very bright luminescence intensity, and (3) long luminescent lifetime (several hundred microseconds). The long lifetime facilitates lifetime imaging, a technique currently under development as an alternative detection method where luminescent lifetimes rather than emission intensity are related to temperature and pressure.

  6. Surface temperature and spectral measurements at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    Surface temperature and spectral measurements at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala Steve T. M, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA Otoniel Matias INSIVUMEH, Guatemala City, Guatemala Received 4 June 2004; revised 23 July 2004; accepted 20 September 2004; published 13 October 2004

  7. Neutron scattering effects on fusion ion temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, Lee (Bechtel/Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Starner, Jason R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Franklin, James Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Casey, Daniel T.

    2006-06-01

    To support the nuclear fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), a consistent and verifiable method to determine fusion ion temperatures needs to be developed. Since the fusion temperature directly affects the width in the spread of neutron energies produced, a measurement of the neutron energy width can yield the fusion temperature. Traditionally, the spread in neutron energies is measured by using time-of-flight to convert a spread in neutron energies at the source to a spread in time at detector. One potential obstacle to using this technique at the Z facility at SNL is the need to shield the neutron detectors from the intense bremsstrahlung produced. The shielding consists of eight inches of lead and the concern is that neutrons will scatter in the lead, artificially broaden the neutron pulse width and lead to an erroneous measurement. To address this issue, experiments were performed at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, which demonstrated that a reliable ion temperature measurement can be achieved behind eight inches of lead shielding. To further expand upon this finding, Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) was used to simulate the experimental geometric conditions and perform the neutron transport. MCNPX was able to confidently estimate results observed at the University of Rochester.

  8. Temperature measuring analysis of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, F. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Ku?ák, L. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Bereznai, J. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Závodný, Z. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Muškát, P. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk

    2014-08-06

    Study was based on rapid changes of measured temperature values from the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Task was to determine origin of fluctuations of the temperature values by experiments on physical model of the fuel assembly. During an experiment, heated water was circulating in the system and cold water inlet through central tube to record sensitivity of the temperature sensor. Two positions of the sensor was used. First, just above the central tube in the physical model fuel assembly axis and second at the position of the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Dependency of the temperature values on time are presented in the diagram form in the paper.

  9. Temperature Measurement and Phonon Number Statistics of a Nanoelectromechanical Resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. P. de Sá Neto; M. C. de Oliveira; G. J. Milburn

    2015-08-07

    Measuring thermodynamic quantities can be easy or not, depending on the system that is being studied. For a macroscopic object, measuring temperatures can be as simple as measuring how much a column of mercury rises when in contact with the object. At the small scale of quantum electromechanical systems, such simple methods are not available and invariably detection processes disturb the system state. Here we propose a method for measuring the temperature on a suspended semiconductor membrane clamped at both ends. In this method, the membrane is mediating a capacitive coupling between two transmission line resonators (TLR). The first TLR has a strong dispersion, that is, its decaying rate is larger than its drive, and its role is to pump in a pulsed way the interaction between the membrane and the second TLR. By averaging the pulsed measurements of the quadrature of the second TLR we show how the temperature of the membrane can be determined. Moreover the statistical description of the state of the membrane, which is directly accessed in this approach is significantly improved by the addition of a Josephson Junction coupled to the second TLR.

  10. Element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2009-03-31

    An element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole components comprises an annular housing having a generally circular recess. The element further comprises a plurality of generally linear, magnetically conductive segments. Each segment includes a bottom portion, an inner wall portion, and an outer wall portion. The portions together define a generally linear trough from a first end to a second end of each segment. The segments are arranged adjacent to each other within the housing recess to form a generally circular trough. The ends of at least half of the segments are shaped such that the first end of one of the segments is complementary in form to the second end of an adjacent segment. In one embodiment, all of the ends are angled. Preferably, the first ends are angled with the same angle and the second ends are angled with the complementary angle.

  11. Subsea intensifier supplies high pressure to downhole safety valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A subsea high-pressure hydraulic intensifier (HPI) is now available as an alternative method of operating downhole surface-controlled subsea safety valves (SCSSVs). By generating high hydraulic pressures on the seafloor, the system eliminates need for transmitting high pressure via hose from surface. The new intensifier can generate up to 15,000 psi (1,035 bar) from the 3,000-psi (210-bar) low pressure actuator supply already within the umbilical. It uses low pressure hydraulic fluid acting on a large-area piston to push a second piston, one-fifth the cross sectional area, acting in a second hydraulic circuit. To reduce pulsation, the unit is double acting, with one piston drawing in fluid while the other discharges it. This paper reviews the design, performance, and construction of this equipment.

  12. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  13. Detection of water or gas entry into horizontal wells by using permanent downhole monitoring systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshioka, Keita

    2007-09-17

    With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous wellbore temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature-measuring ...

  14. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

  15. Method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving data to and from a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2007-03-13

    A transmission line network system for transmitting and/or receiving data from a downhole tool. The invention is achieved by providing one or more transceiving elements, preferably rings, at either end of a downhole tool. A conduit containing a coaxial cable capable of communicating an electrical signal is attached to the transceiving element and extends through a central bore of the downhole tool and through the central bore of any tool intermediate the first transceiving element and a second transceiving element. Upon receiving an electrical signal from the cable, the second transceiving element may convert such signal to a magnetic field. The magnetic field may be detected by a third transceiving element in close proximity to the second transceiving element. In this manner, many different tools may be included in a downhole transmission network without requiring substantial modification, if any, of any particular tool.

  16. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Inductive coupler for downhole components and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Briscoe, Michael A.; Sneddon, Cameron; Fox, Joe

    2006-05-09

    The present invention includes a method of making an inductive coupler for downhole components. The method includes providing an annular housing, preferably made of steel, the housing having a recess. A conductor, preferably an insulated wire, is also provided along with a plurality of generally U-shaped magnetically conducting, electrically insulating (MCEI) segments. Preferably, the MCEI segments comprise ferrite. An assembly is formed by placing the plurality of MCEI segments within the recess in the annular housing. The segments are aligned to form a generally circular trough. A first portion of the conductor is placed within the circular trough. This assembly is consolidated with a meltable polymer which fills spaces between the segments, annular housing and the first portion of the conductor. The invention also includes an inductive coupler including an annular housing having a recess defined by a bottom portion and two opposing side wall portions. At least one side wall portion includes a lip extending toward but not reaching the other side wall portion. A plurality of generally U-shaped MCEI segments, preferably comprised of ferrite, are disposed in the recess and aligned so as to form a circular trough. The coupler further includes a conductor disposed within the circular trough and a polymer filling spaces between the segments, the annular housing and the conductor.

  18. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mulac, Anthony J. (Tijeras, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2001-12-31

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period September 30, 2001 to December 31, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well was permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has performed standard core analysis on the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements have been conducted. Phillips has begun the sonic stimulation core tests. Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has been to collecting both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area since May 2001. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and has been run in a shallow well for initial power source testing. This testing was done in a temporarily abandoned well, Wynona Waterflood Unit, Well No.20-12 operated by Calumet Oil Co both in October and December 2001. The data acquisition system, and rod rotating equipment performed as designed. However, the DHVT experienced two internal failures during vibration operations. The DHVT has been repaired with modifications to improve its functionality. A proposed technical paper abstract has been accepted by the SPE to be presented at the 2002 SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, in Tulsa OK, 13-17 April 2002. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors.

  20. Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  1. Apparatus and method for compensating for clock drift in downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

    2007-08-07

    A precise downhole clock that compensates for drift includes a prescaler configured to receive electrical pulses from an oscillator. The prescaler is configured to output a series of clock pulses. The prescaler outputs each clock pulse after counting a preloaded number of electrical pulses from the oscillator. The prescaler is operably connected to a compensator module for adjusting the number loaded into the prescaler. By adjusting the number that is loaded into the prescaler, the timing may be advanced or retarded to more accurately synchronize the clock pulses with a reference time source. The compensator module is controlled by a counter-based trigger module configured to trigger the compensator module to load a value into the prescaler. Finally, a time-base logic module is configured to calculate the drift of the downhole clock by comparing the time of the downhole clock with a reference time source.

  2. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-29

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  3. Measurement of brain temperature using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Jehill

    2013-07-06

    The study of brain temperature is important for a number of clinical conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia and birth asphyxia (for neonates). A direct method to estimate brain temperature ...

  4. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  5. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Norton, Paul

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  6. Downhole geothermal well sensors comprising a hydrogen-resistant optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-02-08

    A new class of optical fiber based thermal sensors has been invented. The new sensors comprise hydrogen-resistant optical fibers which are able to withstand a hot, hydrogen-containing environment as is often found in the downhole well environment.

  7. Microseismic mapping of a Cotton Valley hydraulic fracture using decimated downhole arrays J.T. Rutledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microseismic mapping of a Cotton Valley hydraulic fracture using decimated downhole arrays J three hydraulic fracture operations in the Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas. Two 48-level, 3 a consortia of operators and service companies conducted an extensive hydraulic fracture imaging demonstration

  8. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  9. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    0 ABSTRACT The term "temperature coefficient" has been applied to several different photovoltaic performance parameters, including voltage, current, and power. The procedures for...

  10. CFCl3 (CFC-11): UV absorption spectrum temperature dependence measurements and the impact on its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    CFCl3 (CFC-11): UV absorption spectrum temperature dependence measurements and the impact on its, the CFC-11 UV absorption spectrum was measured over a range of wavelength (184.95­230nm) and temperature that is removed primarily via stratospheric UV photolysis. Uncertainty in the temperature dependence of its UV

  11. SUMMER STUDENT WORK PROJECT REPORT Measurement of the sensitivity of emulsion film in low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ieki, Sei

    2013-01-01

    AEGIS experiment aims to measure the gravitational acceleration for antihydrogen. High position resolution detector which can be used in low temperature is needed and one of the candidate is emulsion detector. We have prepared a variable temperature cryostat and measure the relation between sensitivity of emulsion film and temperature.

  12. In situ ultrasonic measurement of photoresist glass transition temperature Susan L. Morton,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    temperature is the glass transition temperature of the resist/solvent mixture and that the rapid increase in phase following it is a result of solvent evaporation. The glass transition temperature (TgIn situ ultrasonic measurement of photoresist glass transition temperature Susan L. Morton,a) F

  13. Spectroscopic measurements of temperature and plasma impurity concentration during magnetic reconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    are monitored by measuring their UV and x-ray line emission.13­15 Spectroscopic tech- niques have been also beenSpectroscopic measurements of temperature and plasma impurity concentration during magnetic 2008; accepted 25 February 2009; published online 7 April 2009 Electron temperature measurements during

  14. Measurement of Temperature Profile in the Reactor Cavity Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhashimi, Tariq Yaqoob Sayed

    2014-12-02

    -cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) based on General Electric Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design to study the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the upper plenum. The facility consists of four vertical parallel riser ducts...

  15. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

    2013-03-01

    This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

  16. Photon-correlation measurements of atomic-cloud temperature using an optical nanofiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, J A; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2015-01-01

    We develop a temperature measurement of an atomic cloud based on the temporal correlations of fluorescence photons evanescently coupled into an optical nanofiber. We measure the temporal width of the intensity-intensity correlation function due to atomic transit time and use it to determine the most probable atomic velocity, hence the temperature. This technique agrees well with standard time-of-flight temperature measurements. We confirm our results with trajectory simulations.

  17. Full-waveform based complete moment tensor inversion and source parameter estimation from downhole microseismic data for hydrofracture monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Fuxian

    Downhole microseismic monitoring is a valuable tool in understanding the efficacy of hydraulic fracturing. Inverting for the moment tensor has gained increasing popularity in recent years as a way to understand the fracturing ...

  18. Full-waveform Based Complete Moment Tensor Inversion and Stress Estimation from Downhole Microseismic Data for Hydrofracture Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Fuxian

    2011-01-01

    Downhole microseismics has gained increasing popularity in recent years as a way to characterize hydraulic fracturing and to estimate in-situ stress state. Conventional approaches only utilize part of the information ...

  19. Downhole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing: a full-waveform approach for complete moment tensor inversion and stress estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Fuxian

    2010-01-01

    Downhole microseismics has gained in popularity in recent years as a way to characterize hydraulic fracturing sources and to estimate in-situ stress state. Conventional approaches only utilize part of the information ...

  20. A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2007-01-15

    With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

  1. Decoupled cantilever arms for highly versatile and sensitive temperature and heat flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burg, Brian R.

    Microfabricated cantilever beams have been used in microelectromechanical systems for a variety of sensor and actuator applications. Bimorph cantilevers accurately measure temperature change and heat flux with resolutions ...

  2. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  3. Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination in L-Shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savin, Daniel Wolf

    , and radiative transfer effects. In CP547, Atomic Processes in Plasmas: Twelfth Topical Conf, edited by R. CMeasurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination in L-Shell Iron for Modeling X for these ions significantly affect our ability to model and inter- pret the line emission from observations

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE In situ LIF temperature measurements in aqueous ammonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.

    of the temperature field using laser-induced fluorescence in a study of bottom-chilled uni-directional solidification the significant spatial and temporal variations of laser sheet intensity field due to refractive index variations, Iran Present Address: C. L. Lum BD Medical, Franklin Lakes, NJ 07417, USA 123 Exp Fluids (2010) 48

  5. SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar thermal applications. As contact thermometry is often not appropriate in the presence of high;Introduction In high temperature solar thermal applications, where key components are driven near reflections1,2 . The distinction between the emitted thermal and the reflected solar radiation becomes

  6. Biased insert for installing data transmission components in downhole drilling pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael A. (Lehi, UT); Garner, Kory K. (Payson, UT); Wilde, Tyson J. (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-04-10

    An apparatus for installing data transmission hardware in downhole tools includes an insert insertable into the box end or pin end of drill tool, such as a section of drill pipe. The insert typically includes a mount portion and a slide portion. A data transmission element is mounted in the slide portion of the insert. A biasing element is installed between the mount portion and the slide portion and is configured to create a bias between the slide portion and the mount portion. This biasing element is configured to compensate for varying tolerances encountered in different types of downhole tools. In selected embodiments, the biasing element is an elastomeric material, a spring, compressed gas, or a combination thereof.

  7. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2005-11-29

    A coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transfonner. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive care of the coaxial cable. A plurality of bulbous pliant tabs on the coaxial cable connector mechanically engage the inside diameter of the coaxial cable thus grounding the transformer to the coaxial cable. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string.

  8. The use of pattern recognition techniques in analyzing down-hole dynamometer cards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Roderick Raymond

    1987-01-01

    by presenting four pattern matching methods which can be used to diagnose the down-hole condition of sucker rod pumped wells. Of the four methods programmed and tested, three use a deterministic approach to solve the pattern recognition problem while... the fourth uses a syntactic approach. Deterministic methods are designed to match the input pattern with a series of templates representing various reference classes. A minimum-distance classifier is used to select the reference class which best matches...

  9. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  10. Solar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    for the Solar Orbiter mission. One can already figure out what could be the Te gra- dients in this radial rangeSolar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise Abstract The measurement of the solar wind electron temperature in the unexplored region between 1 and 45

  11. Time Series Measurements of Temperature, Current Velocity, and Sediment Resuspension in Saginaw Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time Series Measurements of Temperature, Current Velocity, and Sediment Resuspension in Saginaw Bay and verification. These measurements will be made as part of this project. Measurements of sediment resuspension sediment resuspension in the bay during the spring. Measurements of sediment resuspension are important

  12. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2005-09-20

    A seal for a coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal seal for a coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transformer. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive core of the coaxial cable. The electrically insulating material also doubles as a seal to safegaurd against penetration of fluid, thus protecting against shorting out of the electrical connection. The seal is a multi-component seal, which is pre-compressed to a desired pressure rating. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string. The internal coaxial cable connector and its attendant seal can be used in a plurality of downhole tools, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  13. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  14. Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications.cells: The

  15. Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications.cells: ThePulsed

  16. Measurements of electron temperature in the ionosphere using a low-frequency impedance meter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksenov, V.I.; Modestov, A.P.; Sokolov, L.Yu.

    1987-07-01

    Two ways of measuring the electron temperature in the ionosphere are proposed, based on measurements in the low-frequency range of the impedance of an electrical whip antenna mounted on an earth satellite. The errors are analyzed and the sources of possible systematic errors and methods of allowing for them are discussed. Some results of measurements of electron temperature on the Interkosmos-Kopernik 500 satellite, made in the period of the autumnal equinox at temperate latitudes during a solar activity minimum, are given. The data obtained are in fully satisfactory agreement with the results of measurements of electron temperature by other methods known from the literature.

  17. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-09-11

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  18. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  19. Self-Consuming Downhole Packer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 » Searchwith Firstat the High Temperature10 March

  20. Measurement of cryogenic moderator temperature effects in a small heterogeneous thermal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoovler, G.S.; Ball, R.M.; Lewis, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    Past papers have described a critical experiment (CX) built at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the neutronic behavior of the particle-bed reactor (PBK). Among the experiments previously reported were tests to measure the reactivity effect of uniform temperature variations between 20 and 80{degree}C. This paper describes additional experiments designed to examine the effects of cryogenic moderator temperatures on core reactivity and neutron spectrum. The general importance of temperature effects to the design of the PBR have been previously discussed. A unique feature of the PBR is that the moderator may be at cryogenic temperatures during reactor startup. Because temperature effects in small, heterogeneous thermal reactors can be significant and because we found no integral measurements with cryogenic moderators in such systems, an experiment with a cryogenic moderator was designed and performed in the CX as an extension to the isothermal measurements previously reported.

  1. The accuracy of miniature bead thermistors in the measurement of upper air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Donald C. (Donald Charles), 1933-

    1967-01-01

    A laboratory study was made of the errors of miniature bead thermistors of 5, 10, and 15 mils nominal diameter when used for the measurement of atmospheric temperature. Although the study was primarily concerned with the ...

  2. Low-temperature specific heat measurement of a ferroelectric copolymer film of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei, Eva Y.

    Low-temperature specific heat measurement of a ferroelectric copolymer film of vinylidene fluoride; published 13 February 2004 The specific heat of a highly crystallized ferroelectric copolymer film to the pyroelectric coefficient in this temperature range. The specific heat data also show a rapid transition from

  3. Quantum optimality of photon counting for temperature measurement of thermal astronomical sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjith Nair; Mankei Tsang

    2015-07-28

    Using the quantum Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound from quantum estimation theory, we derive a fundamental quantum limit on the sensitivity of a temperature measurement of a thermal astronomical source. This limit is expressed in terms of the source temperature $T_s$, input spectral bandwidth $\\Delta \

  4. Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements, provides multiple land surface temperature (LST) products on a daily basis. However, these products have LST products, MOD11_L2 (version 4) and MOD07_L2 (version 4), using the FLUXNET and Carbon Europe

  5. The measurement of contact areas and temperature during frictional sliding of Tennessee sandstone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teufel, Lawrence William

    1976-01-01

    THE MEASUREMENT OF CONTACT AREAS AND TEMPERATURE DURING FRICTIONAL SLIDING OF TENNESSEE SANDSTONE A Thesis by LAWRENCE WILLIAM TEUFEL Submit';ed to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTERS OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subiect: Geology THE MEASUREMENT OF CONTACT AREAS AND TEMPERATURES DURING FRICTIONAL SLIDING OF TENNESSEE SANDSTONE A Thesis by LAWRENCE WILLIAM TEUFEL Approved as to sty1e and content by: Cha rma...

  6. EVALUATION OF ZERO-POWER, ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AT JAPAN’S HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Nozomu Fujimoto; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Atsushi Zukeran

    2011-03-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a 30 MWth, graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor that was constructed with the objectives to establish and upgrade the technological basis for advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) as well as to conduct various irradiation tests for innovative high-temperature research. The core size of the HTTR represents about one-half of that of future HTGRs, and the high excess reactivity of the HTTR, necessary for compensation of temperature, xenon, and burnup effects during power operations, is similar to that of future HTGRs. During the start-up core physics tests of the HTTR, various annular cores were formed to provide experimental data for verification of design codes for future HTGRs. The experimental benchmark performed and currently evaluated in this report pertains to the data available for two zero-power, warm-critical measurements with the fully-loaded HTTR core. Six isothermal temperature coefficients for the fully-loaded core from approximately 340 to 740 K have also been evaluated. These experiments were performed as part of the power-up tests (References 1 and 2). Evaluation of the start-up core physics tests specific to the fully-loaded core (HTTR-GCR-RESR-001) and annular start-up core loadings (HTTR-GCR-RESR-002) have been previously evaluated.

  7. Waveguide-based ultrasonic and far-field electromagnetic sensors for downhole reservoir characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, S. H.; Chien, H. T.; Wang, K.; Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-11-12

    This report summarizes the first year research and development effort leading to development of high-temperature sensors for enhanced geothermal systems. It covers evaluation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic (EM) techniques applied to temperature measurement and flow characterization. On temperature measurement, we have evaluated both microwave radiometry and ultrasonic techniques for temperature gradient and profile measurements. Different antenna designs are evaluated and array loop antenna design is selected for further development. We have also evaluated ultrasonic techniques for total flow characterization, which includes using speed of sound to determine flow temperature, measuring acoustic impedance to estimate fluid density, and using cross-correlation technique to determine the mass flow rate. Method to estimate the flow enthalpy is briefly discussed. At end, the need and proposed techniques to characterize the porosity and permeability of a hot dry rock resource are presented.

  8. Temperature elevation by HIFU in ex vivo porcine muscle: MRI measurement and simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovchuk, Maxim A., E-mail: solovchuk@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Sciences (CASTS), National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hwang, San Chao; Chang, Hsu [Medical Engineering Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China)] [Medical Engineering Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Thiriet, Marc [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France)] [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Sheu, Tony W. H., E-mail: twhsheu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, Republic of China and Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Sciences (CASTS), National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, Republic of China and Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Sciences (CASTS), National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound is a rapidly developing medical technology with a large number of potential clinical applications. Computational model can play a pivotal role in the planning and optimization of the treatment based on the patient's image. Nonlinear propagation effects can significantly affect the temperature elevation and should be taken into account. In order to investigate the importance of nonlinear propagation effects, nonlinear Westervelt equation was solved. Weak nonlinear propagation effects were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the predicted and measured temperature elevations and lesion in a porcine muscle. Methods: The investigated single-element transducer has a focal length of 12 cm, an aperture of 8 cm, and frequency of 1.08 MHz. Porcine muscle was heated for 30 s by focused ultrasound transducer with an acoustic power in the range of 24–56 W. The theoretical model consists of nonlinear Westervelt equation with relaxation effects being taken into account and Pennes bioheat equation. Results: Excellent agreement between the measured and simulated temperature rises was found. For peak temperatures above 85–90?°C “preboiling” or cavitation activity appears and lesion distortion starts, causing small discrepancy between the measured and simulated temperature rises. From the measurements and simulations, it was shown that distortion of the lesion was caused by the “preboiling” activity. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that for peak temperatures below 85–90?°C numerical simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data in three dimensions. Both temperature rise and lesion size can be well predicted. Due to nonlinear effect the temperature in the focal region can be increased compared with the linear case. The current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resolution is not sufficient. Due to the inevitable averaging the measured temperature can be 10–30?°C lower than the peak temperature. Computational fluid dynamics can provide additional important information that is lost using a state of the art MRI device.

  9. Systems and Methods for Integrated Emissivity and Temperature Measurement of a Surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horvath, Mark S. (Canton, MI); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fodor, George (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature.

  11. High-Temperature Downhole MWD Tools for Directional Drilling | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to:Hershey,

  12. Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,LocalEfficiencyCellulosic Bioenergy Systems

  13. High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGHofWaste HeatPowerDepartment

  14. Measured Aperture-Array Noise Temperature of the Mark II Phased Array Feed for ASKAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chippendale, A P; Beresford, R J; Hampson, G A; Shaw, R D; Hayman, D B; Macleod, A; Forsyth, A R; Hay, S G; Leach, M; Cantrall, C; Brothers, M L; Hotan, A W

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the aperture-array noise temperature of the first Mk. II phased array feed that CSIRO has built for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. As an aperture array, the Mk. II phased array feed achieves a beam equivalent noise temperature less than 40 K from 0.78 GHz to 1.7 GHz and less than 50 K from 0.7 GHz to 1.8 GHz for a boresight beam directed at the zenith. We believe these are the lowest reported noise temperatures over these frequency ranges for ambient-temperature phased arrays. The measured noise temperature includes receiver electronics noise, ohmic losses in the array, and stray radiation from sidelobes illuminating the sky and ground away from the desired field of view. This phased array feed was designed for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to demonstrate fast astronomical surveys with a wide field of view for the Square Kilometre Array.

  15. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, L.S.

    1993-01-26

    A method and apparatus are described for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  16. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, Laurence S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  17. Soot surface temperature measurements in pure and diluted flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry Yelverton, T.L.; Roberts, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Campus Box 7910, North Carolina State University, 3211 Broughton Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Soot surface temperature was measured in laminar jet diffusion flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The soot surface temperature was measured in flames at one, two, four, and eight atmospheres with both pure and diluted (using helium, argon, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide individually) ethylene fuels with a calibrated two-color soot pyrometry technique. These two dimensional temperature profiles of the soot aid in the analysis and understanding of soot production, leading to possible methods for reducing soot emission. Each flame investigated was at its smoke point, i.e., at the fuel flow rate where the overall soot production and oxidation rates are equal. The smoke point was chosen because it was desirable to have similar soot loadings for each flame. A second set of measurements were also taken where the fuel flow rate was held constant to compare with earlier work. These measurements show that overall flame temperature decreases with increasing pressure, with increasing pressure the position of peak temperature shifts to the tip of the flame, and the temperatures measured were approximately 10% lower than those calculated assuming equilibrium and neglecting radiation. (author)

  18. “Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M.

    2013-08-15

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as “multi-temperature” (short “multi-T”) method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  19. Progress Toward Luminescence-Based VAATE Turbine Blade And Vane Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, Tom P.; Allison, Stephen W; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Niska, R. H.; Condevaux, J. J.; Wolfe, Doug E.; Jordan, Eric H.; Heeg, Bauke

    2012-01-01

    Progress towards fielding luminescence-based temperature measurements for the Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine (VAATE) program is described. The near term programmatic objective is to monitor turbine vane temperatures and health by luminescence from a rare-earth doped thermal barrier coating (TBC), or from a thermographic phosphor layer coated onto a TBC. The first goal is to establish the temperature measurement capability to 1300 C with 1 percent uncertainty in a test engine. An eventual goal is to address rotating turbine blades in an F135 engine. The project consists of four phases, of which the first two have been completed and are described in this paper. The first phase involved laser heating of a 2.54-cm-diameter test sample, coated with a TBC and a thermographic phosphor layer, to produce a thermal gradient across the TBC layer similar to that expected in a turbine engine. Phosphor temperatures correlated well with those measured by long wavelength pyrometry. In the second phase, 10x10- cm coupons were exposed to a jet fuel flame at a burner rig facility. The thermographic phosphor/TBC combination survived the aggressive flame and high exhaust gas velocity, even though the metal substrate melted. Reliable temperature measurements were made up to about 1400 C using YAG:Dy as the thermographic phosphor. In addition, temperature measurements using YAG:Tm showed very desirable background radiation suppression.

  20. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  1. Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

  2. High-Temperature Infrared Measurements in the Region of the Bending Fundamental of H12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quapp, Wolfgang

    High-Temperature Infrared Measurements in the Region of the Bending Fundamental of H12 C14 N, H12 C allowed us to measure the bending vibrational levels up to the 0 1111 0 state, at more than 7900 cm 1 in this paper and in a recent paper on deuterated isotopomers. © 2000 Academic Press Key Words: HCN; bond

  3. A robust and well shielded thermal conductivity device for low temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toews, W. H.; Hill, R. W.

    2014-04-15

    We present a compact mechanically robust thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for measurements at low temperatures (<1 K) and high magnetic fields on small high-purity single crystal samples. A high-conductivity copper box is used to enclose the sample and all the components. The box provides protection for the thermometers, heater, and most importantly the sample increasing the portability of the mount. In addition to physical protection, the copper box is also effective at shielding radio frequency electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation, which is essential for low temperature measurements. A printed circuit board in conjunction with a braided ribbon cable is used to organize the delicate wiring and provide mechanical robustness.

  4. Element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-08-29

    The present invention includes an element for use in an inductive coupler in a downhole component. The element includes a plurality of ductile, generally U-shaped leaves that are electrically conductive. The leaves are less than about 0.0625" thick and are separated by an electrically insulating material. These leaves are aligned so as to form a generally circular trough. The invention also includes an inductive coupler for use in downhole components, the inductive coupler including an annular housing having a recess with a magnetically conductive, electrically insulating (MCEI) element disposed in the recess. The MCEI element includes a plurality of segments where each segment further includes a plurality of ductile, generally U-shaped electrically conductive leaves. Each leaf is less than about 0.0625" thick and separated from the otherwise adjacent leaves by electrically insulating material. The segments and leaves are aligned so as to form a generally circular trough. The inductive coupler further includes an insulated conductor disposed within the generally circular trough. A polymer fills spaces between otherwise adjacent segments, the annular housing, insulated conductor, and further fills the circular trough.

  5. Results of performance testing the Russian RPV temperature measurement probe used for annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Selsky, S. [CNIITMASH, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    This paper provides information on three (3) topics related to temperature measurements in an annealing procedure: (1) results of a series of experiments performed by CNIITMASH of the Russian consortium MOHT on their reactor pressure vessel (RPV) temperature measurement probe, (2) a discussion regarding uncertainties and errors in RPV temperature measurements, and (3) predictions from a thermal model of a spherical RPV temperature measurement probe. MOHT teamed with MPR Associates and was to perform the Annealing Demonstration Project (ADP) on behalf of the US Department of Energy, ESEERCo, EPRI, CRIEPI, Framatome, and Consumers Power Co. at the Midland plant. Experimental results show that the CNIITMASH probe errors are a maximum of about 27 C (49 F) during a 15 C/hr (27 F/hr) heat-up but only about 3 C (5.4 F) (0.6%) during the hold portion at 470 C (878 F). These errors are much smaller than those obtained from a similar series of experiments performed by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The discussion about uncertainties and errors shows that results presented as a temperature difference provides a measure of the probe error. Qualitative agreement is shown between the model predictions, the experimental results of the CNIITMASH probe and the experimental results of a series of similar experiments performed by Sandia.

  6. Effects of thermocouple installation and location on fuel rod temperature measurements. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the results of analyses of nuclear fuel rod cladding temperature data obtained during in-reactor experiments under steady state and transient (simulated loss-of-coolant accident) operating conditions. The objective of the analyses was to determine the effect of thermocouple attachment method and location on measured thermal response. The use of external thermocouples increased the time to critical heat flux (CHF), reduced the blowdown peak temperature, and enhanced rod quench. A comparison of laser welded and resistance welded external thermocouple responses showed that the laser welding technique reduced the indicated cladding steady state temperatures and provided shorter time-to-CHF. A comparison of internal welded and embedded thermocouples indicated that the welded technique gave generally unsatisfactory cladding temperature measurements. The embedded thermocouple gave good, consistent results, but was possibly more fragile than the welded thermocouples. Detailed descriptions of the thermocouple designs, attachment methods and locations, and test conditions are provided.

  7. Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Dmitriev

    2008-03-12

    A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 is provided.Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of non-magnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core was measured. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles.

  8. High temperature measurement using very high shutter speed to avoid image saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    This paper explores the adaptation of the two-colour principle to develop a high-speed colour temperature correlation system, which is able to cover a range of temperature that is challenging to achieve before. A colour digital camera has built in RGB filters. It is possible to measure the temperature from the ratio of intensity of the green and red pixels using the two-colour principle based on the expansion of the Plank’s radiation law. In this study, experiments were carried out using a temperature calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp which can be tuned to vary from 1300 to 2200°C. Using very high shutter speed and small aperture, the high-speed camera successfully captured the tungsten ribbon without image saturation at the full temperature scale. Tests have been carried out at different temperature and camera settings. The sensitivity and errors have been analysed, and experiment results demonstrate the potential of using very high shutter speed is available for measuring the temperature even beyond 2200°C.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Measurements of an Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Olavarria, W. J.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T. E.

    2011-07-01

    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell has demonstrated efficiencies as high as 40.8% at 25 degrees C and 326 suns concentration. The actual operating temperature in a commercial module, however, is likely to be as much as 50-70 degrees C hotter, reaching as high as 100 degrees C. In order to be able to evaluate the cell performance under these real-world operating conditions, we have measured the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and efficiency at temperatures up to 125 degrees C and concentrations up to 1000 suns, as well as the temperature coefficients of these parameters. Spectral response and one-sun current-voltage characteristics were measured by carefully adjusting the incident spectrum to selectively current-limit the different subcells. Concentrator measurements were taken on a pulsed solar simulator to minimize any additional heating due to the high intensity illumination. We compare our measured values to predictions based on detailed models of various triple junction solar cells. By choosing the optimum bandgaps for high temperature operation, the IMM can potentially result in greater energy production and lower temperature sensitivity under real operating conditions than a Ge-based solar cell.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Measurements of an Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Olavarria, W. J.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell has demonstrated efficiencies as high as 40.8% at 25 C and 326 suns concentration. The actual operating temperature in a commercial module, however, is likely to be as much as 50-70 C hotter, reaching as high as 100 C. In order to be able to evaluate the cell performance under these real-world operating conditions, we have measured the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and efficiency at temperatures up to 125 C and concentrations up to 1000 suns, as well as the temperature coefficients of these parameters. Spectral response and one-sun current-voltage characteristics were measured by carefully adjusting the incident spectrum to selectively current-limit the different subcells. Concentrator measurements were taken on a pulsed solar simulator to minimize any additional heating due to the high intensity illumination. We compare our measured values to predictions based on detailed models of various triple junction solar cells. By choosing the optimum bandgaps for high temperature operation, the IMM can potentially result in greater energy production and lower temperature sensitivity under real operating conditions than a Ge-based solar cell.

  11. 1. General description The NXP Semiconductors SE97 measures temperature from -40 C and +125 C and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    the Temp Sensor (TS) on DIMM allows accurate monitoring of the DIMM module temperature to better estimate1. General description The NXP Semiconductors SE97 measures temperature from -40 °C and +125 °C on a Dual In-Line Memory Module (DIMM) measuring the DRAM temperature in accordance with the new JEDEC (JC

  12. Logarithmic current measurement circuit with improved accuracy and temperature stability and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ericson, M. Nance (Knoxville, TN); Rochelle, James M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A logarithmic current measurement circuit for operating upon an input electric signal utilizes a quad, dielectrically isolated, well-matched, monolithic bipolar transistor array. One group of circuit components within the circuit cooperate with two transistors of the array to convert the input signal logarithmically to provide a first output signal which is temperature-dependant, and another group of circuit components cooperate with the other two transistors of the array to provide a second output signal which is temperature-dependant. A divider ratios the first and second output signals to provide a resultant output signal which is independent of temperature. The method of the invention includes the operating steps performed by the measurement circuit.

  13. Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark

    2013-12-17

    A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.

  14. Coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy system for point temperature and major species concentration measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    1993-10-01

    The Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy system (CARS) has been developed as a laser-based, advanced, combustion-diagnostic technique to measure temperature and major species concentration. Principles of operation, description of the system and its capabilities, and operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

  15. Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP conditions. Ts estimates from infrared satellite observations can only be derived under clear sky. Passive from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager measurements, with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°, at least

  16. Towards using optical/NIR photometry to measure the temperature of O stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Maíz Apellániz; A. Sota

    2007-02-20

    It has been traditionally stated that it is not possible to use optical/NIR photometry to measure the temperatures of O stars. In this contribution we describe the steps required to overcome the hurdles that have prevented this from happening in the past and we present our preliminary results for the low-extinction case.

  17. Global Drifter Program (GDP) Drifting buoy measurements of Sea Surface Temperature,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Drifter Program (GDP) Drifting buoy measurements of Sea Surface Temperature, Mixed Layer Currents, Atmospheric Pressure and Winds http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/phod/dac/gdp.html 26th Data Buoy: the principal component of the Global Surface Drifting Buoy Array, a branch of NOAA's Global Ocean Observing

  18. A Modular High Temperature Measurement Set-Up for Semiconductor Device Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as combustion engines, car brake systems, turbines or well drilling. Therefore, the high temperature to the exposure to the oxygen in the surrounding air. Apart from measuring device terminal characteristics chambers has several ports for electrical feedthroughs as well as a feedthrough for the cooling liquid

  19. High temperature interfacial tension measurements of PA6/PP interfaces compatibilized with copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    ) are generally desired when manufacturing a polymer blend3. The effect of concentration of the copolymer%17-22. In a strict analogy to water-surfactant systems the critical micelle concentration (cmc) is an importantHigh temperature interfacial tension measurements of PA6/PP interfaces compatibilized

  20. Insights into aging through measurements of the Drosophila proteome as a function of temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmer, David E.

    Insights into aging through measurements of the Drosophila proteome as a function of temperature age (i.e., calendar time in days, months, or years) is used to characterize deteriorative changes associated with aging (Rodwell et al., 2004; Krishnamurthy et al., 2004; Zahn et al., 2006). For example

  1. Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind; received in revised form 6 April 2005; accepted 25 April 2005 Abstract We present the solar wind plasma parameters obtained from the Wind spacecraft during more than nine years, encompassing almost the whole solar

  2. Fluorescence Rise Time Measurements for High Temperature Fluorescence-Based Thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.

    2005-03-24

    Certain ceramic-like phosphor materials exhibit bright fluorescence with a pronounced temperature dependence over a range which spans the cryogenic to 1700 C, depending on the specific phosphor. To measure temperature, a surface, for instance a turbine blade, is coated with the material. An optical system, sometimes including optical fibers, conveys stimulating light and collects the emission for analysis. Either emission intensity or decay time may indicate temperature. Previously fielded tests have involved surfaces such as blades, vanes, pistons, in-take valves, sheets of galvanneal steel, etc. The fluorescent coatings may be applied to small parts via sputtering methods or to large areas by mixture with inorganic binders. Presented here are results characterizing fluorescence rise times as a means of determining temperature from ambient to 700 C for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu.

  3. Comparison of lower-frequency (<1000 Hz) downhole seismic sources for use at environmental sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbring, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    In conjunction with crosswell seismic surveying being done at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, four different downhole seismic sources have been tested between the same set of boreholes. The four sources evaluated were the Bolt airgun, the OYO-Conoco orbital vibrator, and two Sandia-developed vertical vibrators, one pneumatically-driven, and the other based on a magnetostrictive actuator. The sources generate seismic energy in the lower frequency range of less than 1000 Hz and have different frequency characteristics, radiation patterns, energy levels, and operational considerations. Collection of identical data sets with all four sources allows the direct comparison of these characteristics and an evaluation of the suitability of each source for a given site and target.

  4. Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 450–1000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280–450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

  5. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Bruzewicz; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini

    2014-12-16

    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  6. Temperature measurements of partially-melted tin as a function of shock pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifter, Achim; Furlanetto, Michael R; Holtkamp, David B; Obst, Andrew W; Payton, J R; Stone, J B; Tabaka, L J; Grover, M; Macrum, G; Stevens, G D; Swift, D C; Turley, W D; Veeser, L R

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrium equation of state theory predicts that the free surface release temperature of shock loaded tin will show a plateau of 505 K in the pressure range from 19.5 to 33.0 GPa, corresponding to the solid-liquid mixed-phase region. In this paper we report free surface temperature measurements on shock-loaded tin from 15 to 31 GPa using multi-wavelength optical pyrometry. The shock waves were generated by direct contact of detonating high explosive with the sample. The pressure in the sample was determined by free surface velocity measurements using Photon Doppler Velocimetry. The emitted thermal radiance was measured at four wavelength bands in the near IR region from 1.5 to 5.0 {micro}m. The samples in most of the experiments had diamond-turned surface finishes, with a few samples being polished or ball rolled. At pressures higher than 25 GPa the measured free surface temperatures were higher than the predicted 505 K and increased with increasing pressure. This deviation could be explained by hot spots and/or variations in surface emissivity and requires a further investigation.

  7. Scattering Versus Intrinsic Attenuation in the Near Surface: Measurements from Permanent Down-hole Geophones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangriotis, Maria-Daphne

    2009-01-01

    PartII: Prestack depth migration and field examples,”data using prestack depth migration,” Geophysics, Vol. 71,P. “Prestack Kirchhoff depth migration of shallow seismic

  8. Scattering Versus Intrinsic Attenuation in the Near Surface: Measurements from Permanent Down-hole Geophones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangriotis, Maria-Daphne

    2009-01-01

    JR, and Butler, TM. “Seismic Q-Stratigraphy or dissipation,”JR, and Butler, TM. “Seismic Q-Stratigraphy or dissipation,”JR, and Butler, TM. “Seismic Q-Stratigraphy or dissipation,”

  9. Scattering Versus Intrinsic Attenuation in the Near Surface: Measurements from Permanent Down-hole Geophones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangriotis, Maria-Daphne

    2009-01-01

    DH. “Seismic Wave Attenuation,” Society of ExplorationDH. “Seismic Wave Attenuation,” Society of ExplorationDH. “Seismic Wave Attenuation,” Society of Exploration

  10. Scattering Versus Intrinsic Attenuation in the Near Surface: Measurements from Permanent Down-hole Geophones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangriotis, Maria-Daphne

    2009-01-01

    is a seismic parameter which improves interpretation ofas a seismic parameter to improve the interpretation ofinterpretation of coda-Q measurmenets,” BSSA, Vol. White JE. “Computed seismic

  11. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  12. Measurement of particle size, velocity and temperature in the plasma spray coating process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The quality and uniformity of coatings fabricated by the plasma spray process is controlled by the condition of the particles on impact. In this work a measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining particle size, velocity, and temperature is used to characterize the particle spray field. Particle size and velocity are obtained from a combination laser particle sizing system and laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The particle temperature is determined by a two-color pyrometer technique and the relative particle number density is derived from the data rate. The fraction of unheated or unprocessed particles which result from temperature and velocity fluctuations is also obtained. This fraction can approach 10% by mass of the total particle flow. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrantelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  14. Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of operation using micro-mechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (616 Plainfield Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923); Oden, Patrick I. (804-171 Olde Pioneer Trail, Knoxville, TN 37923); Datskos, Panagiotis G. (8444 Mecklenburg Ct., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    2000-01-01

    A non-contact infrared thermometer measures target temperatures remotely without requiring the ratio of the target size to the target distance to the thermometer. A collection means collects and focusses target IR radiation on an IR detector. The detector measures thermal energy of the target over a spectrum using micromechanical sensors. A processor means calculates the collected thermal energy in at least two different spectral regions using a first algorithm in program form and further calculates the ratio of the thermal energy in the at least two different spectral regions to obtain the target temperature independent of the target size, distance to the target and emissivity using a second algorithm in program form.

  15. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Ferrantelli; Klaus Viljanen

    2015-06-30

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  16. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  17. Considerations for the use of the modified line reversal technique for gas temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkleman, B.C.

    1993-06-01

    Several areas related to the successful and accurate application of modified line reversal are discussed. Initially, generalized modified line reversal equations are developed. A review of basic line reversal theory is presented followed by development of correction factors for optical system effects. Image size and their effect on accurate determinations of spectral radiances is discussed. Temperature biases introduced by image vignetting is calculated. Measured image irradiances are given.

  18. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 25 (2005) 13131324 High temperature elasticity measurements on oxides by Brillouin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    for determining the elastic moduli at high temperatures, using both electric resistive heating (to 1800 K) and CO2 by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Spectroscopy; Mechanical properties; High-temperature elasticity measurements by Brillouin scattering 1. Introduction Knowledge of the high-temperature elastic properties is fundamental

  19. The Sun as an X--ray Star I: Deriving the Emission Measure Distribution vs. Temperature of the Whole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Sun as an X--ray Star I: Deriving the Emission Measure Distribution vs. Temperature--90134 Palermo, Italy ABSTRACT The scope of this work is to obtain the emission measure distributions vs. temperature, EM(T ), of the whole solar corona from Yohkoh/SXT images. As discussed in Paper II, the EM

  20. Measurement of electron temperatures and electron energy distribution functions in dual frequency capacitively coupled CF4/O2 plasmas using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Demetre J.

    Measurement of electron temperatures and electron energy distribution functions in dual frequency; published 31 July 2009 Measurements of electron temperatures Te and electron energy distribution functions the energy of the ions incident on the LF electrode was widely distributed up to 850 eV. Lee et al.10

  1. Improved InGaN epitaxy yield by precise temperature measurement :yearly report 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koleske, Daniel David; Creighton, James Randall; Russell, Michael J.; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2006-08-01

    This Report summarizes the first year progress (October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005) made under a NETL funded project entitled ''Improved InGaN Epitaxy Yield by Precise Temperature Measurement''. This Project addresses the production of efficient green LEDs, which are currently the least efficient of the primary colors. The Project Goals are to advance IR and UV-violet pyrometry to include real time corrections for surface emissivity on multiwafer MOCVD reactors. Increasing wafer yield would dramatically reduce high brightness LED costs and accelerate the commercial manufacture of inexpensive white light LEDs with very high color quality. This work draws upon and extends our previous research (funded by DOE) that developed emissivity correcting pyrometers (ECP) based on the high-temperature GaN opacity near 400 nm (the ultraviolet-violet range, or UVV), and the sapphire opacity in the mid-IR (MIR) near 7.5 microns.

  2. Casingless down-hole for sealing an ablation volume and obtaining a sample for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noble, D.T.; Braymen, S.D.; Anderson, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    A casing-less down hole sampling system for acquiring a subsurface sample for analysis using an inductively coupled plasma system is disclosed. The system includes a probe which is pushed into the formation to be analyzed using a hydraulic ram system. The probe includes a detachable tip member which has a soil point and a barb, with the soil point aiding the penetration of the earth, and the barb causing the tip member to disengage from the probe and remain in the formation when the probe is pulled up. The probe is forced into the formation to be tested, and then pulled up slightly, to disengage the tip member and expose a column of the subsurface formation to be tested. An instrumentation tube mounted in the probe is then extended outward from the probe to longitudinally extend into the exposed column. A balloon seal mounted on the end of the instrumentation tube allows the bottom of the column to be sealed. A source of laser radiation is emitted from the instrumentation tube to ablate a sample from the exposed column. The instrumentation tube can be rotated in the probe to sweep the laser source across the surface of the exposed column. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated sample from the probe to the surface for testing in an inductively coupled plasma system. By testing at various levels in the down-hole as the probe is extracted from the soil, a profile of the subsurface formation may be obtained. 9 figs.

  3. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, D.E.; Mulac, A.J.

    1980-10-10

    An apparatus is described for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  4. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-07-06

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

  5. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  6. Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, J.D.; Markley, F.W.; McCaw, W.R.; Niemann, R.C.

    1992-04-21

    An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample. 7 figs.

  7. Spectroscopic Measurements of Hot Plasma Temperature on the Multimirror Trap GOL-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, I.A.; Arzhannikov, A.V.; Astrelin, V.T.; Burdakov, A.V.; Koidan, V.S.; Mekler, K.I.; Polosatkin, S.V.; Postupaev, V.V.; Rovenskikh, A.F.; Sinitsky, S.L

    2005-01-15

    Study of a dense ({approx}10{sup 21} m{sup -3}) plasma heating by a relativistic electron beam and confinement of the plasma in multimirror magnetic field is carried out at the GOL-3 facility. The high-resolution spectral system in the visible region is used for investigation of plasma parameters.The analysis of the shape of D{sub {alpha}} spectral line shows that wings of this line are determined by the Doppler broadening from atoms being in the hot plasma core at high-temperature operation regime. A survey spectrometer with spatial and time resolution was used in addition to high-resolution spectrometer for detail study of this regime. Results of radial distribution measurements of D{sub {alpha}} line radiation show the presence of neutral deuterium in the hot plasma core. Ion temperature of the hot plasma achieves 2 keV.The evolution of radial distribution of D{sub {alpha}} line radiation, diagnostics features and results on ion temperature dynamics in the hot plasma core are presented in the paper.

  8. Measurement of the ductile to brittle transition temperature for waste tank cooling coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    Charpy impact tests were conducted on ASTM A106 carbon steel archived from SRS waste tanks to determine the susceptibility of the cooling coils to brittle fracture during a seismic event. The highest ductile to brittle transition temperature measured was {minus}5{degree}F and, with the addition of a 30{degree}F safety factor, the minimum safe operating temperature was determined to be 25{degree}F. Calculations also showed that a pre-existing circumferential flaw that is 2.2in. long would be necessary to initiate brittle fracture of the pipe. These results demonstrate that the pipes will not be susceptible to brittle fracture if the cooling water inlet temperature is lowered to 50{degree}F. Visual observation of the inner and outer walls of the pipe showed no localized attack or significant wall thinning. A 100--200 micron zinc coating is probably the reason for the lack of corrosion. A build-up of zinc slag occurred at pipe fittings where the weld had burned through. Although no attack was observed, the slag created several crevices which have the potential to trap the chromated water and initiate localized attack.

  9. Measurement of the ductile to brittle transition temperature for waste tank cooling coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    Charpy impact tests were conducted on ASTM A106 carbon steel archived from SRS waste tanks to determine the susceptibility of the cooling coils to brittle fracture during a seismic event. The highest ductile to brittle transition temperature measured was [minus]5[degree]F and, with the addition of a 30[degree]F safety factor, the minimum safe operating temperature was determined to be 25[degree]F. Calculations also showed that a pre-existing circumferential flaw that is 2.2in. long would be necessary to initiate brittle fracture of the pipe. These results demonstrate that the pipes will not be susceptible to brittle fracture if the cooling water inlet temperature is lowered to 50[degree]F. Visual observation of the inner and outer walls of the pipe showed no localized attack or significant wall thinning. A 100--200 micron zinc coating is probably the reason for the lack of corrosion. A build-up of zinc slag occurred at pipe fittings where the weld had burned through. Although no attack was observed, the slag created several crevices which have the potential to trap the chromated water and initiate localized attack.

  10. Diode laser measurement of H?O, CO?, and temperature in gas turbine exhaust through the application of wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon, Marco E.

    2007-01-01

    sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature."O, CO 2 , and Temperature in Gas Turbine Exhaust through theview of UCSD power plant gas turbine systems 31

  11. Diode laser measurement of H?O, CO?, and temperature in gas turbine exhaust through the application of wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon, Marco E.

    2007-01-01

    sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature."from the TDLAS, FTIR, and gas turbine systems. The finaltrends between the TDL and gas turbine exhaust temperatures

  12. Incoherent Scatter Measurements of E- and F-Region Density, Temperatures, and Collision Frequency at Millstone Hill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, W. L.

    1979-02-23

    The Millstone Hill incoherent (Thomson) scatter radar system has been operated since 1963 to perform a synoptic study of F2-region electron densities, and electron and ion temperatures. These measurements have been conducted ...

  13. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

  14. Measurements of T sub o temperatures of supersaturated Si-As alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; West, J.A.; Smith, P.M.; Aziz, M.J. . Div. of Applied Sciences); Knapp, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The congruent melting point, to T{sub o} curve, of crystalline Si-As alloys has been measured in the range of 1.6 to 18.1 at. % arsenic by line source electron beam annealing. Alloys were created by ion implantation of As into 0.1mm Si-on-sapphire and crystallized by pulsed laser melting. T{sub o} temperatures decrease from 1673{plus minus}10K at 2.0 at. % As to 1516 {plus minus}30K at 18.1 at. % As. The results of these measurements are significantly higher than the previous results of studies using pulsed laser melting techniques. Advantages of the e-beam technique over previous techniques are discussed. Chemical free energy functions of the solid and liquid phases were calculated from existing thermodynamic data. The calculated T{sub o} curve agrees with the measured values only in low concentration region (less than 8 at. %). 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. X-ray Thomson scattering measurements of temperature and density from multi-shocked CH capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, L. B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kritcher, A.; Pak, A.; Ma, T.; Döppner, T.; Divol, L.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fortmann, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States) [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Vorberger, J.; Gericke, D. O. [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, D. A. [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom) [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Proof-of-principle measurements of the electron densities, temperatures, and ionization states of spherically compressed multi-shocked CH (polystyrene) capsules have been achieved using spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering. A total energy of 13.5 kJ incident on target is used to compress a 70 ?m thick CH shell above solid-mass density using three coalescing shocks. Separately, a laser-produced zinc He-? x-ray source at 9 keV delayed 200 ps-800 ps after maximum compression is used to probe the plasma in the non-collective scattering regime. The data show that x-ray Thomson scattering enables a complete description of the time-dependent hydrodynamic evolution of shock-compressed CH capsules, with a maximum measured density of ? > 6 g cm{sup ?3}. In addition, the results demonstrate that accurate measurements of x-ray scattering from bound-free transitions in the CH plasma demonstrate strong evidence that continuum lowering is the primary ionization mechanism of carbon L-shell electrons.

  16. Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries Heat generation rate measurement Heat flux sensor Thermal conduction Battery safety a b s t r a c t Understanding the rate of heat generation in a Li-ion cell is critical

  17. The material dependence of temperature measurement resolution in thermal scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaowei; Hull, Robert [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Thermal scanning electron microscopy is a recently developed temperature mapping technique based on thermal diffuse scattering in electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope. It provides nano-scale and non-contact temperature mapping capabilities. Due to the specific temperature sensitive mechanism inherent to this technique, the temperature resolution is highly material dependent. A thorough investigation of what material properties affect the temperature resolution is important for realizing the inherent temperature resolution limit for each material. In this paper, three material dependent parameters-the Debye-Waller B-factor temperature sensitivity, backscatter yield, and lattice constant-are shown to control the temperature resolution.

  18. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100oC have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800oC. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  19. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

    2009-11-10

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  20. Measurement of Elastic Modulus of PUNB Bonded Sand as a Function of Temperature J. Thole and C. Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    and distortions in steel casting are particularly sensitive to the elastic modulus of the sand mold. The objective1 Measurement of Elastic Modulus of PUNB Bonded Sand as a Function of Temperature J. Thole and C Measurements of the elastic modulus of PUNB bonded silica sand are performed using a three-point bend test from

  1. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured radiation was associated with the concurrent changes measured in specific humidity; the remaining quarter was associated with increases in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic radiatively active

  2. Comparison of commercial thermoluminescent readers regarding high-dose high-temperature measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilski, P; Obryk, B; Hodyr, K

    2014-01-01

    Three different thermoluminescent measuring systems have been compared with respect to the differences in temperature profiles, spectral sensitivities, as well as linearity of dose response characteristics. The comparison was performed using the Harshaw 3500, Riso DA-20 and RA94 TLD readers. The instruments were tested for the readouts of highly irradiated LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP) TL detectors, which require readout up to 550 C, in case of doses exceeding 1 kGy. It was found that the Harshaw 3500 can be used, without any additional light attenuation, for the measurements of MCP detectors exposed to doses up to about 5 Gy. For the other two readers the upper dose limit is about 5 times lower. It was also found that the Harshaw 3500 shows the best thermal stability considering the peak maximum position. For the ultra-high doses the differences in the spectral characteristics of the applied optical filters and photomultipliers, in conjunction with an evolution of the MCP TL emission spectrum with increasing dose, signi...

  3. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

  4. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-05-01

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

  5. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  6. Development of three-wavelength CCD image pyrometer used for the temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Zhi; Bai, Haicheng [State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2014-02-15

    This paper develops an imaging based three-color pyrometer for the monitoring of temperature distribution in a continuous casting billet. A novel optical device, together with an embedded electronic system, is designed to sequentially collect a dark image and three thermal images with specified wavelengths on a same monochromatic charge-coupled-device (CCD). The three thermal images provide the basis for the determination of target temperature, while the dark image is used to online eliminate the dark noise of CCD with a differential method. This image pyrometer is not only independent of target emissivity but also overcomes the dissimilarity of measuring accuracy between the micro-sensors of CCD resulted from the non-uniformity of pixels’ intensity response and the vignetting of optical system. Furthermore, a precise two-color temperature field measuring model on the CCD pyrometer is established, based on which a self-adaptive light-integration mechanism is presented. Compared with the traditional fixed light-integration method, the measuring range of the pyrometer is greatly extended and its sensitivity in low temperature segment is improved. The test results in a steel factory demonstrate that the pyrometer is capable of meeting the requirement of surface temperature measurements about casting billets. Reliability and accuracy of measurement results are also discussed herein.

  7. Temperature Measurements Through Dust or Steam for Energy-Intensive Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan, K. D.; Pearce, J. A.; Wang, L.; Ryza, E.

    2005-01-01

    passive and therefore harmless to personnel or products. Its accuracy after calibration is comparable to that of infrared temperature sensors, and its anticipated cost when in production will be comparable to existing remote temperature instrumentation....

  8. Modified ultrafast thermometer UFT-M and temperature measurements during Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumala, W.; Haman, K. E; Kopec, M. K; Khelif, D.; Malinowski, S. P

    2013-01-01

    metadata after error correction, calibration, visual signal inspection and comparison of the two UFT- M temperature sensors

  9. Fabrication of a simple apparatus for the Seebeck coefficient measurement in the temperature range of 300-620 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    A simple apparatus for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient ({\\alpha}) in the temperature range 300-620 K has been fabricated. Our design is appropriate for the characterization of samples with different geometries like disk and rod shaped. The sample holder assembly of the apparatus has been designed in such a way that, single heater used for sample heating purpose is enough to provide a self maintain temperature gradient (1-10 K) across the sample. The value of $\\alpha$ is obtained without explicit measurement of temperature gradient. The whole apparatus is fabricated from the materials, which are commonly available, so that any part can be replaced in case of any damage. Commercially available standard Nickel (Ni) metal sample has been used as a reference material for calibration of the instrument. The experimentally observed value of {\\alpha} by our apparatus gives the similar temperature dependent behavior as reported in the literature.

  10. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  11. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  12. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400 level receiver array can be used to obtain 3D 9C data. These 9C borehole seismic data provide both compressional wave and shear wave information that can be used for quantitative prediction of rock and pore fluid types. The 400-level borehole receiver array has been deployed successfully in a number of oil and gas wells during the course of this project, and each survey has resulted in marked improvements in imaging of geologic features that are critical for oil or gas production but were previously considered to be below the limits of seismic resolution. This added level of reservoir detail has resulted in improved well placement in the oil and gas fields that have been drilled using the Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} images. In the future, the 400-level downhole seismic receiver array is expected to continue to improve reservoir characterization and drilling success in deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs.

  13. First results of electron temperature measurements by the use of multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshikawa, M., E-mail: yosikawa@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Minami, T. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.

  14. The Sun as an X--ray Star. II: Using the Yohkoh/SXTderived Solar Emission Measure vs. Temperature to Interpret Stellar Xray Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Sun as an X--ray Star. II: Using the Yohkoh/SXT­derived Solar Emission Measure vs. Temperature/SXT images we derive the whole--Sun X­ray emission measure vs. temperature (EM(T)), in the range 10 5:5 K the distribution of plasma temperatures in stellar coronae resembles that of the solar corona. To date, most

  15. Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at 3.3 and 9.1 MM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witebsky, C.; De Amici, G.; Smoot, G.F.; Friedman, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    TEMPERATURE- AT 3.3 AND 9.1 MM C. Witebsky, G. De Amici, andTEMPERATURE AT 3.3 AND 9.1 MM Chris Witebsky, Giovanni Decharacteristics of the 3.3 and 9.1 mm radiometers Wavelength

  16. Estimate of the Ionization Degree of Ionic Micelles Based on Krafft Temperature Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bales, Barney

    , 2002; In Final Form: April 22, 2003 The Krafft temperature, TK, of two classical ionic surfactants. The method is based on the fact that TK of SDS and CTAB are functions of the concentration of counterions results confirm that the Krafft temperature of ionic surfactants is one of the properties from which R can

  17. Calculation of Air Temperatures above the Urban Canopy Layer from Measurements at a Rural Operational Weather Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calculation of Air Temperatures above the Urban Canopy Layer from Measurements at a Rural outdoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption. To take advantage of their low com- putational cost, UCMs are often forced offline without being coupled to mesoscale atmospheric simulations, which

  18. Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb and heat sink grease respectively). The dynamics of thermal effects is also presented. PACS 42.55.Xi (Diode-pumped in a diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG crystal, using a calibrated infrared camera, with a 60-µm spatial resolution

  19. Measurement and computations for temperature dependences of self-broadened carbon dioxide transitions in the 30012'00001 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamache, Robert R.

    that the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases may cause changes in our global climate for many years to come's atmosphere led to numerous studies of its main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide [1 and reference thereinMeasurement and computations for temperature dependences of self-broadened carbon dioxide

  20. DOE Selects Projects Totaling $12.4 Million Aimed at Increasing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stimulation in Horizontal Wells by Downhole Temperature Measurement for Unconventional Oil and Gas Wells. A key element in optimizing fracture treatments with respect to both...

  1. Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and friction measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and performance of a novel thermometric instrument featuring thermal- emission-intensity harmonic modulation, noncontact infrared radiometric detection, and stray background suppression is described. The instrumental

  2. Test report for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker Electrochemical Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document is the test report that summarizes the results of the tests on the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20{degrees}F and +120{degrees}F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. The test consisted of operating five Whittaker electrochemical cells in an environmental chamber that was varied in temperature from -20{degrees}F to +120{degrees}F. As the rate rise of the voltage from the cells changed, after exposure to a gas concentration of 1% hydrogen at the different temperatures, the voltage was recorded on a computer controlled data acquisition system. Analysis of the data was made to determine if the cells maximum output voltages and rise times were effected by temperature.

  3. Instrumentation development for magneto-transport and neutron scattering measurements at high pressure and low temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Weiwei

    2013-07-01

    High pressure, high magnetic field and low temperature techniques are required to investigate magnetic transitions and quantum critical behaviour in different ferromagnetic materials to elucidate how novel forms of ...

  4. Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandsma, Theo

    and calibration 51 A.1 Sites and data collection details 51 A.2 Instrument calibration 51 Temperature sensors 51 report (Brandsma, 2004). During the experiment, a signi cant renovation of the area only 12 m west

  5. Temperature Measurement during Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts with BeppoSAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beri, Aru; Orlandini, Mauro; Maitra, Chandreyee

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a study of temperature evolution during thermonuclear bursts in LMXBs using broad band data from two instruments onboard BeppoSAX, the MECS and the PDS. However, instead of applying the standard technique of time resolved spectroscopy, we have determined the temperature in small time intervals using the ratio of count rates in the two instruments assuming a blackbody nature of burst emission and different interstellar absorption for different sources. Data from a total of twelve observations of six sources were analysed during which 22 bursts were detected. We have obtained temperatures as high as ~3.0 keV, even when there is no evidence of photospheric radius expansion. These high temperatures were observed in the sources within different broadband spectral states (soft and hard).

  6. High-temperature differential emission measure and altitude variations in the temperature and density of solar flare coronal X-ray sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey, Natasha; Dennis, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of plasma heating and acceleration region properties presents a major observational challenge in solar flare physics. Using the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), the high temperature differential emission measure, DEM(T), and the energy-dependent spatial structure of solar flare coronal sources are studied quantitatively. The altitude of the coronal X-ray source is observed to increase with energy by ~+0.2 arcsec/keV between 10 and 25 keV. Although an isothermal model can fit the thermal X-ray spectrum observed by RHESSI, such a model cannot account for the changes in altitude, and multi-thermal coronal sources are required where the temperature increases with altitude. For the first time, we show how RHESSI imaging information can be used to constrain the DEM(T) of a flaring plasma. We develop a thermal bremsstrahlung X-ray emission model with inhomogeneous temperature and density distributions to simultaneously reproduce: i) DEM(T), ii) altitude as a function of ...

  7. Core-ion temperature measurement of the ADITYA tokamak using passive charge exchange neutral particle energy analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Santosh P.; Ajay, Kumar; Mishra, Priyanka; Dhingra, Rajani D.; Govindarajan, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2013-02-15

    Core-ion temperature measurements have been carried out by the energy analysis of passive charge exchange (CX) neutrals escaping out of the ADITYA tokamak plasma (minor radius, a= 25 cm and major radius, R= 75 cm) using a 45 Degree-Sign parallel plate electrostatic energy analyzer. The neutral particle analyzer (NPA) uses a gas cell configuration for re-ionizing the CX-neutrals and channel electron multipliers (CEMs) as detectors. Energy calibration of the NPA has been carried out using ion-source and {Delta}E/E of high-energy channel has been found to be {approx}10%. Low signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to VUV reflections on the CEMs was identified during the operation of the NPA with ADITYA plasma discharges. This problem was rectified by upgrading the system by incorporating the additional components and arrangements to suppress VUV radiations and improve its VUV rejection capabilities. The noise rejection capability of the NPA was experimentally confirmed using a standard UV-source and also during the plasma discharges to get an adequate SNR (>30) at the energy channels. Core-ion temperature T{sub i}(0) during flattop of the plasma current has been measured to be up to 150 eV during ohmically heated plasma discharges which is nearly 40% of the average core-electron temperature (typically T{sub e}(0) {approx} 400 eV). The present paper describes the principle of tokamak ion temperature measurement, NPA's design, development, and calibration along with the modifications carried out for minimizing the interference of plasma radiations in the CX-spectrum. Performance of the NPA during plasma discharges and experimental results on the measurement of ion-temperature have also been reported here.

  8. Polar Kerr Effect Measurements of YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x: Evidence for Broken Symmetry Near the Pseudogap Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Jing

    2011-08-24

    Polar Kerr effect in the high-Tc superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} was measured at zero magnetic field with high precision using a cyogenic Sagnac fiber interferometer. We observed non-zero Kerr rotations of order {approx} 1 {micro}rad appearing near the pseudogap temperature T*, and marking what appears to be a true phase transition. Anomalous magnetic behavior in magnetic-field training of the effect suggests that time reversal symmetry is already broken above room temperature.

  9. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperatures from microwave satellite measurements and Argo profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    measurements. [3] Satellites measure SST at the surface of the ocean. Infrared satellite sensors measure. Data pairs with time separations of up to Ć3 h are used to evaluate systematic differences between a net impact on the climate sys- tem. The objective of this study is to evaluate the character

  10. A compact high-performance low-field NMR apparatus for measurements on fluids at very high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, R.; Anand, V. Ganesan, K.; Tabrizi, P.; Torres, R.; Grant, B.; Catina, D.; Ryan, D.; Borman, C.; Krueckl, C.

    2014-02-15

    We discuss an innovative new high-performance apparatus for performing low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation times and diffusion measurements on fluids at very high pressures and high temperatures. The apparatus sensor design and electronics specifications allow for dual deployment either in a fluid sampling well logging tool or in a laboratory. The sensor and electronics were designed to function in both environments. This paper discusses the use of the apparatus in a laboratory environment. The operating temperature and pressure limits, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new system exceed by a very wide margin what is currently possible. This major breakthrough was made possible by a revolutionary new sensor design that breaks many of the rules of conventional high pressure NMR sensor design. A metallic sample holder capable of operating at high pressures and temperatures is provided to contain the fluid under study. The sample holder has been successfully tested for operation up to 36 Kpsi. A solenoid coil wound on a slotted titanium frame sits inside the metallic sample holder and serves as an antenna to transmit RF pulses and receive NMR signals. The metal sample holder is sandwiched between a pair of gradient coils which provide a linear field gradient for pulsed field gradient diffusion measurements. The assembly sits in the bore of a low-gradient permanent magnet. The system can operate over a wide frequency range without the need for tuning the antenna to the Larmor frequency. The SNR measured on a water sample at room temperature is more than 15 times greater than that of the commercial low-field system in our laboratory. Thus, the new system provides for data acquisition more than 200 times faster than was previously possible. Laboratory NMR measurements of relaxations times and diffusion coefficients performed at pressures up to 25 Kpsi and at temperatures up to 175?°C with crude oils enlivened with dissolved hydrocarbon gases (referred to as “live oils”) are shown. This is the first time low-field NMR measurements have been performed at such high temperatures and pressures on live crude oil samples. We discuss the details of the apparatus design, tuning, calibration, and operation. NMR data acquired at multiple temperatures and pressures on a live oil sample are discussed.

  11. Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Temperature-Dependent Polarization in Field-Effect Transport and Photovoltaic Measurements of Methylammonium Lead Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Two-­?Layer Organic Photovoltaic Cell. Appl Phys Lett 1986,Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131,transistor, capacitor and photovoltaic cell measurements all

  13. First measurement of time evolution of electron temperature profiles with Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system on Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenmochi, N. Tei, S.; Zang, L.; Ohtani, Y.; Kasajima, K.; Minami, T.; Takahashi, C.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Okada, H.; Kado, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Ohshima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Shi, N.; Sano, F.

    2014-11-15

    A Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system has been developed for Heliotron J. The system consists of two 550 mJ 50 Hz lasers, large collection optics, and 25 radial channel (?1 cm spatial resolution) interference polychromators. This measurement system achieves a S/N ratio of ?50 for low-density plasma (n{sub e} ? 0.5 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}). A time evolution of electron temperature profiles was measured with this system for a high-intensity gas-puff (HIGP) fueling neutral-beam-injection plasma. The peripheral temperature of the higher-density phase after HIGP recovers to the low-density pre-HIGP level, suggesting that improving particle transport in the HIGP plasma may be possible.

  14. Small, high frequency probe for internal magnetic field measurements in high temperature plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    temperature 50 eV , high density ( 1020 m 3 ) plasmas such as the field-reversed configuration FRC , it has eV , high density ( 1020 m 3 ) plasmas such as the field-reversed configuration FRC , it has be exposed to the plasma. An estimate of the limiting probe size for the FRC can be obtained from

  15. Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by use of a single-fiber Bragg grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    are the approaches for which hybrid FBG long-period grating5 LPG and a single LPG are used.6 The hybrid FBG LPG sensor consists of two FBG's and an LPG in which the mode-coupling wavelength of the LPG lies between responses of the FBG and the LPG to the two parameters. However, in this sensor scheme the temperature

  16. Test procedure for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1997-01-23

    This document is the test procedure to systematically test the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20 degrees F and +120 degrees F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. This procedure supports the testing, that is being performed after cold weather attempts on the Whittaker cell failed.

  17. Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy

    2011-09-15

    A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

  18. Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared June 2010, in final form 13 December 2010) ABSTRACT An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE the emissivities are fixed in the retrieval process. The results also confirm that the simultaneous retrieval

  19. Passivated diamond film temperature sensing probe and measuring system employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.P.; Mamantov, G.

    1998-11-24

    A high temperature sensing probe includes an optical fiber or rod having a distal end and a proximal end. The optical fiber or rod has a coating secured to the distal end thereof, wherein the coating is capable of producing a Raman spectrum when exposed to an exciting radiation source. 3 figs.

  20. Sensors and Actuators A 125 (2006) 170177 Thin film temperature sensor for real-time measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01

    electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). A patterned thin film gold thermistor embedded in a 16 m thick parylene film polymer elec- trolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is critical to understand for cold start, water balance of temperature in an operating PEFC. A patternedthinfilmgoldthermistorembeddedina16 mthick parylene film

  1. Interpolation of surface radiative temperature measured from polar orbiting satellites to a diurnal cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Menglin

    for the clear-sky (cloud free) conditions are presented. This cloud-free version of algorithm is evaluated using this temperature and that of the overlying air. Over land, this difference and hence the energy fluxes are maintained by net radiative forcing minus changes in heat storage of the surface. Thus fluxes of sensible

  2. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Measurement of the Magnetic and Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Rate Measurement Assumptions 5.2.2 Compressional Heating Model . . . . . . .. 5.3 Balancing Compressional Heating with Cyclotron Cooling 5.4 Experimentally Measured Relaxation Rate 5.5 Error Analysis including B2 A.5 I for Small re/b ...... A.6 Three-Body Collision Rate A.7 Joule Heating when n(r, t) = n

  3. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  4. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-04

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature is described. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical. 1 figure.

  5. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, David J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical.

  6. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Benjamin; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne

    2008-01-01

    We describe a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily and precisely controlled by varying the temperature of a gas reservoir between 80 K and 180 K. We present validation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, relaxation, and metastable states in the adsorption and desorption of fluids in porous media.

  7. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Cross; Laurent Puech; Pierre-Etienne Wolf

    2008-06-26

    We describe a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily and precisely controlled by varying the temperature of a gas reservoir between 80 K and 180 K. We present validation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, relaxation, and metastable states in the adsorption and desorption of fluids in porous media.

  8. Measuring Frac-pack Conductivity at Reservoir Temperature and High Closure Stress 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Preston X.

    2010-10-12

    through it and then measured conductivity by pumping oil to represent true reservoir conditions. Proppant performance and fracture fluids clean-up during production were examined. High strength proppant is ideal for deep fracture stimulations...

  9. Capillary Porosity Depercolation/Repercolation in Hydrating Cement Pastes Via Low-Temperature Calorimetry Measurements and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    conventionally, percolation/depercolation has been inferred indirectly from measurements of chemical shrinkage4 was performed by kneading the paste by hand in a sealed plastic bag. Cast wafers (%5 g) of the prepared pastes

  10. Measured and predicted temperature profiles along MEMS bridges at pressures from 0.05 to 625 torr.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2010-10-01

    We will present experimental and computational investigations of the thermal performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as a function of the surrounding gas pressure. Lowering the pressure in MEMS packages reduces gas damping, providing increased sensitivity for certain MEMS sensors; however, such packaging also dramatically affects their thermal performance since energy transfer to the environment is substantially reduced. High-spatial-resolution Raman thermometry was used to measure the temperature profiles on electrically heated, polycrystalline silicon bridges that are nominally 10 microns wide, 2.25 microns thick, 12 microns above the substrate, and either 200 or 400 microns long in nitrogen atmospheres with pressures ranging from 0.05 to 625 Torr. Finite element modeling of the thermal behavior of the MEMS bridges is performed and compared to the experimental results. Noncontinuum gas effects are incorporated into the continuum finite element model by imposing temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces that are determined from noncontinuum simulations. The experimental and simulation results indicate that at pressures below 0.5 Torr the gas-phase heat transfer is negligible compared to heat conduction through the thermal actuator legs. As the pressure increases above 0.5 Torr, the gas-phase heat transfer becomes more significant. At ambient pressures, gas-phase heat transfer drastically impacts the thermal performance. The measured and simulated temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement in the present study. Quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated temperature profiles requires accurate knowledge of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties, the device geometry, and the thermal accommodation coefficient.

  11. Nitrogen and hydrogen CARS temperature measurements in a hydrogen/air flame using a near-adiabatic flat-flame burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, R.D.; Bertagnolli, K.E.; Lucht, R.P.

    1997-05-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy of diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen was used to measure flame temperatures in hydrogen/air flames produced using a nonpremixed, near-adiabatic, flat-flame Hencken burner. The CARS temperature measurements are compared with adiabatic flame temperatures calculated by the NASA-Lewis equilibrium code for equivalence ratios from 0.5--2.5. The nitrogen CARS temperatures are in excellent agreement with the equilibrium code calculations. Comparison of nitrogen CARS data and the equilibrium code calculations confirms that for sufficiently high flow rates the Hencken burner produces nearly adiabatic flames. Hydrogen CARS temperature measurements are compared to both nitrogen CARS temperature measurements and equilibrium code predictions in order to evaluate and improve the accuracy of hydrogen CARS as a temperature diagnostic tool. Hydrogen CARS temperatures for fuel-rich flames are on average 70 K ({approximately}3%) above the equilibrium code predictions and nitrogen CARS temperatures. The difference between temperatures measured using hydrogen and nitrogen CARS is probably due primarily to uncertainties in hydrogen linewidths and line-broadening mechanisms at these conditions.

  12. Steam quality determination using pressure and temperature measurements in a venturi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, Danny Leo

    1987-01-01

    STEM gMZIY DETEBKBlATZCN USZNQ ZBESSURE AND TEMPERATURE NEASOREMENTS ZN A VENEUR DANNY ZZD O'NEIL Submitted to ths Graduate Collage of Texas A&M Vhiversity in partial fulfillment of the raquizaaaIts for the degree of Dacaabsr 1987 Ma...)or Subject: Petroleum Er~iug STEAM ~ DETERMINATION DSING ERESSURE AND TENPERAIURE MEASDRIMENTS IN A ~ DANNy IEO O' NEIL Ap~ as to style and content by: Richard A. Startzman (Chair of Comuttee) ~ R. Hall ~) W. . Von Gonten ( of Departamnt) Decmnber...

  13. Temperature measurement of axisymmetric flames under the influence of magnetic field using Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Shilpi, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in; Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in; Shakher, Chandra, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in [Instrument Design Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, HauzKhas, New Delhi - 110016 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Combustion process control is related with ecological improvement and the problem of energy efficiency; hence it has a wide interest at both economical and scientific levels. Application of a magnetic field is one of the most promising methods of combustion control. The presence of magnetic field induces the changes in flame behavior. The effect of uniform magnetic field developed by permanent magnet is studied by Talbot interferometry using circular gratings. Experimental results show a small decrease in flame temperature and increase in flame dimensions.

  14. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  15. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O'Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  16. Characterizing Surface Temperature and Clarity of Kuwait's Seawaters Using Remotely Sensed Measurements and GIS Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

    2009-11-30

    power. Kuwait seawaters are rich in a diversity of fishery species that provides about 40 to 50% of the country?s seafood demand (Al- Yamani et al., 2004). Kuwait relies on desalination stations and power plants along the coast for its freshwater... ecosystem through the release of more sewage and increase in water temperatures that are elevated by nearby power plants (Bu-Olayan et al., 2001). The growing pressure on the coastal environment is suspected to be associated with documented massive fish...

  17. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT METHODS, DIFFICULTIES, AND RESULTS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmallTechnicalSheldon GlashowSciTechSciTechTEMPERATURE

  18. A numerical study of geometry dependent errors in velocity, temperature, and density measurements from single grid planar retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. L.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Klenzing, J. H.

    2010-08-15

    Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have been utilized numerous times on high profile missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program to measure plasma composition, temperature, density, and the velocity component perpendicular to the plane of the instrument aperture. These instruments use biased grids to approximate ideal biased planes. These grids introduce perturbations in the electric potential distribution inside the instrument and when unaccounted for cause errors in the measured plasma parameters. Traditionally, the grids utilized in RPAs have been made of fine wires woven into a mesh. Previous studies on the errors caused by grids in RPAs have approximated woven grids with a truly flat grid. Using a commercial ion optics software package, errors in inferred parameters caused by both woven and flat grids are examined. A flat grid geometry shows the smallest temperature and density errors, while the double thick flat grid displays minimal errors for velocities over the temperature and velocity range used. Wire thickness along the dominant flow direction is found to be a critical design parameter in regard to errors in all three inferred plasma parameters. The results shown for each case provide valuable design guidelines for future RPA development.

  19. High-temperature aerosol formation in wood pellets flames: Spatially resolved measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiinikka, Henrik; Gebart, Rikard [Energy Technology Centre, Box 726, S-941 28 Piteaa (Sweden); Boman, Christoffer; Bostroem, Dan; Nordin, Anders; OEhman, Marcus [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The formation and evolution of high-temperature aerosols during fixed bed combustion of wood pellets in a realistic combustion environment were investigated through spatially resolved experiments. The purpose of this work was to investigate the various stages of aerosol formation from the hot flame zone to the flue gas channel. The investigation is important both for elucidation of the formation mechanisms and as a basis for development and validation of particle formation models that can be used for design optimization. Experiments were conducted in an 8-kW-updraft fired-wood-pellets combustor. Particle samples were withdrawn from the centerline of the combustor through 10 sampling ports by a rapid dilution sampling probe. The corresponding temperatures at the sampling positions were in the range 200-1450{sup o}C. The particle sample was size-segregated in a low-pressure impactor, allowing physical and chemical resolution of the fine particles. The chemical composition of the particles was investigated by SEM/EDS and XRD analysis. Furthermore, the experimental results were compared to theoretical models for aerosol formation processes. The experimental data show that the particle size distribution has two peaks, both of which are below an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). The mode diameters of the fine and coarse modes in the PM{sub 2.5} region were {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.8 {mu}m, respectively. The shape of the particle size distribution function continuously changes with position in the reactor due to several mechanisms. Early, in the flame zone, both the fine mode and the coarse mode in the PM{sub 2.5} region were dominated by particles from incomplete combustion, indicated by a significant amount of carbon in the particles. The particle concentrations of both the fine and the coarse mode decrease rapidly in the hot oxygen-rich flame due to oxidation of the carbon-rich particles. After the hot flame, the fine mode concentration and particle diameter increase gradually when the temperature of the flue gas drops. The main contribution to this comes from condensation on preexisting particles in the gas of alkali sulfates, alkali chlorides, and Zn species formed from constituents vaporized in the fuel bed. The alkali sulfates were found to condense at a temperature of {approx}950{sup o} and alkali chlorides condensed later at {approx}600{sup o}. This agrees well with results of chemical equilibrium calculation of the gas-to-particle conversion temperature. After the hot flame the coarse mode concentration decreased very little when the flue gas was cooled. In addition to carbon, the coarse mode consists of refractory metals and also considerable amounts of alkali. (author)

  20. Temperature dependence of carrier mobility in Si wafers measured by infrared photocarrier radiometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    of transport properties in semiconductors.1 It was derived from the well-known infrared photothermal radiometry PTR , a technique extensively used in semiconductor analysis.2­6 Both techniques rely on the measure coefficient, i is the carrier lifetime, and i n electron or i p hole . For an indirect gap material

  1. Signal generation mechanisms, intracavity-gas thermal-diffusivity temperature dependence, and absolute infrared emissivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Diagnostics Laboratories (PODL), University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 boundary layer adjacent to the cavity thermal source a metallic Cr­Ni alloy strip . This resulted cavity lengths allowed the measurement of the absolute infrared emissivity of the thin Cr­Ni strip source

  2. On the measurement of kinetic temperature in high redshift galactic halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei A. Levshakov; Wilhelm W. Kegel

    1999-05-11

    We consider the deconvolution of the thermal and the turbulent profiles for a pair of ions with different atomic weights under the condition that the lines are formed in an absorbing medium with fluctuating density and velocity fields. Our method is based on the entropy-regularized minimization (ERM) procedure. From synthetic spectra we found that the CII and SiII lines can be used to estimate the mean (density weighted) kinetic temperature with a sufficiently high accuracy (of about 10%) in a rather wide range of the ionization parameter, -6 < log U < -2. This is a generalization of a previous result (Levshakov, Takahara and Agafonova 1999) where we did not account for density fluctuations.

  3. Real-time method and apparatus for measuring the temperature of a fluorescing phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Allison, Steve W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a fluorescing phosphor is provided, together with an apparatus for performing the method. The apparatus includes a photodetector for detecting light emitted by a phosphor irradiated with an excitation pulse and for converting the detected light into an electrical signal. The apparatus further includes a differentiator for differentiating the electrical signal and a zero-crossing discrimination circuit that outputs a pulse signal having a pulse width corresponding to the time period between the start of the excitation pulse and the time when the differentiated electrical signal reaches zero. The width of the output pulse signal is proportional to the decay-time constant of the phosphor.

  4. Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By SarahMODELING CLOUD1 H( 7Measurements of the

  5. Measurement of damping and temperature: Precision bounds in Gaussian dissipative channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-01-15

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the performance of different classes of Gaussian states in the estimation of Gaussian phase-insensitive dissipative channels. In particular, we investigate the optimal estimation of the damping constant and reservoir temperature. We show that, for two-mode squeezed vacuum probe states, the quantum-limited accuracy of both parameters can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, we show that for both parameters two-mode squeezed vacuum states are more efficient than coherent, thermal, or single-mode squeezed states. This suggests that at high-energy regimes, two-mode squeezed vacuum states are optimal within the Gaussian setup. This optimality result indicates a stronger form of compatibility for the estimation of the two parameters. Indeed, not only the minimum variance can be achieved at fixed probe states, but also the optimal state is common to both parameters. Additionally, we explore numerically the performance of non-Gaussian states for particular parameter values to find that maximally entangled states within d-dimensional cutoff subspaces (d{<=}6) perform better than any randomly sampled states with similar energy. However, we also find that states with very similar performance and energy exist with much less entanglement than the maximally entangled ones.

  6. Determination of defect density of state distribution of amorphous silicon solar cells by temperature derivative capacitance-frequency measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Guangtao Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M. van; Dobrovolskiy, S.; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-21

    In this contribution, we demonstrate the application temperature dependent capacitance-frequency measurements (C-f) to n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells that are forward-biased. By using a forward bias, the C-f measurement can detect the density of defect states in a particular energy range of the interface region. For this contribution, we have carried out this measurement method on n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells of which the intrinsic layer has been exposed to a H{sub 2}-plasma before p-type layer deposition. After this treatment, the open-circuit voltage and fill factor increased significantly, as well as the blue response of the solar cells as is concluded from external quantum efficiency. For single junction, n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells initial efficiency increased from 6.34% to 8.41%. This performance enhancement is believed to be mainly due to a reduction of the defect density in the i-p interface region after the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment. These results are confirmed by the C-f measurements. After H{sub 2}-plasma treatment, the defect density in the intrinsic layer near the i-p interface region is lower and peaks at an energy level deeper in the band gap. These C-f measurements therefore enable us to monitor changes in the defect density in the interface region as a result of a hydrogen plasma. The lower defect density at the i-p interface as detected by the C-f measurements is supported by dark current-voltage measurements, which indicate a lower carrier recombination rate.

  7. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  8. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  9. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  10. Temperature reconstruction at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, for the last millennium, from the combination of borehole temperature and inert gas isotope measurements /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orsi, Anais J.

    2013-01-01

    Cold Interval in West Antarc- tica: Evidence from Boreholein the Byrd ice core (Antarc- tica; red), and a compositeet al. , 2001]. In Antarc- tica, the temperature history is

  11. KONG, JIAN. Infrared-Based Temperature Measurement in Ceramics Grinding and Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Filters. (Under the direction of Albert J. Shih)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Albert J.

    of the temperature distribution on the cavity wall surface in diesel exhaust aftertreatment filters usingABSTRACT KONG, JIAN. Infrared-Based Temperature Measurement in Ceramics Grinding and Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Filters. (Under the direction of Albert J. Shih) Non-contact remote-sensing radiation thermometry

  12. International Snow Science Workshop Grenoble Chamonix Mont-Blanc -2013 Limitations of using an infrared camera to measure snow pit-wall temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Bruce

    International Snow Science Workshop Grenoble ­ Chamonix Mont-Blanc - 2013 Limitations of using an infrared camera to measure snow pit-wall temperatures Michael Schirmer and Bruce Jamieson Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada ABSTRACT: Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow

  13. Benchmark Evaluation of Start-Up and Zero-Power Measurements at the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bess, John D.; Fujimoto, Nozomu

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate six cold-critical and two warm-critical, zero-power measurements of the HTTR. Additional measurements of a fully-loaded subcritical configuration, core excess reactivity, shutdown margins, six isothermal temperature coefficients, and axial reaction-rate distributions were also evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments. Insufficient information is publicly available to develop finely-detailed models of the HTTR as much of the design information is still proprietary. However, the uncertainties in the benchmark models are judged to be of sufficient magnitude to encompass any biases and bias uncertainties incurred through the simplification process used to develop the benchmark models. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the impurity content of the various graphite blocks that comprise the HTTR. Monte Carlo calculations of keff are between approximately 0.9 % and 2.7 % greater than the benchmark values. Reevaluation of the HTTR models as additional information becomes available could improve the quality of this benchmark and possibly reduce the computational biases. High-quality characterization of graphite impurities would significantly improve the quality of the HTTR benchmark assessment. Simulation of the other reactor physics measurements are in good agreement with the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  14. Benchmark Evaluation of Start-Up and Zero-Power Measurements at the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bess, John D.; Fujimoto, Nozomu

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate six cold-critical and two warm-critical, zero-power measurements of the HTTR. Additional measurements of a fully-loaded subcritical configuration, core excess reactivity, shutdown margins, six isothermal temperature coefficients, and axial reaction-rate distributions were also evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments. Insufficient information is publicly available to develop finely-detailed models of the HTTR as much of the design information is still proprietary. However, the uncertainties in the benchmark models are judged to be of sufficient magnitude to encompass any biases and bias uncertainties incurred through the simplification process used to develop the benchmark models. Dominant uncertainties in themore »experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the impurity content of the various graphite blocks that comprise the HTTR. Monte Carlo calculations of keff are between approximately 0.9 % and 2.7 % greater than the benchmark values. Reevaluation of the HTTR models as additional information becomes available could improve the quality of this benchmark and possibly reduce the computational biases. High-quality characterization of graphite impurities would significantly improve the quality of the HTTR benchmark assessment. Simulation of the other reactor physics measurements are in good agreement with the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.« less

  15. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to:Hershey,High-Temperature Downhole Tools Jump to:Geothermal

  16. Optimization of pulsed-DEER measurements for Gd-based labels: choice of operational frequencies, pulse durations and positions, and temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raitsimring, Arnold; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Enemark, John H.; Kaminker, Ilia; Goldfarb, Daniella; Walter, Eric D.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the experimental conditions and parameters necessary to optimize the long-distance (? 60 Ĺ) Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) measurements of biomacromolecules labeled with Gd(III) tags are analyzed. The specific parameters discussed are the temperature, microwave band, the separation between the pumping and observation frequencies, pulse train repetition rate, pulse durations and pulse positioning in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. It was found that: (i) in optimized DEER measurements, the observation pulses have to be applied at the maximum of the EPR spectrum; (ii) the optimal temperature range for Ka-band measurements is 14-17 K, while in W-band the optimal temperatures are between 6-9 K; (iii) W-band is preferable to Ka-band for DEER measurements. Recent achievements and the conditions necessary for short-distance measurements (<15 Ĺ) are also briefly discussed.

  17. A NOVEL X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS OF ION TEMPERATURE AND PLASMA ROTATION VELOCITY PROFILES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Ince-Cushman, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J E; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2008-06-06

    A new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been implemented on Alcator CMod for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity profiles. The instrument consists of two spherically bent (102)-quartz crystals with radii of curvature of 1444 and 1385 mm and four 'PILATUS II' detector modules. It records spectra of He-like argon from the entire, 72 cm high, elongated plasma cross-section and spectra of H-like argon from a 20 cm high, central region of the plasma, with a spatial resolution of 1.3 cm and a time resolution of less than 20 ms. The new spectrometer concept is also of interest for the diagnosis of burning plasmas on future machines. This paper presents recent experimental results from Aclator C-Mod and discusses challenges in X-ray spectroscopy for the diagnosis of fusion plasmas on future machines.

  18. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL).

  19. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine and return irradiated samples for each measurement make this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated under pressurized water reactor coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distribution ARM

  1. ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal

  2. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  3. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (1.4 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.4 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a stainless steel canister representative of actual fuel canisters, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel near-surface drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD, the spent fuel deep geologic storage test being conducted in Climax granite on the Nevada Test Site, and for five constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  4. Measurement of the Young's modulus and internal friction of single crystal and polycrystalline copper, and copper-graphite composites as a function of temperature and orientation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wickstrom, Steven Norman

    1988-01-01

    MEASUREMENT OF THE YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by S teven Norman Wicks trom Submitted... AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by Steven Norman Wickstrom Approved as to style and content by: A(J ~a Alan Wolfenden (Chairman of Committee) Don E. Bray (Member) Donald G...

  5. Assessment of an ORION-based experimental platform for measuring the opacity of high-temperature and high-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R

    2012-06-11

    The following provides an assessment of an experimental platform based on the ORION laser at AWE Aldermasten, England, for measuring the opacity of high-temperature and high-density LTE plasmas. The specific points addressed are (1) the range of electron density and temperature that can be achieved with short-pulse beams alone, as well as (2) by means of compression with a long-pulse beam; (3) the accuracy with which electron density, electron temperature, and absolute emissivity can be measured; (4) the use of pulse shaping to increase the sample density to above solid density; (5) the effect that target materials and target design have on maintaining spatial uniformity of the sample, and (6) the need for additional diagnostics to produce and characterize samples for decisive measurements.

  6. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-01-29

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1 MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  7. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-02-27

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  8. A HR-like Diagram for Solar/Stellar Flares and Corona -- Emission Measure vs Temperature Diagram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazunari Shibata; Takaaki Yokoyama

    2002-06-03

    In our previous paper, we have presented a theory to explain the observed universal correlation between the emission measure ($EM=n^2 V$) and temperature (T) for solar/stellar flares on the basis of the magnetic reconnection model with heat conduction and chromospheric evaporation. Here n is the electron density and V is the volume. By extending our theory to general situations, we examined the EM-T diagram in detail, and found the following properties: 1) The universal correlation sequence (``main sequence flares'') with $EM \\propto T^{17/2}$ corresponds to the case of constant heating flux or equivalently the case of constant magnetic field strength in the reconnection model. 2) The EM-T diagram has a forbidden region, where gas pressure of flares exceeds magnetic pressure. 3) There is a coronal branch with $EM \\propto T^{15/2}$ for $T 10^7$ K. This branch is situated left side of the main sequence flares in the EM-T diagram. 4) There is another forbidden region determined by the length of flare loop; a lower limit of flare loop is $10^7$ cm. Small flares near this limit correspond to nanoflares observed by SOHO/EIT. 5) We can plot flare evolution track on the EM-T diagram. A flare evolves from the coronal branch to main sequence flares, then returns to the coronal branch eventually. These properties of the EM-T diagram are similar to those of the HR diagram for stars, and thus we propose that the EM-T diagram is quite useful to estimate the physical quantities (loop length, heating flux, magnetic field strength, total energy and so on) of flares and corona when there is no spatially resolved imaging observations.

  9. Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2011-03-17

    Do liquid mixtures, cooled to temperatures below their freezing point, behave as normal liquids? We address this question using nanoscale films of methanol and ethanol supercooled liquid solutions of varying composition (7 -93% methanol) at temperatures near their glass transition,Tg. The permeation of Kr through these films is used to determine the diffusivities of the supercooled liquid mixtures. We find that the temperature dependent diffusivities of the mixtures are well-fit by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation indicating that the mixtures exhibit fragile behavior at temperatures just above their Tg. Further, for a given temperature, the composition dependent diffusivity is well-fit by a Vignes-type equation, i.e. the diffusivity of any mixture can be predicted using an exponential weighting of the diffusion of the pure methanol and ethanol diffusivities. These results show that deeply supercooled liquid mixtures can be used to provide valuable insight into the properties of normal liquid mixtures.

  10. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together withmore »the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.« less

  11. A new sensor concept for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and thickness of plate structures using modified wave propagation theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Tzu-Wei

    2005-11-01

    -Acousto Photonic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TAP-NDE) is employed to remotely initiate and acquire interrogating ultrasonic waves. Parameters including pressure, temperature and plate thickness are determined through exploring the dispersion features...

  12. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16

    The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and as heaters. The first...

  13. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Ĺ spectral band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Ĺ and 135 Ĺ, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mĹ at the 200 Ĺ setting and better than 40 mĹ for the 135-Ĺ range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Ĺ Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Ĺ Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  14. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Direct asymmetry measurement of temperature and density spatial distributions in inertial confinement fusion plasmas from pinhole space-resolved spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagayama, T; Florido, R; Mayes, D; Tommasini, R; Koch, J A; Delettrez, J A; Regan, S P; Smalyuk, V A

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional space-resolved temperature and density images of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion core have been diagnosed for the first time. Argon-doped, direct-drive ICF experiments were performed at the Omega Laser Facility and a collection of two-dimensional space-resolved spectra were obtained from an array of gated, spectrally resolved pinhole images recorded by a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager. Detailed spectral analysis revealed asymmetries of the core not just in shape and size but in the temperature and density spatial distributions, thus characterizing the core with an unprecedented level of detail.

  16. Direct asymmetry measurement of temperature and density spatial distributions in inertial confinement fusion plasmas from pinhole space-resolved spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Florido, R.; Mayes, D. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Tommasini, R.; Koch, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Two-dimensional space-resolved temperature and density images of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion core have been diagnosed for the first time. Argon-doped, direct-drive ICF experiments were performed at the Omega Laser Facility and a collection of two-dimensional space-resolved spectra were obtained from an array of gated, spectrally resolved pinhole images recorded by a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager. Detailed spectral analysis revealed asymmetries of the core not just in shape and size but in the temperature and density spatial distributions, thus characterizing the core with an unprecedented level of detail.

  17. Implementation of the Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Characterization of Hydraulic Fractures in Shale Gas Reservoirs by Integrating Downhole Temperature Sensing Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, Jose A

    2014-08-12

    Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells has demonstrated successful results for developing unconventional low-permeability oil and gas reservoirs. Despite being vastly implemented by different operators across North America, hydraulic...

  18. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bortz, Sarah E; Prather, Michael J; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie; Smit, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An extension of the measurement of ozone and water vapour byin-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) ozone climatologies usingcomparison with SHADOZ ozone and MODIS aerosol, J. Geophys.

  19. Measurement of Gas Evolution from PUNB Bonded Sand as a Function of Temperature G. Samuels and C. Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    molds and cores thermally decompose when subjected to the high temperature conditions in metal casting binder gas can profoundly influence the quality of metal castings2-4 . Defects associated with binder gas generation from bonded sand molds and cores, with blowholes and pinholes being the most common5-9 , result

  20. Application of a ratiometric laser induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry for micro-scale temperature measurement for natural convection flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Heon Ju

    2004-11-15

    ????????????????????????. x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION??????????????????? 1 1.1 Literature Review??????????..???????. 1 1.2 Summary of Present Study??????????.....??? 2 II BACKGROUND???????????????????? 4 2.1 Principle of Fluorescence & Ratiometric LIF... Process: The White Arrows Represent That Water Circulates the Thermo-baths to Maintain Isothermal Conditions.. 10 3.2 Temperature Dependence of Fluorescence Images of Rh-B (column (a)), Rh-110 (column (b)) and Their Ratiometric Images (column (c...

  1. Small-angle neutron scattering measurements of hydrogen and deuterium trapping at dislocations in deformed single-crystalline Pd at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuser, Brent J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; JU, H. S. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2011-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of hydrogen and deuterium trapped at dislocation defects in deformed single-crystalline Pd have been performed at 15, 100, and 200 K at total interstitial solute concentrations of order 10 3. This work supports recent incoherent inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the vibrational density of states of trapped hydrogen under similar concentration-temperature conditions [Heuser et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 214101 (2008)]. The measured net absolute macroscopic differential scattering cross sections have been fitted with a cylindrical form factor representing solute-decorated dislocation line segments. Generally, very little difference in the measured cross sections was observed with temperature for a given solute type, while a significant change was observed between hydrogen- and deuterium-loaded samples. The latter difference is understood within a cross-section model that takes into account the local lattice dilatation associated with solute segregation at dislocations. The application of the model cross section to the net PdH0.0013 SANS response yields an effective trapping radius of R 10 A and dislocation density of d 1010 cm 2. Analysis of the SANS response allowed the local trapped solute concentration ( 0.5 [H]/[Pd]) and volumetric dilatation (/ 1.1) to be determined with the constraint that the system locally satisfies the known lattice expansion of Pd hydride (i.e., Vegard s law).

  2. In Situ Measurement of Magnesium Carbonate Formation from CO2 Using Static High-Pressure and -Temperature 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skemer, Philip

    method that possesses the ability to monitor the chemical evolution of supercritical CO2 in relevant(OH)2, with supercritical CO2 (88 bar) in aqueous conditions at 80 °C. The in situ conversion of CO2In Situ Measurement of Magnesium Carbonate Formation from CO2 Using Static High

  3. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  4. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and facilities for developing technology in a host of relevant areas including gassteam turbines, oil and gas pumps and compressors, downhole sensors, aircraft engines,...

  5. Dual-pump CARS temperature and major species concentration measurements in counter-flow methane flames using narrowband pump and broadband Stokes lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thariyan, Mathew P.; Ananthanarayanan, Vijaykumar; Bhuiyan, Aizaz H.; Naik, Sameer V.; Gore, Jay P.; Lucht, Robert P.

    2010-07-15

    Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to measure temperature and species profiles in representative non-premixed and partially-premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames. A new laser system has been developed to generate a tunable single-frequency beam for the second pump beam in the dual-pump N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} CARS process. The second harmonic output ({proportional_to}532 nm) from an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser is used as one of the narrowband pump beams. The second single-longitudinal-mode pump beam centered near 561 nm is generated using an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator, consisting of two non-linear {beta}-BBO crystals, pumped using the third harmonic output ({proportional_to}355 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser. A broadband dye laser (BBDL), pumped using the second harmonic output of an unseeded Nd:YAG laser, is employed to produce the Stokes beam centered near 607 nm with full-width-at-half-maximum of {proportional_to}250 cm{sup -1}. The three beams are focused between two opposing nozzles of a counter-flow burner facility to measure temperature and major species concentrations in a variety of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} non-premixed and partially-premixed flames stabilized at a global strain rate of 20 s{sup -1} at atmospheric-pressure. For the non-premixed flames, excellent agreement is observed between the measured profiles of temperature and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} concentration ratios with those calculated using an opposed-flow flame code with detailed chemistry and molecular transport submodels. For partially-premixed flames, with the rich side premixing level beyond the stable premixed flame limit, the calculations overestimate the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flamefronts. Consequently, the calculated temperatures near the rich, premixed flame are higher than those measured. Accurate prediction of the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flames provides an interesting challenge for future computations. (author)

  6. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and Rotation-velocity Profiles on the AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M. L.; Scott, S. D.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Lee, S. G.; Broennimann, C. H.; Eikenberry, E. F.

    2009-03-24

    A new spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of measuring continuous spatial profiles of high resolution spectra (?/d? > 6000) of He-like and H-like Ar K? lines with good spatial (~1 cm) and temporal (~10 ms) resolutions has been installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Two spherically bent crystals image the spectra onto four two-dimensional Pilatus II pixel detectors. Tomographic inversion enables inference of local line emissivity, ion temperature (Ti), and toroidal plasma rotation velocity (v?) from the line Doppler widths and shifts. The data analysis techniqu

  7. Beowawe geothermal-resource assessment. Final report. Shallow-hole temperature survey geophysics and deep test hole Collins 76-17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, N.O.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal resource investigation field efforts in the Beowawe Geysers Area, Eureka County, Nevada are described. The objectives included acquisition of geotechnical data for understanding the nature and extent of the geothermal resource boundaries south of the known resource area. Fourteen shallow (<500 feet) temperature-gradient holes plus geophysics were used to select the site for a deep exploratory well, the Collins 76-17, which was completed to a total depth of 9005 feet. Maximum downhole recorded temperature was 311/sup 0/F, but no flow could be induced.

  8. Half-life of the electron-capture decay of (97)Ru: Precision measurement shows no temperature dependence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodwin, J. R.; Golovko, V. V.; Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, John C.

    2009-01-01

    as having a 1.2(2)% shorter half-life at 12 K [5]; and 7Be, which decays by pure electron capture, apparently had a half-life longer by 0.9(2)% at 12 K in palladium and by 0.7(2)% in indium [6]. The authors of these reports also proposed a theoretical... for any allowed transition from 97Ru is 892 keV, the nucleus must decay by pure electron capture. Three years ago, Wang et al. [6] reported half-life measurements of another pure electron-capture emitter, 7Be, situated in both palladium and indium...

  9. A spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature and rotation-velocity profiles on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M. L.; Scott, S. D.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M.-F.; Lee, S. G.; Broennimann, Ch.; Eikenberry, E. F.

    2008-10-15

    A new spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of measuring continuous spatial profiles of high resolution spectra ({lambda}/d{lambda}>6000) of He-like and H-like Ar K{alpha} lines with good spatial ({approx}1 cm) and temporal ({approx}10 ms) resolutions has been installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Two spherically bent crystals image the spectra onto four two-dimensional Pilatus II pixel detectors. Tomographic inversion enables inference of local line emissivity, ion temperature (T{sub i}), and toroidal plasma rotation velocity (v{sub {phi}}) from the line Doppler widths and shifts. The data analysis techniques, T{sub i} and v{sub {phi}} profiles, analysis of fusion-neutron background, and predictions of performance on other tokamaks, including ITER, will be presented.

  10. Measuring temperature-dependent propagating disturbances in coronal fan loops using multiple SDO/AIA channels and the surfing transform technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon [Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    A set of co-aligned high-resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling a quantitative description of subvisual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1%. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional 'surfing' signals extracted from position-time plots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency-velocity space that exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square-root dependence predicted for slow mode magneto-acoustic waves which seem to be the dominating wave mode in the loop structures studied. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. to a more general class of fan loop system not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  11. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  12. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  13. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of lithium compounds: First-principles interpretation of X-ray Raman measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascal, Tod A.; Prendergast, David, E-mail: dgprendergast@lbl.gov [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Boesenberg, Ulrike; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas J. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, California 94720 (United States)] [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, California 94720 (United States); McDermott, Eamon; Moewes, Alexander [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Cabana, Jordi [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60605 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 3}N, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. The excellent agreement with high-resolution XRS measurements validates the accuracy of our first-principles approach to simulating XAS, and provides both accurate benchmarks for model compounds and a predictive theoretical capability for identification and characterization of multi-component systems, such as lithium-ion batteries, under working conditions.

  14. Characterization of room temperature recrystallization kinetics in electroplated copper thin films with concurrent x-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treger, Mikhail; Noyan, I. C.; Witt, Christian; Cabral, Cyril; Murray, Conal; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Rosenberg, Robert; Eisenbraun, Eric

    2013-06-07

    Concurrent in-situ four-point probe resistivity and high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were used to characterize room temperature recrystallization in electroplated Cu thin films. The x-ray data were used to obtain the variation with time of the integrated intensities and the peak-breadth from the Cu 111 and 200 reflections of the transforming grains. The variation of the integrated intensity and resistivity data with time was analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. For both 111-textured and non-textured electroplated Cu films, four-point probe resistivity measurements yielded shorter transformation times than the values obtained from the integrated intensities of the corresponding Cu 111 reflections. In addition, the JMAK exponents fitted to the resistivity data were significantly smaller. These discrepancies could be explained by considering the different material volumes from which resistivity and diffraction signals originated, and the physical processes which linked these signals to the changes in the evolving microstructure. Based on these issues, calibration of the resistivity analysis with direct structural characterization techniques is recommended.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARM Data Discovery Browse

  16. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwelling

  17. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwellingalbedo ARMenergyskin

  18. Time and space resolved measurement of the electron temperature, mass density and ionization state in the ablation plasma between two exploding Al wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Hansen, S. B.

    2012-05-15

    We have determined the properties of plasma around and between two exploding wires using high-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plasma densities and temperatures ranging from Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 0.1g/cm{sup 3} and a few eV to less than 0.01 g/cm{sup 3} and 30 eV have been measured in experiments at Cornell University with two 40 {mu}m aluminum (Al) wires spaced 1 mm apart driven by {approx}150 kA peak current pulses with 100 ns rise time. The wire plasma was backlit by the 1.4-1.6 keV continuum radiation produced by a Mo wire X-pinch. The spectrometer employed two spherically bent quartz crystals to record the absorption and backlighter spectra simultaneously. The transition between the dense Al wire core and the coronal plasma is seen as a transition from cold K-edge absorption to Mg-, Na-, and finally Ne-like absorption at the boundary. In the plasma that accumulates between the wires, ionization states up to C-Like Al are observed. The spectrometer geometry and {approx}2{mu}m X-pinch source size provide 0.3 eV spectral resolution and 20 {mu}m spatial resolution enabling us to see 1s{yields} 2p satellite transitions as separate lines as well as O-, F-, and Ne-like 1s{yields} 3p transitions that have not been seen before. A step wedge was used to calibrate the transmission, enabling density to be measured within a factor of two and temperature to be measured within {+-}25%. A genetic algorithm was developed to fit synthetic spectra calculated using the collisional-radiative code SCRAM to the experimental spectra. In order to obtain agreement it was necessary to assume multiple plasma regions with variable thicknesses, thereby allowing the inferred plasma conditions to vary along the absorption path.

  19. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  20. Temperature measurement of an atmospheric pressure arc discharge plasma jet using the diatomic CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}, violet system) molecular spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Se Youn; Kim, D. B.; Gweon, B.; Choe, W.

    2009-03-01

    The CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) molecular emission spectrum is used to measure both the vibrational and rotational temperatures in atmospheric pressure arc jet discharges. The vibrational and rotational temperature effects on the synthetic diatomic molecular spectra were investigated from the (v{sup '},v{sup ''})=(0,0) band to the (5,5) band. The temperatures obtained from the synthetic spectra compared with the experimental result of a low-frequency arc discharge show a vibrational temperature of (4250-5010) K and a rotational temperature of (3760-3980) K for the input power in the range of (80-280) W. As the (0,0) band is isolated from other vibrational transition bands, determination of the rotational temperature is possible based only on the (0,0) band, which simplifies the temperature measurement. From the result, it was found that the CN molecular spectrum can be used as a thermometer for atmospheric pressure plasmas containing carbon and nitrogen.

  1. Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOEDixmont,Missouri:Dow ChemicalDownersTechniques Jump

  2. Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for total global heat flow Venus, geotherm for total global heat flow, 500 Ma #12;Temperature, Temperature, #12;Earth's modern regional continental geotherms Venusian Geotherms, 500 Ma Temperature, Temperature, After Blatt, Tracy, and Owens Petrology #12;Ca2Mg5Si8

  3. Multispectrum measurements of spectral line parameters including temperature dependences of N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients in the region of the v9 band of 12C2H6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C.P.; Smith, M.A.H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Flaud, Jean Marie; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L.R.; Mantz, A. W.

    2010-11-01

    Ethane is a prominent contributor to the spectrum of Titan, particularly in the region of the v9 band at 12?m. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program was applied to laboratory spectra of ethane to measure accurate positions, absolute intensities, N2- and selfbroadened half- width coefficients and their temperature dependences for a large number transitions. These measurements include several pQ and rQ sub-bands (and other sub-bands such as pP, rR) in the v9 fundamental band of 12C2H6 centered near 822 cm-1. Positions were measured for 2958 transitions and intensities for 3771 transitions. N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for over 1700 transitions while temperature dependence exponents were retrieved for over 1350 of those transitions. Of these, many measurements (mostly line positions and intensities) belong to the v9+v4-v4 hot band, v9+2v4-2v4 hot band, 13C12CH6 v9 band and unidentified transitions. Forty-three high resolution (0.0016-0.005 cm-1) infrared laboratory absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 148 and 298 K were fitted simultaneously to retrieve these parameters. Forty-one of these spectra were obtained in the temperature range of 211-298 K using the Bruker IFS 120HR interferometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Two additional spectra at 148 K were recorded using a new temperature stabilized cryogenic cell designed to work inside the sample compartment of the high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR interferometer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena California. The specialized cooling cell developed at Connecticut College and capable of achieving gas sample temperatures down to 70 K with a temperature stability and uniformity of better than ±0.05 K was employed to record the 148 K spectra. Constraints to intensity ratios, doublet separations, half-width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents were required to determine these parameters for each of the two torsional split components. Similar to N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents were also found to follow distinctively different patterns. The variations of the observed half-width coefficients and their temperature dependences with respect to J, K quantum numbers are discussed. Because of the high density of torsionally split spectral lines, hot-band ransitions as well as blends, it was not possible to retrieve any information on the small pressure-induced shift coefficients. Present results are compared to other available measurements.

  4. Ion Temperature and Hydrodynamic-Energy Measurements in a Z-Pinch Plasma at Stagnation E. Kroupp, D. Osin, A. Starobinets, V. Fisher, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, and Y. Maron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroupp, Eyal

    Ion Temperature and Hydrodynamic-Energy Measurements in a Z-Pinch Plasma at Stagnation E. Kroupp, D. Fisher Faculty of Physics, Technion-Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel M. E. Cuneo Sandia and the random hydrodynamic motion to the line shapes. In Z-pinch ex- periments [1,3], the plasma kinetic energy

  5. Measurement of vibrational, gas, and rotational temperatures of H{sub 2} (X{sup 1} {sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) in radio frequency inductive discharge plasma by multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakhatov, V.A.; De Pascale, O.; Capitelli, M.; Hassouni, K.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.

    2005-02-01

    Translational, rotational, and vibrational temperatures of H{sub 2} in radio frequency inductive discharge plasmas at pressures and power release ranges, respectively, of 0.5-8 torr and 0.5-2 W/cm{sup 3} have been measured by using multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. Computational codes have been developed to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures and to analyze H{sub 2} CARS spectrum for nonequilibrium conditions. The results show a decrease of the vibrational temperature from 4250 to 2800 K by increasing the pressure from 0.5 to 8 torr and a corresponding increase of the rotational temperature from 525 to 750 K.

  6. INDEX TO VOLUME 161 This index covers both the Initial Reports and Scientific Results portions of Vol-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , planktonic foraminifers, B:442­447 acoustic imagery, downhole measurements, B:323 actinolite, petrography, B

  7. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong, E-mail: yongxu@dlut.edu.cn; Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}??X{sup 2}? system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100?K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200?K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  8. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  9. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  10. Diode laser measurement of H?O, CO?, and temperature in gas turbine exhaust through the application of wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon, Marco E.

    2007-01-01

    view of UCSD power plant gas turbine systems 31top down view of UCSD power plant gas turbine systems Figureand Gas Temperatures in a Full-Sized Coal-Fired Power Plant

  11. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  12. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 500–2200 Ĺ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oishi, T. Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.

    2014-11-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of emissions released from tungsten ions at lower ionization stages were measured in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in the wavelength range of 500–2200 Ĺ using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. Tungsten ions were distributed in the LHD plasma by injecting a pellet consisting of a small piece of tungsten metal and polyethylene tube. Many lines having different wavelengths from intrinsic impurity ions were observed just after the tungsten pellet injection. Doppler broadening of a tungsten candidate line was successfully measured and the ion temperature was obtained.

  13. Potential of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and AMSU-B measurements for atmospheric temperature and humidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Potential of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and AMSU-B measurements for atmospheric. The retrieval approach has been evaluated by comparison with available in situ measurements. Citation: Karbou, F., F. Aires, C. Prigent, and L. Eymard (2005), Potential of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU

  14. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase 1 and Phase II. Final report. Volume III. Systems description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The major fraction of hydrothermal resources that have the prospect of being economically useful for the generation of electricity are in the 300/sup 0/F to 425/sup 0/F temperature range. Cost-effective conversion of the geothermal energy to electricity requires the conception and reduction to practice of new ideas to improve conversion efficiency, enhance brine flow, reduce plant costs, increase plant availability, and shorten the time between investment and return. The problems addressed during past activities are those inherent in the geothermal environment, in the binary fluid cycle, in the difficulty of efficiently converting the energy of a low-temperature resource, and in geothermal economics. Explained in detail in this document, some of these problems are: the energy expended by the down-hole pump; the difficulty in designing reliable down-hole equipment; fouling of heat-exchanger surfaces by geothermal fluids; the unavailability of condenser cooling water at most geothermal sites; the large portion of the available energy used by the feed pump in a binary system; the pinch effect - a loss in available energy in transferring heat from water to an organic fluid; flow losses in fluids that carry only a small amount of useful energy to begin with; high heat-exchanger costs - the lower the temperature interval of the cycle, the higher the heat exchanger costs in $/kW (actually, more than inversely proportional); the complexity and cost of the many auxiliary elements of proposed geothermal plants; and the unfortunate cash flow vs. investment curve caused by the many years of investment required to bring a field into production before any income is realized.

  15. A Combined Near-field Scanning Microwave Microscope and Transport Measurement System for Characterizing Dissipation in Conducting and High-Tc Superconducting Films at Variable Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dizon, Jonathan Reyes

    2009-04-28

    , on the other hand, focused early efforts on using their coaxial resonator-type probe to image a sample?s ferroelectric domains by measuring the variations in the dielectric constant [Gao 1998]. Periodic ferroelectric domain structures in crystals have found..., on the other hand, focused early efforts on using their coaxial resonator-type probe to image a sample?s ferroelectric domains by measuring the variations in the dielectric constant [Gao 1998]. Periodic ferroelectric domain structures in crystals have found...

  16. Apparatus and method for maintaining low temperatures about an object at a remote location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Overton, Jr., William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for maintaining a body at cryogenic temperatures at a remote location such as down a borehole for an extended period of time. A housing contains a body comprising a material having a high specific heat at cryogenic temperatures such as between about 2 and 15 K. The body contains an orifice for containing an instrument or instruments operable at superconducting temperatures. The apparatus is precooled at the surface and lowered into a borehole to a desired depth, such as 2 to 3 miles. The instruments are operated, and the apparatus withdrawn, the material of the body maintaining the very low temperatures at which the instrument(s) operate for a sufficient period of time at the remote or downhole location. The material may comprise a rare earth compound, such as Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Se.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 O.sub.2 S or GdAlO.sub.3. Monoclinic and C-phase gadolinium oxides work well. A low temperature is maintainable at a remote location for several hours.

  17. Apparatus and method for maintaining low temperatures about an object at a remote location. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.; Overton, W.C. Jr.

    1980-10-29

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for maintaining a body at cryogenic temperatures at a remote location such as down a borehole for an extended period of time. A housing contains a body comprising a material having a high specific heat at cryogenic temperatures such as between about 2 and 15 K. The body contains an orifice for containing an instrument or instruments operable at superconducting temperatures. The apparatus is precooled at the surface and lowered into a borehole to a desired depth, such as 2 to 3 miles. The instruments are operated, and the apparatus withdrawn, the material of the body maintaining the very low temperatures at which the instrument(s) operate for a sufficient period of time at the remote or downhole location. The material may comprise a rare earth compound, such as Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Gd/sub 2/Se/sub 3/, Gd/sub 2/O/sub 2/S or GdAlO/sub 3/. Monoclinic and C-phase gadolinium oxides work well. A low temperature is maintainable at a remote location for several hours.

  18. Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature (T{sub i}) and rotation-velocity (v) profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dunn, J.; Morris, K.; Wang, E.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M.; Lee, S. G.

    2010-10-15

    Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of T{sub i} and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, and Fe) with {approx}7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a prototype instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2D x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure T{sub i} and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. The measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for the inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod are presented.

  19. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer (XCS) for Measurement of Ion-Temperature (Ti) and Rotation-Velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aprico, L; Johnson, D; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer,; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O'Mullane, M; Lee, S G

    2010-05-21

    Imaging XCS arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, Fe) with ~7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a PPPL-MIT instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2d x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. Measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod will be presented.

  20. Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer For Measurement Of Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aparico, L; Johnson, David; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer, P; Dunn, James; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O'Mullane, M

    2010-12-15

    Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer #2;XCS#3; arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities #2;(W, Kr, and Fe)#3; with ~#4;7 cm (a/30)#3; and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a prototype instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2D x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E / dE >#2;6000)#3; horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. The measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for the inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod are presented.

  1. Measurement of Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Exp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By SarahMODELING CLOUD1 H( 7 Be, 8Measurement

  2. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  3. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  4. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 4th Quarter 2009 Milestone Report: Measure and simulate target temperature and dynamic response in optimized NDCX-I configurations with initial diagnostics suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Henestroza, E.; Logan, B.G.; Lidia, S.; More, R.M.; Ni, P.A.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Grote, D.; Friedman, A.

    2009-09-30

    This milestone has been met. The effort contains two main components: (1) Experimental results of warm dense matter target experiments on optimized NDCX-I configurations that include measurements of target temperature and transient target behavior. (2) A theoretical model of the target response to beam heating that includes an equilibrium heating model of the target foil and a model for droplet formation in the target for comparison with experimental results. The experiments on ion-beam target heating use a 300-350-keV K{sup +} pulsed beam from the Neutralized Compression Drift Experiment (NDCX-I) accelerator at LBNL. The NDCX-I accelerator delivers an uncompressed pulse beam of several microseconds with a typical power density of >100 kW/cm{sup 2} over a final focus spot size of about 1 mm. An induction bunching module the NDCX-I compresses a portion of the beam pulse to reach a much higher power density over 2 nanoseconds. Under these conditions the free-standing foil targets are rapidly heated to temperatures to over 4000 K. We model the target thermal dynamics using the equation of heat conduction for the temperature T(x,t) as a function of time (t) and spatial dimension along the beam direction (x). The competing cooling processes release energy from the surface of the foil due to evaporation, radiation, and thermionic (Richardson) emission. A description of the experimental configuration of the target chamber and results from initial beam-target experiments are reported in our FY08 4th Quarter and FY09 2nd Quarter Milestone Reports. The WDM target diagnostics include a high-speed multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. The fast optical pyrometer is a unique and significant new diagnostic which provides valuable information on the temperature evolution of the heated target.

  5. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 5. Measurement of density, temperature, and material velocity in an air shock produced by a nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porzel, F.B.; Whitener, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    The results from laboratory tests and test firing were quite encouraging. It was concluded that: (1) the beta densitometer is a feasible device for the measurement of density as a function of time in the shock wave from a nuclear explosion. It is limited to pressure levels of 6 or 8 psi for bombs in the range of 50 kt, but is capable of higher-pressure levels on larger bombs where the interference from gamma rays is less serious; (2) dust-loading behind the shock wave is a major perturbation to the ideal hydrodynamics and can change the density by as large a factor as the shock itself; (3) the rise time at distances of 7,500 feet on Easy Shot was sharp within a resolution of approximately 0.2 msec; and (4) the field calibration used on Operation Greenhouse appeared reasonably accurate and was worthy of subsequent development.

  6. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  7. Global Temperature November 3, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    of instrumental temperature measurements occurred when the 1997-98 "El Nino of the century" occurred on the back of a strong two-decade warming trend; in addition, the global temperature impact of the El Nino, which typically lags the El Nino by a few months, coincided almost precisely with calendar year 1998. As a result

  8. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurements. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission...

  9. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is...

  10. Thermoporoelastic Effects of Drilling Fluid Temperature on Rock Drillability at Bit/Formation Interface 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thepchatri, Kritatee 1984-

    2012-10-26

    fluid and the downhole formation. It is critical for drilling engineers to understand this thermal impact to optimize their drilling plans. This thesis develops a numerical model using partially coupled thermoporoelasticity to study the effects...

  11. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConference Tight Oil1 Soil Water and Temperature

  12. Conditioning circuit for temperature and strain measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Aashit Mahendra

    1997-01-01

    conventional techniques. The technique was originally developed at NASA, but has been slightly modified here to obtain the best possible results from the conditioning circuit. The core of the conditioning circuit is formed by a precision switched capacitor...

  13. Temperature Measurements in a Milagro Outrigger Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    often "several inches of ice on water top surface/sides ... but never close to freezing solid!" John Thermocouple string: · 13" in from the edge of the tank · depths (below the surface of the water) of PMT, enclosure 1/2-immersed, only electronics: PMT-base · Water depth typically 30-inches (i

  14. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARM Data Discoverynarrowband

  15. ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARM Datanarrowband

  16. ARM - Measurement - Microwave narrowband brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARM Datanarrowbandspectralflux

  17. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  18. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  19. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  20. Quantum Chemistry at Finite Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liqiang Wei

    2006-05-23

    In this article, we present emerging fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. We discuss its recent developments on both experimental and theoretical fronts. First, we describe several experimental investigations related to the temperature effects on the structures, electronic spectra, or bond rupture forces for molecules. These include the analysis of the temperature impact on the pathway shifts for the protein unfolding by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the temperature dependence of the absorption spectra of electrons in solvents, and the temperature influence over the intermolecular forces measured by the AFM. On the theoretical side, we review advancements made by the author in the coming fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. Starting from the Bloch equation, we have derived the sets of hierarchy equations for the reduced density operators in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. They provide a law according to which the reduced density operators vary in temperature for the identical and interacting many-body systems. By taking the independent particle approximation, we have solved the equations in the case of a grand canonical ensemble, and obtained an energy eigenequation for the molecular orbitals at finite temperature. The explicit expression for the temperature-dependent Fock operator is also given. They form a mathematical foundation for the examination of the molecular electronic structures and their interplay with finite temperature. Moreover, we clarify the physics concerning the temperature effects on the electronic structures or processes of the molecules, which is crucial for both theoretical understanding and computation. Finally, ....

  1. Final Technical Report - 300���°C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System For Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng-Po Chen; David Shaddock; Peter Sandvik; Rich Saia; Amita Patil, Alexey Vert; Tan Zhang

    2012-11-30

    A silicon carbide (SiC) based electronic temperature sensor prototype has been demonstrated to operate at 300���°C. We showed continuous operation of 1,000 hours with SiC operational amplifier and surface mounted discreet resistors and capacitors on a ceramic circuit board. This feasibility demonstration is a major milestone in the development of high temperature electronics in general and high temperature geothermal exploration and well management tools in particular. SiC technology offers technical advantages that are not found in competing technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) at high temperatures of 200���°C to 300���°C and beyond. The SiC integrated circuits and packaging methods can be used in new product introduction by GE Oil and Gas for high temperature down-hole tools. The existing SiC fabrication facility at GE is sufficient to support the quantities currently demanded by the marketplace, and there are other entities in the United States and other countries capable of ramping up SiC technology manufacturing. The ceramic circuit boards are different from traditional organic-based electronics circuit boards, but the fabrication process is compatible with existing ceramic substrate manufacturing. This project has brought high temperature electronics forward, and brings us closer to commercializing tools that will enable and reduce the cost of enhanced geothermal technology to benefit the public in terms of providing clean renewable energy at lower costs.

  2. Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fabricate and test a downhole instrument for measuring fracture flow following a hydraulic stimulation experiment. reservoirrosetracerscharacterizefractures.pdf More...

  3. Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    industrial-scale variable speed drive motors to power electronics for a modern electric grid. Testing of the components developed by GE with the active electronic devices and...

  4. Link module for a downhole drilling network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

    2007-05-29

    A repeater is disclosed in one embodiment of the present invention as including a cylindrical housing, characterized by a proximal end and a distal end, and having a substantially cylindrical wall, the cylindrical wall defining a central bore passing therethrough. The cylindrical housing is formed to define at least one recess in the cylindrical wall, into which a repeater is inserted. The cylindrical housing also includes an annular recess formed into at least one of the proximal end and the distal end. An annular transmission element, operably connected to the repeater, is located in the annular recess. In selected embodiments, the annular transmission element inductively converts electrical energy to magnetic energy. In other embodiments, the annular transmission element includes an electrical contact to transmit electrical energy directly to another contact.

  5. Coiled tubing solves multiple downhole problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedford, S. ); Smith, I. )

    1994-11-01

    Declining reservoir pressure and water breakthrough in the UK North Sea Magnus field has coincided with general advances in application of coiled tubing and a continuous drive to reduce operating costs, particularly in a climate of weak oil prices. These factors have led to a dramatic increase in diversity and volume of coiled tubing interventions. In the following article, coiled tubing interventions, and results of those interventions, are discussed. An assessment of future coiled tubing activity on Magnus field is provided.

  6. Down-hole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, H.C.; Hills, R.G.; Striker, R.P.

    1982-10-28

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system is disclosed for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  7. Downhole Fluid Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOEDixmont,Missouri:Dow ChemicalDowners

  8. Downhole Fluid Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOEDixmont,Missouri:Dow ChemicalDowners

  9. Category:Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy014771°,NorthCLEAN WebinarNH

  10. Intrauterine temperatures of mares under different management conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commaille, Lynn Frances

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise-induced hyperthermia results in an increase in uterine temperature, as measured by an iButton temperature-measurement device inserted into the uterus, comparable ...

  11. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  12. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  13. Eastern Australasian Basins Symposium IVBrisbane, QLD, 1014 September, 2012 1 1 School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    from downhole temperature logging and thermal conductivity measurements of boreholes in the onshore Gippsland Basin. Calculated borehole heat flow varies between 35­105 mW/m˛, with a mean of 68 m, in direct-use applications, and highlights the possibility of stand-alone geothermal power generation from

  14. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  15. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  16. SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS 29 SITE SUMMARIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    depth. Three holes. Frequent use of PCS and/or HYACE. Logging and Downhole Program: LWD; triple combo, XCB to refusal. Possible use of PCS and/or HYACE. Logging and Downhole Program: LWD, APC and Downhole Program: LWD, triple combo, APC-temperature, DVTP, APC methane tools. Nature of Rock Anticipated

  17. Please cite this article in press as: Jschke J, Skogestad S. Optimal operation of heat exchanger networks with stream split: Only tempera-ture measurements are required. Computers and Chemical Engineering (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: Jäschke J, Skogestad S. Optimal operation of heat exchanger of heat exchanger networks with stream split: Only temperature measurements are required Johannes Jäschke in revised form 20 March 2014 Accepted 27 March 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Heat exchanger networks

  18. While drilling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  19. High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11

    A method of treating a formation fluid includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen or mixtures thereof. Molecular oxygen is separated from air to form a molecular oxygen stream comprising molecular oxygen. The first gas stream is combined with the molecular oxygen stream to form a combined stream comprising molecular oxygen and the first gas stream. The combined stream is provided to one or more downhole burners.

  20. Nonlinear high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grady, Nathaniel K.

    We report the observation of a nonlinear terahertz response of split-ring resonator arrays made of high-temperature superconducting films. Intensity-dependent transmission measurements indicate that the resonance strength ...

  1. Finite Temperature Schrödinger Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Yan Wang

    2011-06-11

    We know Schr\\"{o}dinger equation describes the dynamics of quantum systems, which don't include temperature. In this paper, we propose finite temperature Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, which can describe the quantum systems in an arbitrary temperature. When the temperature T=0, it become Shr\\"{o}dinger equation.

  2. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  3. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  4. Rotating sample holder at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasternak, Sebastien; Perrin, Florian; Ciatto, Gianluca; Palancher, Herve; Steinmann, Ricardo [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-15

    A low temperature rotary device (cryoturbine) for use in extended x-ray-absorption fine structure measurements in fluorescence mode has been designed and manufactured. The instrument works at a temperature close to liquid Nitrogen and can reach frequencies up to 100 Hz with good stability. The rotation speed is measured with a light-emitting diode driven in stroboscopic mode by a simple electronic circuit.

  5. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimm, Noel P. (Monroeville, PA); Bauer, Frank I. (Perry Township, Lawrence County, PA); Bengel, Thomas G. (Plum Boro, PA); Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Mavretish, Robert S. (New Stanton, PA); Miller, Phillip E. (Greensburg, PA); Nath, Raymond J. (Murrysville, PA); Salton, Robert B. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  6. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  7. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  8. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure...

  9. Evaluation of High-Temperature Exposure of Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, D.; Kempe, M.; Bosco, N.; Whitefield, K.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Dhere, N.; Zgonena, T.

    2009-06-01

    This paper documents measured and modeled PV-module temperatures and evaluates these in the context of the requirements for accelerated testing.

  10. Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Using a preliminary model and analysis of the Coso data, the importance of measuring soil thermal diffusivity data at each temperature probe site was shown. Corrected 2-m...

  11. WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY 1939-1948 Marine Biological i STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;a WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM arid to avoid delay in publication. Washington D. CWATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

  12. Temperature estimates from zircaloy oxidation kinetics and microstructures. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1982-10-01

    This report reviews state-of-the-art capability to determine peak zircaloy fuel rod cladding temperatures following an abnormal temperature excursion in a nuclear reactor, based on postirradiation metallographic analysis of zircaloy microstructural and oxidation characteristics. Results of a comprehensive literature search are presented to evaluate the suitability of available zircaloy microstructural and oxidation data for estimating anticipated reactor fuel rod cladding temperatures. Additional oxidation experiments were conducted to evaluate low-temperature zircaloy oxidation characteristics for postirradiation estimation of cladding temperature by metallographic examination. Results of these experiments were used to calculate peak cladding temperatures of electrical heater rods and nuclear fuel rods that had been subjected to reactor temperature transients. Comparison of the calculated and measured peak cladding temperatures for these rods indicates that oxidation kinetics is a viable technique for estimating peak cladding temperatures over a broad temperature range. However, further improvement in zircaloy microstructure technology is necessary for precise estimation of peak cladding temperatures by microstructural examination.

  13. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  14. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  15. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  16. Superconductivity at Any Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anber, Mohamed M; Sabancilar, Eray; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We construct a 2+1 dimensional model that sustains superconductivity at all temperatures. This is achieved by introducing a Chern Simons mixing term between two Abelian gauge fields A and Z. The superfluid is described by a complex scalar charged under Z, whereas a sufficiently strong magnetic field of A forces the superconducting condensate to form at all temperatures. In fact, at finite temperature, the theory exhibits Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition due to proliferation of topological vortices admitted by our construction. However, the critical temperature is proportional to the magnetic field of A, and thus, the phase transition can be postponed to high temperatures by increasing the strength of the magnetic field. This model can be a step towards realizing the long sought room temperature superconductivity.

  17. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of a downhole wireline tool to characterize fractures in EGS wells in temperatures up to 300°C and depths up to 10; 000 m.

  18. In situ measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  19. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  20. Multicore fiber sensor for high-temperature applications up to 1000C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LiKamWa, Patrick L.

    include down-hole drillings for oil and gas exploration, power plant turbines, and aircraft engines to produce special structures increasing the complexity and final cost of the sensor device. Similarly, microcavities fabricated on capillary fiber tips, micro- channel-drilled fiber cores [10,11], as well

  1. Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zheng 1983-

    2012-11-12

    Down-hole damages such as borehole collapse, circulation loss and rock tensile/compressive cracking in the open-hole system are well understood at drilling and well completion stages. However, less effort has been made to understand the instability...

  2. Multiwavelength monitoring of photofragment fluorescence after 193 nm photolysis of NaCl and NaOH. Application to measuring the sodium species released from coal at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, B.L.; Domazetis, G. (Herman Research Lab., Mulgrave (Australia)); Morrison, R.J.S. (Monash Univ., Clayton (Australia))

    1995-02-15

    Excimer laser photodissociation of gas-phase NaCl and NaOH, and monitoring of the subsequent Na photofragment fluorescence, are used to determine the concentration of the species in coal-derived gaseous environments. Detection limits lower than 1 ppb of NaCl have been achieved under atmospheric conditions using 193 nm photodissociation. It is shown that monitoring two Na emission wavelengths (at 819 and 589 nm) allows speciation between NaOH and NaCl in the gas phase. In particular, emission from the Na 3[sup 2]D levels (at 819 nm) has been unambiguously attributed to photodissociation of NaOH. This emission results from hot-band absorption of the excimer laser, and thus its intensity is temperature dependent and weaker than 3[sup 2]P (589 nm) emission. The technique has been applied to the detection of NaCl and NaOH released during the pyrolysis and gasification of samples of Loy Yang (Australian brown) coal. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marvinney, Robert

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  4. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  5. Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; McFarlane, SA

    2012-10-31

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) value-added product (VAP) and the procedures used to derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the raw RL measurements. Sections 2 and 4 describe the input and output variables, respectively. Section 3 discusses the theory behind the measurement and the details of the algorithm, including calibration and overlap correction.

  6. University of Illinois Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) University of Illinois Project 29609 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of ferritic alloys for advanced reactor applications. The FeCr-based alloy system is considered the lead alloy system for a variety of advanced reactor components and applications. Irradiations of FeCr alloy samples were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in a static capsule in the A-11 position of the ATR.

  7. Thermoelectric Temperature Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    NOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92-040000A © 1995 Wavelength Electronics, Inc. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are used in a variety understanding of thermal management techniques and carefully select the thermoelectric module, temperature

  8. Validation Testing for the PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K; Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Khan, M Y

    2010-01-01

    measurements such as exhaust temperature, total hydrocarbon,hydrocarbons NTE.Not-to-exceed NO x .nitrogen oxides OC organic carbon OEMoriginal equipment manufacturer PEMS .portable emissions measurement

  9. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O'Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter

    2013-03-31

    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  10. Local wall heat flux/temperature meter for convective flow and method of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Ekhlassi, Ali; Cofie, Penrose

    2004-11-30

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes providing a conduit having a fluid flowing therethrough, disposing a plurality of temperature measurement devices inside a wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices proximate an inside surface of the wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices at different radial positions at the same circumferential location within the wall, measuring a plurality of temperatures of the wall with respective ones of the temperature measurement devices to obtain a three-dimensional temperature topology of the wall, determining the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the conduit, and determining a multi-dimensional thermal characteristic of the inside surface of the wall of the conduit based on extrapolation of the three-dimensional temperature topology and the temperature dependent thermal conductivities.

  11. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  12. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  13. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  14. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  15. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Institut fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie, Universitaet zu Koeln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, 50923 Koeln (Germany)

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  16. Microcantilever heater-thermometer with integrated temperature-compensated strain sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, William P. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Jungchul (Champaign, IL); Goericke, Fabian T. (Wolfsburg, DE)

    2011-04-19

    The present invention provides microcantilever hotplate devices which incorporate temperature compensating strain sensors. The microcantilever hotplate devices of the present invention comprise microcantilevers having temperature compensating strain sensors and resistive heaters. The present invention also provides methods for using a microcantilever hotplate for temperature compensated surface stress measurements, chemical/biochemical sensing, measuring various properties of compounds adhered to the microcantilever hotplate surface, or for temperature compensated deflection measurements.

  17. Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature Manojit Pramanik Lihong V. Wang Washington thermoacoustic and photoacoustic measurements. This noninvasive method has been demonstrated using a tissue and thermoacoustic signal amplitudes depend on the tempera- ture of the source object, the signal amplitudes can

  18. Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of AlSb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Y. W.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, Y. D.; Shin, S. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Song, J. D.

    2011-12-23

    Spectroscopic ellipometry was used to determine the optical response of an intrinsic AlSb film as a function of temperature. The 1.5 {mu}m thick film was grown on a (001) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Measurements were done at temperatures from 300 K to the growth temperature of 800 K over a spectral range of 0.7 to 5.0 eV. To avoid oxidation artifacts, measurements were done with the film in situ. The data were analyzed using a parametric semiconductor model for its temperature dependence.

  19. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  20. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  1. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  2. Polycrystalline gamma plutonium's elastic moduli versus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to measure the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline {sup 239}Pu in the {gamma} phase. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli were measured simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth, linear, and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. They calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519 K to 0.252 at 571 K. These measurements on extremely well characterized pure Pu are in agreement with other reported results where overlap occurs.

  3. Temperature estimates from the zircaloy oxidation kinetics in the. cap alpha. plus. beta. phase region. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Oxidation rates of zircaloy in steam were measured at temperatures between 961 and 1264 K and for duration times between 25 and 1900 seconds in order to calculate, in conjunction with measurements from postirradiation metallographic examination, the prior peak temperatures of zircaloy fuel rod cladding. These temperature estimates will be used in light water reactor research programs to assess (a) the accuracy of temperature measurements of fuel rod cladding peak temperatures from thermocouples attached to the surface during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), (b) the perturbation of the fuel rod cladding LOCE temperature history caused by the presence of thermocouples, and (c) the measurements of cladding azimuthal temperature gradients near thermocouple locations.

  4. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  5. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  6. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  7. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  8. Transition temperature in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.; Christ, N. H.; Mawhinney, R. D. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Datta, S.; Jung, C.; Schmidt, C.; Umeda, T. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Heide, J. van der; Kaczmarek, O.; Laermann, E.; Miao, C. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Karsch, F. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Petreczky, P. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Petrov, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light and one heavier (strange) quark mass on lattices with temporal extent N{sub {tau}}=4 and 6. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed for various light to strange quark mass ratios in the range, 0.05{<=}m-circumflex{sub l}/m-circumflex{sub s}{<=}0.5, and with a strange quark mass fixed close to its physical value. From a combined extrapolation to the chiral (m-circumflex{sub l}{yields}0) and continuum (aT{identical_to}1/N{sub {tau}}{yields}0) limits we find for the transition temperature at the physical point T{sub c}r{sub 0}=0.457(7) where the scale is set by the Sommer-scale parameter r{sub 0} defined as the distance in the static quark potential at which the slope takes on the value (dV{sub qq}(r)/dr){sub r=r{sub 0}}=1.65/r{sub 0}{sup 2}. Using the currently best known value for r{sub 0} this translates to a transition temperature T{sub c}=192(7)(4) MeV. The transition temperature in the chiral limit is about 3% smaller. We discuss current ambiguities in the determination of T{sub c} in physical units and also comment on the universal scaling behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the chiral limit.

  9. Low-temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Surfaces R. M. Feenstra1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Low-temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Surfaces R. M. Feenstra1 Low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor surface are described that measurements at low temperatures have been conducted. Most notably, discrete accumulation layer states have

  10. Temperature measurement and stabilization in a birefringent whispering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Nofrarias, J. Ramos-Castro, and P. J. Riu, "Thermal diagnostics front-end electronics for LISA pathfinder," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 33­39 (2006). 10. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, "Nonstationary nonlinear effects in optical microspheres," Laser Resonators and Beam Control VII, ed. A

  11. Measurements of the Casimir Pressure at Low-Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo-Garza, jose- Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Systems 100 kHz FFT Spectrum Analyzer SR770. [91] F. Reif,purpose, we use an FFT Spectrum Analyzer [90], an instrumentresolution of the Spectrum Analyzer. This means that an

  12. Measurements of the Casimir Pressure at Low-Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo-Garza, jose- Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    and sensitive microelectromechanical devices (MEMS) [2, 24].using Microelectromechanical devices (MEMS) have produced

  13. Determining Multilayer Formation Properties from Transient Temperature and Pressure Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sui, Weibo

    2010-10-12

    The Multilayer Transient Test is a well-testing technique designed to determine formation properties in multiple layers, and it has been proved effective during the past two decades. To apply the Multilayer Transient Test, a combination of rate...

  14. In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring Org: EE USDOE - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) Country of Publication: United States Language:...

  15. Measurement of the resistivity versus temperature in iodine single crystals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somoano, Robert Bonner

    1964-01-01

    ''oner?-y dud thc nobility activaticu ever~ At lcw, 'tespbrutur "s, ' the c. obility ectivction encrI y 'is lar, . . . e:end contributes sip;uificsut1y to the. total -ctivation ener~y, thereby yicldinj: the high value. , . ;However, ' as highs...

  16. 2004-01-1418 Instantaneous Exhaust Temperature Measurements Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Stephen

    , the performance of a turbocharger may be enhanced since its operating point can be accurately determined

  17. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIBS 2014: 4. International Symposium on Negative Ions, Beams and Sources, Garching (Germany), 6-10 Oct 2014; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input:...

  18. INlST Measurement Services: Radiance Temperature Calibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manufacturing Systems Integration Building and Fire Research Laboratory Structures Building Materials BuildingEngineering Laboratory Precision Engineering Automated Production Technology Intelligent Systems Fabrication Technology High Performance Systems and Services Distributed Computing and Information Services Software

  19. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; DOPPLER...

  20. Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering and

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) | Open Energy InformationEnergy Information Data