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1

Core Measure Average KTR Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measure Measure Average KTR Results FY 12 Target FY 12 DOE M&O CONTRACTOR (KTR) BSC RESULTS FY 2012 Customer Perspective and level of communication provided by the procurement office 95 92 Internal Business Perspective: Assessment (%) of the degree to which the purchasing system is in compliance with stakeholder requirements 97 Local Goals % Delivery on-time (includes JIT, excludes Purchase Cards) 88 84 % of total dollars obligated, on actions > $150K , that were awarded using effective competition 73 Local Goals Rapid Purchasing Techniques: -% of transactions placed by users 77 Local Goals -% of transactions placed through electronic commerce 62 Local Goals Average Cycle Time: -Average cycle time for <= $150K 8 6 to 9 days

2

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent space-time in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, {\\em achronal} null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out wormholes and closed timelike curves.

Noah Graham; Ken D. Olum

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

4

EIA Average Energy Consumption 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table US8. Average Consumption by Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units per Household Fuels Used (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel)

5

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

Dunham, Scott

6

Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SalinityAverage SalinityAverage Jump to: navigation, search Property Name SalinityAverage Property Type Number Description Mean average of the low and high end measurements of the salinity [ppm] of the fluid. This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: C Coso Geothermal Area Pages using the property "SalinityAverage" Showing 19 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 975 + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 700 + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 4300 + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 3500 + C Chena Geothermal Area + 325 + D Desert Peak Geothermal Area + 6700 + Dixie Valley Geothermal Area + 2295 + E East Mesa Geothermal Area + 3750 + G Geysers Geothermal Area + 217 + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 18750 +

7

Estimating Averaging Times for Point and Path-Averaged Measurements of Turbulence Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainty over how long to average turbulence variables to achieve some desired level of statistical stability is a common concern in boundary-layer meteorology. Several models exist that predict averaging times for measurements of variances ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

EIA Renewable Energy- Average Energy Conversion Efficiency of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Renewables and Alternate Fuels > Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Annual Report > Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Source: Average Energy ...

9

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Class of Ownership, Number of Consumers, Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price for Power Marketers and Energy Service Providers by State: T12:

10

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2001-2010 are Excel zipped files & 1994-2000 are PDF files ... and Average Retail Price for Power Marketers and ... U.S. Department of Energy USA.gov FedStats.

13

Improving Wind ProfilerMeasured Winds Using Coplanar Spectral Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented that increases the detectability of weak clear-air signals by averaging Doppler spectra from coplanar wind profiler beams. The method, called coplanar spectral averaging (CSA), is applied to both simulated wind profiler ...

Robert Schafer; Susan K. Avery; Kenneth S. Gage; Paul E. Johnston; D. A. Carter

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

AMPERE AVERAGE CURRENT PHOTOINJECTOR AND ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.  

SciTech Connect

High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. We describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode, an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current and plans for an ERL based on these units.

BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CALAGA,R.; ET AL.

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

15

Nonlocal imaging by conditional averaging of random reference measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the nonlocal imaging of an object by conditional averaging of the random exposure frames of a reference detector, which only sees the freely propagating field from a thermal light source. A bucket detector, synchronized with the reference detector, records the intensity fluctuations of an identical beam passing through the object mask. These fluctuations are sorted according to their values relative to the mean, then the reference data in the corresponding time-bins for a given fluctuation range are averaged, to produce either positive or negative images. Since no correlation calculations are involved, this correspondence imaging technique challenges our former interpretations of "ghost" imaging. Compared with conventional correlation imaging or compressed sensing schemes, both the number of exposures and computation time are greatly reduced, while the visibility is much improved. A simple statistical model is presented to explain the phenomenon.

Kai-Hong Luo; Boqiang Huang; Wei-Mou Zheng; Ling-An Wu

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

Spatial Averaging of HF Radar Data for Wave Measurement Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HF radar data are often collected for time periods that are optimised for current measurement applications where, in many cases, very high temporal resolution is needed. Previous work has demonstrated that this does not provide sufficient ...

Lucy R. Wyatt; Jasmine B. D. Jaffrs; Mal L. Heron

17

Plate with a hole obeys the averaged null energy condition  

SciTech Connect

The negative energy density of Casimir systems appears to violate general relativity energy conditions. However, one cannot test the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) using standard calculations for perfectly reflecting plates, because the null geodesic would have to pass through the plates, where the calculation breaks down. To avoid this problem, we compute the contribution to ANEC for a geodesic that passes through a hole in a single plate. We consider both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in two and three space dimensions. We use a Babinet's principle argument to reduce the problem to a complementary finite disk correction to the perfect mirror result, which we then compute using scattering theory in elliptical and spheroidal coordinates. In the Dirichlet case, we find that the positive correction due to the hole overwhelms the negative contribution of the infinite plate. In the Neumann case, where the infinite plate gives a positive contribution, the hole contribution is smaller in magnitude, so again ANEC is obeyed. These results can be extended to the case of two plates in the limits of large and small hole radii. This system thus provides another example of a situation where ANEC turns out to be obeyed when one might expect it to be violated.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

All Electricity Reports Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price With Data for 2011 | Release Date: September 27, 2012 | Next Release Date: September, 2013 Previous editions...

19

Today in Energy - Average wholesale natural gas prices mostly ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average spot natural gas prices, which reflect the wholesale price of natural gas at major trading points, generally declined in most U.S. regional markets about 7% ...

20

More recycling raises average energy content of waste used to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Environment. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. Highlights Short-Term Energy Outlook ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

More recycling raises average energy content of waste used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook ... Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; ... concurrent with the increased recovery of biogenic materials before they enter the waste ...

22

Average estimate for additive energy in prime field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that $A\\subseteq \\Fp, B\\subseteq \\Fp^{*}$, $\\1/4\\leqslant\\frac{|B|}{|A|},$ $|A|=p^{\\alpha}, |B|=p^{\\beta}$. We will prove that for $p\\geqslant p_0(\\beta)$ one has $$\\sum_{b\\in B}E_{+}(A, bA)\\leqslant 15 p^{-\\frac{\\min\\{\\beta, 1-\\alpha\\}}{308}}|A|^3|B|.$$ Here $E_{+}(A, bA)$ is an additive energy between subset $A$ and it's multiplicative shift $bA$. This improves previously known estimates of this type.

Glibichuk, Alexey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Uncertainty in a Path-averaged Measurement of the Friction Velocity u*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several electro-optical methods exist for measuring a path-averaged value of the inner scale of turbulence l0. By virtue of MoninObukhov similarity, in the atmospheric surface layer such l0 measurements are related to the friction velocity u* or ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment  

SciTech Connect

Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kunkel, K. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States"

26

Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

27

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

28

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

29

Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors"

30

"Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors"

31

"Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States"

32

Development of a Sea Ice Model for Use in Zonally Averaged Energy Balance Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sea ice model for use in zonally averaged energy balance climate models is presented which includes the following processes: surface melting, basal freezing and melting, lateral melting from ice-flee water or growth of new ice in leads, ...

L. D. Danny Harvey

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A Surface Flux Parameterization Based on the Vertically Averaged Turbulence Kinetic Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new bulk transfer formulation for the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture has been developed by using the square root of the vertically averaged turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the atmospheric boundary layer as a velocity ...

Changan Zhang; David A. Randall; Chin-Hoh Moeng; Mark Branson; Kerry A. Moyer; Qing Wang

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

"Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Unit)" ,,,,," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(1000","LPG","Coal","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","(kWh)","(gallon)","(gallon)","cu ft)","(gallon)","(short ton)","Factors"

35

The averaged tensors of the relative energy-momentum and angular momentum in general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There exist at least a few different kind of averaging of the differences of the energy-momentum and angular momentum in normal coordinates {\\bf NC(P)} which give tensorial quantities. The obtained averaged quantities are equivalent mathematically because they differ only by constant scalar dimensional factors. One of these averaging was used in our papers [1-8] giving the {\\it canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors}. In this paper we present one other averaging of the energy-momentum and angular momentum differences which gives tensorial quantities with proper dimensions of the energy-momentum and angular momentum densities. But these averaged energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors, closely related to the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, {\\it depend on some fundamental length L}. The averaged energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors of the gravitational field obtained in the paper can be applied, like the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, to coordinate independent local (and also global) analysis of this field.

Janusz Garecki

2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varying optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

Sreepada, S.R.; Rippel, R.R.

1990-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

37

"Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 2" " (Estimates in Dollars per Million Btu)" ,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.7,0.8,1,2.8,1,0.7 20,"Food and Kindred Products",15.789,2.854,6.064,2.697,7.596,1.433,4.5

38

Measuring Energy Sustainability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the purpose of measurement, energy sustainability is defined as ensuring that future generations have energy resources that enable them to achieve a level of well-being at least as good as that of the current generation. It is recognized that there are valid, more comprehensive understandings of sustainability and that energy sustainability as defined here is only meaningful when placed in a broader context. Still, measuring energy sustainability is important to society because the rates of consumption of some fossil resources are now substantial in relation to measures of ultimate resources, and because conflicts between fossil energy use and environmental sustainability are intensifying. Starting from the definition, an equation for energy sustainability is derived that reconciles renewable fl ows and nonrenewable stocks, includes the transformation of energy into energy services, incorporates technological change and, at least notionally, allows for changes in the relationship between energy services and societal well-being. Energy sustainability must be measured retrospectively as well as prospectively, and methods for doing each are discussed. Connections to the sustainability of other resources are also critical. The framework presented is merely a starting point; much remains to be done to make it operational.

Greene, David L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Average regional end-use energy price projections to the year 2030  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy prices shown in this report cover the period from 1991 through 2030. These prices reflect sector/fuel price projections from the Annual Energy Outlook 1991 (AEO) base case, developed using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) forecasting model. Projections through 2010 are AEO base case forecasts. Projections for the period from 2011 through 2030 were developed separately from the AEO for this report, and the basis for these projections is described in Chapter 3. Projections in this report include average energy prices for each of four Census Regions for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation end-use sectors. Energy sources include electricity, distillate fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline, residual fuel oil, natural gas, and steam coal. (VC)

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Average regional end-use energy price projections to the year 2030  

SciTech Connect

The energy prices shown in this report cover the period from 1991 through 2030. These prices reflect sector/fuel price projections from the Annual Energy Outlook 1991 (AEO) base case, developed using the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) forecasting model. Projections through 2010 are AEO base case forecasts. Projections for the period from 2011 through 2030 were developed separately from the AEO for this report, and the basis for these projections is described in Chapter 3. Projections in this report include average energy prices for each of four Census Regions for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation end-use sectors. Energy sources include electricity, distillate fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline, residual fuel oil, natural gas, and steam coal. (VC)

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas from Local

42

The Effects of Volume Averaging on Spectra Measured with a Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because the Lyman-alpha hygrometer averages turbulent fluctuations in humidity over a right circular cylinder, the spectral response of the instrument degrades at higher wavenumbers. This paper contains a derivation of the three-dimensional ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; 4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Residual Distillate LPG and Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal Characteristic(a) (kWh) (gallons) (gallons) (1000 cu ft) (gallons) (short tons) Total United States Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 0.093 1.55 2.58 6.64 1.80 78.29 20-49 0.075 1.66 2.45 6.44 1.80 80.13 50-99 0.070 1.64 1.79 6.04 2.19 68.10 100-249 0.061 1.62 2.38 5.51 1.69 100.69 250-499 0.056 1.69 2.41 5.54 1.59 92.51 500 and Over 0.054 1.54 2.35 5.08 1.15 96.25 Total

45

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Coal NAICS TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (cu ft) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) Total United States 311 Food 9.12 0.26 0.00 53.43 90.85 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6.30 0.29 0.00 51.34 50.47 311221 Wet Corn Milling 4.87 0.48 0.00 47.74 50.47 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 5.02 0.31 0.00 53.34 236.66 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 9.78 0.27 0.00 90.59 0.00 3115 Dairy Products 11.21 0.10 0.00 103.12 0.00 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

46

The averaged tensors of the relative energy-momentum and angular momentum in general relativity and some their applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There exist at least a few different kind of averaging of the differences of the energy-momentum and angular momentum in normal coordinates {\\bf NC(P)} which give tensorial quantities. The obtained averaged quantities are equivalent mathematically because they differ only by constant scalar dimensional factors. One of these averaging was used in our papers [1-8] giving the {\\it canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors}. In this paper we present another averaging of the differences of the energy-momentum and angular momentum which gives tensorial quantities with proper dimensions of the energy-momentum and angular momentum densities. But these averaged relative energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors, closely related to the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, {\\it depend on some fundamental length $L>0$}. The averaged relative energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors of the gravitational field obtained in the paper can be applied, like the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, to {\\it coordinate independent} analysis (local and in special cases also global) of this field. We have applied the averaged relative energy-momentum tensors to analyze vacuum gravitational energy and momentum and to analyze energy and momentum of the Friedman (and also more general) universes. The obtained results are very interesting, e.g., the averaged relative energy density is {\\it positive definite} for the all Friedman universes.

Janusz Garecki

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

47

Application of Bayesian model averaging to measurements of the primordial power spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosmological parameter uncertainties are often stated assuming a particular model, neglecting the model uncertainty, even when Bayesian model selection is unable to identify a conclusive best model. Bayesian model averaging is a method for assessing parameter uncertainties in situations where there is also uncertainty in the underlying model. We apply model averaging to the estimation of the parameters associated with the primordial power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations. We use CosmoNest and MultiNest to compute the model evidences and posteriors, using cosmic microwave data from WMAP, ACBAR, BOOMERanG, and CBI, plus large-scale structure data from the SDSS DR7. We find that the model-averaged 95% credible interval for the spectral index using all of the data is 0.940averaging can tighten the credible upper limit, depending on prior assumptions.

Parkinson, David; Liddle, Andrew R. [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Low Energy Neutrino Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in understanding both solar astrophysics and particle physics. After introducing the open questions on both fields, we review here the major results of the last two years and expectations for the near future from Borexino, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND experiments as well as from upcoming (SNO+) and planned (LENA) experiments. Scintillator neutrino detectors are also powerful antineutrino detectors such as those emitted by the Earth crust and mantle. First measurements of geo-neutrinos have occurred and can bring fundamental contribution in understanding the geophysics of the planet.

Davide D'Angelo

2012-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

49

MIT extraction method for measuring average subchannel axial velocities in reactor assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The MIT extraction method for obtaining flow split data for individual subchannels is described in detail. An analysis of the method is presented which shows that isokinetic values of the subchannel flow rates are obtained directly even though the method is non-isokinetic. Time saving methods are discussed for obtaining the average value of the interior region flow split parameter. An analysis of the method at low bundle flow rates indicates that there is no inherent low flow rate limitation on the method and suggests a way to obtain laminar flow split data.

Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

UN-Energy-Measuring Energy Access | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UN-Energy-Measuring Energy Access UN-Energy-Measuring Energy Access Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UN-Energy-Measuring Energy Access Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Energy Knowledge Network (UN-Energy) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource Type: Dataset, Maps Website: www.un-energy.org/measuring-energy-access Cost: Free Language: English UN-Energy-Measuring Energy Access Screenshot References: UN-Energy-Measuring Energy Access[1] "A reliable and comprehensive information base is necessary to inform target-setting and to monitor outcomes. Openly available and visually attractive information presentation can support the design of innovative policies and measures, and underpin detailed analysis. UN-Energy, the

51

Table US14. Average Consumption by Energy End Uses, 2005 Million ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

52

Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

35 Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo- ratory for testing one particularly promising alternative to fossil fuels: solar energy. In contrast to fossil fuels as much energy strikes the earth in the form of solar radiation as is used in a whole year throughout

Maoz, Shahar

53

Mixed Boundary Conditions versus Coupling with an EnergyMoisture Balance Model for a Zonally Averaged Ocean Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Wright and Stocker oceanic thermohaline circulation model is coupled to a recently developed zonally averaged energy moisture balance model for the atmosphere. The results obtained with this coupled model are compared with those from an ocean-...

H. Bjornsson; L. A. Mysak; G. A. Schmidt

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600fission theory--at zero neck radius and at finite neck radius--have been applied in dynamical calculations. Both have resulted in a fairly good description of the dependence of on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Dynamic average-value modeling of doubly-fed induction generator wind energy conversion systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system, the rotor of a wound rotor induction generator is connected to the grid via a (more)

Shahab, Azin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

"Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1" 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ,,,,,"Noncombustible Energy Sources",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Combustible Energy Sources" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Solids",,,,,,,,,,"Gases",,,,,,,,,"Liquids" " "," ",," "," ",,,,," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",,,"Wood","Wood Residues",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," " " "," ",,"Electricity","Electricity","Electricity","Steam","Steam","Steam","Industrial",," ","Bituminous and"," ",," ",,,"Harvested","and Byproducts","Wood and",,"Natural Gas",,,,,,,"Total Diesel Fuel",,,,,"Motor Gasoline",,,,," "

58

Transverse Energy Measurements with ALICE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ALICE is an ideal detector to measure transverse energy using the combined information of the calorimeters and the tracking detectors to give insight into the energy densities reached at the LHC. We discuss the status of studies in proton+proton collisions and the outlook for heavy-ion collisions.

Silvermyr, David O [ORNL; ALICE, Collaboration [The

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Federal Energy Management Program: Measuring Standby Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Standby Measuring Standby Power to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Measuring Standby Power on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Measuring Standby Power on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Measuring Standby Power on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Measuring Standby Power on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Measuring Standby Power on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Measuring Standby Power on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements Covered Product Categories Product Designation Process Low Standby Power Low Standby Product List Measuring Standby Power Frequently Asked Questions Energy & Cost Savings Calculators Model Acquisitions Language

60

Energy Transports by Ocean and Atmosphere Based on an Entropy Extremum Principle. Part 1: Zonal Averaged Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Required global energy transports determined from Nimbus-7 satellite net radiation measurements have been separated into atmospheric and oceanic components by applying a maximum entropy production principle to the atmospheric system. Strong ...

Byung-Ju Sohn; Eric A. Smith

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Power and Energy Measurements Low Frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Power and Energy Measurements, Low-Frequency. Rate our Services. ... Power and Energy Measurements, Low-Frequency (56200C-56202C). ...

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

62

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of costs and benefits of industrial energy efficiencyof the annual costs of an energy efficiency measure, therebyof cost- effectiveness of energy- efficiency improvement

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Fee Title: Renewable Energy Fee Measure #: Measure 44  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fee Title: Renewable Energy Fee Measure #: Measure 44 Ballot Information Shall the undergraduates and graduate students of UCSC amend Measure 28, the Renewable Energy fee passed in Spring 2006 as follows: The amendment would allow funds to be used for on-site renewables and energy efficiency projects

California at Santa Cruz, University of

64

National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements Title National Energy Efficiency...

65

The Influence of Instrumentation, Siting, Exposure Height, and Temporal Averaging Methodology on Meteorological Measurements from SJVAQS/AUSPEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When designing field measurement networks, or when using the data from network archives, it is important to be aware of the influence that instrumentation, siting, data processing, and sensor exposure have upon the measurements. A unique ...

Richard H. Thuillier

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloftabove the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towershave been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL)...

Yelena L. Pichugina; Sara C. Tucker; Robert M. Banta; W. Alan Brewer; Neil D. Kelley; Bonnie J. Jonkman; Rob K. Newsom

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Measurements and Standards to Support Increased Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements and Standards to Support Increased Energy Efficiency and Reduced Environmental Impact (+$13.3 million). Challenge. ...

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Measuring Energy Access: Supporting a Global Target | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Energy Access: Supporting a Global Target Measuring Energy Access: Supporting a Global Target Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Measuring Energy Access: Supporting a Global Target Agency/Company /Organization: Columbia University Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications Website: www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Energy_and_Climate_Change/ Cost: Free Language: English References: Measuring Energy Access: Supporting a Global Target[1] "This paper first describes the relevant context, definitions, data, and links to national policies and energy planning. Section 2 reviews relevant development and energy metrics. Several options for measuring energy access are then presented in section 3. Finally, Section 4 offers thoughts on

69

Measuring Energy Poverty: Focusing on What Matters | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Energy Poverty: Focusing on What Matters Measuring Energy Poverty: Focusing on What Matters Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Measuring Energy Poverty: Focusing on What Matters Agency/Company /Organization: University of Oxford Sector: Energy Topics: Policies/deployment programs, - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/OPHI_WP_42_Measuring_Energy_Poverty Measuring Energy Poverty: Focusing on What Matters Screenshot References: Measuring Energy Poverty: Focusing on What Matters[1] "This paper reviews a series of specific metrics and analyses the methodological strengths and shortcomings of various models. We address an analytical gap by laying the foundation for a novel composite index to measure energy poverty as a complement to existing tools. We also provide

70

Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

71

Electrochemical Thermodynamic Measurement System - Energy ...  

The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy ...

72

Paleomagnetic Measurements | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paleomagnetic Measurements Paleomagnetic Measurements Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Paleomagnetic Measurements Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Can determine detailed information about rock composition and morphology Stratigraphic/Structural: Historic structure and deformation of land Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Paleomagnetic Measurements: Paleomagnetism is the study of remnant magnetization in rocks. Paleomagnetic measurements are measurements of the magnetic properties in rocks; these properties are locked in during the formation of the rock. A

73

Energy Efficiency Measurement & Verification in South Africa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts Media Contacts Energy Efficiency Measurement & Verification in South Africa Speaker(s): Xiaohua Xia Date: December 17, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar...

74

National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

65E ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and...

75

An Analysis of the Kinetic Energy Budget for Two Extratropical Cyclones: The Vertically Averaged Flow and the Vertical Shear Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the kinetic energy budget is made for two intensely developing cyclones over North America. The principal kinetic energy source for the first cyclone is the net horizontal transport of kinetic energy across the boundaries of the ...

Jordan C. Alpert

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Measurement and Verification | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measurement and Verification Measurement and Verification Measurement and Verification October 16, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Photo of a man with a clipboard and measuring tools standing in front of an open energy panel box. A National Park Service energy manager checks an energy management system at the Zion National Park Visitor Center. Measurement and verification (M&V) play a vital role in renewable energy projects. M&V verifies verify that renewable energy technologies successfully meet the energy generation or savings requirements as specified by the agency and the system design. Federal sustainable building guidelines require M&V systems for sustainable building projects and the use of M&V data for benchmarking systems. However, these systems deliver value well beyond regulatory compliance.

77

Industrial operations and maintenance energy measures: A review  

SciTech Connect

Industry consumes a significant percentage of the total electric energy consumption both nationally and in the Pacific Northwest. However, industrial demand-side management (DSM) activities in this sector are underdeveloped and typically concentrate on new technologies and new equipment. An overlooked opportunity for electric resource development is through operations and maintenance (O and M) activities. The purpose of this project is to determine the industrial DSM potential that may be achieved through O and M practices both in the US and the Pacific Northwest. The overall goal of the project is to identify, quantify, confirm, and develop conservation resources that can be achieved from the industrial sector through O and M practices and energy measures. The results of the study identify a significant electric resource potential available through improved O and M activities in industry. Several O and M type energy-saving measures that increase efficiencies and reduce loads are identified and estimates of potential energy savings associated with each measure are presented. Systems identified with the most potential include compressed-air systems; motors and motor drives; lighting; heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC); and control systems. The results of the research show that industrial electric energy consumption can be notably reduced by implementing key O and M type energy measures. Specifically, the results of industrial energy audits, case studies, and other published sources indicate that reductions in energy consumption from improved O and M activities can average between 8% and 12.5%.

Parker, S.A.; Gaustad, K.L.; Winiarski, D.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Energy Cost Reduction Measures Identified for Texas State Agencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According t o energy auditors, state-owned facilities in Texas on the average consume over twice the energy of comparable facilities in the private sector. In 1984 and 1986 as part of the Texas Energy Cost Containment Program, two extensive energy audit programs examined a total of 35.3 million square feet of state-owned space. Energy cost reduction measures with paybacks of four years or less were identified. The purpose of this paper is to present the projects identified in 1986. Most relate to lighting, HVAC, and energy management systems. The type of facilities audited include colleges and universities, health science centers, state schools and centers, hospitals, and office buildings. The relation between the facility type and the energy cost reduction measures identified is discussed. In addition, the energy and dollar savings derived from the identified measures at the different facilities are presented. The total savings of the projects identified in both energy audit programs amount to $23.7 million annually.

Grigg, T. J.; Verdict, M. E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

average | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average average Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (7 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

80

Time-Energy Measure for Quantum Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum mechanics sets limits on how fast quantum processes can run given some system energy through time-energy uncertainty relations, and they imply that time and energy are tradeoff against each other. Thus, we propose to measure the time-energy as a single unit for quantum channels. We consider a time-energy measure for quantum channels and compute lower and upper bounds of it using the channel Kraus operators. For a special class of channels (which includes the depolarizing channel), we can obtain the exact value of the time-energy measure. One consequence of our result is that erasing quantum information requires $\\sqrt{(n+1)/n}$ times more time-energy resource than erasing classical information, where $n$ is the system dimension.

Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Predicted versus monitored performance of energy-efficiency measures in new commercial buildings from energy edge  

SciTech Connect

Energy Edge is a research-oriented demonstration program involving 28 new commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. This paper discusses the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures for the first 12 buildings evaluated using simulation models calibrated with measured end-use data. Average energy savings per building from the simulated code baseline building was 19%, less than the 30% target. The most important factor for the lower savings is that many of the installed measures differ from the measures specified in the design predictions. Only one of the first 12 buildings met the project objective of reducing energy use by more than 30% at a cost below the target of 56 mills/kWh (in 1991 dollars). Based on results from the first 12 calibrated simulation models, 29 of the 66 energy-efficiency measures, or 44%, met the levelized cost criterion. Despite the lower energy savings from individual measures, the energy-use intensities of the buildings are lower than other regional comparison data for new buildings. The authors review factors that contribute to the uncertainty regarding measured savings and suggest methods to improve future evaluations.

Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; deBuen, O.; Diamond, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Geothermal Properties Measurement Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Properties Measurement Tool Geothermal Properties Measurement Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Geothermal Properties Measurement Tool Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Geothermal Topics: Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/btric/ground-source.shtml Cost: Free References: Geothermal Properties Measurement Tool [1] Logo: Geothermal Properties Measurement Tool The Geothermal Properties Measurement tool was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for geothermal heat pump (GHP) designers and installers to better determine the geothermal properties of a certain location. The Geothermal Properties Measurement Excel tool was developed at Oak Ridge

83

Stock mechanics: theory of conservation of total energy and predictions of coming short-term fluctuations of Dow Jones Industrials Average (DJIA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting absolute magnitude of fluctuations of price, even if their sign remains unknown, is important for risk analysis and for option prices. In the present work, we display our predictions about absolute magnitude of daily fluctuations of the Dow Jones Industrials Average (DJIA), utilizing the original theory of conservation of total energy, for the coming 500 days.

Tuncay, C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O`Neill, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Paton, J.B. [Directorate of Logistics, Fort Devens, MA (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O' Neill, P.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Paton, J.B. (Directorate of Logistics, Fort Devens, MA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O' Neill, P.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Paton, J.B. (Fort Devens, MA (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O`Neill, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Paton, J.B. [Fort Devens, MA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging  

SciTech Connect

CO2 storage in a 30-minute period in a tall forest canopy often makes significant contributions to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in the early morning and at night. When CO2 storage is properly measured and taken into account, underestimations of NEE on calm nights can be greatly reduced. Using CO2 data from a 12-level profile, we demonstrate that the lower canopy layer (below the thermal inversion) is a disproportional contributor to the total CO2 storage. This is because time derivative of CO2 density ( c/ t) generally shows increasing magnitude of mean and standard deviation with decreasing heights at night and from sunrise to 1000 hr in both growing and dormant seasons. Effects of resolution and configuration in a profiling system on the accuracy of CO2 storage estimation are evaluated by comparing subset profiles to the 12-level benchmark profile. It is demonstrated that the effectiveness of a profiling system in estimating CO2 storage is not only determined by its number of sampling levels but, more importantly, by its vertical configuration. To optimize a profile, one needs to balance the influence of two factors, c/ t and layer thickness, among all vertical sections within a forest. As a key contributor to the total CO2 storage, the lower canopy (with relatively large means and standard deviations of c/ t) requires a higher resolution in a profile system than the layers above. However, if the upper canopy is over-sparsely sampled relative to the lower canopy, the performance of a profile system might be degraded since, in such a situation, the influence of layer thickness dominates over that of c/ t. We also find that, because of different level of complexity in canopy structure, more sampling levels are necessary at our site in order to achieve the same level of accuracy as at a boreal aspen site. These results suggest that, in order to achieve an adequate accuracy in CO2 storage measurements, the number of sampling levels in a profile and its design should be subject to the site properties, e.g., canopy architecture and the resulted thermodynamic and flow structures. If CO2 density from a single profile is averaged in time and then used in assessing CO2 storage to make this measurement more spatially representative, biases associated with this averaging procedure become inevitable. Generally, larger window sizes used in averaging CO2 density generate poorer estimates of CO2 storage. If absolute errors are concerned, it appears that the more significant the CO2 storage is during a period (nighttime and early morning hours versus late morning and afternoon, peak growing season versus early growing season), the larger effects the averaging procedure has.

Yang, Bai [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Comparison of bounce-averaged quasilinear theory with charge exchange measurements during minority fundamental and majority second harmonic ICRF heating in PLT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Previous studies in PLT using charge-exchange, edge probe, and fusion product diagnostics all indicate that ICRF tends to produce energetic trapped particles whose banana tips are near the resonance layer. A bounce-averaged quasilinear operator which predicts this ''resonance localization'' has been implemented in a Fokker-Planck code in order to make detailed comparisons with measurements. Good agreement is found with data from the horizontally-scanning, mass-resolving, charge-exchange analyzer, although the RF power profile seems to be broader than expected. We have recently observed a deuterium tail during hydrogen minority heating. The shape of this tail and its scaling with RF power agree well with the quasilinear theory. These measurements indicate that as much as 30% of the central RF power goes into direct second harmonic deuterium heating.

Hammett, G.W.; Colestock, P.L.; Gammel, G.; Goldston, R.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Hwang, D.Q.; Kaita, R.; Ono, M.; Roquemore, L.; Wilson, J.R.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Measuring energy consumption of a database cluster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Energy consumption of database servers is a growing concern for companies as it is a critical part of a data centers cost. To address the rising cost and the waste of energy, a new paradigm called GreenIT arose. Hardware and software developers are aiming at more energy-efficient systems. To improve the energy footprint of database servers, we developed a cluster of small-scale nodes, that can be dynamically powered dependent on the workload. This demo shows the measurement framework we set up to measure hardware components as well as an entire cluster of nodes. Well exhibit the measurement devices for components and servers and show the systems behavior under varying workloads. Attendees will be able to adjust workloads and experience their impact on energy consumption. 1

Volker Hudlet; Daniel Schall; Ag Dbis; Tu Kaiserslautern

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Motivating and Measuring Residential Energy Behavior Change:...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Measuring Residential Energy Behavior Change: Impacts of An Innovative K-8 School-to-Home Program Speaker(s): Carleen Cullen Date: February 26, 2009 (All day) Location:...

93

Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures  

SciTech Connect

Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance  

SciTech Connect

This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

How energy conservation limits our measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OObservations in Quantum Mechanics are subject to complex restrictions arising from the principle of energy conservation. Determining such restrictions, however, has been so far an elusive task, and only partial results are known. In this paper we discuss how constraints on the energy spectrum of a measurement device translate into limitations on the measurements which we can effect on a target system with non-trivial energy operator. We provide efficient algorithms to characterize such limitations and we quantify them exactly when the target is a two-level quantum system. Our work thus identifies the boundaries between what is possible or impossible to measure, i.e., between what we can see or not, when energy conservation is at stake.

Miguel Navascues; Sandu Popescu

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

96

Sensors & Measurement | Clean Energy | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Sustainable Electricity Systems Biology Transportation Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Sensors & Measurement SHARE Sensors & Measurement Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) capability in the research and development of sensor materials, sensors technologies, new instrumentation, and measurement systems is critical to its ability to translate breakthrough science into robust technologies, systems, and methods that address high-risk, high-complexity, multidisciplinary issues of national importance. This capability is manifested in a culture that effectively creates and manages complex systems by (1) developing detailed analytical processes to establish requirements, (2) analyzing candidate system

97

PET imaging of thin objects: measuring the effects of positron range and partial-volume averaging in the leag of Nicotiana Tabacum  

SciTech Connect

PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ({sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them. Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean {+-} S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59 {+-} 1.1%, 64 {+-} 4.4% and 67 {+-} 1.9% for {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15. The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.

Alexoff, D.L.; Alexoff, D.L.; Dewey, S.L.; Vaska, P.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Ferrieri, R.; Schueller, M.; Schlyer, D.; Fowler, J.S.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Black Hole Firewalls Require Huge Energy of Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the firewall paradox in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early-part, no AMPS's firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using non-locality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement.

Masahiro Hotta; Jiro Matsumoto; Ken Funo

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

99

Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

Casey, S.; Booten, C.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

MEASUREMENTS, ERRORS, AND NEGATIVE KINETIC ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis of errors in measurement yields new insight into the penetration of quantum particles into classically forbidden regions. In addition to physical values, realistic measurements yield unphysical values which, we show, can form a consistent pattern. An experiment to isolate a particle in a classically forbidden region obtains negative values for its kinetic energy. These values realize the concept of a weak value, discussed in previous works. 0

Yakir Aharonov; Sandu Popescu; Daniel Rohrlich; Lev Vaidman

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cycle-accurate energy measurement and characterization of FPGAs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) play many important roles, ranging from small glue logic replacement to System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. Nevertheless, FPGA vendors cannot accurately specify the power consumption of their products on device data sheets because the power consumption of FPGAs is strongly dependent on the target circuit, including resource utilization, logic partitioning, mapping, placement and routing. Although major CAD tools have started to report average power consumption under given transition activities, power-efficient FPGA design demands more detailed information about power consumption. In this paper, we introduce an in-house cycle-accurate FPGA energy measurement tool and energy characterization schemes spanning low-level to high-level design. This tool offers all the capabilities necessary to investigate the energy consumption of FPGAs for operationbased energy characterization, which is applicable to high-level and system-wide energy estimation. It also includes features for low-level energy characterization. We compare our tool with Xilinx XPower and demonstrate the statemachine-based energy characterization of an SDRAM controller.

Hyung Gyu Lee; Kyungsoo Lee; Yongseok Choi; Naehyuck Chang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center Infrastructure Systems Title How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency...

103

Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and...

104

Energy Deconvolution of Cross Section Measurements with an Application to the 12C(?,?)16O Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general framework for deconvoluting the effects of energy averaging on charged-particle reaction measurements is presented. There are many potentially correct approaches to the problem; the relative merits of some of are discussed. These deconvolution methods are applied to recent 12C(\\alpha,\\gamma)16O measurements.

Carl R. Brune; Daniel B. Sayre

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

105

Energy and Cost Savings of Retro-Commissioning and Retrofit Measures for Large Office Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the energy and cost savings of seven retro-commissioning measures and 29 retrofit measures applicable to most large office buildings. The baseline model is for a hypothetical building with characteristics of large office buildings constructed before 1980. Each retro-commissioning measure is evaluated against the original baseline in terms of its potential of energy and cost savings while each retrofit measure is evaluated against the commissioned building. All measures are evaluated in five locations (Miami, Las Vegas, Seattle, Chicago and Duluth) to understand the impact of weather conditions on energy and cost savings. The results show that implementation of the seven operation and maintenance measures as part of a retro-commissioning process can yield an average of about 22% of energy use reduction and 14% of energy cost reduction. Widening zone temperature deadband, lowering VAV terminal minimum air flow set points and lighting upgrades are effective retrofit measures to be considered.

Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Moser, Dave; Liu, Guopeng; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

106

Costs and benefits from utility-funded commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the costs and savings of commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings. A total of 46 EEMs were commissioned for all 16 buildings and 73 deficiencies were corrected. On average, commissioning was marginally cost effective on energy savings alone, although the results were mixed among all 16 buildings. When considered as a stand-alone measure, the median simple payback time of 6.5 years under the low energy prices in the Pacific Northwest. Under national average prices the median payback time is about three years. In estimating the present value of the energy savings from commissioning we considered low and high lifetimes for the persistence of savings from deficiency corrections. Under the low- lifetime case the average present value of the energy savings ($0. 21/ft{sup 2}) were about equal to the average commissioning costs ($0. 23/ft{sup 2}). Under the high-lifetime case the savings ($0.51/ft{sup 2}) were about twice the costs. Again, the savings would be about twice as large under national average prices. The results are subject to significant uncertainty because of the small sample size and lack of metered data in the evaluation. However, the findings suggest that investments in commissioning pay off. Building owners want buildings that work as intended, and are comfortable, healthy, and efficient. It is likely that the non-energy benefits, which are difficult to quantify, are larger than the energy-savings benefits.

Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Italian Association of Energy EconomistsYardstick Regulation of Electricity Distribution Utilities Based on the Estimation of an Average Cost Function *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we estimate an average-cost function for a panel of 45 Swiss electricity distribution utilities as a basis for yardstick regulation of the distribution-network access prices. Unlike the existing literature, we separate the electricity sales function of utilities from the network operation function. Several exogenous variables measuring the heterogeneity of the service areas were included in the model specification in order to allow the regulator to set differentiated benchmark prices incorporating this heterogeneity. We can identify different exogenous service area characteristics that affect average cost. These are the load factor, the customer density and the output density of different consumer groups. Moreover, the estimation results indicate the existence of significant economies of scale; i.e. most of the Swiss utilities in our sample are too small to reach minimum efficient scale. However, to give the small utilities incentives to merge the size of the utilities must not be included in the yardstick calculation. 1.

Massimo Filippini; Jrg Wild; Massimo Filippini; Jrg Wild

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy savings are related to energy price changes through1997 dollars. All energy prices and savings were evaluatedthe relationship of energy prices to industry-wide energy

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

DOE/EIA-0555(95)/2 Energy Consumption Series Measuring Energy...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Energy Consumption Series Measuring Energy Efficiency in the United States1 Economy: A Beginning Energy Information Administration October 1995 This publication and other Energy...

110

AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LET YPPF = XCDF LET XPPF = YCDF. Default: None Synonyms: ASH is a synonym for the AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM command. ...

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Average Commercial Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Price Average Commercial Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes...

112

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the linkage between energy efficiency and productivity.and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper andand Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1997.

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Measure, track, and benchmark | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tracking and benchmarking of energy across all operations are your most powerful energy waste reduction tools. Reducing energy waste requires that all forms of energy be...

114

Spectral and Parametric Averaging for Integrable Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos - spectral averaging and parametric averaging. For spectral averaging, we introduce a new procedure - rescaled spectral averaging. Unlike traditional spectral averaging, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance. Parametric averaging, while not as accurate as rescaled spectral averaging for the correlation function of spectral staircase and interval level number variance, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

Tao Ma; R. A. Serota

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

115

IEA Policies and Measures Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IEA Policies and Measures Database IEA Policies and Measures Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IEA Policies and Measures Database Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, Climate Change Topics: Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/ References: IEA Policies and Measures Database[1] The IEA Policies and Measures Database (often referred to as "PAMs") contains 3 sub-databases storing data for renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change areas. Database provides information on governmental policies, strategies and programmes supporting deployment of renewable energy technologies, striving to increase energy efficiency and combat climate change.

116

Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).

Eiman Abou El Dahab; Abdel Nasser Tawfik

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

117

MEASURING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE UNITED STATES' ECONOMY: A BEGINNING  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0555(95)/2 Distribution Category UC-950 Measuring Energy Efficiency in the United States' Economy: A Beginning Energy Consumption Series October 1995

118

Project: Measuring Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measuring Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes Project. Summary: ... A key driver of energy use in residential buildings is occupant behavior. ...

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

119

Measure, track, and benchmark | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measure, track, and benchmark Measure, track, and benchmark Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Get started with ENERGY STAR Make the business case Build an energy management program Measure, track, and benchmark Tools for benchmarking energy management practices Tools for tracking and benchmarking facility energy performance ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicators for plants

120

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kram. Prospects for energy technologies in The Netherlandsof Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET). Sittard, Thein the evaluation of energy technology investments. A total

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A software tool to compare measured and simulated building energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts Media Contacts A software tool to compare measured and simulated building energy performance data Title A software tool to compare measured and simulated building...

122

Energy production and trading: batting average: a composite measure of risk for assessing product differentiation in a simulation model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper simulates how market power affects electricity retailing to households. A pseudo-random number seeding algorithm creates representative product differentiation in repeated drawings, for an incumbent and seven challengers. A ninth player ...

Daniel M. Hamblin; Brian T. Ratchford

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

NIST Measurement Services: cw Laser Power and Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... estimates for the NIST laser energy measurements are ... fields of physical science, engineering, applied mathematics, statistics, biotechnology, and ...

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

124

Measuring Energy Efficiency Report in Html: Table of Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Report: Measuring Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy Report: Measuring Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy Measuring Energy Efficiency In The United States' Economy: A Beginning Measuring Energy Efficiency in the United States' Economy (file size .94 MB) pages: 105. To View and/or Print Report (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader. Executive Summary Introduction Defining Energy Efficiency and Its Measurement Residential Sector Introduction Major Data Sources Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector Demand Indicators Energy-Intensity Indicators in the Residential Sector Strength and Limitations of the Energy-Intensity Indicators Commercial Buildings Sector Introduction Major Data Sources Energy Consumption in the Commercial Buildings Sector Demand Indicators Energy-Intensity Indicators in the Commercial Buildings Sector

125

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (1997). 19. Nyboerfor an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington DC (1999), pp.for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington DC (1999), pp.

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

MEASURING ENERGY CONSERVATION WITH UTILITY BILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data and com- pare its energy usage with that of its peers,conserving efforts. The energy usage in the current year cancase, the equations for energy usage must be written: G a

Deckel, Walter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures This document provides a set of model protocols for determining energy and demand savings that result from specific energy efficiency measures implemented through state and utility efficiency programs. The methods described here are approaches that are-or are among-the most commonly used in the energy efficiency industry for certain measures or programs. Acknowledgements Introduction Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol

128

Project: Whole Building Energy Modeling and Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... buildings use approximately 22% of the total energy consumed in the US The objective of this project is to increase the energy efficiency of the ...

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

129

FastMeasure Distance Measuring Tools | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FastMeasure Distance Measuring Tools FastMeasure Distance Measuring Tools Jump to: navigation, search Logo: FastMeasure Distance Measuring Tools Name FastMeasure Distance Measuring Tools Address 2890 Cherokee Lane Place Riverwoods, Illinois Zip 60015 Sector Vehicles Product Distance Measuring Instrument Year founded 2008 Number of employees 11-50 Phone number (888) 876-6050 Website http://www.fast-measure.com Coordinates 42.181686°, -87.898862° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.181686,"lon":-87.898862,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

130

A Self-Contained Acoustic Scintillation Instrument for Path-Averaged Measurements of Flow and Turbulence with Application to Hydrothermal Vent and Bottom Boundary Layer Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A self-contained acoustical scintillation instrument is described that has been used to measure flow and turbulence characteristics in two diverse oceanographic settings. This instrument is a battery-operated and internally logging acoustic ...

D. Di Iorio; D. Lemon; R. Chave

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume II. Average hourly and total daily insolation data for 235 localities (Alaska - Montana)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Average hourly and daily total insolaion estimates are given for 235 US sites at a variety of array tilt angles. (MHR)

Smith, J.H.

1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Best Energy Savings Measurement at Texas City Monsanto Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper briefly reviews the production volume-energy usage correlation method developed and used at the Texas City plant to measure energy conservation progress. It includes basic logic of energy roll to users, conversion of cost sheet utilities quantities to common energy units with balanced conversion factors, correlation of monthly energy usages with production rates, and the use of these production energy correlations to measure subsequent energy performance. Graphical illustrations demonstrate the validity of the method chosen for establishing the "BEST" achievable practical performance based on prior years' performance data. The annually established BEST energy performance for each department is incorporated into the plant computer energy program which reports monthly energy usage at comparable production rates compared with: 1) BEST energy usage (1972 through previous year), 2) previous year's energy usage, and 3) 1972 energy usage. Emphasis is placed on comparison with the "BEST" to stimulate continuing improvement.

Repschleger, W. E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Industrial Development Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy, Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Publications Website: www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Publications/Pub_free/UNEnergy2009P Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change Screenshot References: Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change[1]

134

Definition: Paleomagnetic Measurements | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of remnant magnetization in rocks. Paleomagnetic measurements are measurements of the magnetic properties in rocks; these properties are locked in during the formation of the rock....

135

Partial CO2 Column-Averaged Dry-Air Mixing Ratio from Measurements by Coherent 2-?m Differential Absorption and Wind Lidar with Laser Frequency Offset Locking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coherent 2-?m differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) with a 2-?m single-frequency Q-switched laser with laser frequency offset locking was used for long-range CO2 measurement. The frequency stabilization of the single-frequency ? on ...

Shoken Ishii; Kohei Mizutani; Philippe Baron; Hironori Iwai; Ryoko Oda; Toshikazu Itabe; Hirotake Fukuoka; Takayoshi Ishikawa; Mizuki Koyama; Tomoaki Tanaka; Isamu Morino; Osamu Uchino; Atsushi Sato; Kazuhiro Asai

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Minimizing intrusiveness in home energy measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The expanding deployment of renewable energy sources as well as the widespread deployment of smart meters enables and encourages demand management in homes. Like smart meters, most solar or other renewable deployments allow homeowners to carefully monitor ... Keywords: energy, sustainability

David Lachut; Simon Piel; Lazeeb Choudhury; Yucheng Xiong; Sami Rollins; Kevin Moran; Nilanjan Banerjee

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Measurement Of Hydroperoxyl Radical - Energy Innovation Portal  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies ... Power Plants, and Diese ...

138

Novel Photoconductive Decay Measurement System - Energy ...  

Building Energy Efficiency ... Description The device exceeds the performance and range of applicability of existing commercial products. It utilizes ...

139

Measuring energy consumption for short code paths using RAPL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measuring the energy consumption of software components is a major building block for generating models that allow for energy-aware scheduling, accounting and budgeting. Current measurement techniques focus on coarse-grained measurements of application ... Keywords: RAPL, operating systems, power consumption

Marcus Hhnel; Bjrn Dbel; Marcus Vlp; Hermann Hrtig

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance  

SciTech Connect

This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Activation measurements of high energy deuterons in the plasma focus device  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear activation techniques were used to measure the fluence of high energy deuterons in a plasma focus device having a stored energy of 75 kilojoules at 18 kV. The $sup 12$C(d,n)$sup 13$N (330 keV threshold) and $sup 27$Al(d,p)$sup 28$Al reactions were used to provide both an absolute number of high energy deuterons and an average energy, evaluated from the $sup 13$N/$sup 28$Al ratio calculated for various energies by Young. Previous measurements indicated more than 10$sup 15$ deuterons could be accelerated to energies above 330 keV in the low pressure mode of operation, with a highly anisotropic distribution. Present measurements show that more than 10$sup 12$ deuterons achieve energies greater than 5 MeV on some high intensity shots in the low pressure mode. The presence of multi-MeV deuterons in the plasma focus device was substantiated by measuring activation as a function of depth in 1 mil Al foils, and by measurements of neutron energy using time-of-flight. (auth)

Gullickson, R.L.; Sahlin, H.L.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

DOE Average Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE DOE Average Results FY 12 DOE Target FY 12 Customer Perspective: Customer Satisfaction: -Timeliness 92 88 -Quality 94 92 Effective Service Partnership: -Extent of Customer Satisfaction with the responsiveness, etc. 90 92 Internal Business Perspective: Acquisition Excellence: -Extent to which internal quality control systems are effective 90 88 Most Effective Use of Contracting Approaches to Maximize Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness: Use of Competition: -% of total $'s obligated on competitive acquisitions >$3000 (Agency Level Only) 94 85 -% of acquisition actions competed for actions > $3000 (Agency Level Only) 65 68 Performance Based Acquisition: - % PBA actions relative to total eligible new acquisition actions (applicable to new actions > $25K) 82

143

Measurement and Verification of Low Income Energy Efficiency Programs in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measurement and Verification of Low Income Energy Efficiency Programs in Measurement and Verification of Low Income Energy Efficiency Programs in Brazil: Methodological Challenges Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Measurement and Verification of Low Income Energy Efficiency Programs in Brazil: Methodological Challenges Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Socio-Economic Website: www.eceee.org/conference_proceedings/eceee/2009/Panel_3/3.049/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/measurement-and-verification-low-inco Language: English Policies: "Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. Regulations: Feebates This report presents results from Brazilian electric utilities evaluation

144

Measurement and Verification of Low Income Energy Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Verification of Low Income Energy Efficiency Programs in Brazil: Methodological Challenges Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Measurement and...

145

Energy Measurement in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

In the E-167 plasma wakefield acceleration experiment, electrons with an initial energy of 42GeV are accelerated in a meter-scale lithium plasma. Particles are leaving plasma with a large energy spread. To determine the spectrum of the accelerated particles, a two-plane spectrometer has been set up.

Ischebeck, R

2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

146

Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budget Profiles Derived from Doppler Sodar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doppler sodar wind measurements made in light wind conditions in September 1979 near a power plant in Turbigo, Italy, are used to derive terms in the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget. Measurements on five days are grouped into two classes: ...

Gary K. Greenhut; Giangiuseppe Mastrantonio

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value  

SciTech Connect

This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy - Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Washington,Energy - Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Washington,Energy - Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Washington,

Blum, Helcio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs An empirical analysis based on energy audit data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs ­ An empirical analysis based on energy audit data;Abstract This paper empiricallyinvestigates the factors driving the adoption of energy-efficiency measures on barriers to energy efficiency in SMEs. More specifically, high investment costs, which are captured

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

A Methodology to Measure Retrofit Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measured energy savings promote and sustain energy conservation retrofits by verifying the success of retrofits, determining pay-back schedules, guiding the selection of future retrofits and identifying opportunities for further savings. This dissertation develops a methodology to measure retrofit energy savings and the uncertainty of the savings in commercial buildings. The functional forms of empirical models of cooling and heating energy use in commercial buildings are derived from an engineering analysis of constant-air-volume and variable-air-volume HVAC systems. One, two, three and four parameter, temperature-dependent regression models are proposed to model baseline energy use. Retrofit savings are measured as the difference between the baseline energy use project by the models and the measured post-retrofit energy use. A hybrid ordinary least squares/autoregressive method is developed to determine the uncertainty of the predicated energy use and savings. The annual predictive ability of models based on pre-retrofit data sets of less than a full year is investigated. The energy delivery efficiency is introduced to measure the efficiency of air-side systems at meeting the net building load. A preliminary investigation of the use of artificial neural network models to measure savings is presented. The methodology is demonstrated on case study examples using software specifically developed for the analysis of commercial building energy use.

Kissock, John Kelly

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

151

Census Division Number of Average Monthly Average Retail Price...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Monthly Average Retail Price Average Monthly Bill State Consumers Consumption (kWh) (Cents per Kilowatthour) (Dollar and cents) New England 34,271 67,907 12.55 8,520.25...

152

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South America from NREL South America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

153

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America and the Carribean from NREL Central America and the Carribean from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

154

Measuring Changes in Energy Efficiency for the Annual Energy Outlook 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Changes in Energy Efficiency Changes in Energy Efficiency for the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 by Steven H. Wade This paper describes the construction of an aggregate energy efficiency index based on projections of sectoral and subsector energy consumption and subsector-specific energy service indicators. The results are compared with the ratio energy to real gross domestic product, which typically is pre- sented as a measure of energy intensity. Introduction Energy efficiency and conservation are currently impor- tant components of the debate about the direction of future energy policy. Measuring the actual energy effi- ciency of the U.S. economy is a daunting task because of the immense data requirements for a proper calculation. Appropriate data are difficult to obtain, and as a result historical descriptions of the economy usually are sum- marized in two energy intensity measures: (1) energy

155

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures By Joe Mellott, Joshua New to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back into the atmosphere. By use of commonly available calculators, one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental

Tennessee, University of

156

Regional Energy Baselines and Measurement and Verification Protocols: Subtask 3.1 for the Southern Energy Efficiency Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) was established to substantially increase the deployment of high-performance beyond-code buildings across the southern region of the U.S. It is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program, and administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The goal of the first 18-month phase was to address efficiency goals of states, utilities, and various energy-efficiency programs. In order to achieve this goal, the project efforts included defining the baseline energy patterns within the project region, as well as the measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for use in determining the efficiency improvements SEEC, state and USDOE efforts with respect to that baseline. This work is defined under the SEEC Subtask 3.1 Define Regional Baselines and Measurement & Verification Protocols. This report presents preliminary deliverables of this subtask developed and documented by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) for use by the SEEC member state region. The primary goal of this subtask is to provide the state energy offices with a comparison tool of energy use either by total or per-capita. This tool is expected to allow the state energy offices to compare their energy use pattern against other states and the national average energy use by end-use sector. In addition, they can use this tool for a comparison of energy use within their states by end-use and by fuel-source. Another goal of this subtask is to demonstrate the usability of public-available data such as the U.S. Department of Energys Energy Information Agency (DOE EIA) data sets and the U.S. Census Bureau data sets. This approach has been successfully demonstrated by ESL as part of the Comptroller of Public Accounts and the State Energy Conservation Office report on Texas Energy Future. Limited preliminary analysis of the data was made since it was not a project goal. The data provides the basis by which extensive state by state analysis can begin. In addition, the recommended measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for an individual building or facility, ASHRAE/CIBSE/USGBC Performance Measurement Protocols (PMP) for Commercial Buildings, can be used as a bottom-up approach for energy efficiency improvements of buildings within the SEEC 12-state region.

Kim, Hyojin; Haberl, Jeff S.; Verdict, Malcolm

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Ion energy and plasma measurements in the near field of an ICRF antenna  

SciTech Connect

Plasma properties and ion energies have been measured in the near field of an ICRF antenna to determine the effects of rf fields in a magnetized plasma sheath on the energy of ions incident on the surface of the Faraday shield. A resonant loop antenna with a two- tier Faraday shield was used on the RF Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The magnetic field near the antenna is /approximately/2 kG, and the plasma density is /approximately/10/sup 11/ cm/sup /minus/3/ with an electron temperature of 6-10 eV. The time-varying floating potential was measured with a capacitively coupled probe, and the time-averaged electron temperature, electron density, and floating potential were measured with a Langmuir probe. Both probes were scanned poloidally in front of the antenna, parallel to the current strap. Diagnostics for measuring ion energies included a gridded energy analyzer located directly below the antenna. Measured ion energies are compared with predictions from a computational model for determining the energy and angular distribution of ions incident on a surface in a magnetized plasma sheath with a time-varying plasma potential. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Caughman, J.B.O. II; Ruzic, D.N.; Hoffman, D.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Corporate Performance Measures Definitions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Budget & Performance » Corporate Budget & Performance » Corporate Performance Measures Definitions Corporate Performance Measures Definitions Corporate Performance Measures Plutonium Metal or Oxide packaged for long-term storage (number of containers): Certified DOE storage/treatment/disposal (STD) 3013 containers (or equivalent) of plutonium metal or oxide packaged and ready for long-term storage. Enriched Uranium packaged for long-term storage (number of containers): Certified containers packaged and ready for long-term storage. Plutonium or Uranium Residues packaged for disposition (kg of bulk material): Amount of residue material packaged and ready for disposition/disposal. Depleted and other Uranium packaged for disposition (metric tons): Depleted and natural uranium packaged in a form suitable for disposition.

159

Nuclear symmetry energy at subnormal densities from measured nuclear masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The symmetry energy coefficients for nuclei with mass number A=20~250 are extracted from more than 2000 measured nuclear masses. With the semi-empirical connection between the symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei and the nuclear symmetry energy at reference densities, we investigate the density dependence of symmetry energy of nuclear matter at subnormal densities. The obtained results are compared with those extracted from other methods.

Liu, Min; Li, Zhuxia; Zhang, Fengshou

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Nuclear symmetry energy at subnormal densities from measured nuclear masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The symmetry energy coefficients for nuclei with mass number A=20~250 are extracted from more than 2000 measured nuclear masses. With the semi-empirical connection between the symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei and the nuclear symmetry energy at reference densities, we investigate the density dependence of symmetry energy of nuclear matter at subnormal densities. The obtained results are compared with those extracted from other methods.

Min Liu; Ning Wang; Zhuxia Li; Fengshou Zhang

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Neutron Energy Measurements in Radiological Emergency Response Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present significant results in recent advances in the determination of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but very significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance.

Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

Standard Practice for Measuring Plasma Arc Gas Enthalpy by Energy Balance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice covers the measurement of total gas enthalpy of an electric-arc-heated gas stream by means of an overall system energy balance. This is sometimes referred to as a bulk enthalpy and represents an average energy content of the test stream which may differ from local values in the test stream. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Measuring and Managing Cleanroom Energy Use  

SciTech Connect

Combining high air-recirculation rates and energy-intensive processes, cleanrooms are 20 to 100 times as costly to operate on a per-square-foot basis as conventional commercial buildings. Additionally, they operate 24 hr a day, seven days a week, which means their electricity demand always is contributing to peak utility-system demand, an important fact given increasing reliance on time-dependent tariffs.

Tschudi, William; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tenfang; Rumsey, Peter

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures and Continuous Commissioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures and Continuous Commissioning Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures and Continuous Commissioning in Two High-tech Buildings in Silicon Valley Speaker(s): Yaolin Lin Date: September 7, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Mark Levine Continuous commissioning on existing buildings aims at resolving building mechanical system operation problems, improving system reliability, improving occupants' thermal comfort, increasing building energy efficiency, minimizing retrofit cost, and achieving energy savings at the same time. Dr. Lin will present the implementation of energy efficiency measures on two high-tech buildings in Silicon Valley, California. A total saving of 16,000,000kWh/yr in electricity was achieved and confirmed by measurements from 23 power meters throughout the two buildings. Saving of

166

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

SciTech Connect

When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique April 2, 2012 - 3:11pm Addthis The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. What does this mean for me? You can save 5%-30% on your energy bill by making upgrades following a home energy assessment. A professional energy auditor may use the PFT air infiltration measurement technique to find out where your home has air leaks, though a blower door test is more commonly used.

168

Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive (HEMI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive (HEMI) Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive (HEMI) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate $3,000 Program Info State New York Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount 10% of project costs Provider New York State Energy Research and Development Authority The New York State Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offers an incentive for homeowners of 1-4 homes that participate in the Home Performance with Energy Star program. The program entitles the participant

169

Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy savings for most cities for all measures). Combining many of the retuning measures revealed deep savings potential. Some of the more aggressive combinations revealed 35-75% reductions in annual HVAC energy consumption, depending on climate and building vintage.

Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures and Continuous Commission...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures and Continuous Commissioning in Two High-tech Buildings in Silicon Valley Speaker(s): Yaolin Lin Date: September 7, 2010 - 12:00pm...

171

Energy-Efficient High Performance Computing: Measurement and Tuning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture were exploited to gain an understanding of power and energy use, and the effects of tuning both CPU and network bandwidth. Modifications were made to deterministically ...

James H. Laros; Kevin Pedretti; Suzanne M. Kelly; Wei Shu; Kurt Ferreira; John Van Dyke; Courtenay Vaughan

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Paleomagnetic Measurements At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paleomagnetic Measurements At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) Paleomagnetic Measurements At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Paleomagnetic Measurements At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Paleomagnetic Measurements Activity Date 2006 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Analyze fault block kinematics at a releasing stepover of the Eastern California shear zone to determine the partitioning of rotation style Notes Rotations paleomagnetically relative to two different reference frames were measured. At two localities, the secular variation were averaged through sedimentary sections to reveal rotation or its absence relative to paleogeographic north. Where sediments are lacking, a really-extensive lava

173

Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong April 9, 2010 - 3:16pm Addthis NRG's new building utilizes solar power, but their products measure wind potential. | Photo courtesy NRG Systems NRG's new building utilizes solar power, but their products measure wind potential. | Photo courtesy NRG Systems Joshua DeLung NRG Systems, of Hinesburg, Vt., has made products to help its customers measure and understand the potential of wind energy since 1982. Now, because of additional opportunities the Recovery Act has created for renewable energy companies, small businesses such as NRG Systems are poised to grow with the increased demand for proven wind measurement and turbine control equipment. NRG Systems' customers are primarily developers, utilities and research

174

Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong April 9, 2010 - 3:16pm Addthis NRG's new building utilizes solar power, but their products measure wind potential. | Photo courtesy NRG Systems NRG's new building utilizes solar power, but their products measure wind potential. | Photo courtesy NRG Systems Joshua DeLung NRG Systems, of Hinesburg, Vt., has made products to help its customers measure and understand the potential of wind energy since 1982. Now, because of additional opportunities the Recovery Act has created for renewable energy companies, small businesses such as NRG Systems are poised to grow with the increased demand for proven wind measurement and turbine control equipment. NRG Systems' customers are primarily developers, utilities and research

175

SEEC- Regional Energy Baselines and Measurement and Verification Protocols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) was established to substantially increase the deployment of high-performance beyond-code buildings across the southern region of the U.S, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program and is administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. During its first 18-month phase, to address efficiency goals of states, utilities, and various energy-efficiency programs; project efforts include defining the baseline energy patterns within the project region and the measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for use in determining the efficiency improvements SEEC, state and USDOE efforts with respect to that baseline. This work is defined under the SEEC Subtask 3.1 Define Regional Baselines and Measurement & Verification Protocols. This report presents preliminary deliverables of this subtask developed and documented by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) for use by the SEEC member state region.

Kim, H.; Haberl, J. S.; Verdict, M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

National Residential Efficiency Measures Database | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Residential Efficiency Measures Database National Residential Efficiency Measures Database This photo shows a man in a white hazardous materials suit blowing insulation inside of an attic. He is wearing a headlamp on his head and the beam shines in the general direction of the insulation tube he is holding. Home improvement can be expensive. The good news is that many energy efficiency improvements quickly pay for themselves in energy savings. Having accurate and consistent performance and cost data for energy efficiency measures enables researchers and the building industry to determine the most cost-effective means of improving existing homes all across the nation. The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and associated estimated

177

Measurement & Verification with Green Button Data | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measurement & Verification with Green Button Data Measurement & Verification with Green Button Data Measurement & Verification with Green Button Data April 13, 2012 - 4:15pm Addthis Shankar Earni Program Manager at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Measurement and verification (M&V) focuses on ensuring that the savings from energy efficiency projects are being realized with a certain degree of confidence. M&V involves understanding how energy savings arebeing realized from a project; designing a cost-effective assessment strategy that addresses how to ensure the savings can be measured; and implementing the designed strategy by gathering the key data followed by analysis and reporting of the actual savings. In some cases, data from the Green Button program can be used to assess the energy savings from new efficiency

178

FD SOI Hall sensor electronics interfaces for energy measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a SOI Hall sensor based microsystem for energy measurement. The mixed-mode signal circuitry has been entirely designed and integrated in the experimental 0.5@mm fully depleted SOI 3V technology. It consists of an integrated Hall element, ... Keywords: Energy meter, Hall sensor, Microsystem, SOI

Marija Blagojevic; Maher Kayal; Daniela De Venuto

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Energy Guideline Factors Provide a Better Measure of Refinery Energy Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exxon Company, U.S.A. refineries reduced energy consumption by 25% between 1972 and 1978 compared with an 18% reduction for the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry over the same period. The Exxon approach to conserving energy in petroleum refining operations goes beyond energy conservation housekeeping measures and investments, and uses a comprehensive method to measure energy efficiency rather than energy consumption per barrel. It uses the Exxon Research and Engineering developed energy guideline factors, which are based on energy efficient designs and criteria, to (1) Evaluate the energy efficiency performance of refineries of different complexity in a consistent manner. (2) Compensate for changes in individual process unit throughputs and in unit operating intensity/severity. (3) Identify and quantify areas of energy inefficiency. (4) Regularly monitor and steward energy efficiency performance. Effective conservation also requires the analysis of energy performance and setting goals for future improvement. The paper explains how this can be done.

Libbers, D. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home November 16, 2010 - 8:52am Addthis Dr. Kathleen Hogan Dr. Kathleen Hogan Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency Editor's Note: Cross-posted from the Energy Blog. You may know the miles per gallon your car gets, but have you ever wanted to know the miles per gallon your home gets? Vice President Biden and Secretary Chu recently launched the Home Energy Score program to help consumers save money by saving energy. The program is kicking off in ten pilot locations across the nation. The Home Energy Score is like a miles per gallon rating - but for your home. It summarizes a home's energy performance on a simple 10-point scale - with a 10 for the top performers, or those that keep the home

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home November 9, 2010 - 2:27pm Addthis Acting Under Secretary Cathy Zoi talks about the new Home Energy Score pilot program. Dr. Kathleen Hogan Dr. Kathleen Hogan Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency You may know the miles per gallon your car gets, but have you ever wanted to know the miles per gallon your home gets? Today, Vice President Biden and Secretary Chu launched the Home Energy Score program to help consumers save money by saving energy. The program is kicking off in ten pilot locations across the nation. The Home Energy Score is like a miles per gallon rating - but for your home. It summarizes a home's energy performance on a simple 10-point

182

The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring "MPG" For Your Home November 9, 2010 - 2:27pm Addthis Acting Under Secretary Cathy Zoi talks about the new Home Energy Score pilot program. Dr. Kathleen Hogan Dr. Kathleen Hogan Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency You may know the miles per gallon your car gets, but have you ever wanted to know the miles per gallon your home gets? Today, Vice President Biden and Secretary Chu launched the Home Energy Score program to help consumers save money by saving energy. The program is kicking off in ten pilot locations across the nation. The Home Energy Score is like a miles per gallon rating - but for your home. It summarizes a home's energy performance on a simple 10-point

183

The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home The Home Energy Score: Measuring 'MPG' For Your Home November 16, 2010 - 8:52am Addthis Dr. Kathleen Hogan Dr. Kathleen Hogan Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency Editor's Note: Cross-posted from the Energy Blog. You may know the miles per gallon your car gets, but have you ever wanted to know the miles per gallon your home gets? Vice President Biden and Secretary Chu recently launched the Home Energy Score program to help consumers save money by saving energy. The program is kicking off in ten pilot locations across the nation. The Home Energy Score is like a miles per gallon rating - but for your home. It summarizes a home's energy performance on a simple 10-point scale - with a 10 for the top performers, or those that keep the home

184

Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative Jump to: navigation, search Logo: WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project Name WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project Agency/Company /Organization World Resources Institute (WRI) Sector Climate, Energy Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -NAMA Resource Type Case studies/examples, Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials, Workshop Website http://www.wri.org/mapt Program Start 2011 Country Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, South Africa, Thailand South America, South America, Eastern Africa, Southern Asia, Southern Africa, South-Eastern Asia References Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project[1]

185

Energy and Water Conservation Measures for Hanford (2013)  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed an energy and water evaluation of selected buildings on the Hanford Site during the months of May and June 2012. The audit was performed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Sustainability Performance Office to identify key energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs). The evaluations consisted of on-site facility walk-throughs conducted by PNNL staff, interviews with building-operating personnel, and an examination of building designs and layouts. Information on 38 buildings was collected to develop a list of energy and water conservation measures. Table ES.1 is a summary of the ECMs, while table ES.2 is a summary of the WCMs.

Reid, Douglas J.; Butner, Ryan S.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

National Residential Efficiency Measures Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Name National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Tool Author National Renewable Energy Laboratory Regional Focus National Focus Area Building Energy Efficiency Implementation Phase Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Type CommunityEnergyToolType Modeling Tool Cost Free User Interface Website, Other Website http://www.nrel.gov/ap/retrofits/index.cfm Tool Users The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry.

188

Energy Efficiency Measurement & Verification in South Africa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Measurement & Verification in South Africa Energy Efficiency Measurement & Verification in South Africa Speaker(s): Xiaohua Xia Date: December 17, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Stephane de la Rue du Can Measurement and verification (M&V) is the process of using measurements to reliably determine actual saving created within an individual facility by an energy management program. This talk will describe the basics of M&V, and introduce how M&V is conducted in the Republic of South Africa. Topics covered include the history of M&V in South Africa, the business structure, and the Eskom-led M&V protocols and guidelines of M&V. The talk will also present how the M&V profession is governed and regulated by the national professional body, the national standard (the first in the world), and a

189

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

190

Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assesment Kit Guide and Specification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Center Energy Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification By Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Rod Mahdavi, PE, LEED AP October 26, 2012 Acknowledgements This report was prepared for the Federal Energy Management Program by Rod Mahdavi of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The work was supported by the Federal Energy Management Program led by Will Lintner. Contacts Author: Rod Mahdavi, P.E. LEED AP Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road M.S. 90-3411E Berkeley, CA 94720 510.495.2259 rmahdavi@lbl.gov For more information on FEMP: Will Lintner, P.E., CEM Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 202.586.3120 william.lintner@ee.doe.gov

191

Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assesment Kit Guide and Specification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Data Center Energy Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification By Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Rod Mahdavi, PE, LEED AP October 26, 2012 Acknowledgements This report was prepared for the Federal Energy Management Program by Rod Mahdavi of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The work was supported by the Federal Energy Management Program led by Will Lintner. Contacts Author: Rod Mahdavi, P.E. LEED AP Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road M.S. 90-3411E Berkeley, CA 94720 510.495.2259 rmahdavi@lbl.gov For more information on FEMP: Will Lintner, P.E., CEM Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 202.586.3120 william.lintner@ee.doe.gov

192

Measurement of parallel ion energy distribution function in PISCES plasma  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The PISCES facility is used to conduct controlled plasma-surface interaction experiments. Plasma parameters typical of those found in the edge plasmas of major fusion confinement experiments are produced. In this work, the energy distribution of the ion flux incident on a material surface is measured using a gridded energy analyzer in place of a material sample. The full width at half maximum energy distribution of the ion flux is found to vary from 10 eV to 30 eV both hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. Helium plasmas have a much lower FWHM energy spread than hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. The FWHM ion energy spread is found to be linearly related to the electron temperature. The most probable ion energy is found to be linearly related to the bias applied to the energy analyzer. Other plasma parameters have a weak influence upon the energy distribution of the ion flux. Two possible physical mechanisms for producing the observed results are introduced and suggestions for further work are made. The impact of the reported measurements on the materials experiments conducted in the PISCES facility are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made. 11 refs., 13 figs.

Tynan, G.R.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Energy performance implies measures from consumers to the energy supply sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All the efforts made in Romania concerning thermal rehabilitation were concentrated mainly towards the energy consumers. The results obtained are encouraging, plausible and sometimes even spectacular. Though looking at the whole system that these consumers ... Keywords: district heating systems, efficient measures for energy saving, energy performance certificate, thermal rehabilitation

Rodica Frunzulic?; Mirela Sanda ?oropoc

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

ENERGY MEASUREMENTS EGG-10282-1063 UC-41  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

$ EGcG $ EGcG ENERGY MEASUREMENTS EGG-10282-1063 UC-41 OCTOBER 1984 ii 23 THE REMOTE SENSING 1 i13 LAGORATO OPERATED FORTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BY EG&G/EM AN AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR *41Am CONTAMINATION IN TONAWANDA, NEW YORK DATE OF SURVEY: MAY 1984 --- -I, .--_--...- &, EGcG ENERGY MEASUREMENTS EGG-10282-1063 OCTOBER 1984 AN AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR *41Am CONTAMINATION IN TONAWANDA, N E W YORK DATE OF SURVEY: M A Y 1984 H. W . Clark Project Scientist REVIEWED BY Nuclear Radiation Physics Section This Document is UNCLASSIFIED /.W#A - G. P. Stobie Classification Officer This work was performed by EG&G/EM for the United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Safety, under Contract Number DE-AC08-83NV10282. ..--___ ' 2

195

List of Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measures/Whole Building Incentives Measures/Whole Building Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 792 Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-792) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Roofs Windows Yes AEP (Central and North) - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Construction

196

Measuring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Industrial Battery Chargers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial battery chargers have provided the energy requirements for motive power in industrial facilities for decades. Their reliable and durable performance, combined with their low energy consumption relative to other industrial processes, has left the core charger technology unchanged since its introduction to the market. Recent improvements in charger technology have led to a new generation of high frequency chargers on the market that can provide energy efficiency improvements over existing Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) and Ferroresonant charger technologies. We estimate there are approximately 32,000 three phase chargers in use within Pacific Gas & Electric Companys service area, using roughly 750 to 1,000 GWh per year. A 10 percent efficiency improvement on every charger would save about 75 to 100 GWh per year. There are three areas of energy losses in the battery and charger system: Power Conversion Efficiency (energy out of charger vs. energy into charger) Charge Return (energy out of battery vs. energy into battery): some amount of overcharge is necessary for battery health, but chargers vary in the degree which they overcharge Standby losses when no battery is connected. PG&E and Southern California Edison (SCE) are testing industrial battery chargers according to a California Energy Commission (CEC) approved test procedure. This test procedure, developed with charger manufacturer input as part of the CECs Codes and Standards process, specifies test conditions during active charge, maintenance charge and standby modes. The results from this testing are expected to provide independent confirmation of vendor claims of energy efficiency improvements during all modes of charger operation, and will form the foundation of data for utility energy efficiency programs. Initial test results of one battery charger from each technology type show the Hybrid and High Frequency technology as the top performers when compared to the SCR and Ferroresonant chargers. Multiple chargers from each technology group will be tested in the first half of 2009 to determine an average performance for each technology type. The full set of results will be available in summer 2009.

Matley, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Measurement of the calorimetric energy scale in MINOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A neutrino beam is created at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois and fired down through the Earth. Measurements of the energy spectra and composition of the neutrino beam are made both at the source using the Near detector and 735 km away at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota using the Far detector. By comparing the spectrum and flavour composition of the neutrino beam between the two detectors neutrino oscillations can be observed. Such a comparison depends on the accuracy of the relative calorimetric energy scale. This thesis details a precise measurement of the calorimetric energy scale of the MINOS Far detector and Calibration detector using stopping muons with a new ''track window'' technique. These measurements are used to perform the relative calibration between the two detectors. This calibration has been accomplished to 1.7% in data and to significantly better than 2% in the Monte Carlo simulation, thus achieving the MINOS relative calibration target of 2%. A number of cross-checks have been performed to ensure the robustness of the calorimetric energy scale measurements. At the Calibration detector the test-beam energy between run periods is found to be consistent with the detector response to better than 2% after the relative calibration is applied. The muon energy loss in the MINOS detectors determined from Bethe-Bloch predictions, data and Monte Carlo are compared and understood. To estimate the systematic error on the measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters caused by a relative miscalibration a study is performed. A 2% relative miscalibration is shown to cause a 0.6% bias in the values of {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}).

Hartnell, Jeffrey J.; /Oxford U.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These data will be useful for preparing the feed material for subsequent fine grinding operations and designing new mills.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit (TAMT) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit (TAMT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit (TAMT) Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Dataset, Maps, Software/modeling tools, Video, Training materials User Interface: Website, Desktop Application Website: code.google.com/p/tamt/ Cost: Free Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit (TAMT) Screenshot References: TAMT Presentation[1] TAMT Google Site Page[2] TAMT Demonstration Videos[3] "The World Bank Latin America and the Caribbean Region Sustainable Development Department Transport Cluster in conjunction with the World

200

Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe an experimental procedure for accurate measurement of anchoring energy strength of liquid crystal cells. This technique is based on the possibility of gathering a large amount of very precise data about the linear optical response of the cell in different experimental conditions

A. Marino; V. Tkachenko; E. Santamato; N. Bennis; X. Quintana; J. M. Otn; G. Abbate

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Overview of EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager: A Tool to Measure...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Overview of EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager: A Tool to Measure and Track Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview of EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager: A Tool...

202

Measurement of energy performance in a small bank building  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the measured results from a field study of the performance of a low-cost controls retrofit in a small bank building in Knoxville, Tennessee. The retrofit consisted of an upgrade of heating and cooling system controls and new operating strategies. The study was undertaken to better understand how commercial energy use measurement studies should be performed and to demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost controls retrofit in a small commercial building. This report describes the details of the project, including building and building system characteristics, the HVAC control changes implemented, energy end use patterns, and the heating and cooling energy savings achieved. An improved control strategy involving thermostat setback/setup and on/off control was devised around a single replacement programmable thermostat. The strategy allowed thermostat setback/setup control of the primary HVAC system in the building and provided on/off (time-of-day) control for the two secondary systems. The energy efficiency improvements provided a 33% reduction in heating and a 21% reduction in cooling energy consumptions. Simple payback for the retrofit, including installation cost, was less than 1 year. In addition to reducing the energy needs of the building, the replacement electronic thermostat provided improved interior comfort. 10 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Sharp, T.R.; MacDonald, J.M.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Indoor air quality measurements in energy efficient buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Efficient Buildings Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has designed and fabricated a mobile laboratory for research and development studies of ventilation requirements and energy utilization in residential and commercial buildings. The Energy Efficient Buildings (EEB) Mobile Laboratory is used in studies of indoor air quality in buildings before and after energy conservation retrofits and in new buildings incorporating energy efficient designs. Indoor air quality measurements have been conducted in residential buildings and work in progress includes indoor air quality monitoring in schools, hospitals, and energy efficient residential buildings. The monitoring program includes measurement of CO, CO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, NO, NO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, infiltration rate (tracer gas technique), and aerosol size distribution on a continuous basis. Total and respirable-fraction particulate samples are collected on membrane filter media for analysis by x-ray fluorescence (XRFA), photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), proton activation analysis (PAA), combustion, and wet-chemistry techniques for the determination of particulate elemental composition (S, N, C, etc.) and ionic species such as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and NH/sub 4//sup +/. Results of the initial phases of this program indicate that the concentrations of some gaseous and respirable particulate air pollutants in specific indoor environments exceed those levels commonly found in the outdoor urban air environment.

Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Traynor, G.W.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 report, Staff Forecast: Retail Electricity Prices, 2005 to 2018, was prepared with contributions from the technical assistance provided by Greg Broeking of R.W. Beck, Inc. in preparing retail price forecasts

205

India-Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative Jump to: navigation, search Logo: India-WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project Name India-WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project Agency/Company /Organization World Resources Institute (WRI) Sector Climate, Energy Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -NAMA Resource Type Case studies/examples, Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials, Workshop Website http://www.wri.org/mapt Program Start 2011 Country India Southern Asia References Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project[1] Contents 1 Overview 2 Resources 3 Partners 4 References Overview Developing countries are increasingly undertaking mitigation efforts in

206

Brazil-Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil-Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative Brazil-Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Brazil-WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project Name Brazil-WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project Agency/Company /Organization World Resources Institute (WRI) Sector Climate, Energy Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -NAMA Resource Type Case studies/examples, Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials, Workshop Website http://www.wri.org/mapt Program Start 2011 Country Brazil South America References Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Project[1] Contents 1 Overview 2 Resources 3 Partners 4 References Overview Developing countries are increasingly undertaking mitigation efforts in

207

Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hot and humid climates present some of the most complex challenges for sustainable building designs. High temperatures coupled with high humidity create extreme comfort problems and exacerbate the potential for condensation, mold and mildew. These are usually remedied with conventional mechanical air conditioning systems, but the move toward sustainability urges designers to find less energy intensive solutions. An integrated design process coupled with energy modeling and lifecycle analysis can unite design teams around desired outcomes to provide an optimized design solution for projects in these climates. Such an approach involves first minimizing building loads and then reducing residual energy consumed by the HVAC systems. This paper presents an integrated design approach to evaluating the most efficient energy measures in hot and humid climates and summarizes the findings of a series of cases using this approach, including international examples of office, education, and small retail buildings in ASHRAE Climate Zones 1A and 2A.

Zhao, Y.; Erwine, B.; Leonard, P.; Pease, B.; Dole, A.; Lee, A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Average Residential Price - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History; District of Columbia: 15.67: 16.49: 13.92: 13.53: 13.06: NA: 1980-2012: Florida: 20.61: 21.07: 20.18: 17.89: 18.16 ...

209

Average Residential Price - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... electric power price data are for regulated electric ... Gas volumes delivered for vehicle fuel are included in the State monthly totals from January 2011 ...

210

Average Residential Price - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Prices are in ...

211

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Government labs, 9 Universities, 13 Industries Government Labs 1. NRL 2. LLNL 3. SNL 4. LANL 5. ORNL 6. PPPL. UNC Industry 1. General Atomics 2. Titan/PSD 3. Schafer Corp 4. SAIC 5. Commonwealth Technology 6

212

Average Commercial Price - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Prices are in ...

213

Cosmic Ray Positrons at High Energies: A New Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new measurement of the cosmic-ray positron fraction e+/(e+ + e-) obtained from the first balloon flight of the High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT). Using a magnet spectrometer combined with a transition radiation detector, an electromagnetic calorimeter, and time-of-flight counters we have achieved a high degree of background rejection. Our results do not indicate a major contribution to the positron flux from primary sources. In particular, we see no evidence for the significant rise in the positron fraction at energies above ~10 GeV previously reported.

HEAT Collaboration

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Grid-Averaged Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the inadequacies of formulations for surface fluxes for use in numerical models of atmospheric flow. The difficulty is that numerical models imply spatial averaging over each grid area. Existing formulations am based on the ...

L. Mahrt

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

High average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Chapter 5. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

106 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Monthly June 2012 Chapter 5. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price of Electricity

217

ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP ECT FOLLOW-UP REPORT  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

, EGsG , EGsG ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP ECT FOLLOW-UP REPORT DECEMBER 1979 EGG-R-003 AN AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE SHPACK PROPERTY Norton, Massachusetts DATE OF SURVEY: AUGUST 1979 C. M . BLUITT Project Scientist APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION ?4@ t!lz- T. P. Stuart, Manager Remote Sensing Sciences Department THE REMOTE SENSING. lA!ORATORY OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ____--- I(-__ ABSTRACT An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the Shpack property in Norton, Massachusetts. In past years this property was used as a dump site for certain types of radioactive waste materials. Gamma ray data were collected over a 2.2 km* area centered on the site by flying northwest-southeast lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray

218

ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP EG&G Survey Report  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

kL2' kL2' . ",- - &j EGG0 ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP EG&G Survey Report NRC-81 09 April 1981 . AN AERIAL RADIOLOGIC SURVEY OF THE STEPAN CHEMCIAL COMPANY AND SURROUNDING AREA MAYWOOD, N E W JERSEY DATE OF SURVEY: 26 JANUARY 1981 J.R. Mueller Project Director S.A. Gunn Project Scientist APPROVED FOR DISTRIBUTION W . John Tipton, Head Radiation Sciences Section This Document is UNCLASSIFIED G. P. Stobie Classification Officer This work was performed by EG&G for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission through an EAO transfer of funds to Contract No. DE-AC08-76NV01183 with the United States Department of Energy. 3 ABSTRACT An aerial radiologic survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was performed in Maywood, New Jersey over the Stepan Chemical Company and thesurrounding area. This survey was conducted by EG&G for the

219

ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP EG&G SURVEY REPORT  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

&- &- ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP EG&G SURVEY REPORT NRC-81 13 , NOVEMBER 1981 llti * Knb THE REMOTE SENSING lA6ORA~ORV OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AN AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE W. R. GRACE PROPERTY WAYNE TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY DATE OF SURVEY: MAY 1981 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or

220

Definition: Real-Time Load Measurement And Management | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Management Management Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Real-Time Load Measurement And Management This function provides real-time measurement of customer consumption and management of load through Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems (smart meters, two-way communications) and embedded appliance controllers that help customers make informed energy use decisions via real-time price signals, time-of-use (TOU) rates, and service options.[1] Related Terms advanced metering infrastructure, time-of-use pricing, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An in LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Real-Time_Load_Measurement_And_Management&oldid=493115

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Energy distribution measurement of narrow-band ultrashort x-ray beams via K-edge filters subtraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization of novel x-ray sources includes the measurement of the photon flux and the energy distribution of the produced beam. The aim of BEATS2 experiment at the SPARC-LAB facility of the INFN National Laboratories of Frascati (Rome, Italy) is to investigate possible medical applications of an x-ray source based on Thomson relativistic back-scattering. This source is expected to produce a pulsed quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam with an instantaneous flux of 10{sup 20} ph/s in pulses 10 ps long and with an average energy of about 20 keV. A direct measurement of energy distribution of this beam is very difficult with traditional detectors because of the extremely high photon flux. In this paper, we present a method for the evaluation of the energy distribution of quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams based on beam filtration with K-edge absorbing foils in the energy range of interest (16-22 keV). The technique was tested measuring the energy distribution of an x-ray beam having a spectrum similar to the expected one (SPARC-LAB Thomson source) by using a tungsten anode x-ray tube properly filtered and powered. The energy distribution obtained has been compared with the one measured with a HPGe detector showing very good agreement.

Cardarelli, Paolo; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Marziani, Michele; Mucollari, Irena; Pupillo, Gaia; Sisini, Francesco; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and INFN - Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Measured energy savings of light colored roofs: Results from three California demonstration sites  

SciTech Connect

Measured data and computer simulations have demonstrated the impact of roof albedo in reducing cooling energy use in buildings. Savings are a function of both climate and the amount of roof insulation. The cooling energy savings for reflective roofs are highest in hot climates. A reflective roof may also lead to higher heating energy use. Reflective coatings are also used in commercial buildings to protect the roofing membrane, and hence, maintain and prolong the useful life of the roof. Reflectivity of coatings changes with weathering and aging which in turn could have an effect on building cooling-energy savings. For that reason, reflective roof coatings are not primarily marketed for their energy savings potential. To monitor the field performance of reflective coatings, the authors initiated a demonstration project where three commercial buildings in California were painted with light-colored roof coatings. The buildings are two medical care centers and one drug store. At all sites, the roof reflectance, both fresh and aged, and cooling energy use were monitored. In addition, they measured temperature throughout the roof systems and inside the conditioned space. In the monitored buildings, increasing the roof reflectance from an initial value of about 20% to 60%, dropped the roof temperature on hot summer afternoons by about 45 F. Summertime standard-weekday average daily air-conditioning savings were 18% (198 kWh) in the first medical office building, 13% (86 kWh) in the second medical office building, and 2% (13 kWh) in the drug store. The overall u-value of the roofs had dictated the impact of roof reflectance.

Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.; Konopacki, S.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure December 7, 2009 - 7:30am Addthis John Lippert "You can't manage what you don't measure" is a common management adage. It applies well to energy as well. I think I do a decent job at restricting my energy usage at home. After all, I'm supposed to be an energy expert. But who would have thought that my plugged-in combination fax machine/photocopier/printer was consuming seven watts of power day in and day out WHEN IT WAS TURNED OFF! This multi-functional machine comes in handy when I need to fax something or make a photocopy, but to be honest, I don't use it all that much. Normally it just sits there, turned off-GOBBLING SEVEN WATTS of power 24/7!?! Here I am trying to save a few watts here and a few watts there,

224

You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure December 7, 2009 - 7:30am Addthis John Lippert "You can't manage what you don't measure" is a common management adage. It applies well to energy as well. I think I do a decent job at restricting my energy usage at home. After all, I'm supposed to be an energy expert. But who would have thought that my plugged-in combination fax machine/photocopier/printer was consuming seven watts of power day in and day out WHEN IT WAS TURNED OFF! This multi-functional machine comes in handy when I need to fax something or make a photocopy, but to be honest, I don't use it all that much. Normally it just sits there, turned off-GOBBLING SEVEN WATTS of power 24/7!?! Here I am trying to save a few watts here and a few watts there,

225

West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................ 102.88 93.42 92.24 87.96 94.34 94.10 105.84 96.30 95.67 95.33 95.67 93.33 94.12 97.64 95.00 Brent Spot Average ........................................................... 118.49 108.42 109.61 110.09 112.49 102.58 110.27 108.29 106.33 105.00 103.00 102.00 111.65 108.41 104.08 Imported Average .............................................................. 108.14 101.18 97.18 97.64 98.71 97.39 103.07 100.03 99.64 99.33 99.69 97.35 101.09 99.85 99.04 Refiner Average Acquisition Cost ...................................... 107.61 101.44 97.38 97.27 101.14 99.45 105.24 100.44 100.15 99.82 100.18 97.83 100.83 101.61 99.50 Liquid Fuels (cents per gallon) Refiner Prices for Resale Gasoline .........................................................................

226

Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution in helicon plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution) are measured at rf power of 1000 W. The results show that the fairly broad energy distributions of different analyzer; Ion energy distribution; Helicon plasma 1. Introduction It is well recognized that ion

Zexian, Cao

228

PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY-TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS ON CYLINDRICAL CESIUM THERMIONIC CONVERTERS  

SciTech Connect

Detailed measurements of performance and energy transfer were made on two highly instrumented cylindrical cesium thermionic converters with electrically heated tungsten emitters. The first converter, OC-4, which had a niobium collector, operated with an initial electrical output of 6.9 watts/cm/sup 2/. This output gradually degraded to a value of 4.6 watts/cm/sup 2/ after 1351 hr. These power values were measured at the electrodes for an average emitter temperature of 1 750 deg C, Converter OC-5, which had a molybdenum collector, has operated 260 hr to date, with a power output and efficiency of 11.1 watts/cm/sup 2/ and 16%, respectively, at an average emitter temperature of 1800 deg C. These operating data are compared with those for lower emitter temperatures below. Temperature Density Efficiency Energy values of the emitter electron cooling, collector electron heating, thermal radiation, and cesium conduction were calorimetrically determined as a function of emitter temperature, collector temperature, cesium pressure, and current. For all the data obtained, the emitter temperature profile was measured by thermocouples. From the calorimeter measurements, correlations were found for the prediction of emitter electron cooling DELTA Q/sub E/ and collector electron heating DELTA Q/sub C/: DELTA Q/sub E/ = I (2.6 + V), and DELTA Q/sub C/ = I (2. The correlation is valid within 4% accuracy over the operating variable range: emitter temperature of 1200 to 1800 deg C; cesium reservoir temperature of 300 to 400 deg C;, collector temperature of 600 to 700 deg C; and current of zero to 15 amp/cm/sup 2/ . Through measurements of emitterstructure heat losses, of the cesium-vapor thermal conduction, and of the electrode radiation heat transfer, it was found that all the zero-current energy-transfer quantities can be accurately predicted with RAT, a two-dimensional digital-computer heat-transfer code. The electron cooling correlation, together with the ability to calculate all of the power-loss values in a thermionic converter, makes it possible to compute the efficiency of a converter when the I-V characteristics and materials properties are known This is of special interest to thermionic reactor analysis, since the input to the reactor problem is the amount of fission produced in each of a very large number of cells within the reactor. Apart from the utility of the correlation discovered, the determination of the value of 2.6 volts in the current-heating terms is of fundamental interest and invites further study. (auth)

Holland, J.W.

1963-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

229

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy,Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy,financial/> US DOE (2011b): Procuring Energy-Efficient

Blum, Helcio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Measurements of low energy neutral hydrogen efflux during ICRF heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using the Low Energy Neutral Atom Spectrometer, measurements were made of the H/sup 0/ and D/sup 0/ efflux from PLT during ion cyclotron heating experiments. The application of rf power at frequencies appropriate to fundamental and 2nd-harmonic heating results in a rapid, toroidally uniform rise in the charge-exchange efflux at a rate of about 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ MW/sup -1/. This flux increase is larger at lower plasma currents. The cause of this flux and its impact on plasma behavior are discussed.

Cohen, S.A.; Ruzic, D.; Voss, D.E.; Budny, R.; Colestock, P.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Hwang, D.; Manos, D.; Wilson, J.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

A comparative analysis of energy conservation using schools with differing energy measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose was to determine the extent to which, if any, traditional and optimal energy-conservation measures contribute to serve as forces in reducing school operating costs and expenditures. The study was concerned with determining the differences in specific energy-conservation measures in schools categorized as traditionally or optimally equipped and assessing the differences in annual BTU usage and energy costs per square foot in these schools. The study was also concerned with the construction and retrofit costs of optimally and traditionally equipped schools. Data were gathered from eight optimally and traditionally equipped subject schools located in the Dallas suburban districts of Mesquite and Garland and from interviews held with school district personnel and energy engineers in the private sector. The data revealed substantial differences in specific features of the traditionally and optimally equipped schools' energy-conservation measures concerning building envelopes, electrical, and mechanical systems. The BTU usage and energy costs per square foot per year ranged from 16 to 31 % and from 7 to 32% less in the optimally equipped schools. Results indicated that the optimally equipped subject school's total contract cost as 1% higher than that of the traditionally equipped school.

Hopkins, M.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

Measurements of the Average Energy of Carbon Atoms Released From Breakup of Methane in the Main SOL of DIII-D Compared With DIVIMP Code Modeling (A25453)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proc. 17th Int. Conf. On Plasma Surface Interactions In Controlled Fusion Devices, Hefei, P.R. China, 2006; To Be Published In J. Nucl. Mater.17th International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices Hefei, CN, 2006999612580

Stangeby, P.C.

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

234

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Library, Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Boston, MA, USA.M et al (2008): Energy Efficiency: The First Fuel for a2007): Vermont Electric Energy Efficiency Potential Study -

Blum, Helcio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Government can establish energy-efficient procurement policiesa government agency plans a new energy efficiency policy,Government Purchases . 17 Comparative Assessments. 17 Assessing Energy Efficiency Policy

Blum, Helcio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Sector: Water Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Water Conservation Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.doe2.com/download/Water-Energy/ Country: United States Locality: California Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

237

Minimizing Intrusiveness in Home Energy Measurement David Lachut  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to carefully monitor energy supply and past energy consumption, however, using this information to drive demand energy demand to meet supply, which requires a comprehensive understanding of home energy use. Though monitor energy supply and past energy consumption. Using this information to drive demand management

Rollins, Sami

238

Measurement of Surface Energy Fluxes from Two Rangeland Sites and Comparison with a Multilayer Canopy Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rangelands are often characterized by a patchy mosaic of vegetation types, making measurement and modeling of surface energy fluxes particularly challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surface energy fluxes measured using three eddy ...

Gerald N. Flerchinger; Michele L. Reba; Danny Marks

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Uncertainties in Achieving Energy Savings from HVAC Maintenance Measures in the Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uncertainties in Achieving Energy Savings from HVAC Maintenance Measures in the Field Kristin Group, Davis, CA, USA 4 Southern California Edison, Irwindale, CA, USA ABSTRACT HVAC maintenance utilities across the nation to include HVAC maintenance measures in energy efficiency programs

California at Davis, University of

240

Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Variable Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 1.0 42.6 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 35.2 18.6 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 34.7 19.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 6.2 66.5 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 6.0 59.6 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 13.3 67.0 Natural Gas Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Constant $) (Table 7a) 30.7 26.1 Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Nominal $) (Table 7b) 30.0 27.1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (Table 8) 7.8 70.2 Natural Gas Production (Table 9) 7.1 66.0 Natural Gas Net Imports (Table 10) 29.3 69.7 Coal Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants (Constant $)** (Table 11a)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Measured energy savings and demand reduction from a reflective roof membrane on a large retail store in Austin  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we measured and documented summertime air-conditioning (a/c) daily energy savings and demand reduction from a reflective roof membrane retrofit on a large retail store in Austin, Texas. The original black rubber membrane was replaced with white thermoplastic resulting in a decrease in the average maximum roof surface temperature from 168 degrees F (76 degrees C) to 126 degrees F (52 degrees C). This building, with 100,000ft2 (9300m2) of roof area, yielded 3.6Wh/ft2 (39Wh/m2) in a/c average daily energy savings and 0.35W/ft2 (3.8W/m2) in average reduced demand. Total a/c annual abated energy and demand expenditures were estimated to be $7200 or $0.072/ft2 ($0.77/m2). Based on cost data provided by the building manager, the payback is instantaneous with negligible incremental combined labor and material costs. The estimated present value of future abated expenditures ranged from $62,000 to $71,000 over the baseline 13-year service life of the roof membrane.

Konopacki, Steven J.; Akbari, Hashem

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

242

Complementarity and Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics: Energy Measurement aspects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present contribution we discuss the role of experimental limitations in the classical limit problem. We studied some simple models and found that Quantum Mechanics does not re-produce classical mechanical predictions, unless we consider the experimental limitations ruled by uncertainty principle. We have shown that the discrete nature of energy levels of integrable systems can be accessed by classical measurements. We have defined a precise limit for this procedure. It may be used as a tool to define the classical limit as far as the discrete spectra of integrable systems are concerned. If a diffusive environment is considered, we conclude that the "lifetime" of discreteness is approximately $1/\\kappa$ ($\\kappa$ is the diffusion constant), thus it was possible to relate the classical limit of a spectra with the action of an environment and experimental resolution.

Adlcio C. Oliveira; Zolacir T. Oliveira Junior; Nestor S. Correia

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Energy conservation measures in an institutional building by dynamic simulation using designbuilder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, various energy conservation measures (ECMs) on heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems for a 4-storied building in subtropical (hot and humid climate) Central Queensland, Australia are evaluated using the ... Keywords: designbuilder, energy conservation measures, energy efficient lighting and day light control, energy simulation, hot-humid climate, variable air volume system

M. M. Rahman; M. G. Rasul; M. M. K. Khan

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

245

U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

J. J. Lease

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Have You Used an Electric Meter to Measure Your Energy Use? | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Have You Used an Electric Meter to Measure Your Energy Use? Have You Used an Electric Meter to Measure Your Energy Use? Have You Used an Electric Meter to Measure Your Energy Use? December 10, 2009 - 7:30am Addthis This week, you read about using an electric meter to measure and manage your energy use. Using a meter could make you more conscious of exactly what items are costing you the most money. Plus, it can be kind of fun to put actual numbers to the various items in your home. Have you used an electric meter to measure your energy use? Tell us about your experience. Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles You Can't Manage Energy Use That You Don't Measure

247

Development of the OSO-6 high-energy neutron detector and correlation of measured solar neutron fluxes to solar flares  

SciTech Connect

Thesis. The development of a directional high energy (20 to 160 MeV) neutron detector which was flown to satellite altitudes (500 km; circular equatorial orbit) in the NASA Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-6) in August 1969 is described. Both the angle of incidence and the energy of the neutron are determined by a proton-recoil telescope (Pilot B scintillation plastic) which provides the source for proton-recoils and defines the dE/dX versus E method for particle identification and energy determination. The telescope is embedded in a scintillation plastic guard counter envelope which eliminates the unwanted charged particle background as well as recoil protons (electrons) whose energies and direction do not satisfy neutron (gamma-ray) detection requirements, respectively. Results from a Monte Carlo calculation indicate that the overall average efficiency within an average angular acceptance of about 29 deg (FWHM) is approximately (2.25 plus or minus 0.113) x 10/sup -4/. The inflight calibration procedure, the main frame data bit error analysis, and the method for determining the orientation of the detector axis in the spacecraft spin plane are described. Results indicate a discrepancy in the measured (0.461 x 10/sup -2/ plus or minus 0.254 x 10/sup -2/ n/cm/sup 2/sec) and theoretical (2 to 70 n/cm/ sup 2/sec) neutron flux es which suggests a lack of basic underatanding of mechanisms leading to high energy neutron production at the sun. (auth)

Young, F.

1974-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

49031 49031 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to

249

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commercial sectors." Energy Policy 34 (17) 32573267. Rufo,to the 2009 Integrated Energy Policy Report Adopted DemandK et al (2006): Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective

Blum, Helcio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) Provides...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) Provides total and average annual residential energy consumption for water heating in U.S. households in 2005, measured in...

251

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the Implementation for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 i Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1

252

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for the Implementation for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 i Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1

253

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

mvguidelines.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Contracts Webinar, May 20, 2013 Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide Data Center Optimization Plan...

254

Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

all forms of on-site energy conversion including fuel cells, fueled generators, and cogeneration units and on-site energy production, including photovoltaic (PV), wind, geothermal,...

255

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

256

Energy-efficient new commercial buildings in the Northwest region: a compilation of measured data  

SciTech Connect

We have collected and analyzed data for 36 new commercial buildings designed to be energy-efficient in the Northwest. Eighteen buildings are offices; the remainder are mostly retail buildings, and schools. The data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the building energy standards adopted by the Northwest Power Planning Council in the Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. Almost half of the buildings are operating at energy levels under the Council's estimates for new efficient commercial buildings. There is, however, a large range of energy intensities. The average office building consumes 54 kBtu/ftS-yr (in site energy units), while the average small office uses only 43 kBtu/ftS-yr. Energy consumption for the eight retail buildings ranges from 47 kBtu/fS-yr to 134 kBtu/ftS-yr.

Piette, M.A.; Flora, D.; Crowder, S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume III. Average hourly and total daily insolation data for 235 localities (North Carolina - Wyoming)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates are given for 235 US sites at a variety of array tilt angles. (MHR)

Smith, J.H.

1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis (Report 2). In Technical Support Document: Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Electrical

Blum, Helcio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal irradiance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b>
Global Horizontal Irradiance
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

260

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

>
Direct Normal Irradiance (kWhm2day)
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

TRAMS: A New Tracer Gas Airflow Measurement System - Energy ...  

Traditional measurement systems use Pitot-static tubes or hot-wire or other anemometers to measure velocities ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, ...

262

Impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at a new industrial facility  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the pros and cons of several energy, savings estimating methods considered as part of a recent impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at a lumber mill in the Pacific Northwest. The energy conservation measures (adjustable speed drives, programmable logic controllers, and high efficiency motors) were installed when the mill was initially constructed rather than being installed as a retrofit. Therefore, direct measurement of baseline energy consumption was impossible. As described in this paper, several reasonable methods can be formulated for estimating the energy savings when a physical baseline does not exist. The alternative methods will often result in radically different energy savings estimates, which may translate into significantly different conclusions regarding the efficacy of the energy conservation measures and/or the energy conservation program being evaluated. Therefore, it is critical to understand and carefully consider the options for estimating energy savings when a physical baseline does not exist.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The quiet Sun average Doppler shift of coronal lines up to 2 MK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The average Doppler shift shown by spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the corona reveals important information on the mass and energy balance of the solar atmosphere, providing an important observational constraint to any models of the solar corona. Previous spectroscopic observations of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lines have revealed a persistent average wavelength shift of lines formed at temperatures up to 1 MK. At higher temperatures, the behaviour is still essentially unknown. Here we analyse combined SUMER/SoHO and EIS/Hinode observations of the quiet Sun around disk centre to determine, for the first time, the average Doppler shift of several spectral lines formed between 1 and 2 MK, where the largest part of the quiet coronal emission is formed. The measurements are based on a novel technique applied to EIS spectra to measure the difference in Doppler shift between lines formed at different temperatures. Simultaneous wavelength-calibrated SUMER spectra allow establishing the absolute value a...

Dadashi, Neda; Solanki, Sami K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Measurement Science for Net-Zero Energy, High-Performance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Proposed NIST Program. ... Facilitate embedded intelligence in building control systems to enable building energy-use reductions in real time; ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

265

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate

266

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the

267

Variation in Nimbus-7 Cloud Estimates. Part I: Zonal Averages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zonal averages of low, middle and total cloud amount estimates derived from measurements from Nimbus-7 have been analyzed for the six-year period April 1979 through March 1985. The globally and zonally averaged values of six-year annual means and ...

Bryan C. Weare

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The radiant barrier has the potential to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. Working as a system in conjunction with an air space, the radiant barrier could theoretically block up to 95% of far-infrared radiation heat transfer. The experiment was conducted in three unoccupied research houses that are operated by ORNL. One house was used as the control house (no barrier was installed), while the other two were used to test the two different methods for installing the radiant barriers. In one house, the barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass batt insulation, and in the other house, the barrier was attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The attics of all three houses were insulated with kraft paper faced nominal R-19 fiberglass batt insulation. The results showed a savings in the cooling loads of 21% when the radiant barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation and 13% with the radiant barrier attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The savings in electrical consumption was 17% and 9%, respectively. The electrical consumption data and the cooling load data indicated that the most effective way of installing the foil was to lay it on top of the fiberglass batt insulation. The radiant barriers reduced the measured peak ceiling heat fluxes by 39% for the case where the barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation. The radiant barrier reduced the integrated heat flows from the attic to house by approximately 30-35% over a 7-day time period.

Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Project: Measurement Science to Assure the Performance of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the binding component with large energy and CO 2 ... the fact that the industry-average portland ... This project will overcome the measurement science ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Biodiesel Production from Algal Blooms: A Step towards Renewable Energy Generation & Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Usage of Bio-energy is becoming more and more prominent due to the peak oil crisis. Bio-energy is the energy which can be synthesized using methods and raw material which are available in nature and are derived from the biological sources. They are referred ... Keywords: Bio-Diesel, Octane Number, Ph Measurement, Renewable Energy Generation, Trans-Esterification

Shabana Urooj, Athar Hussain, Narayani Srivastava

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Examination of the Surface Energy Budget: A Comparison of Eddy Correlation and Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reliable method for monitoring the surface energy budget is critical to the development and validation of numerical models and remote sensing algorithms. Unfortunately, closure of the energy budget remains difficult to achieve among measurement ...

Jerald A. Brotzge; Kenneth C. Crawford

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

References US DOE. 2009 Buildings Energy Databook. U.S.measurements. Energy and Buildings. Vol. 40. 2008. pp. RothSavings Potential in 2008 by Building Type. TIAX LLC, 2010.

Brown, Richard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The design and initial testing of a beam phase and energy measurement for LEDA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic system being designed to measure the beam phase and beam energy of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) is described and the characterization of the prototype presented. The accelerator

J. Power; M. Stettler

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Benthic Boundary-Layer Velocity Profiles: Dependence on Averaging Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between benthic boundary-layer velocity profiles and current meter averaging time is investigated using detailed (0.61 Hz) current measurements recorded within 1 m of the bottom on the inner continental shelf. The percentage of ...

Barry M. Lesht

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy-Efficiency Measures for Commercial Office Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the recommendations for achieving 15% above code energy performance for commercial office buildings complying with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. To accomplish the 15% annual energy consumption reductions, ten measures were considered. After energy savings were determined for each measure, they were then grouped in several groups to accomplish a minimum of 15% total annual energy consumption reduction.

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.; Cho, S.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

EIA - Measuring Changes in Energy Efficiency for the AEO2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... calculation of the projected rate of increase in energy efficiency for LDVs as a whole involves weighting the expected increases for the two components ...

278

ENERGY STAR Snapshot: Measuring Progress in the Commercial and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

industrial (C&I) leaders have made unprecedented progress in their efforts to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions across their buildings and facilities....

279

Ion Armageddon: Measuring the Impact Energy of Highly ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in detail.** Understanding how ions discharge their energy upon impact will ... for a variety of micro- and nanoscale production processes, techniques ...

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Pumping System Measurements To Estimate Energy Savings: Why and How  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring performance parameters (flow rate, pressures, and power) for existing systems is essential to understanding how both the pump(s) and system are actually performing. Examples of reasons why actual measurements are critical and practical means of getting and using the measured data to estimate savings potential using DOE tools are discussed.

Casada, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Developing Test Procedures for Measuring Stored Thermal Energy in Firefighter Protective Clothing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research studied stored thermal energy in fire fighter's turnout systems. It developed a novel laboratory apparatus and test protocols for measuring the contribution of (more)

Eni, Egbe Uchechi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Measuring Improvement in the Energy Performance of the U.S. Corn...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Improvement in the Energy Performance of the U.S. Corn Refining Industry Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and...

283

Measurement Services for Low-to-Medium Energy X-rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of measurement services to calibratewavelength-dispersive detectors and spectrometers for low- to medium-energy x rays (10 to 300 ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

284

Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstration energy-efficient office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and analysis of building energy efficiency in China.in evaluating relative building energy performance in Chinabuildings. The available building energy use data are for

Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

DEMAND SIDE ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION PROGRAM Measurement and Verification Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(average foot-candles) per room BEFORE retrofits. Retrofits are designed to provide recommended and production cost of electricity (main Campus) or City electric rates (PRC) as applicable. 5. Post&V deliverables requested here meet the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) intent for a "Post- Installation

Hofmann, Hans A.

286

Application Level Energy and Performance Measurements in a Wireless LAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an experimental evaluation of energy usage and performance in a wireless LAN cell based on a test bed using the 5GHz ISM band for 802.11a and 802.11n. We have taken an application-level approach, by varying the packet size and transmission ... Keywords: WLAN, Performance, Energy-Efficiency

Markus Tauber; Saleem N. Bhatti; Yi Yu

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

On Measuring the Terms of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget from an AUV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The terms of the steady-state, homogeneous turbulent kinetic energy budgets are obtained from measurements of turbulence and fine structure from the small autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Remote Environmental Measuring Units (REMUS). The ...

Louis Goodman; Edward R. Levine; Rolf G. Lueck

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection  

SciTech Connect

This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Core-ion temperature measurement of the ADITYA tokamak using passive charge exchange neutral particle energy analyzer  

SciTech Connect

Core-ion temperature measurements have been carried out by the energy analysis of passive charge exchange (CX) neutrals escaping out of the ADITYA tokamak plasma (minor radius, a= 25 cm and major radius, R= 75 cm) using a 45 Degree-Sign parallel plate electrostatic energy analyzer. The neutral particle analyzer (NPA) uses a gas cell configuration for re-ionizing the CX-neutrals and channel electron multipliers (CEMs) as detectors. Energy calibration of the NPA has been carried out using ion-source and {Delta}E/E of high-energy channel has been found to be {approx}10%. Low signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to VUV reflections on the CEMs was identified during the operation of the NPA with ADITYA plasma discharges. This problem was rectified by upgrading the system by incorporating the additional components and arrangements to suppress VUV radiations and improve its VUV rejection capabilities. The noise rejection capability of the NPA was experimentally confirmed using a standard UV-source and also during the plasma discharges to get an adequate SNR (>30) at the energy channels. Core-ion temperature T{sub i}(0) during flattop of the plasma current has been measured to be up to 150 eV during ohmically heated plasma discharges which is nearly 40% of the average core-electron temperature (typically T{sub e}(0) {approx} 400 eV). The present paper describes the principle of tokamak ion temperature measurement, NPA's design, development, and calibration along with the modifications carried out for minimizing the interference of plasma radiations in the CX-spectrum. Performance of the NPA during plasma discharges and experimental results on the measurement of ion-temperature have also been reported here.

Pandya, Santosh P.; Ajay, Kumar; Mishra, Priyanka; Dhingra, Rajani D.; Govindarajan, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Measured Performance of Energy-Efficient Computer Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The intent of this study is to explore the potential performance of both Energy Star computers/printers and add-on control devices individually, and their expected savings if collectively applied in a typical office building in a hot and humid climate. Recent surveys have shown that the use of personal computer systems in commercial office buildings is expanding rapidly. The energy consumption of such a growing end-use also has a significant impact on the total building power demand. In warmer climates, office equipment energy use has important implications for building cooling loads as well as those directly associated with computing tasks. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed an Energy Star (ES) rating system intended to endorse more efficient equipment. To research the comparative performance of conventional and low-energy computer systems, four Energy Star computer systems and two computer systems equipped with energy saving devices were monitored for power demand. Comparative data on the test results are summarized. In addition, a brief analysis uses the DOE-2.1E computer simulation to examine the impact of the test results and HVAC interactions if generically applied to computer systems in a modern office building in Florida's climate.

Floyd, D. B.; Parker, D. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Measures and Investment Options for Community Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Municipalities and electric and gas utilities have for the past decade offered ratepayers incentives for conserving energy. The energy conservation strategies used have varied depending on the goals of the local utility. The cost-effectiveness of these strategies, however, has been debated because of the limited activity in producing quantifiable data and the lack of documentation of methodologies. Because the cost-effectiveness and the reach of current energy programs is often unknown, the return on investment to the utility, city, or the ratepayer is often without quantifiable documentation. The development of municipal or utility energy conservation programs centers principally on economic and social issues. Utilities look at energy efficiency and demand management as a cheaper option than the construction of a new power plant. Municipalities consider energy efficiency because it promotes awareness and therefore helps keep utility bills low for its citizens. The two viewpoints may combine as in the case of the City of San Antonio and its municipally owned utility, City Public Service. A dilemma, therefore, arises when a municipally owned utility has excess capacity. The municipality demands that its utility provide for growth and maintain rates, two goals which may conflict. In this project, the City of San Antonio's Office of Public Utilities assessed the potential for energy conservation and its relationship to meeting the community's economic growth objectives. The project evaluated the municipally owned utility's energy conservation goals and objectives, current and future programs, and its forecasting and generation plans. Emphasis was placed on evaluating and developing cost-effective residential energy conservation programs designed for the San Antonio area and determining a "best-set" of programs based on a detailed economic analysis.

Myers, M. S.; Korinchock, D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Measured commercial load shapes and energy-use intensities and validation of the LBL end-use disaggregation algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has conducted an extensive metering project in which electricity end use in 53 commercial buildings in Southern California has been measured. The building types monitored include offices, retail stores, groceries, restaurants, and warehouses. One year (June 1989 through May 1990) of the SCE measured hourly end-use data are reviewed in this report. Annual whole-building and end-use energy use intensities (EUIs) and monthly load shapes (LSs) have been calculated for the different building types based on the monitored data. This report compares the monitored buildings' EUIs and LSs to EUIs and LSs determined using whole-building load data and the End-Use Disaggregation Algorithm (EDA). Two sets of EDA determined EUIs and LSs are compared to the monitored data values. The data sets represent: (1) average buildings in the SCE service territory and (2) specific buildings that were monitored.

Akbari, H.; Rainer, L.; Heinemeier, K.; Huang, J.; Franconi, E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures  

SciTech Connect

The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Safety Measures a hinder for Geothermal Drilling | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Safety Measures a hinder for Geothermal Drilling Citation Renewable Power...

295

Securing Wide Area Measurement Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

measurement system (WAMS) security conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a project funded by the National SCADA Test Bed Program in cooperation with the...

296

Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement results from practical devices will be presented such as spectral responsivity, ... Nanocomposites by Phase Separation in TiO2/SnO2 System.

297

Wind Measurement Equipment: Registration (Nebraska) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Measurement Equipment: Registration (Nebraska) Wind Measurement Equipment: Registration (Nebraska) Wind Measurement Equipment: Registration (Nebraska) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Wind Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Aeronautics All wind measurement equipment associated with the development or study of wind-powered electric generation, whether owned or leased, shall be

298

Guidebook for Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Measurement & Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficiency program evaluation is increasingly important as utilities implement programs to meet regulatory requirements, such as energy efficiency portfolio standards. While utilities need internal staff to oversee evaluation activities, most evaluations are actually conducted by outside consultants. Thus, utility staff require a sufficient understanding of the evaluation process to plan program evaluation activities as well as to manage internal stakeholders and evaluation contractors. This guide...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

299

Simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time-of-flight analyzer with a floatable drift tube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time A technique for simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time Laboratory's Multicharged Ion Research Facility. Energy distributions of the scattered projectiles

300

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Asia from NREL East Asia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa from NREL Africa from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

302

annual average heating degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average heating degree days average heating degree days Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Heating Degree Days below 18° C (degree days)The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is below 18° C.NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly Average & Annual Sum (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Heating Degree Days Below 18 degrees C (degree days)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords annual average heating degree days climate GIS NASA SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 2.7 MiB)

303

Definition: Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measurement Unit (PMU) Measurement Unit (PMU) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Calculates voltage and current phasors based on digital sampling of alternating current (AC) waveforms and a precise time signal provided by a GPS clock. A PMU provides output data in a standard protocol at rates of at least 30 samples per second for communication to remote locations. Since voltage and current measurements are time-stamped, synchrophasor data collected across the country can be time synchronized conditions at distant locations can be accurately compared. Digital Fault Recorders, digital relays, and other devices that have PMU capability can also be considered PMUs.[1] Related Terms sustainability, smart grid References ↑ https://www.smartgrid.gov/category/technology/phasor_measurement_unit_pmu

304

Federal Energy Management Program: Measure and Evaluate Institutional  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measure and Evaluate Institutional Change for Sustainability Measure and Evaluate Institutional Change for Sustainability Graphic showing 5 gears. They progress from Determine Goal to Identify Context-Rules, Roles and Tools to Develop Action Plan to Implement Plan to Measure and Evaluate. Institutional Change Continuous Improvement Cycle The measure and evaluation step is crucial to ensure that institutional change efforts produce successful results in meeting sustainability goals. To measure success, an evaluation is needed. An effective evaluation: Provides a framework and information to support strategic planning efforts Confirms that actions being taken are proving effective or are in need of adjustment Identifies opportunities for new or increased improvement Helps justify actions to others for validation, increased support, and future resources.

305

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations

306

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JULY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2375 Experimental free-energy measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JULY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2375 Experimental free-energy-molecule technologies have made it possible to use irreversible work measurements to extract free-energy differences associated with the mechanical (un)folding of molecules. To date, free-energy recovery has been focused

Loss, Daniel

307

Calculations of free energies in liquid and solid phases: Fundamental measure density-functional approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculations of free energies in liquid and solid phases: Fundamental measure density, a theoretical description of the free energies and correlation functions of hard-sphere (HS) liquid and solid-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, free energies of liquid and solid phases with many interaction potentials can be obtained

Song, Xueyu

308

American Wind Energy Association, Denver, May 2005 Uncertainties in Results of Measure-Correlate-Predict Analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American Wind Energy Association, Denver, May 2005 Uncertainties in Results of Measure Wind Energy Association, Denver, May 2005 Statistical models are then investigated that estimate-Correlate-Predict Analyses Anthony L. Rogers, Ph. D.* John W. Rogers, M.S.** James F. Manwell, Ph. D.* *Renewable Energy

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

309

Final Map Draft Comparison Report WIND ENERGY RESOURCE MODELING AND MEASUREMENT PROJECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

II Final Map Draft Comparison Report #12;WIND ENERGY RESOURCE MODELING AND MEASUREMENT PROJECT Tel: 978-749-9591 Fax: 978-749-9713 mbrower@awstruewind.com August 10, 2004 #12;2 WIND ENERGY RESOURCE issues. 1 Background In Task 2 of the project, five promising areas of the state for wind energy

310

Operations and Maintenance Program Measurement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operations and Maintenance Program Measurement Operations and Maintenance Program Measurement Operations and Maintenance Program Measurement October 4, 2013 - 5:19pm Addthis Operations and maintenance (O&M) measurement tends to focus on reliability as the sole metric. Every Federal agency wants a reliable facility, but this metric alone is not enough to build a successful O&M program. O&M managers must think beyond reliability. Successful programs incorporate reliability along with controlling costs, evaluating and implementing new technologies, tracking and reporting health and safety issues, and more. Not only are these metrics useful in assessing effectiveness, but also in equipment cost justification, program modifications, and staff hiring. Common Metrics The following metrics are common in evaluating effective O&M programs. Not

311

Property:NumberOfMeasuringStations | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:NumberOfMeasuringStations Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the...

312

Executive Summary of the Workshop on Polarization and Beam Energy Measurements at the ILC  

SciTech Connect

This note summarizes the results of the 'Workshop on Polarization and Beam Energy Measurements at the ILC', held at DESY (Zeuthen) April 9-11 2008. The topics for the workshop included (1) physics requirements, (2) polarized sources and low energy polarimetry, (3) BDS polarimeters, (4) BDS energy spectrometers, and (5) physics-based measurements of beam polarization and beam energy from collider data. Discussions focused on the current ILC baseline program as described in the Reference Design Report (RDR), which includes physics runs at beam energies between 100 and 250 GeV, as well as calibration runs on the Z-pole. Electron polarization of P{sub e{sup -}} {approx}> 80% and positron polarization of P{sub e{sup +}} {approx}> 30% are part of the baseline configuration of the machine. Energy and polarization measurements for ILC options beyond the baseline, including Z-pole running and the 1 TeV energy upgrade, were also discussed.

Aurand, B.; Bailey, I.; Bartels, C.; Blair, G.; Brachmann, A.; Clarke, J.; Deacon, L.; Duginov, V.; Ghalumyan, A.; Hartin, A.; Hauptman, J.; Helebrant, C.; Hesselbach, S.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Lyapin, A.; Marchesini, I.; Melikian, R.; Monig, K.; Moeit, K.C.; /Bonn U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /Dubna, JINR /Yerevan Phys. Inst /Oxford U., JAI /Iowa State U. /Durham U., IPPP /Michigan U. /University Coll. London /Novosibirsk, IYF /Minsk, Inst. Phys. /Oregon U.

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

313

Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstration energy-efficient office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

other buildings and other available energy-use benchmarks.good benchmark energy consumption data for buildings, and (building energy consumption in Beijing, especially monthly separated data. A benchmark

Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Opportunities and Barriers in the Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Plastic Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The plastic industry in the U.S. employs approximately 9% [1] of the manufacturing work force and consumes approximately 6% [1] of the total energy used by the U.S. industries. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), manufacturers of plastic and other resins are consuming nearly 1,070 trillion Btu [1] of energy in their operations every year, valued at $6.0[1] billion. As escalating energy prices continue to be a concern for industry, many plastic manufacturers are striving to reduce their energy consumption to stay competitive. An alternative to reduced energy consumption is to put in place an energy efficiency strategy. However, while most plastic manufactures are aware of the energy efficiency opportunities in their facilities, the implementation of these opportunities face certain market barriers. These barriers are identified as customers lack the information about energy efficiency technologies, and have limited capital funding to implement the energy efficiency measures. Additionally, it is hard to identify the energy savings opportunities and difficult to quantify their impacts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various energy efficiency opportunities in plastic manufacturing and address the market barriers in implementing them. We will identify the energy savings opportunities in plastic manufacturing that can be introduced to reduce energy consumption and decrease production costs, thus giving the customers more competitive edge in both the regional and global markets. We will also discuss various popular energy efficiency measures, the energy savings associated with each measure and their projected simple payback. In terms of policy implication, this paper will discuss various strategies of mitigating potential market barriers in implementing energy efficiency measures on plastic manufacturing industries.

Kanunho, A; Yong, J. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

DOE Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure under an Energy Savings Performance Contract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure under an Energy Savings Performance Contract August 2013 This document provides guidance on the statutory definition of "energy conservation measure" (ECM) for the purpose of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC), including clarification that multiple ECMs under the same ESPC may be "bundled" when evaluating lifecycle cost-effectiveness. Additionally, this document clarifies that an ESPC may include, or be limited to, a single ECM applied across multiple Federal buildings and facilities. Background and Introduction The term "energy savings performance contract," as defined by statute, means: [A] contract for the performance of services for the design, acquisition, installation, testing,

316

DOE Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure under an Energy Savings Performance Contract  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure under an Energy Savings Performance Contract August 2013 This document provides guidance on the statutory definition of "energy conservation measure" (ECM) for the purpose of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC), including clarification that multiple ECMs under the same ESPC may be "bundled" when evaluating lifecycle cost-effectiveness. Additionally, this document clarifies that an ESPC may include, or be limited to, a single ECM applied across multiple Federal buildings and facilities. Background and Introduction The term "energy savings performance contract," as defined by statute, means: [A] contract for the performance of services for the design, acquisition, installation, testing,

317

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

31000 kWh yr -1 and annual gas usage is 0.0732 7200 = 527= 26700 kWh yr -1 and annual gas usage is 0.081 7200 = 580electricity usage (kWh yr -1 ), 2) annual gas energy use (

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Office building performance - Software based energy calculation of office buildings and comparison with measured energy data.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The usage of energy simulation tools is widespread in the construction field. Indeed, it is useful to predict the energy consumption of a new building, (more)

Druhen, Marie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

ENERGY STAR Snapshot: Measuring Progress in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Spring 2008.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Progress in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors Spring 2008 Introduction Through 2007, commercial and industrial (C&I) leaders have made unprecedented progress in their efforts to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions across their buildings and facilities. This includes: y Hundreds of organizations and individuals stepping forward to take the ENERGY STAR Challenge to improve the energy efficiency of America's buildings by 10 percent or more y Measuring the energy performance in tens of thousands of buildings y Achieving energy savings across millions of square feet y Designating more than 4,000 efficient buildings and facilities with the ENERGY STAR label ENERGY STAR partners are building tremendous momentum for energy efficiency and seeing important

320

Analysis of Energy Efficiency Measures in Rehabilitation of Multifamily Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An apartment building in Austin, Texas, and one in Boston, Massachusetts, were analyzed to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures. To determine expected energy and cost savings resulting from a set of proposed retrofit measures, hour-by-hour simulations were conducted using the DOE-2.1C building energy analysis computer program. Based on detailed audit data, supplemented by field-measurements in the case of the Austin apartment building, the simulations were run for base case (preretrofit) conditions for each building. Metered electricity and gas consumption was used to calibrate the input data. A series of proposed retrofit measures was run for each building using the calibrated preretrofit model as the reference. Annual energy and cost savings were calculated separately for each measure and for the combined set of measures. For the Austin building the combined set of 11 measures yielded expected savings of $3,710/year, a 42% savings in site energy. The combination of the 7 measures considered for the Boston building yielded expected savings of $1.292/year, and annual energy savings of nearly 75%. Measured in situ air conditioner performance for two of the Austin apartments showed EERs of 5.70 and 5.55, indicating an efficiency degradation of 22% and 24%, respectively, after 16 years of operation.

Hunn, B. D.; Silver, S. C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstration energy-efficient office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

China. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable

Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013  

SciTech Connect

Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Energy savings and structural changes in the U.S. economy: Evidence from disaggregated data using decomposition techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

declining average energy intensity indicator. Our structuraleconomy-wide indicator of delivered energy intensity fell byenergy intensities, with an eye to indirect measures or indicators

Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

Stein, J.; Kung, F.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Average Stock Levels: Crude Market & Propane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This graph shows that propane was not alone in experiencing excess supply in 1998 and extraordinary stock builds. Note that the graph shows average stock levels ...

326

Optimization Online - String-Averaging Projected Subgradient ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 29, 2013 ... Optimization Online. String-Averaging Projected Subgradient Methods for Constrained Minimization. Yair Censor(yair ***at*** math.haifa.ac.il)

327

Energy consumption and usage characteristics from field measurements of residential dishwashers, clothes washers and clothes dryers  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy consumption and usage characteristics for household dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers for ten townhouses at Twin Rivers, N.J., are presented. Whenever the dishwashers and/or clothes washers were in use, the energy consumption, water consumption, frequency of usage, and water temperature were measured by a data acquisition system. The electrical energy of electric clothes dryers and the gas consumption of gas clothes dryers were measured, as well as their frequency and duration of use, and exhaust temperature. Typical household usage patterns of these major appliances are included.

Chang, Y.L.; Grot, R.A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Parametric Channeling Radiation and its Application to the Measurement of Electron Beam Energy  

SciTech Connect

We have proposed a method for observing parametric channeling radiation (PCR) and of applying it to the measurement of electron beam energy. The PCR process occurs if the energy of the channeling radiation coincides with the energy of the parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The PCR process can be regarded as the diffraction of 'virtual channeling radiation'. We developed a scheme for beam energy measurement and designed an experimental setup. We also estimated the beam parameters, and calculated the angular distributions of PXR and PCR. These considerations indicate that the observation of PCR is promising.

Takabayashi, Y. [SAGA Light Source, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

329

Measurement Protocol for GEC, ERF, and CUE | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Protocol for GEC, ERF, and CUE Measurement Protocol for GEC, ERF, and CUE Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories

330

A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing technologies were added to the existing MMT platform: (1) air contamination (corrosion) sensors, (2) power monitoring, and (3) a wireless environmental sensing network. All three technologies are built on cost effective sensing solutions that increase the density of sensing points and enable high resolution mapping of DCs. The wireless sensing solution enables Air Conditioning Unit (ACU) control while the corrosion sensor enables air side economization and can quantify the risk of IT equipment failure due to air contamination. Validation data for six test sites demonstrate that leveraging MMT energy efficiency solutions combined with industry best practices results in an average of 20% reduction in cooling energy, without major infrastructure upgrades. As an illustration of the unique MMT capabilities, a data center infrastructure efficiency (DCIE) of 87% (industry best operation) was achieved. The technology is commercialized through IBM System and Technology Lab Services that offers MMT as a solution to improve DC energy efficiency. Estimation indicates that deploying MMT in existing DCs can results in an 8 billion kWh savings and projection indicates that constant adoption of MMT can results in obtainable savings of 44 billion kWh in 2035. Negotiations are under way with business partners to commercialize/license the ACU control technology and the new sensor solutions (corrosion and power sensing) to enable third party vendors and developers to leverage the energy efficiency solutions.

Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

331

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

332

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Residual stress measurement with high energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary measurements with high energy x-rays from the SRI CAT 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon show great promise for the measurement of stress and strain using diffraction. Comparisons are made with neutron measurements. Measurements of strains in a 2 mm thick 304 stainless steel weld show that excellent strain and spatial resolutions are possible. With 200 {micro}m slits, strain resolutions of 1 x 10{sup {minus}5} were achieved.

Winholtz, R. A.; Haeffner, D. R.; Green, R.E.L.; Varma, R.; Hammond, D.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

Cooling energy measurements of houses with attics containing radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The radiant barrier has the potential to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. Working as a system in conjunction with an air space, the radiant barrier could theoretically block up to 95% of far-infrared radiation heat transfer. The results showed a savings in the cooling loads of 21% when the radiant barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation and 13% with the radiant barrier attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The savings in electrical consumption was 17% and 9%, respectively.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.; Knight, D.K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Bayesian curve estimation by model averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian approach is used to estimate a nonparametric regression model. The main features of the procedure are, first, the functional form of the curve is approximated by a mixture of local polynomials by Bayesian model averaging (BMA), second, the ... Keywords: BIC criterion, Bayesian model averaging, Local polynomial regression, Nonparametric curve fitting, Robustness

Daniel Pea; Dolores Redondas

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

CHP Supported with Energy Efficiency Measures -- A Winning and Environmentally Sound Solution in Finland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"In the European Union Energy Programmes, one of the most significant measures in reducing carbon dioxides and other emissions is to build additional CHP technology. This will be implemented with measures to raise the energy efficiency. CHP technology is exceptionally widely used in Finland. At industrial sites, it accounts for more than in any other country in Europe. Owing to limited possibilities to build additional CHP, the focus in Finland is already shifting to other measures that add to energy efficiency. The energy intensive forest industry accounts for about 60% of the industrial energy use in Finland. The CHP plants form the basis for the industry's energy system. The agreement closed between industry and the Government obliges the forest companies to have energy analyses prepared The Government also supports projects that have increased energy efficiency as target. The industry has agreed amongst themselves during 1998 on the game rules that govern the enhancing of the energy efficiency at their pulp and paper mills. Through its solid mastering of the entire energy chain, Fortum -one of the leading Nordic energy companies, is focusing on the development of products and processes with strong environmental characteristics. Apart from actively implementing CHP projects around the Baltic region, the company is also strongly supporting the forest industry companies in their attempts to develop techniques aiming at enhancing energy efficiency at their mill units. The computer modeling know-how that over ten past years has been developed in the power plant environment provides the foundation for Fortum's energy analyses. This combined with customers know-how of energy and processes, creates an exceptionally efficient operation to enhance energy efficiency of pulp and paper mill units. "

Hannunkari, E.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Improve Industrial Temperature Measurement Precision for Cost-Effective Energy Usage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature measurement and energy efficiencies have always been tightly interrelated. Recent years have seen substantial advancements in the ability to make industrial temperature measurements with absolute accuracy. This capability should continue to have a great impact on industrial energy efficiency. "Absolute Accuracy" is a new concept in industrial temperature measurement. Making a measurement with "Absolute Accuracy" has enormous advantages in major industrial processes from heat-transfer to combustion thermal efficiency. Absolute measurement accuracy is especially critical when one temperature measurement is to be compared to another temperature measurement or if the measurement is to be used as part of a calculation formula such as BTU usage or compensated flow. The thermocouple and the RTD sensor continue to be the workhorse sensors for industrial measurements, but the precision measurement capability of the RTD sensor is showing real value in new installations. For temperature measurements under 1,000F, the RTD is extremely stable and repeatable in almost all measurement conditions. There have been significant advances in the ability to accurately read these sensors, particularly in industrial applications where the temperature sensor is installed in a remote location. Four-wire sensor measurement techniques can now be used for reading RTD's in industrial applications. These four-wire measurement techniques have improved the practical measurement accuracy in industrial applications to better than 0.1C. This is at least ten times better than any practical industrial temperature measurement accuracy made prior to 1980. These significant accuracy improvements have been matched by similar improvements in measurement stability, particularly from smart temperature transmitters. Measurement accuracy and stability improvements have allowed for similar advances in process control strategies and in precision energy use studies. Until recently, the inaccuracy of process temperature measurements have stymied implementation of sophisticated control algorithms. With the advent of precise, stable temperature measurements, a number of process control strategies can be implemented using real-time enthalpy balances for control of batch and continuous reactions. These control strategies can result in very significant improvements in both throughput and quality. Similar improvements can be made where it is important to compare an industrial temperature measurements. These comparisons are frequent in energy use studies to identify and isolate potential energy savings. This article examines the advances in remote temperature measurement techniques for the process and utility industries. It offers several examples of the significance of the on-line control techniques.

Lewis, C. W.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Microprocessor Field Impactometer Calibration: Do We Measure Drops Momentum or Their Kinetic Energy?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the construction and calibration of a low-cost piezoelectric microprocessor impactometer designed for the field measurements of the rainfall kinetic energy (KE) flux. Its precise calibration was performed in laboratory ...

Pawe? Licznar; Janusz ?omotowski; S?awomir B?o?ski; Grzegorz J. Ciach

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct detection of {sup 14}C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of {sup 14}C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring {sup 14}C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting {sup 14}C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10{sup 4}. Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as {sup 3}H, and {sup 10}Be, and {sup 26}Al, are discussed. 70 refs.

Bertsche, K.J.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidance 9Dec2010 Guidance 9Dec2010 i DRAFT Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253 Subsection (f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) December 9, 2010 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1 A. Authority ................................................................................................................................. 1 B. Related DOE Guidance and Activity ...................................................................................... 1

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341

Key energy efficiency measures signed into law by President Obama | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Key energy efficiency measures signed into law by President Obama Key energy efficiency measures signed into law by President Obama Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 2 January, 2013 - 12:53 energy efficiency legislation OpenEI President Obama President Obama recently signed into law the American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act, a piece of legislation that includes provisions that are aimed at aggressively moving clean energy and energy efficiency forward. For a more in-depth article, visit Smartgridnews.com To view the full bill, click here Groups: OpenEI Community Central Login to post comments Graham7781's blog Latest blog posts Jweers New Robust References! Posted: 7 Aug 2013 - 18:23 by Jweers 1 comment(s) Graham7781 Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap featured on NREL Now

342

Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate (CSSEFARMBE)  

SciTech Connect

The Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project is working to improve the representation of the hydrological cycle in global climate models, critical information necessary for decision-makers to respond appropriately to predictions of future climate. In order to accomplish this objective, CSSEF is building testbeds to implement uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to objectively calibrate and diagnose climate model parameterizations and predictions with respect to local, process-scale observations. In order to quantify the agreement between models and observations accurately, uncertainty estimates on these observations are needed. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program takes atmospheric and climate related measurements at three permanent locations worldwide. The ARM VAP called the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) [Xie et al., 2010] collects a subset of ARM observations, performs quality control checks, averages them to one hour temporal resolution, and puts them in a standard format for ease of use by climate modelers. ARMBE has been widely used by the climate modeling community as a summary product of many of the ARM observations. However, the ARMBE product does not include uncertainty estimates on the data values. Thus, to meet the objectives of the CSSEF project and enable better use of this data with UQ techniques, we created the CSSEFARMBE data set. Only a subset of the variables contained in ARMBE is included in CSSEFARMBE. Currently only surface meteorological observations are included, though this may be expanded to include other variables in the future. The CSSEFARMBE VAP is produced for all extended facilities at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site that contain surface meteorological equipment. This extension of the ARMBE data set to multiple facilities at SGP allows for better comparison between model grid boxes and the ARM point observations. In the future, CSSEFARMBE may also be created for other ARM sites. As each site has slightly different instrumentation, this will require additional development to understand the uncertainty characterization associated with instrumentation at those sites. The uncertainty assignment process is implemented into the ARM programs new Integrated Software Development Environment (ISDE) so that many of the key steps can be used in the future to screen data based on ARM Data Quality Reports (DQRs), propagate uncertainties when transforming data from one time scale into another, and convert names and units into NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) standards. These processes are described in more detail in the following sections.

Riihimaki, Laura D.; Gaustad, Krista L.; McFarlane, Sally A.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

343

Measuring savings in energy savings performance contracts using in-place energy management systems -- A case study  

SciTech Connect

Energy Management Control Systems (EMCSs) have been used in many projects as a monitoring device to provide information necessary for estimating savings from efficiency measures. This paper discusses a case study that looked in great depth at that use for evaluating savings in Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC). ESPC is one of the increasingly important mechanisms for profiting from energy efficiency in commercial buildings. With ESPC, a contractor finances and installs energy-conversion measures, and the resulting savings in energy bills are shared between the contractor and the building owner. Hence, the method used for determining savings is key to the success of this financing scheme. As a part of their effort to establish measurement and verification methods, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) carried out a pilot study of ESPC, and the EMCS was used in the savings verification for this ESPC contract. This case study also serves as a detailed and quantitative comparison of EMCS and conventional monitoring techniques, according to the guidelines developed in earlier work. This paper discusses the concept of different levels of monitoring savings for ESPC and presents an assessment of the use of EMCS for these levels of monitoring.

Heinemeier, K.E.; Akbari, H.; Kromer, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

A Methodology for Baselining the Energy Use At Large Campus Utility Plants for the Purpose of Measuring Energy Savings from Energy Conservation Retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of the energy services industry and the implementation of energy savings retrofits by energy services companies has increased the focus on the performance of energy saving retrofits. Energy savings measurement, though not an exact science, has been developing as well to ensure the benefit of a retrofit and to provide a level of assurance for the customers of energy services companies. This thesis presents a useful methodology for baselining campus utility usage using regression modeling techniques and measured daily data for the purpose of measuring energy savings. The methodology of this thesis improves upon previous regression modeling of individual buildings by extending commercial building energy usage models to an entire campus, modeling the operation of a central plant, and modeling central plant equipment performance with regression models. By adding equipment production layers, the user can more easily determine the cause of changes in the primary energy usage of a central plant. The case study for the application of the methodology of this thesis was the Texas A&M University main campus central plant. Useful results were obtained by utilizing one portion of the data to develop an energy usage baseline model and using the second portion of the data to validate the performance of the baseline model. Further development of the methodology could include the addition of an economic module and refinement of the model to incorporate the use of hourly data.

Beasley, R. C.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

A methdology for baselining the energy use at large campus utility plants for the purpose of measuring energy savings from energy conservation retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of the energy services industry and the implementation of energy savings retrofits by energy services companies has increased the focus on the performance of energy saving retrofits. Energy savings measurement, though not an exact science, has been developing as well to ensure the benefit of a retrofit and to provide a level of assurance for the customers of energy services companies. This thesis presents a useful methodology for datelining campus utility usage using regression modeling techniques and measured daily data for the purpose of measuring energy savings. The methodology of this thesis improves upon previous regression modeling of individual buildings by extending commercial building energy usage models to an entire campus, modeling the operation of a central plant, and modeling central plant equipment performance with regression models. By adding equipment production layers, the user can more easily determine the cause of changes in the primary energy usage of a central plant. The case study for the application of the methodology of this thesis was the Texas A&M University main campus central plant. Useful results were obtained by utilizing one portion of the data to develop an energy usage baseline model and using the second portion of the data to validate the performance of the baseline model. Further development of the methodology could include the addition of an economic module and refinement of the model to incorporate the use of hourly data.

Beasley, Rodney Craig

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A detailed calibration of a stack monitor used in the measurement of airborne radionuclides at a high energy proton accelerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed calibration of a stack monitor used in the measurement of airborne radionuclides at a high energy proton accelerator

Vaziri, K; Cossairt, J D; Bhnlein, D J; Elwyn, A J

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

On the Energy Input from Wind to Surface Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A basic model relating the energy dissipation in the ocean mixed layer to the energy input into the surface wave field is combined with recent measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation to determine the average phase speed of the waves ...

J. R. Gemmrich; T. D. Mudge; V. D. Polonichko

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The Shape of Averaged Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of averaged drop size distributions (DSD) is studied from a large sample of data (892 h) collected at several sites of various latitudes. The results show that neither the hypothesis of an exponential distribution to represent rainfall ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Lagged Average Predictions in a Predictability Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagged average predictions are examined here within the context of an idealized predictability experiment. Lagged predictions contribute to making better forecasts than the forecasts obtained from using only the latest initial state. Analytic ...

John O. Roads

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Probabilistic Visibility Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical postprocessing technique that has been used in probabilistic weather forecasting to calibrate forecast ensembles and generate predictive probability density functions (PDFs) for weather quantities. ...

Richard M. Chmielecki; Adrian E. Raftery

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Measuring Energy-Saving Retrofits: Experiences from the LoanSTAR Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1988 the Governor's Energy Management Center of Texas received approval from the U.S. Department of Energy to establish a $98.6 million state-wide retrofit demonstration revolving loan program to fund energy-conserving retrofits in state, public school, and local government buildings. As part of this program, a first-of-its-kind, statewide Monitoring and Analysis Program (MAP) was established to verify energy and dollar savings of the retrofits, reduce energy costs by identifying operational and maintenance improvements, improve retrofit selection in future rounds of the LoanSTAR program, and initiate a data base of energy use in institutional and commercial buildings located in Texas. This report discusses the LoanSTAR MAP with an emphasis on the process of acquiring and analyzing data to measure savings from energy conservation retrofits when budgets are a constraint.

Claridge, D. E.; Heffington, W. M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.; Haberl, J. S.; Reddy, T. A.

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" ,,"Choke","Average","Average","Fluid","Methanol","Water","Oil","Gas","Hyd. Eq.","Gas" ,"Choke","Setting","Upstream","Upstream","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery" "Date and Time","Setting","Duration","Pressure","Temp.","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Portion" "dd-mmm-yy","(64ths)","(hours)","(psia)","(degF)","(bfpd)","(bfpd)","(bwpd)","(bopd)","(mmcfpd)","(boepd)","(%)"

353

Average transmission probability of a random stack  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

A high average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduced the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, T.P.

1986-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) Measure Packages  

SciTech Connect

Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

Baker, J.; Yee, S.; Brand, L.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A comparison of modeled and measured energy use in hybrid electric vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CarSim 2.5.4, written by AeroVironment, Inc. of Monrovia, California and SIMPLEV 3.0, written by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were used to simulate two series-configured hybrid electric vehicles that competed in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge. Vehicle speed and battery energy use were measured over a 0.2-km maximum effort acceleration and a 58-km range event. The simulations` predictions are compared to each other and to measured data. A rough uncertainty analysis of the validation is presented. The programs agree with each other to within 5% and with the measured energy data within the uncertainty of the experiment.

Cuddy, M.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM THE MEASUREMENTS OF THE ATTENUATION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SPECTRUM  

SciTech Connect

The attenuation of high-energy gamma-ray spectrum due to the electron-positron pair production against the extragalactic background light (EBL) provides an indirect method to measure the EBL of the universe. We use the measurements of the absorption features of the gamma-rays from blazars as seen by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to explore the EBL flux density and constrain the EBL spectrum, star formation rate density (SFRD), and photon escape fraction from galaxies out to z = 6. Our results are basically consistent with the existing determinations of the quantities. We find a larger photon escape fraction at high redshifts, especially at z = 3, compared to the result from recent Ly{alpha} measurements. Our SFRD result is consistent with the data from both gamma-ray burst and ultraviolet (UV) observations in the 1{sigma} level. However, the average SFRD we obtain at z {approx}> 3 matches the gamma-ray data better than the UV data. Thus our SFRD result at z {approx}> 6 favors the fact that star formation alone is sufficiently high enough to reionize the universe.

Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

358

Table 35. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration / Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000 353 35. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U.S. Electric ...

359

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guidelines: Guidelines: Measurement and Verifi cation for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 Prepared For: U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/ Prepared By: Nexant, Inc. 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 400 Boulder, CO 80302 Tel: 303.402.2480 www.nexant.com Under Subcontract To: EMP2, Inc. www.emp2.com April 2008 FEMP M&V Guidelines 3.0 i Acknowledgements This document was prepared by Lia Webster and James Bradford of Nexant, Inc. in Boulder, Colorado. Contributors to this document include: Dale Sartor of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, John Shonder and Erica Atkin of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Steve Dunnivant of EMP2. Other materials were developed by various industry-government

360

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidelines: Guidelines: Measurement and Verifi cation for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 Prepared For: U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/ Prepared By: Nexant, Inc. 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 400 Boulder, CO 80302 Tel: 303.402.2480 www.nexant.com Under Subcontract To: EMP2, Inc. www.emp2.com April 2008 FEMP M&V Guidelines 3.0 i Acknowledgements This document was prepared by Lia Webster and James Bradford of Nexant, Inc. in Boulder, Colorado. Contributors to this document include: Dale Sartor of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, John Shonder and Erica Atkin of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Steve Dunnivant of EMP2. Other materials were developed by various industry-government

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

M&V Guidelines: M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verifi cation for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 Prepared For: U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/ Prepared By: Nexant, Inc. 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 400 Boulder, CO 80302 Tel: 303.402.2480 www.nexant.com Under Subcontract To: EMP2, Inc. www.emp2.com April 2008 FEMP M&V Guidelines 3.0 i Acknowledgements This document was prepared by Lia Webster and James Bradford of Nexant, Inc. in Boulder, Colorado. Contributors to this document include: Dale Sartor of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, John Shonder and Erica Atkin of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Steve Dunnivant of EMP2. Other materials were developed by various industry-government

362

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above-code energy performance for single-family residences. The analysis was performed using a simulation model of an International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)-compliant, single family residence in Houston, Texas. To accomplish the 15% annual energy use reductions, twelve measures were considered including: tankless water heater, solar domestic water heating system, natural gas water heater without the standing pilot light, HVAC system including ducts in the conditioned space, improved duct sealing, increased air tightness, window shading and redistribution, improved window performance, and improved heating and cooling system efficiency. After the total annual energy use was determined for each measure, they were then grouped to accomplish a 15% total annual energy use reduction.

Montgomery, C.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Malhotra, M.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Single-Family Residences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the recommendations for achieving 15% above-code energy performance for single-family residences. The analysis was performed using a simulation model of an International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)- compliant, single family residence in Houston, Texas. To accomplish the 15% annual energy use reductions, twelve measures were considered, which include: tankless water heater, solar domestic hot water system, gas water heater without the standing pilot light, ducts in the conditioned space, improved duct sealing, increased air tightness, window shading and redistribution, improved window performance, improved heating and cooling system efficiency. After the total annual energy use was determined for each measure, they were then grouped to accomplish a 15% total annual energy use reduction.

Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, J. B.; Yazdani, B.; Malhotra, M.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Recommendations for 2009 IECC 15% Above Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the 79th Legislature (2005) the Energy Systems Laboratory was required to develop three alternative methods for achieving 15% above-code energy savings in new residential, commercial and industrial construction. The Laboratory continues to work closely with code officials, energy raters, manufacturers, state officials and other stakeholders to develop cost effective energy efficiency measures. This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above-code energy performance, which are based on the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), for single-family residences across the State of Texas. To estimate above-code savings (%) of energy efficiency measures, total source energy savings from heating, cooling, lighting, equipment, and DHW were considered for emissions reductions determination. The recommendations were developed for three 2009 IECC climate zones in Texas along with simple payback calculations. This information is useful to homebuilders, utility demand side energy managers, homeowners and others who wish to construct residential buildings that exceed the minimum national energy code requirements. The analysis was performed using an ESL simulation model based on the DOE-2.1e simulation of a 2009 IECC code-compliant, single family residence and the appropriate TMY2 weather files for seventeen counties in Texas for which TMY2 data is available. According to 2009 IECC Climate Zone, seventeen counties were categorized into three climate zones: Climate Zone 2, 3, and 4, and the 2009 IECC code-compliance base-case models were constructed for each climate zone. Two options based on the choice of heating fuel type were considered: (a) natural gas (gas-fired furnace for space heating, and gas water heater for domestic water heating), and (b) electricity (heat pump for space heating, and electric water heater for domestic water heating). A total of eighteen measures based on the energy savings above the base-case house were selected. These measures include building envelope and fenestration, HVAC system, domestic hot water (DHW) system, lighting and renewable options. The implementation costs of each individual measure were also calculated along with simple payback calculations. These measures were then combined to achieve the total source energy savings of the group is 15% above the base-case 2009 code-compliant house. As a result, three example combinations were proposed for each base case ((a) electric/gas house and (b) all-electric house) in each climate zone. Each combination was formed to have a different payback period. Finally, the corresponding emissions savings of each combination were calculated based on the eGrid for Texas.

Kim, H.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Montgomery, C.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Commercial Office Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above-code energy performance for commercial office buildings complying with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-19991. To accomplish the 15% annual energy consumption reductions, ten measures were considered. After energy savings were determined for each measure, they were then placed in several groups to accomplish a minimum of 15% total annual energy consumption reduction. The analysis in this paper uses the total annual energy consumption of a simulated commercial building to determine the 15% above-code recommendations. The analysis also reports end-use energy use, including: heating, cooling, domestic hot water use, fans, heat rejection, equipment and lighting loads, and miscellaneous loads as defined by the BEPS and BEPU reports from the DOE-2 program. Since the 15% above-code savings use annual energy cost savings, these same measures will report greater savings when compared against total heating and cooling loads, which has been used in other above-code program recommendations.

Montgomery, C.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Cho, S.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

367

Measurement of the solar 8B neutrino rate with a liquid scintillator target and 3 MeV energy threshold in the Borexino detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the measurement of electron neutrino elastic scattering from 8B solar neutrinos with 3 MeV energy threshold by the Borexino detector in Gran Sasso (Italy). The rate of solar neutrino-induced electron scattering events above this energy in Borexino is 0.217 +- 0.038 (stat) +- 0.008 (syst) cpd/100 t, which corresponds to the equivalent unoscillated flux of (2.4 +- 0.4 (stat) +- 0.1 (syst))x10^6 cm^-2 s^-1, in good agreement with measurements from SNO and SuperKamiokaNDE. Assuming the 8B neutrino flux predicted by the high metallicity Standard Solar Model, the average 8B neutrino survival probability above 3 MeV is measured to be 0.29+-0.10. The survival probabilities for 7Be and 8B neutrinos as measured by Borexino differ by 1.9 sigma. These results are consistent with the prediction of the MSW-LMA solution of a transition in the solar electron neutrino survival probability between the low energy vacuum-driven and the high-energy matter-enhanced solar neutrino oscillation regimes.

The Borexino Collaboration

2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

368

Database of average-power damage thresholds at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have completed a database of average-power, laser-induced, damage thresholds at 1064 nm on a variety of materials. Measurements were made with a newly constructed laser to provide design input for moderate and high average-power laser projects. The measurements were conducted with 16-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies ranging from 6 to 120 Hz. Samples were typically irradiated for time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 5 minutes (36,000 shots). We tested seven categories of samples which included antireflective coatings, high reflectors, polarizers, single and multiple layers of the same material, bare and overcoated metal surfaces, bare polished surfaces, and bulk materials. The measured damage threshold ranged from 46 J/cm/sup 2/ for a bare polished glass substrate. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Rainer, F.; Hildum, E.A.; Milam, D.

1987-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

369

Measurement and Verification of Industrial Energy-Savings Projects Lessons Learned By Measuring Successful and Not-So Successful Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current BC Hydro energy-conservation program is called Power Smart and was started in 2001. Of the 1200 projects completed to date over 300 have been in the manufacturing and industrial sector with savings of more than 400 GWh annually. The savings have been verified using BC Hydros Measurement and Verification (M&V) standards which follow the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP). High-cost projects with large savings have been verified using Option B, retrofit isolation measurement. BC Hydro has performed Option B M&V on 180 of the largest projects including fans, pumps, variable speed drives, compressed air, refrigeration, process controls, process optimization, heat recovery, high-efficiency motors, ball mills, refiner plates, pulp screen rotors and turbine-generators. Data is either gathered from existing metering where possible or in many cases BC Hydro installs temporary three-phase power loggers. The temporary loggers typically capture data in 15-minute intervals for several months during the baseline period and for 12 months of post-retrofit operation. This paper outlines several projects showing baseline and post-retrofit measurements. Successes, failures, and lessons learned are discussed.

Hebert, D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Measurement of beam energy spectrum and impurity content in high-power neutral beam injectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The energy spectrum and impurity content of a high-power neutral beam are measured by implanting the beam into high-purity silicon crystals. The depth distribution of the beam particles is then measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS); the penetration depth is a function of the incident particle energy. This is one of the few measurement techniques that can determine neutral beam energy components directly. From the results, percentages of atomic and molecular ions in the source plasma can be inferred. Use of deuterium as the source gas provides insight into the role of residual hydrogen in the ion source and accelerating grids and in the SIMS analysis. The principal impurities are carbon and oxygen. Preliminary data indicate that carbon can originate from both methane and carbon monoxide, while oxygen can come from molecular oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water. Results are given and future plans are discussed.

Langley, R.A.; Ryan, P.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Menon, M.M.; Botnick, E.M.; Magee, C.W.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Real-Time Per-Cycle Energy Consumption Measurement of Digital Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This technical report introduces a real-time per-clock-cycle energy measurement technique for power analysis and reduction of synchronous state machines. This technique guarantees accuracy with a sampling rate of twice the clock frequency under spiky current draw common in digital systems. In addition, it acquires the energy consumption profile in real-time, thus, not requiring repeated operation of the target system.

Naehyuck Chang; Kwanho Kim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

World average top-quark mass  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Exact bounds for average pairwise network reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods for finding exact bounds of average pairwise network connectivity (APNC) are proposed. These methods allows faster decision making about if a network is reliable for its purpose. Previous results on cumulitive updating of all-terminal ... Keywords: algorithm, network reliability, pairwise connectivity

Alexey Rodionov; Olga Rodionova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbine by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, we describe the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes.

D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Uncorrelated Measurements of the Cosmic Expansion History and Dark Energy from Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a method for measuring the cosmic expansion history H(z) in uncorrelated redshift bins, and apply it to current and simulated type Ia supernova data assuming spatial flatness. If the matter density parameter Omega_m can be accurately measured from other data, then the dark energy density history X(z)=rho_X(z)/rho_X(0) can trivially be derived from this expansion history H(z). In contrast to customary ``black box'' parameter fitting, our method is transparent and easy to interpret: the measurement of H(z)^{-1} in a redshift bin is simply a linear combination of the measured comoving distances for supernovae in that bin, making it obvious how systematic errors propagate from input to output. We find the Riess et al. (2004) ``gold'' sample to be consistent with the ``vanilla'' concordance model where the dark energy is a cosmological constant. We compare two mission concepts for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM), the Joint Efficient Dark-energy Investigation (JEDI), and the Supernova Accelaration Probe (SNAP), using simulated data including the effect of weak lensing (based on numerical simulations) and a systematic bias from K-corrections. Estimating H(z) in seven uncorrelated redshift bins, we find that both provide dramatic improvements over current data: JEDI can measure H(z) to about 10% accuracy and SNAP to 30-40% accuracy.

Yun Wang; Max Tegmark

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

377

Impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at Mayr Brothers Logging Company under the Energy Savings Plan  

SciTech Connect

This impact evaluation of adjustable speed drives (ASDs), programmble logic controllers (PLCs), and high efficiency motors (HEMs) that were recently installed at Mayr Brothers Logging Co., Inc. (Mayr Bros.) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The project consists of ASDs, PLCs, and HEMs that were installed at the Mayr Bros. new small log nill at their facility in Hoquiam, Washington. Energy savings directly accrue through improved motor efficiency and indirectly accrue via an increase in production rate. This latter effect reduces energy consumption per unit of production by spreading fixed energy requirements over a greater number of units. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electricity is being saved at Mayr Bros. as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Mayr Bros. proposal and completion report). The energy conservation measures were incorporated into the small log mill while the mill was constructed in 1992 and 1993. Financing the new mill had stretched Mayr Bros. cash and credit resources to the limit. Without the acquisition payment, Mayr Bros. would not have been able to afford the additional investment in the energy conservation measures. Therefore, all of the project`s impact can be attributed to the E$P. The key recommendation resulting from this impact evaluation is to avoid the direct comparison of energy consumption estimates derived via engineering calculations and metering. If ``before and after`` metering is not possible, engineering calculations should be calibrated against metered data to enhance comparability.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Neutron Energy Spectrum Measurements with a Compact Liquid Scintillation Detector on EAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A neutron detector based on EJ301 liquid scintillator has been employed at EAST to measure the neutron energy spectrum for D-D fusion plasma. The detector was carefully characterized in different quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields generated by a 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. In recent experimental campaigns, due to the low neutron yield at EAST, a new shielding device was designed and located as close as possible to the tokamak to enhance the count rate of the spectrometer. The fluence of neutrons and gamma-rays was measured with the liquid neutron spectrometer and was consistent with 3He proportional counter and NaI (Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer measurements. Plasma ion temperature values were deduced from the neutron spectrum in discharges with lower hybrid wave injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. Scattered neutron spectra were simulated by the Monte Carlo transport Code, and they were well verified by the pulse height measurements at low energies.

Xi Yuan; Xing Zhang; Xufei Xie; G. Gorini; Zhongjing Chen; Xingyu Peng; Jinxiang Chen; Guohui Zhang; Tieshuan Fan; Guoqiang Zhong; Liqun Hu; Baonian Wan

2013-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

379

Method for controlling directional drilling in response to horns detected by electromagnetic energy propagation resistivity measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For use in conjunction with an earth borehole drilling apparatus that includes: a drilling rig; a drill string operating from said drilling rig for drilling an earth borehole, said drill string including a bottom hole arrangement comprising a drill bit, a downhole resistivity measuring subsystem for measuring downhole formation resistivity near said bit by propagating electromagnetic energy into earth formations near said bit, receiving electromagnetic energy that has propagated through the formations and producing measurement signals that depend on the received signals; a method is described for directing the drilling of a well bore with respect to a geological bed boundary in said earth formations, comprising the steps of: producing from said measurement signals a recording of downhole formation resistivity as a function of borehole depth, determining the presence of a horn in said resistivity recording; and implementing a change in the drilling direction of said drill bit in response to said determination of the presence of a horn.

Luling, M.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Isoscaling as a measure of Symmetry Energy in the Lattice Gas Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energetic properties of nuclear clusters inside a low-density, finite-temperature medium are studied with a Lattice Gas Model including isospin dependence and Coulomb forces. Important deviations are observed respect to the Fisher approximation of an ideal gas of non-interacting clusters, but the global energetics can still be approximately expressed in terms of a simple modified energy-density functional. The multi-fragmentation regime appears dominated by combinatorial effects in this model, but the isoscaling of the largest fragment in low energy collisions appears a promising observable for the experimental measurement of the symmetry energy.

G. Lehaut; F. Gulminelli; O. Lopez

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Integration of Continuous Commissioning as a Measure in LoanSTAR and Energy Services Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous Commissioning (CC) is a process that resolves operating problems, optimizes the HVAC system operation and controls to reduce building energy consumption and improve comfort based on current building conditions and requirements. The process typically achieves 15% whole building energy cost reduction with simple paybacks of less than two years. It has been used in over 450 federal, institutional, university, and commercial buildings and central plants with measured savings of over $100 million and 12.5 trillion Btus in primary energy since 1993.

Wei, G.; Zhou, J.; Turner, D.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Integration of Continuous Commissioning as a Measure in LoanSTAR and Energy Services Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous Commissioning (CC) is a process that resolves operating problems, optimizes the HVAC system operation and controls to reduce building energy consumption and improve comfort based on current building conditions and requirements. The process typically achieves 15% whole building energy cost reduction with simple paybacks of less than two years. It has been used in over 450 federal, institutional, university, and commercial buildings and central plants with measured savings of over $100 million and 12.5 trillion Btus in primary energy since 1993.

Wei, G.; Zhou, J.; Turner, D.; Lilley, D.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Cross Section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured at Solar Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the results of the \\hethet\\ experiment at the underground accelerator facility LUNA (Gran Sasso). For the first time the lowest projectile energies utilized for the cross section measurement correspond to energies below the center of the solar Gamow peak ($E_{\\rm 0}$=22 keV). The data provide no evidence for the existence of a hypothetical resonance in the energy range investigated. Although no extrapolation is needed anymore (except for energies at the low-energy tail of the Gamow peak), the data must be corrected for the effects of electron screening, clearly observed the first time for the \\hethet\\ reaction. The effects are however larger than expected and not understood, leading presently to the largest uncertainty on the quoted $S_{\\rm b}(E_{\\rm 0})$ value for bare nuclides (=5.40 MeV b).

The LUNA Collaboration; M. Junker; A. D'Alessandro; S. Zavatarelli; C. Arpesella; E. Bellotti; C. Broggini; P. Corvisiero; G. Fiorentini; A. Fubini; G. Gervino; U. Greife; C. Gustavino; J. Lambert; P. Prati; W. S. Rodney; C. Rolfs; F. Strieder; H. P. Trautvetter; D. Zahnow

1997-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

384

Measuring energy-saving retrofits: Experiences from the Texas LoanSTAR program  

SciTech Connect

In 1988 the Governor`s Energy Management Center of Texas received approval from the US Department of Energy to establish a $98.6 million state-wide retrofit demonstration revolving loan program to fund energy-conserving retrofits in state, public school, and local government buildings. As part of this program, a first-of-its-kind, statewide Monitoring and Analysis Program (MAP) was established to verify energy and dollar savings of the retrofits, reduce energy costs by identifying operational and maintenance improvements, improve retrofit selection in future rounds of the LoanSTAR program, and initiate a data base of energy use in institutional and commercial buildings located in Texas. This report discusses the LoanSTAR MAP with an emphasis on the process of acquiring and analyzing data to measure savings from energy conservation retrofits when budgets are a constraint. This report includes a discussion of the program structure, basic measurement techniques, data archiving and handling, data reporting and analysis, and includes selected examples from LoanSTAR agencies. A summary of the program results for the first two years of monitoring is also included.

Haberl, J.S.; Reddy, T.A.; Claridge, D.E.; Turner, W.D.; O`Neal, D.L.; Heffington, W.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Energy Systems Lab.] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Energy Systems Lab.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Energy Consumption in Mobile Phones: A Measurement Study and Implications for Network Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a measurement study of the energy consumption characteristics of three widespread mobile networking technologies: 3G, GSM, and WiFi. We find that 3G and GSM incur a high tail energy overhead because of lingering in high power states after completing a transfer. Based on these measurements, we develop a model for the energy consumed by network activity for each technology. Using this model, we develop TailEnder, a protocol that reduces energy consumption of common mobile applications. For applications that can tolerate a small delay such as e-mail, TailEnder schedules transfers so as to minimize the cumulative energy consumed while meeting user-specified deadlines. We show that the TailEnder scheduling algorithm is within a factor 2 of the optimal and show that any online algorithm can at best be within a factor 1.62 of the optimal. For applications like web search that can benefit from prefetching, TailEnder aggressively prefetches several times more data and improves user-specified response times while consuming less energy. We evaluate the benefits of TailEnder for three different case study applicationsemail, news feeds, and web searchbased on real user logs and show significant reduction in energy consumption in each case. Experiments conducted on the mobile phone show that TailEnder can download 60 % more news feed updates and download search results for more than 50 % of web queries, compared to using the default policy.

Niranjan Balasubramanian; Aruna Balasubramanian; Arun Venkataramani

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements  

SciTech Connect

To measure the intensity of flash X-ray sources directly, a novel scintillation detector with a fast time response and flat energy response is developed by combining film scintillators of doped ZnO crystal and fast organic scintillator together. Through compensation design, the dual-scintillator detector (DSD) achieved a flat energy response to X-rays from tens of keV to several MeV, and sub-nanosecond time response by coupling to ultrafast photo-electronic devices. A prototype detector was fabricated according to the theoretical design; it employed ZnO:In and EJ228 with thicknesses of 0.3 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The energy response of this detector was tested on monoenergetic X-ray and {gamma}-ray sources. The detector performs very well with a sensitivity fluctuation below 5% for 8 discrete energy points within the 40-250 keV energy region and for other energies of 662 keV and 1.25 MeV as well, showing good accordance with the theoretical design. Additionally, the detector works properly for the application to the flash X-ray radiation field absolute intensity measurement. This DSD may be very useful for the diagnosis of time-resolved dynamic physical processes of flash X-ray sources without knowing the exact energy spectrum.

Chen Liang; Quan Lin; Zhang Zhongbing [Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-9, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Ouyang Xiaoping [Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-9, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu Bin [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Liu Jinliang [Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-9, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used to measure the inferential variables, which can then be applied (through the data correlations) to convert existing flow meters (ultrasonic, orifice, turbine, rotary, Coriolis, diaphragm, etc.) for on-line energy measurement. The practical issues for field development were evaluated using two transducers extracted from a $100 ultrasonic domestic gas meter, and a $400 infrared sensor.

Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Fat turnover in obese slower than average  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9-04 9-04 For immediate release: 09/23/2011 | NR-11-09-04 Fat turnover in obese slower than average Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly This scanning electron micrograph image shows part of a lobule of adipose tissue (body fat). Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat. Photo courtesy of David Gregory & Debbie Marshall/Wellcome Images LIVERMORE, Calif. -- It may be more difficult for obese people to lose fat because the "turnover" rate is much slower for those overweight than average weight individuals. New research in the Sept. 25 online edition of the journal Nature shows that the turnover (storage and loss rate) of fat in the human body is about 1 1/2 years compared to fat cells, which turnover about every 10 years,

389

Natural Gas Prices: Well Above Recent Averages  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The recent surge in spot prices at the Henry Hub are well above a typical range for 1998-1999 (in this context, defined as the average, +/- 2 standard deviations). Past price surges have been of short duration. The possibility of a downward price adjustment before the end of next winter is a source of considerable risk for storage operators who acquire gas at recent elevated prices. Storage levels in the Lower 48 States were 7.5 percent below the 5-year average (1995-1999) by mid-August (August 11), although the differential is only 6.4 percent in the East, which depends most heavily on storage to meet peak demand. Low storage levels are attributable, at least in part, to poor price incentives: high current prices combined with only small price

390

Electron energy and charge albedos - calorimetric measurement vs Monte Carlo theory  

SciTech Connect

A new calorimetric method has been employed to obtain saturated electron energy albedos for Be, C, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, U, and UO/sub 2/ over the range of incident energies from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. The technique was so designed to permit the simultaneous measurement of saturated charge albedos. In the cases of C, Al, Ta, and U the measurements were extended down to about 0.025 MeV. The angle of incidence was varied from 0/sup 0/ (normal) to 75/sup 0/ in steps of 15/sup 0/, with selected measurements at 82.5/sup 0/ in Be and C. In each case, state-of-the-art predictions were obtained from a Monte Carlo model. The generally good agreement between theory and experiment over this extensive parameter space represents a strong validation of both the theoretical model and the new experimental method. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies at low incident energies, especially in high-atomic-number materials, and at all energies in the case of the U energy albedos are not completely understood.

Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Measurement of the solar neutrino energy spectrum using neutrino-electron scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A measurement of the energy spectrum of recoil electrons from solar neutrino scattering in the Super--Kamiokande detector is presented. The results shown here are obtained from 504 days of data taken between the 31st of May, 1996 and the 25th of March, 1998. The shape of the measured spectrum is compared with the expectation for solar B8 neutrinos. The comparison takes into account both kinematic and detector related effects in the measurement process. The spectral shape comparison between the observation and the expectation gives a chi-square of 25.3 with 15 degrees of freedom, corresponding to a 4.6% confidence level.

The Super-Kamiokande collaboration

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

392

Chapter 1, Introduction: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

: Introduction : Introduction Hossein Haeri, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 1 - 1 Chapter 1 - Table of Contents About the Protocols......................................................................................................................... 2 Rationale ......................................................................................................................................... 2 The Audiences and Objectives ........................................................................................................ 3 Definitions....................................................................................................................................... 4

393

Estimation and Mapping of Hurricane Turbulent Energy Using Airborne Doppler Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hurricane turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) was computed using airborne Doppler measurements from the NOAA WP-3D tail radars, and TKE data were retrieved for a variety of storms at different stages of their life cycle. The geometry of the radar ...

Sylvie Lorsolo; Jun A. Zhang; Frank Marks Jr.; John Gamache

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Energy Measurements and Preparation of Canonical Phase States of a Nano-Mechanical Resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that a continuous quantum non-demolition measurement of the energy of a nanomechanical resonator can be achieved by monitoring the resonator with a quantum point contact via a Cooper-pair box. This technique can further be used to prepare highly non-classical states of two resonators, such as canonical phase-reference states, and so-called "noon" states.

Kurt Jacobs; Andrew N. Jordan; Elinor K. Irish

2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

395

Filter-fluorescer measurement of low-voltage simulator x-ray energy spectra  

SciTech Connect

X-ray energy spectra of the Maxwell Laboratories MBS and Physics International Pulserad 737 were measured using an eight-channel filter-fluorescer array. The PHOSCAT computer code was used to calculate channel response functions, and the UFO code to unfold spectrum.

Baldwin, G.T.; Craven, R.E.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Evaluation of Model Results and Measured Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes in Hawaii: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Kaupuni community consists of 19 affordable net-zero energy homes that were built within the Waianae Valley of Oahu, Hawaii in 2011. The project was developed for the native Hawaiian community led by the Department of Hawaiian Homelands. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled and measured energy performance of the homes. Over the first year of occupancy, the community as a whole performed within 1% of the net-zero energy goals. The data show a range of performance from house to house with the majority of the homes consistently near or exceeding net-zero, while a few fall short of the predicted net-zero energy performance. The impact of building floor plan, weather, and cooling set point on this comparison is discussed. The project demonstrates the value of using building energy simulations as a tool to assist the project to achieve energy performance goals. Lessons learned from the energy performance monitoring has had immediate benefits in providing feedback to the homeowners, and will be used to influence future energy efficient designs in Hawaii and other tropical climates.

Norton, P.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Kelly, K. J.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

EOSO ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP THE REMOT SENSIN EG&G SURVEY REPORT LABORATO  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Oe. 1-G Oe. 1-G l/ZL=q n EOSO ENERGY MEASUREMENTS GROUP THE REMOT SENSIN EG&G SURVEY REPORT LABORATO EP-F-002 Of THE UNITED STATES DECEMBER 1981 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AN AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE AREA SURROUNDING THE BUREAU OF MINES SITE ALBANY, OREGON DATE OF SURVEY: FEBRUARY 1980 AN AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE BUREAU OF MINES SITE ALBANY, OREGON I I I . t I 1 I I I I I I I t PROJECT SCIENTIST: E. FEIMSTER EG&G, INC. LAS VEGAS, NEVADA 1.0 SUMMARY OF RESULTS An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey areas surrounding the Bureau of Mines Site near Albany, Oregon in February 1980. The survey was conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Operational Safety by the Department's Remote Sensing Laboratory of Las

398

Design of a triaxial residual stress measurement system using high energy x-ray diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous design studies in developing concepts for residual stress measurement in engineering materials have been extended. A pre-prototype energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) system has been fabricated. A 300 kV radiography source is used in conjunction with an intrinsic germanium detector and a MacII/LabVIEW data acquisition system. Specimens up to 25mm equivalent steel thickness (and one meter gross dimensions) can now be evaluated. The pre-prototype system serves as the hard x-ray, bulk stress measurement component of the previously reported hybrid stress measuring system (which would include a traditional multi-angle surface measurement system using soft x-rays). In addition, a detailed study of residual stress analytical equations has been completed and applied to various metallic and ceramic materials. During the grant period, related studies were completed on stress measurement using synchrotron radiation and on a critical review of the residual stress literature. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Shackelford, J.F.; Brown, B.D.; Park, J.S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) of Residential Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency Programs: Issues and Recommendations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) of Residential Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency Programs: Issues and Recommendations Customer Information and Behavior Working Group Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Working Group May 2012 DOE/EE-0734 The State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network is a state and local effort facilitated by the federal government that helps states, utilities, and other local stakeholders take energy efficiency to scale and achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2020. Learn more at www.seeaction.energy.gov May 2012 www.seeaction.energy.gov ii Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) of Residential Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency Programs: Issues and Recommendations was developed as a product of the State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network

400

ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

A Neutron Multiplicity Meter for Deep Underground Muon-Induced High Energy Neutron Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the design of an instrument capable of measuring the high energy ($>$60 MeV) muon-induced neutron flux deep underground. The instrument is based on applying the Gd-loaded liquid-scintillator technique to measure the rate of high-energy neutrons underground based on the neutron multiplicity induced in a Pb target. We present design studies based on Monte Carlo simulations that show that an apparatus consisting of a Pb target of 200 cm by 200 cm area by 60 cm thickness covered by a 60 cm thick Gd-loaded liquid scintillator (0.5% Gd content) detector could measure, at a depth of 2000 meters of water equivalent, a rate of $70\\pm8$ (stat) events/year. Based on these studies, we also discuss the benefits of using a neutron multiplicity meter as a component of active shielding in such experiments.

R. Hennings-Yeomans; D. S. Akerib

2006-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

402

Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 78.29 77.25 102.62 77.88 105.14 -25.9 Canada* 81.61 80.70 110.67 81.30 112.16 -27.5 Dominican Republic 78.54 75.09 73.89 75.77 76.61 -1.1 Honduras - 54.58 54.43 54.58 54.43 0.3 Jamaica 480.00 54.43 - 54.72 55.42 -1.3 Mexico 73.45 75.81 94.36 74.35 100.95 -26.3 Other** 80.33 389.30 70.37 82.45 76.10 8.3 South America Total 107.72 108.02 149.99 107.88

403

Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 263.21 252.66 353.05 261.29 356.01 -26.6 Canada 263.51 252.66 353.05 258.82 356.01 -27.3 Panama 263.09 - - 263.09 - - South America Total 196.86 194.14 175.88 195.94 181.01 8.2 Brazil - - 157.60 - 157.60 - Colombia 196.86 194.14 322.06 195.94 246.68 -20.6 Europe Total 181.55 232.13 385.65 225.53 384.96 -41.4 Czech Republic - 475.91 - 475.91 - - Spain 360.51

404

Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 240.59 241.38 218.40 240.85 225.80 6.7 Canada* 147.49 330.47 243.04 183.08 286.56 -36.1 Mexico 316.57 211.63 189.12 273.97 171.71 59.6 Other** 612.42 485.63 134.48 525.92 135.04 289.5 South America Total 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Other** 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Europe Total 259.26 255.24 - 257.06 427.83 -39.9 Other**

405

"Table A40. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors"...

406

Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane spot prices at the major trading hubs remained relatively close through the fall of 2000, even as they were pushed higher by rapidly rising natural gas prices.

407

Average Weekly Propane Spot Prices - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane spot prices at the major trading hubs remained relatively close through October 2000, but uncoupled in California as natural gas prices rose rapidly during ...

408

"Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonutility(c)","Total","from Utility(b)","from Nonutility(c)","Total","Total","Anthracite","Coal","Lignite","Coal Coke","Breeze","Petroleum Coke","Waste","from...

409

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Electricity. Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, ... Trade and Reliability; All Reports See All Electricity Reports

410

National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rebatesincentives/ief/ PJM Forward Market Operations 2010. "PJM Manual 18B: Energy Efficiency Measurement &Independent System Operator 13 and PJM Regional Transmission

Schiller, Steven R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Use of SNMP in the Management of Electrical Energy Measuring Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conventional measuring systems face imprecision and inefficient problems. Imprecision because measurements done by a human being can be imperfect. Inefficient because it's difficult to control a whole complex net like the electrical energy distribution only with a large group of people. The automatic measuring systems are an alternative to the conventional systems as a way to provide a better quality of service. So it's necessary an effective management on the measuring net components. Aspects like prevention of failures in devices until consumption readings are considered in the choice of a management protocol. SNMP is an efficient and simple alternative and its use in SALAME system (Electrical Energy Remote Measuring System) validates this subject. We show the facility of the information treatment like polling of the devices, control of communication errors, remote control of the devices and information to the consumers in the management station of SALAME system with the use of SNMP. In this article we accentuate the facility and importance of this subject to the remote measuring system management and its implementation in a real system.

Gustavo Wagner Diniz; Gustavo Wagner; Diniz Mendes; Hugo Raniere; Di Assuno Brasilino; Pedro Sergio Nicoletti; Luis Reyes Rosales

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to 2025 - Market Trends- Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Demand Energy Demand Annual Energy Outlook 2005 Market Trends - Energy Demand Figure 42. Energy use per capita and per dollar of gross domestic product, 1970-2025 (index, 1970 = 1). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. Figure data Average Energy Use per Person Increases in the Forecast Energy intensity, as measured by energy use per 2000 dollar of GDP, is projected to decline at an average annual rate of 1.6 percent, with efficiency gains and structural shifts in the economy offsetting growth in demand for energy services (Figure 42). The projected rate of decline falls between the average rate of 2.3 percent from 1970 through 1986, when energy prices increased in real terms, and the 0.7-percent rate from 1986 through

413

Relationship Between Wind Generation and Balancing Energy Market Prices in ERCOT: 2007-2009  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper attempts to measure the average marginal effects of wind generation on the balancing-energy market price in ERCOT with the help of econometric analysis.

Nicholson, E.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energys Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program, through the support of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), facilitated the development of the protocol provided in this report. The focus of the protocol is to provide a uniform way of measuring, quantifying, and reporting the performance of EESs in various applications; something that does not exist today and, as such, is hampering the consideration and use of this technology in the market. The availability of an application-specific protocol for use in measuring and expressing performance-related metrics of ESSs will allow technology developers, power-grid operators and other end-users to evaluate the performance of energy storage technologies on a uniform and comparable basis. This will help differentiate technologies and products for specific application(s) and provide transparency in how performance is measured. It also will assist utilities and other consumers of ESSs make more informed decisions as they consider the potential application and use of ESSs, as well as form the basis for documentation that might be required to justify utility investment in such technologies.

Bray, Kathryn L.; Conover, David R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Viswanathan, Vijayganesh; Ferreira, Summer; Rose, David; Schoenwald, David

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

KASCADE-Grande measurements of energy spectra for elemental groups of cosmic rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at KIT-Karlsruhe, Germany, consists of a large scintillator array for measurements of charged particles, N_ch, and of an array of shielded scintillation counters used for muon counting, N_mu. KASCADE-Grande is optimized for cosmic ray measurements in the energy range 10 PeV to 1000 PeV, thereby enabling the verification of a knee in the iron spectrum expected at approximately 100 PeV. Exploring the composition in this energy range is of fundamental importance for understanding the transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. Following earlier studies of elemental spectra reconstructed in the knee energy range from KASCADE data, we have now extended these measurements to beyond 100 PeV. By analysing the two-dimensional shower size spectrum N_ch vs. N_mu, we reconstruct the energy spectra of different mass groups by means of unfolding methods. The procedure and its results, giving evidence for a knee-like structure in the spectrum of iron nuclei, will be presente...

Fuhrmann, D; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, D; Wochele, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Energy Spectrum and Mass Composition around the Knee by EAS Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Primary cosmic ray particles above energies of about 100 TeV are investigated by large-area ground based detector installations, observing various components of the development of extensive air-showers (EAS). By such an indirect access to the primary cosmic ray spectrum a steepening of the powerlaw falls off at around 3-5 PeV, known as the knee has been identified. Different experimental techniques are used to deduce mass- and energy-sensitive observables of EAS experiments. The experiments involve measurements of secondary particle distributions at various observation levels and of muons deep underground as well as of observables reconstructed by measuring the air Cherenkov light emitted with the shower development in the atmosphere. Recently methods for analysing multidimensional distributions get favoured since they are able to take into account the correlations between different observables and the influence of large intrinsic fluctuations of the air-shower development. Additionally the use of a larger set of observables provides the possibility to test simultaneously the consistency of the Monte-Carlo models underlying the reconstruction procedures. By many experiments the existence of the knee in the primary energy spectrum is confirmed and a tendency of an increasing mean mass above the knee energy is indicated. Recent results show that the knee originates from a decrease of the flux of light primary particles, whereas heavy cosmic ray particles seem to miss a kink in the energy range of 1 and 10 PeV.

Andreas Haungs

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

ORELA measurements to meet fusion energy neutron cross section needs. [2 to 80 MeV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Major neutron cross section measurements made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) that are useful to the fusion energy program are reviewed. Cross sections for production of gamma rays with energies 0.3 < E/sub ..gamma../ < 10.5 MeV were measured as a function of neutron energy over the range 0.1 < E/sub n/ < 20.0 MeV for Li, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ta, W, Au, Pb, and Th. Neutron emission cross sections have been measured for /sup 7/Li, Al, Ti, Cu, and Nb for 1 < E/sub n/ < 20 MeV. Some results of recent neutron total cross section measurements from 2 to 80 MeV for eleven materials (C, O, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Au, and Pb) of interest to the FMIT project are presented. Finally, future directions of the ORELA program are outlined. 4 figures, 3 tables.

Larson, D.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Average Price of Natural Gas Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1996 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ....................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477

419

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Base-pair Parameters --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shear Stretch Stagger Buckle Propeller Opening 3DNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.77) -11.79(4.14) 0.57(2.80) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.74) -11.35(5.26) 0.63(3.05) CEHS A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.75) -11.82(4.14) 0.56(2.78) B 0.00(0.21) -0.14(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.73) -11.37(5.27) 0.62(3.03) CompDNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.12(7.70) -11.81(4.14) 0.56(2.79) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.70) -11.37(5.26) 0.62(3.03) Curves A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.85) -11.76(4.12) 0.57(2.80)

420

STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

to fall to 3.44 this year and then drop to 3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Measured energy savings and performance of power-managed personal computers and monitors  

SciTech Connect

Personal computers and monitors are estimated to use 14 billion kWh/year of electricity, with power management potentially saving $600 million/year by the year 2000. The effort to capture these savings is lead by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Energy Star program, which specifies a 30W maximum demand for the computer and for the monitor when in a {open_quote}sleep{close_quote} or idle mode. In this paper the authors discuss measured energy use and estimated savings for power-managed (Energy Star compliant) PCs and monitors. They collected electricity use measurements of six power-managed PCs and monitors in their office and five from two other research projects. The devices are diverse in machine type, use patterns, and context. The analysis method estimates the time spent in each system operating mode (off, low-, and full-power) and combines these with real power measurements to derive hours of use per mode, energy use, and energy savings. Three schedules are explored in the {open_quotes}As-operated,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Standardized,{close_quotes} and `Maximum` savings estimates. Energy savings are established by comparing the measurements to a baseline with power management disabled. As-operated energy savings for the eleven PCs and monitors ranged from zero to 75 kWh/year. Under the standard operating schedule (on 20% of nights and weekends), the savings are about 200 kWh/year. An audit of power management features and configurations for several dozen Energy Star machines found only 11% of CPU`s fully enabled and about two thirds of monitors were successfully power managed. The highest priority for greater power management savings is to enable monitors, as opposed to CPU`s, since they are generally easier to configure, less likely to interfere with system operation, and have greater savings. The difficulties in properly configuring PCs and monitors is the largest current barrier to achieving the savings potential from power management.

Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

High-energy x-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The x-ray spectrum between 18 and 88 keV generated by a petawatt laser driven x-ray backlighter target was measured using a 12-channel differential filter pair spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of a series of filter pairs on a Ta mask coupled with an x-ray sensitive image plate. A calibration of Fuji{trademark} MS and SR image plates was conducted using a tungsten anode x-ray source and the resulting calibration applied to the design of the Ross pair spectrometer. Additionally, the fade rate and resolution of the image plate system were measured for quantitative radiographic applications. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into silver K{alpha} x rays from a petawatt laser target was measured using the differential filter pair spectrometer and compared to measurements using a single photon counting charge coupled device.

Maddox, B.R.; Park, H.S.; Remington, B.A.; Izumi, N.; Chen, S.; Chen, C.; Kimminau, G.; Ali, Z.; Haugh, M.J.; Ma, Q. (LLNL); (NWU); (Oxford); (NSTec)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

High-energy x-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The x-ray spectrum between 18 and 88 keV generated by a petawatt laser driven x-ray backlighter target was measured using a 12-channel differential filter pair spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of a series of filter pairs on a Ta mask coupled with an x-ray sensitive image plate. A calibration of Fuji MS and SR image plates was conducted using a tungsten anode x-ray source and the resulting calibration applied to the design of the Ross pair spectrometer. Additionally, the fade rate and resolution of the image plate system were measured for quantitative radiographic applications. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into silver K{alpha} x rays from a petawatt laser target was measured using the differential filter pair spectrometer and compared to measurements using a single photon counting charge coupled device.

Maddox, B. R.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Chen, S.; Chen, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kimminau, G. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Ali, Z.; Haugh, M. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ma, Q. [DND-CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4857 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, standard and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a checklist for assessing the navigational impacts of potential marine and hydrokinetic projects, and provides guidance for improving the existing navigational guidance promulgated by the USCG in Navigation Vessel Inspection Circular 02 07. At the request of the USCG, our checklist and mitigation guidance was written in a generic nature so that it could be equally applied to offshore wind projects. PCCI teleconferenced on a monthly basis with DOE, Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision in order to share information and review work products. Although the focus of our effort was on marine and hydrokinetic technologies, as defined above, this effort drew upon earlier work by the USCG on offshore wind renewable energy installations. The guidance provided herein can be applied equally to marine and hydrokinetic technologies and to offshore wind, which are collectively referred to by the USCG as Renewable Energy Installations.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

425

Measured commercial load shapes and energy-use intensities and validation of the LBL end-use disaggregation algorithm. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has conducted an extensive metering project in which electricity end use in 53 commercial buildings in Southern California has been measured. The building types monitored include offices, retail stores, groceries, restaurants, and warehouses. One year (June 1989 through May 1990) of the SCE measured hourly end-use data are reviewed in this report. Annual whole-building and end-use energy use intensities (EUIs) and monthly load shapes (LSs) have been calculated for the different building types based on the monitored data. This report compares the monitored buildings` EUIs and LSs to EUIs and LSs determined using whole-building load data and the End-Use Disaggregation Algorithm (EDA). Two sets of EDA determined EUIs and LSs are compared to the monitored data values. The data sets represent: (1) average buildings in the SCE service territory and (2) specific buildings that were monitored.

Akbari, H.; Rainer, L.; Heinemeier, K.; Huang, J.; Franconi, E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Locally Calibrated Probabilistic Temperature Forecasting Using Geostatistical Model Averaging and Local Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors introduce two ways to produce locally calibrated grid-based probabilistic forecasts of temperature. Both start from the Global Bayesian model averaging (Global BMA) statistical postprocessing method, which has constant predictive bias ...

William Kleiber; Adrian E. Raftery; Jeffrey Baars; Tilmann Gneiting; Clifford F. Mass; Eric Grimit

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

Rabl, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Precision Neutrino Oscillation Measurements using Simultaneous High-Power, Low-Energy Project-X Beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first phase of the long-baseline neutrino experiment, LBNE10, will use a broadband, high-energy neutrino beam with a 10-kt liquid argon TPC at 1300 km to study neutrino oscillation. In this paper, we describe potential upgrades to LBNE10 that use Project X to produce high-intensity, low-energy neutrino beams. Simultaneous, high-power operation of 8- and 60-GeV beams with a 200-kt water Cerenkov detector would provide sensitivity to nu_mu to nu_e oscillations at the second oscillation maximum. We find that with ten years of data, it would be possible to measure sin2(2theta_13) with precision comparable to that expected from reactor antineutrino disappearance and to measure the value of the CP phase, delta_CP, with an uncertainty of (5-10) degrees. This document is submitted for inclusion in Snowmass 2013.

M. Bishai; M. Diwan; S. Kettell; J. Stewart; R. Tschirhart; B. Viren; L. Whitehead; E. Worcester

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

429

Exclusive Measurements of the b to s gamma Transition Rate and Photon Energy Spectrum  

SciTech Connect

We use 429 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector to measure the radiative transition rate of b {yields} s{gamma} with a sum of 38 exclusive final states. The inclusive branching fraction with a minimum photon energy of 1.9 GeV is found to be {Beta}({bar B} {yields} Xs{gamma}) = (3.29 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.48) x 10{sup -4} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum and extract the best fit values for the heavy-quark parameters, m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}, in the kinetic and shape function models.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

430

Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis quantifies the relative merit of various technological advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors and presents them graphically as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. Substantial annual energy gains (exceeding 50% at 350/sup 0/C) are shown to be attainable with improved parabolic troughs.

Gee, R.; Gaul, H.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

METHOD OF MEASURING THE INTEGRATED ENERGY OUTPUT OF A NEUTRONIC CHAIN REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for measuring the integrated energy output of a reactor conslsting of the steps of successively irradiating calibrated thin foils of an element, such as gold, which is rendered radioactive by exposure to neutron flux for periods of time not greater than one-fifth the mean life of the induced radioactlvity and producing an indication of the radioactivity induced in each foil, each foil belng introduced into the reactor immediately upon removal of its predecessor.

Sturm, W.J.

1958-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Precision Measurements of Atomic Lifetimes and Hyperfine Energies in Alkali Like Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Financial support of this research project has lead to advances in the study of atomic structure through precision measurements of atomic lifetimes, energy splittings, and transitions energies. The interpretation of data from many areas of physics and chemistry requires an accurate understanding of atomic structure. For example, scientists in the fields of astrophysics, geophysics, and plasma fusion depend on transition strengths to determine the relative abundances of elements. Assessing the operation of discharges and atomic resonance line filters also depends on accurate knowledge of transition strengths. Often relative transition strengths are measured precisely, but accurate atomic lifetimes are needed to obtain absolute values. Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes and energy splittings also provide fundamentally important atomic structure information. Lifetimes of allowed transitions depend most strongly on the electronic wave function far from the nucleus. Alternatively, hyperfine splittings give important information about the electronic wave function in the vicinity of the nucleus as well as the structure of the nucleus. Our main focus throughout this project has been the structure of atomic cesium because of its connection to the study of atomic parity nonconservation (PNC). The interpretation of atomic PNC experiments in terms of weak interaction coupling constants requires accurate knowledge of the electronic wave function near the nucleus as well as far from the nucleus. It is possible to address some of these needs theoretically with sophisticated many-electron atomic structure calculations. However, this program has been able to address these needs experimentally with a precision that surpasses current theoretical accuracy. Our measurements also play the important role of providing a means for testing the accuracy of many-electron calculations and guiding further theoretical development, Atomic systems such as cesium, with a single electron outside of a closed shell, provide the simplest open shell systems for detailed comparisons between experiment and theory. This program initially focused on measurements of excited state atomic lifetimes in alkali atomic systems. Our first measurements of atomic lifetimes in cesium surpassed the precision and accuracy of previous measurements and sparked renewed interest in the need for greater precision in lifetime measurements throughout the atomic physics community. After enhancing the capabilities of the laser systems built for these initial measurements, we began a study hyperfine energy splittings in cesium using a thermal atomic beam. The results surpassed previous measurements by more than an order of magnitude and lead to the first observation of the nuclear magnetic octupole moment in cesium demonstrating the inadequacy of the nuclear shell model for predicting high order nuclear moments. The laser system and atomic beam apparatus developed for these endeavors turned out to be perfectly suited for exploring the possibility of making absolute optical frequency measurements of atomic transitions. We initiated collaboration with researchers at NIST so that the desired optical frequencies could be reference with respect to the primary microwave frequency standard (Cs atomic fountain NIST-FI) via a femtosecond laser frequency comb. Our first absolute optical frequency measurement, of the cesium D2 line, surpassed the accuracy of a previous measurement by more than an order of magnitude. An absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line, now near completion, also surpasses previous results and places us in a position to be able to report a new value for the fine structure constant which is the fundamental dimensionless constant that underlies all electromagnetic interactions.

Tanner, Carol E.

2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

433

Initial measurement of impurity production and hydrogen energy distribution from neutral beam injectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Impurity production and hydrogen energy distributions for neutral beam injectors (NBI) developed by the plasma Technology Section of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Fusion Energy Division have been measured by exposing silicon samples to beam pulses and analyzing them by nuclear microanalysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques. The NBI's have been developed for use on the princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX). Extraction voltages O up to 50 kV are used, and maximum power injected for a 0.5-s pulse is approx. 1.2 MW with a design goal of 1.5 MW. The Medium Energy Test Facility (MRTF) was used for exposure of the single-crystal (100) silicon samples.

Langley, R.A.; Magee, C.W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 - Derived measures of end-use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

eialogo eialogo Calculation of MECS Energy Measures Reported energy values were used to construct several derived values, which, in turn, were used to prepare the estimates appearing in MECS consumption tables--First Use, Total Inputs, Offsite-Produced. These derived values are displayed in Table 1 and defined as follows: Energy produced offsite and consumed as a fuel. This derived value represents onsite consumption of fuels that were originally produced offsite. That is, they arrived at the establishment as the result of a purchase or were transferred to the establishment from outside sources. As such, this derived value is equivalent to consumption of "purchased" fuels as reported by the Census Bureau for the years 1974-1981. The Census Bureau defines "purchased" fuels to include those actually purchased plus those

435

Protocol for uniformly measuring and expressing the performance of energy storage systems.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program, through the support of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), facilitated the development of the protocol provided in this report. The focus of the protocol is to provide a uniform way of measuring, quantifying, and reporting the performance of ESSs in various applications; something that does not exist today and, as such, is hampering the consideration and use of this technology in the market. The availability of an application-specific protocol for use in measuring and expressing performance-related metrics of ESSs will allow technology developers, power-grid operators and other end-users to evaluate the performance of energy storage technologies on a uniform and comparable basis. This will help differentiate technologies and products for specific application(s) and provide transparency in how performance is measured. It also will assist utilities and other consumers of ESSs to make more informed decisions as they consider the potential application and use of ESSs, as well as form the basis for documentation that might be required to justify utility investment in such technologies.

Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Rose, David Martin; Schoenwald, David Alan; Bray, Kathy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Conover, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Viswanathan, Vilayanur [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

Laros, James H., III

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

The Use of Density Meters and Microprocessors for Energy Measurement and Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANSI/API 2530 shows how natural gas volume and weight flow rates may be calculated from the differential pressure across an in-line orifice plate. AGA Report No.5 uses these equations and known relationships between specific gravity and calorific value, to calculate the energy flow rate. Both publications point to weight flow rate as the simplest and most direct approach to energy flow rate and indicate much wider use for equations originally developed for natural gas. This paper discusses the advantages of density measurement and shows how a single, in-line density meter may be used with an easily programmed micro-processor to provide rapid, reliable, low-cost, on-line solutions to the flow and energy equations, without using specific gravity meters and calorimeters. Similar techniques enable computation of calorific values to produce a so-called "flameless calorimeter" and measurement and feed-forward control of fuel gas supplies for steam generators, process furnaces, etc., thereby improving combustion and process efficiencies and promoting energy savings. These techniques increase in value as fuel costs rise and as industry is forced to use more variable gas supplies.

Balls, B. W.; Agar, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

? Financial constraint scales approach physical constraints scales ? Loads can become ac/ve with more- complicated dynamical behavior. ? Shorter /me responses from smart meters, gas plants (which are faster).- ? Opera0on of 90 % of Energy Systems is Affected by Ambient Condi0ons

Mihai Anitescu; V. Zavala; C. Petra; M. Lubin; S. Lee; Rocklin T. Krause; Pi\\sburgh Pa Stochasc

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measured average energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

MEASURED ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT NEW COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: RESULTS FROM THE BECA-CN DATA COMPILATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to produce a low-energy building over a considerable rangeboth very low energy buildings and buildings operating abovereports. Contact the Buildings Energy Data Group at Lawrence

Piette, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Proceedings of the International Energy Agency Conference on Pyranometer Measurements: Final Report; 16 - 20 March 1981, Boulder, Colorado  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conference of pyranometry measurement experts from seven nations was held 16-20 March 1981 in Boulder, Colorado, USA, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, the United States Department of Energy, and the Solar Energy Research Institute. This report documents the technical presentations, background, and the results and recommendations of the conference.

Riches, M. R.; Stoffel, T. L.; Wells, C. V.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

arXiv:astro-ph/0408456v21Dec2004 Measuring Dark Energy Clustering with CMB-Galaxy Correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

arXiv:astro-ph/0408456v21Dec2004 Measuring Dark Energy Clustering with CMB-Galaxy Correlations opportunity to study the dynamics of the dark energy through its large scale clustering properties. Ultimately 3% changes in the gravitational potential or total density fluctuation due to dark energy clustering

Hu, Wayne

444

Averages of B-Hadron Properties at the End of 2005  

SciTech Connect

This article reports world averages for measurements on b-hadron properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using the available results as of at the end of 2005. In the averaging, the input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and all known correlations are taken into account. The averages include lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays, branching fractions of B decays to final states with open charm, charmonium and no charm, and measurements related to CP asymmetries.

Barberio, E.; /Melbourne U.; Bizjak, I.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Blyth, S.; /CERN; Cavoto, G.; /Rome U.; Chang, P.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Dingfelder, J.; /SLAC; Eidelman, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Gershon, T.; /WARWICK U.; Godang, R.; /Mississippi U.; Harr, R.; /Wayne State U.; Hocker, A; /CERN; Iijima, T.; /Nagoya U.; Kowalewski, R.; /Victoria U.; Lehner, F.; /Fermilab; Limosani, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Lin, C.-J.; /Fermilab; Long, O.; /UC, Riverside; Luth, V.; /SLAC; Morii, M.; /Harvard U.; Prell, S.; /Iowa State U.; Schneider, O.; /LPHE, Lausanne /Colorado U. /Orsay, LAL /Genoa U. /Hawaii U. /Indiana U. /Rome U. /Karlsruhe U.

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

445

Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) of Residential Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency Programs: Issues and Recommendations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation, Measurement, Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) of Residential Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency Programs: Issues and Recommendations This information was developed as a product of the State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network (SEE Action), facilitated by the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Content does not imply an endorsement by individuals or organizations that are part of SEE Action working groups, or reflect the views, policies, or otherwise of the federal government.

446

Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recommended steam system energy efficiency measures Based on analyses implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics payback period...

447

Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates: Application of High Performance Measures and Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in an existing K-5 school in hot and humid climates. Previous paper (Im and Haberl 2008b) presented a calibrated simulation procedure for an existing K-5 school in hot and humid area, and the first step of the energy savings potential analysis by applying the energy savings measures recommended as in the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides for K-12 Schools. As an effort to investigate more energy savings potential for the school building, several other energy savings measures and renewable energy measures were applied to the target building. Those measures include: increased glazing U-value, VFD application for the HVAC system, cold deck reset, variable speed for pumps, high-efficiency boiler, skylights, and the application of solar thermal and PV systems. The final simulation results show that the estimated Energy Use Index (EUI) of the school by applying all the measures but the solar thermal and PV systems would be 29.9 kBtu/sqft (i.e., 38.6 % energy savings against the baseline school). In addition, solar thermal and PV systems were designed to provide half of the electricity demand and all the SWH demand of the school building, respectively. The final EUI for the school with the solar thermal and PV systems was estimated to be 15 kBtu/sqft.

Im, P.; Haberl, J.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Status of Average-x from Lattice QCD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As algorithms and computing power have advanced, lattice QCD has become a precision technique for many QCD observables. However, the calculation of nucleon matrix elements remains an open challenge. I summarize the status of the lattice effort by examining one observable that has come to represent this challenge, average-x: the fraction of the nucleon's momentum carried by its quark constituents. Recent results confirm a long standing tendency to overshoot the experimentally measured value. Understanding this puzzle is essential to not only the lattice calculation of nucleon properties but also the broader effort to determine hadron structure from QCD.

Dru Renner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: Aligning Management, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

corporate energy management and system energy efficiency,its corporate energy management system and is now seekinghas sustainable energy management systems in place, has

McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

A Zonally Averaged, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Paleoclimate Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A zonally averaged ocean model for the thermohaline circulation is coupled to a zonally averaged, one-layer energy balance model of the atmosphere to form a climate model for paleoclimate studies. The emphasis of the coupled model is on the ocean'...

Thomas F. Stocker; Lawrence A. Mysak; Daniel G. Wright

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z