National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for measure wind speed

  1. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  2. Ris-R-Report LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-Report LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements from a Rotating Spinner: "SpinnerEx 2009" Nikolas: LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009) Division: Wind Energy Division application of remote sensing techniques in wind energy, the feasibility of upwind observations via a spinner

  3. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  4. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface that an important part of the future expansion of wind energy utilisation at least in Europe will come from offshore

  5. Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine X. Ma #3; , N. K. Poulsen #3; , H. Bindner y December 20, 1995 Abstract The wind speed varies over the rotor plane of wind turbine making the wind speed on the rotor plane will be estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind measuring device

  6. Master's thesis: "Wind speed measurements in an offshore wind farm by remote sensing: Comparison of radar satellite TerraSAR-X and ground-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Master's thesis: "Wind speed measurements in an offshore wind farm by remote sensing: Comparison of the Offshore wind farm alpha ventus with 12 wind turbines, substation and met mast Fino1. Southerly winds cause (wake) caused by wind farms and especially for the interaction of large offshore wind farms, which can

  7. Steady decline of east Asian monsoon winds, 19692000: Evidence from direct ground measurements of wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    , especially because of the potential for the monsoon to change with global warming. In this study we analyzed. [1] It is commonly believed that greenhouse-gas-induced global warming can weaken the east Asian that the monsoon wind speed is also highly correlated with incoming solar radiation at the surface. The present

  8. Forecasting Solar Wind Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeru K. Suzuki

    2006-02-03

    By explicitly taking into account effects of Alfven waves, I derive from a simple energetics argument a fundamental relation which predicts solar wind (SW) speeds in the vicinity of the earth from physical properties on the sun. Kojima et al. recently found from their observations that a ratio of surface magnetic field strength to an expansion factor of open magnetic flux tubes is a good indicator of the SW speed. I show by using the derived relation that this nice correlation is an evidence of the Alfven wave which accelerates SW in expanding flux tubes. The observations further require that fluctuation amplitudes of magnetic field lines at the surface should be almost universal in different coronal holes, which needs to be tested by future observations.

  9. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of incoming wind speeds that could be provided by LIDAR. Non-causal series expansion and Preview Control methods reduce blade root loads but increase tower bending in simulation results. The optimized FIR filter reduces loads overall, keeps pitch rates low, and maintains rotor speed regulation and power capture, while using imperfect wind measurements provided by the spinning continuous-wave LIDAR model.

  10. Choosing wind power plant locations and sizes based on electric reliability measures using multiple-year wind speed measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.R.; Artig, R.

    1999-07-08

    To project the US potential to meet future electricity demands with wind energy, estimates of available wind resource and costs to access that resource are critical. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) annually estimates the US market penetration of wind in its Annual Energy Outlook series. For these estimates, the EIA uses wind resource data developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for each region of the country. However, the EIA multiplies the cost of windpower by several factors, some as large as 3, to account for resource quality, market factors associated with accessing the resource, electric grid impacts, and rapid growth in the wind industry. This paper examines the rationale behind these additional costs and suggests alternatives.

  11. Forecasting wind speed financial return

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of wind speed is very important when dealing with the production of energy through wind turbines. In this paper, we show a new nonparametric model, based on semi-Markov chains, to predict wind speed. Particularly we use an indexed semi-Markov model that has been shown to be able to reproduce accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed. The model is used to forecast, one step ahead, wind speed. In order to check the validity of the model we show, as indicator of goodness, the root mean square error and mean absolute error between real data and predicted ones. We also compare our forecasting results with those of a persistence model. At last, we show an application of the model to predict financial indicators like the Internal Rate of Return, Duration and Convexity.

  12. Numerical wind speed simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1981-09-01

    A relatively simple stochastic model for simulating wind speed time series that can be used as an alternative to time series from representative locations is described in this report. The model incorporates systematic seasonal variation of the mean wind, its standard deviation, and the correlation speeds. It also incorporates systematic diurnal variation of the mean speed and standard deviation. To demonstrate the model capabilities, simulations were made using model parameters derived from data collected at the Hanford Meteorology Station, and results of analysis of simulated and actual data were compared.

  13. the risk issue of wind measurement for wind turbine operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Sciences, National Taiwan University #12;outline · Wind measurement in meteorology and wind farm design-related issues on wind turbine operation 3/31/2011 2 #12;WIND MEASUREMENT IN METEOROLOGY & WIND FARM DESIGN 3://www.atm.ncu.edu.tw/93/wind/ MM5 simulation (1996~2000 database) Wind speed (m/s) at 50mWind power (100W/m2) at 50m http://wind.itri.org.tw/wind

  14. Combined Effects of Wind Speed and Wind Direction on Received Signal Strength in Foliated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Combined Effects of Wind Speed and Wind Direction on Received Signal Strength in Foliated Broadband of the received signal strength (RSS) in foliated fixed wireless links resulting from the combined effects of wind speed, changes of wind direction and movement of foliage. The results of a long- term measurement

  15. Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2013-07-22

    In order to support large-scale integration of wind power into current electric energy system, accurate wind speed forecasting is essential, because the high variation and limited predictability of wind pose profound challenges to the power system...

  16. The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites Bernhard Lange(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites Bernhard Lange(1) , Søren E. Larsen(2) , Jørgen feasibility of offshore wind power utilisation depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore compared for wind power prediction at offshore sites is investigated using data from the measurement program Rødsand

  17. Q: When planning a wind farm, how are wind resources estimated? And if the average wind speed is known at 10 meters is there a general rule for estimating the wind speed at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q: When planning a wind farm, how are wind resources estimated? And if the average wind speed is known at 10 meters is there a general rule for estimating the wind speed at larger heights above ground level? The wind resource at a wind farm can be estimated in two ways: by measurement or by modeling

  18. H. J. Sutherland and P. W. Carlin, "Damage Measurements on the NWTC Direct-Drive, Variable-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado 80401 Abstract The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998, pp. 315-322. DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS ON THE NWTC DIRECT-DRIVE, VARIABLE-SPEED TEST BED* Herbert J. Sutherland Wind Energy Department Sandia

  19. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  20. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND for conditions important for offshore wind energy utilisation are compared and tested: Four models tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  1. Ris-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement Rozenn for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement Division: Wind Energy Division Abstract: The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary char- acteristic of the machine as it is the basis

  2. Quantifying hurricane wind speed with undersea sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Joshua David

    2006-01-01

    Hurricanes, powerful storms with wind speeds that can exceed 80 m/s, are one of the most destructive natural disasters known to man. While current satellite technology has made it possible to effectively detect and track ...

  3. Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1 , Richard EMILION2 , Ted'Orléans), UMR CNRS 6628 Université d'Orléans, France. Abstract: Wind energy production is very sensitive to instantaneous wind speed fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of wind speed due to changes in the local

  4. Wind Speed Modelling and Shortterm Predic tion using Wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nason, Guy

    prediction of the wind regime at a proposed wind farm site. Suppose a small amount of wind speed data hasWind Speed Modelling and Short­term Predic­ tion using Wavelets Katherine Hunt and Guy P Nason@bristol.ac.uk Abstract The mathematical method of wavelets is explained and used to predict wind condi­ tions using short

  5. On the measurement of wind speeds in tornadoes with a portable CW/FM-CW Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluestein, H.B. . School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Both the formation mechanism and structure of tornadoes are not yet well understood. The Doppler radar is probably the best remote-sensing instrument at present for determining the wind field in tornadoes. Although much has been learned about the non-supercell tornado from relatively close range using Doppler radars at fixed sites, close-range measurements in supercell tornadoes are relatively few. Doppler radar can increase significantly the number of high-resolution, sub-cloud base measurements of both the tornado vortex and its parent vortex in supercells, with simultaneous visual documentation. The design details and operation of the CW/FM-CW Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and used by storm-intercept teams at the Univ. of Oklahoma are described elsewhere. The radar transmits 1 W at 3 cm, and can be switched back and forth between CW and FM-CW modes. In the FM-CW mode the sweep repetition frequency is 15.575 kHz and the sweep width 1.9 MHz; the corresponding maximum unambiguous range and velocity, and range resolution are 5 km, {plus minus} 115 m s{sup {minus}1}, and 78 m respectively. The bistatic antennas, which have half-power beamwidths of 5{degree}, are easily pointed wit the aid of a boresighted VCR. FM-CW Data are recorded on the VCR, while voice documentation is recorded on the audio tape; video is recorded on another VCR. The radar and antennas are easily mounted on a tripod, and can be set up by three people in a minute or two. The purpose of this paper is to describe the signal processing techniques used to determine the Doppler spectrum in the FM-CW mode and a method of its interpretation in real time, and to present data gathered in a tornadic storm in 1990. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  6. WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST of Thesis: Wind Speed Variability and Adaptation Strategies in Coastal Areas of the Pacific Northwest/Approved: ___________________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present

  7. Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America Yanping He,1 Adam Hugh of the probability distributions of surface wind speeds (SWS) is essential for surface flux estimation, wind power estimation, and wind risk assessments. The two-parameter Weibull distribution is the most widely used

  8. Abstract--This paper develops a static observer for estimating wind speed in order to control wind speed and angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerbach, John M.

    Abstract--This paper develops a static observer for estimating wind speed in order to control wind speed and angle control at a user position in a submersive virtual environment. Addition of wind display Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT). Experiments on a scaled model of the TPAWT show that headwind flow stream

  9. Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuela M. P. Huso; John P. Hayes

    2009-04-01

    This report details an experiment on the effectiveness of changing wind turbine cut-in speed on reducing bat fatality from wind turbines at the Casselman Wind Project in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.

  10. SCALAR WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION TROPICAL CYCLONE RETRIEVALS FOR CONICAL SCANNING SCATTEROMETERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    SCALAR WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION TROPICAL CYCLONE RETRIEVALS FOR CONICAL SCANNING SCATTEROMETERS--Scatterometer measurements of ocean vector winds (OVW) are significantly degraded in the presence of the precipitation, especially in tropical cyclones. This paper presents a new ocean hurricane/typhoon wind vector retrieval

  11. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were adapted to support the rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor was then tested side-by-side against the state-of-the-art Bergey XL-1 at the Alternative Energy Institute's Wind Test Center at West Texas State University for six weeks, and real time measurements of power generated were collected and compared. Early wind tunnel testing showed that the cut-in-speed of the Hi-Q rotor is much lower than a conventional tested HAWT enabling the Hi-Q Wind Turbine to begin collecting energy before a conventional HAWT has started spinning. Also, torque at low wind speeds for the Hi-Q Wind Turbine is higher than the tested conventional HAWT and enabled the wind turbine to generate power at lower wind speeds. Based on the data collected, the results of our first full-scale prototype wind turbine proved that higher energy can be captured at lower wind speeds with the new Hi-Q Rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor is almost 15% more productive than the Bergey from 6 m/s to 8 m/s, making it ideal in Class 3, 4, and 5 wind sites and has application in the critical and heretofore untapped areas that are closer to cities, 'load centers,' and may even be used directly in urban areas. The additional advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor's non-conventional blade tips, which eliminates most air turbulence, is noise reduction which makes it doubly ideal for populated urban areas. Hi-Q Products recommends one final stage of development to take the Hi-Q Rotor through Technology Readiness Levels 8-9. During this stage of development, the rotor will be redesigned to further increase efficiency, match the rotor to a more suitable generator, and lower the cost of manufacturing by redesigning the structure to allow for production in larger quantities at lower cost. Before taking the rotor to market and commercialization, it is necessary to further optimize the performance by finding a better generator and autofurling system, ones more suitable for lower wind speeds and rpms should be used in all future testing. The potential impact of this fully developed technology will be the expansion and proliferation of energy renewal into the heretofore untapped Class 2, 3, 4, and 5 Wind Sites, or the large underutilized sites where the wind speed is broken by physical features such as mountains, buildings, and trees. Market estimates by 2011, if low wind speed technology can be developed are well above: 13 million homes, 675,000 commercial buildings, 250,000 public facilities. Estimated commercial exploitation of the Hi-Q Rotor show potential increase in U.S. energy gained through the clean, renewable wind energy found in low and very low wind speed sites. This new energy source would greatly impact greenhouse emissions as well as the public sector's growing energy demands.

  12. Analytical Modelling of Wind Speed Deficit in Large Offshore Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    Analytical Modelling of Wind Speed Deficit in Large Offshore Wind Farms Sten Frandsen*, Rebecca areas.As is often the need for offshore wind farms, the model handles a regular array geometry for offshore wind farms, the model handles a priori a regular array geometry with straight rows of wind

  13. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc in the context of wind power, where under- forecasting and overforecasting carry different financial penal- ties, calibrated and sharp probabilistic forecasts can help to make wind power a more financially competitive alter

  14. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    is parameterized by the time delay (t), measured from the time of solar wind impact, and the L shell (L). We to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4. [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlated

  15. Reconstruction of Helio-latitudinal Structure of the Solar Wind Proton Speed and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokó?, Justyna M; Bzowski, Maciej; Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of the heliosphere requires continuous three-dimensional solar wind data. The in-situ out-of-ecliptic measurements are very rare, so that other methods of solar wind detection are needed. We use the remote sensing data of the solar wind speed from observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) to reconstruct spatial and temporal structures of the solar wind proton speed from 1985 to 2013. We developed a method of filling the data gaps in the IPS observations to obtain continuous and homogeneous solar wind speed records. We also present a method to retrieve the solar wind density from the solar wind speed, utilizing the invariance of the solar wind dynamic pressure and energy flux with latitude. To construct the synoptic maps of solar wind speed we use the decomposition into spherical harmonics of each of the Carrington rotation map. To fill the gaps in time we apply the singular spectrum analysis to the time series of the coefficients of spherical harmonics. We obtained helio-latitudinal prof...

  16. Euler-Bernoulli Implementation of Spherical Anemometers for High Wind Speed Calculations via Strain Gauges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Davis

    2011-08-08

    New measuring methods continue to be developed in the field of wind anemometry for various environments subject to low-speed and high-speed flows, turbulent-present flows, and ideal and non-ideal flows. As a result, anemometry has taken different...

  17. Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G on the ESCAT wind-only retrieval has been evaluated. For high incidence angle measurements, the additional scattering of rain causes estimated wind speeds to appear higher than expected. It is also noted

  18. The amount of power in the wind is very dependent on the speed of the wind. Because the power in the wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    The amount of power in the wind is very dependent on the speed of the wind. Because the power in the wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, small differences in the wind speed make a big. This gives rise to the primary reason for wind re- source assessment. In order to more accurately predict

  19. The Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yanping

    , the Netherlands, and Los Alamos, New Mexico, demonstrate that lower-tropospheric wind speeds become moreThe Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE School surface wind speeds is characterized using a global network of observations. Daytime surface wind speeds

  20. Mining Markov chain transition matrix from wind speed time series data Zhe Song a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . Researches related with wind speed are quite extensive, includ- ing wind speed forecasting (Kusiak, Zheng, Essiarab, & Sayigh, 2004; Sahin & Sen, 2001) and so on. Wind speed forecasting and simulation could approaches, Markov chain is a popular tool to model, forecast and simulate the wind speed in a discrete

  1. Bidding wind energy exploiting wind speed forecasts Antonio Giannitrapani, Simone Paoletti,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garulli, Andrea

    -ahead generation profile for a wind power producer by exploiting wind speed forecasts provided by a meteorological service. In the con- sidered framework, the wind power producer is called to take part integration in the grid is causing serious problems to transmission and distribution system operators [2]. One

  2. The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics Economics of wind power by the theoretical maximum energy production if the generator were running at its rated power all the year turbine Rated Power per turbine: assumption 1,500 kW C Availability assumption 97% D 8,760 hrs/year E

  3. The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle Matthias R. Aellig Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545 Abstract We investigate the helium abundance in the solar wind of 1994 and early 2000 are analyzed. In agreement with similar work for previous solar cycles, we find

  4. Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite for wind retrieval over the Great Lakes on a daily basis. We use data acquired by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite launched in June 1999 to derive wind speeds and directions over

  5. Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind Speed Distributions: Characterization, Comparison, and Bias Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    341–345. Yuan, X. , 2004: High-wind-speed evaluation in theCosca, 2004: Effects of wind speed and gas exchange param-dust emission caused by wind erosion. J. Geophys. Res. ,

  6. 1. Wind-splash erosion 4. Relationships between rainfall intensity, wind-speed, wind direction and erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Wind-splash erosion 4. Relationships between rainfall intensity, wind-speed, wind direction and erosion 5. Longer term influence of wind-direction on landscape evolution 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1 of tubes at approximately two week intervals. Contour plots of rainfall intensity (mm/hr) against wind

  7. ARE660 Wind Generator: Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Preus; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2008-04-23

    This project is for the design of a wind turbine that can generate most or all of the net energy required for homes and small businesses in moderately windy areas. The purpose is to expand the current market for residential wind generators by providing cost effective power in a lower wind regime than current technology has made available, as well as reduce noise and improve reliability and safety. Robert W. Preus’ experience designing and/or maintaining residential wind generators of many configurations helped identify the need for an improved experience of safety for the consumer. Current small wind products have unreliable or no method of stopping the wind generator in fault or high wind conditions. Consumers and their neighbors do not want to hear their wind generators. In addition, with current technology, only sites with unusually high wind speeds provide payback times that are acceptable for the on-grid user. Abundant Renewable Energy’s (ARE) basic original concept for the ARE660 was a combination of a stall controlled variable speed small wind generator and automatic fail safe furling for shutdown. The stall control for a small wind generator is not novel, but has not been developed for a variable speed application with a permanent magnet alternator (PMA). The fail safe furling approach for shutdown has not been used to our knowledge.

  8. Examination of wind speed thresholds for vorticity-driven lateral fire spread

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    , to specifically consider the effect of wind speed in generating the fire-induced vorticity necessary to drive wind speed, below which the prevailing winds are too weak to drive the vorticity-generating interactionExamination of wind speed thresholds for vorticity-driven lateral fire spread J.J. Sharples a , C

  9. Probability distributions for offshore wind speeds Eugene C. Morgan a,*, Matthew Lackner b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    Probability distributions for offshore wind speeds Eugene C. Morgan a,*, Matthew Lackner b Wind turbine energy output Weibull distribution Extreme wind a b s t r a c t In planning offshore wind farms, short-term wind speeds play a central role in estimating various engi- neering parameters

  10. Wind Speed Modelling and Short-term Predic-tion using Wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nason, Guy

    prediction of the wind regime at a proposed wind farm site. Suppose a small amount of wind speed data hasWind Speed Modelling and Short-term Predic- tion using Wavelets Katherine Hunt and Guy P Nason@bristol.ac.uk Abstract The mathematical method of wavelets is explained and used to predict wind condi- tions using short

  11. United States- Land Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 Meters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size, high resolution version of the 100-meter land-based and offshore wind speed resource map.

  12. Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO Heliospheric of solar wind speed to predict the arrival of such streams at Earth, assuming they corotated with the Sun November 2011; accepted 11 December 2011; published 16 February 2012. [1] High-speed solar wind streams

  13. Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Keith

    Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone Dillon; published 7 August 2007. [1] Analysis of satellite ocean color and wind speed data within the seasonal ice. Moore (2007), Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice

  14. A Robust STATCOM Control to Augment LVRT capability of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    A Robust STATCOM Control to Augment LVRT capability of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines M. J. Hossain, H Compensator (STATCOM) to enhance the Low-Voltage Ride- Through (LVRT) capability of fixed-speed wind turbines cost and maintenance due to rugged brushless construction. Constant speed wind turbines equipped

  15. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high. Smith (2005), Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during. Using observations during a period of persistent high-speed, corotating, solar wind streams, we

  16. Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitch, Dillon T; Moore, J. Keith

    2007-01-01

    Niebauer, H. J. (1982), Wind and melt driven circulation inJ. K. Moore (2007), Wind speed influence on phytoplanktonby the NASA Ocean Vector Winds Science Team. Data are

  17. EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE), Curtin University of Technology, WA Abstract: Variable speed wind turbine generators provide the opportunity to capture more power than fixed speed turbines. However the variable speed machine output can

  18. American Wind Energy Association, Denver, May 2005 Uncertainties in Results of Measure-Correlate-Predict Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    American Wind Energy Association, Denver, May 2005 Uncertainties in Results of Measure-correlate-predict (MCP) algorithms are used to predict the wind resource at target sites for wind power development. MCP methods model the relationship between wind data (speed and direction) measured at the target site

  19. Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed and Coronal Magnetic Field Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Iju, Tomoya; Hakamada, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the solar-wind speed $[V]$ and the coronal magnetic-field properties (a flux expansion factor [$f$] and photospheric magnetic-field strength [$B_{\\mathrm{S}}$]) at all latitudes using data of interplanetary scintillation and solar magnetic field obtained for 24 years from 1986 to 2009. Using a cross-correlation analyses, we verified that $V$ is inversely proportional to $f$ and found that $V$ tends to increase with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}$ if $f$ is the same. As a consequence, we find that $V$ has extremely good linear correlation with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$. However, this linear relation of $V$ and $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$ cannot be used for predicting the solar-wind velocity without information on the solar-wind mass flux. We discuss why the inverse relation between $V$ and $f$ has been successfully used for solar-wind velocity prediction, even though it does not explicitly include the mass flux and magnetic-field strength, which are important physical parameters for solar-wind accele...

  20. Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault Risø National Laboratory Vestas Wind Systems A/S #12;#12;I Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault by Sigrid M. Bolik Institute of Energy

  1. A sea drag relation for hurricane wind speeds N. C. Zweers,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vries, Hans de

    A sea drag relation for hurricane wind speeds N. C. Zweers,1 V. K. Makin,1 J. W. de Vries,1 and G, the surface drag is overestimated in NWP models for hurricane wind speeds and the intensity of hurricane winds is tested in an NWP model. Two hurricanes in the Caribbean are modeled: Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005

  2. Variable Speed Wind Turbine Generator with Zero-sequence Filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  3. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  4. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility. 14 figs.

  5. Low Wind Speed Turbine Development Project Report: November 4, 2002 - December 31, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhail, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Clipper Windpower under the DOE Low Wind Speed Turbine project. The objective of this project was to produce a wind turbine that can lower the cost of energy.

  6. Offshore Coastal Wind Speed Gradients: issues for the design and development of large offshore windfarms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    -situ and remote sensing data from offshore wind farms in Denmark, are used to examine both horizontal and vertical the area of the wind farm appear to be small and negligible. 1. INTRODUCTION As large offshore wind farmsOffshore Coastal Wind Speed Gradients: issues for the design and development of large offshore

  7. Predicting Wave Glider Speed from Environmental Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    . This vehicle produces forward motion by harvesting abundant natural energy from ocean waves, and providesPredicting Wave Glider Speed from Environmental Measurements Ryan N. Smith, Jnaneshwar Das, Graham of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia Email: ryan.smith@qut.edu.au Robotic Embedded Systems Laboratory

  8. The effect of wind speed fluctuations on the performance of a wind-powered membrane system for brackish water desalination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Gavin L.; Schäfer, Andrea; Richards, Bryce S.

    2011-01-01

    A wind-powered reverse osmosis membrane (wind-membrane) system without energy storage was tested using synthetic brackish water (2750 and 5500 mg/L NaCl) over a range of simulated wind speeds under both steady-state and ...

  9. Low Wind Speed Turbine Developments in Convoloid Gearing: Final Technical Report, June 2005 - October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genesis Partners LP

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by Genesis Partners LP as part of the United States Department of Energy Wind Energy Research Program to develop wind technology that will enable wind systems to compete in regions having low wind speeds. The purpose of the program is to reduce the cost of electricity from large wind systems in areas having Class 4 winds to 3 cents per kWh for onshore systems or 5 cents per kWh for offshore systems. This work builds upon previous activities under the WindPACT project, the Next Generation Turbine project, and Phase I of the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) project. This project is concerned with the development of more cost-effective gearing for speed increasers for wind turbines.

  10. MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX A MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES #12;A-1 APPENDIX A MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Differential composition of wind turbines at wind energy used is the number of fatalities per wind turbine per year (Anderson et al. 1999). This metric has

  11. Very short-term wind speed forecasting with Bayesian structural break model , Zhe Song a,*, Andrew Kusiak b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    of the wind industry, such as wind turbine predictive control [2,3], wind power grid integration and economic July 2012 Available online Keywords: Time series Forecasting Wind power Wind speed Bayesian structural applications, such as wind turbine predictive control, wind power scheduling. The proposed model is tested

  12. Improved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    much better than one derived previously, which is a function of fs only. We focus here on the solarImproved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge* , Dusan Odstrcil solar wind flow speed near the Sun (~0.1 AU) us- ing a set of three simple inter-linked coronal/solar

  13. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar-wind­ magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high. If this inference is correct, and if it is chorus that energizes the relativistic electrons, then high-speed solar-speed solar wind streams, and fluxes of relativistic electrons observed at geosynchronous orbit enhance

  14. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH REMOTELY SENSING WIND SPEED Yulia Hristova, William Lindsey, Scott Small,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Problems Associated with Remotely Sensing Wind Speed Yulia Hristova, William Lindsey, Scott Small, DeepakPROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH REMOTELY SENSING WIND SPEED By Yulia Hristova, William Lindsey, Scott Small, Deepak Subbarayappa, Toni Tullius, and John R. Hoffman IMA Preprint Series # 2285 ( October 2009

  15. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long- term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific through diversification. In hydroelectric dominated systems, like the PNW, the benefits of wind power can

  16. Aalborg Universitet Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    angles are adjusted separately according to the generator output power and the azimuth angle of the wind Wind Turbines Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming Published in: Proceedings of the 10th Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines. In Proceedings

  17. Statistical Analysis of Environment Canada's Wind Speed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    of wind power generation poses operational difficulties to electricity markets. An electricity market to the defaulters. The wind energy (WE) utility thus faces the challenge of producing accurate power generation the kinetic energy in the wind is converted into electric power by the wind power generator. Stationary time

  18. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the overall agreement between observed and simulated cumulative wind speed probability distributions appears excellent, especially for the wind speeds greater than 5 m s-1 range (erosive wind speed). The results further revealed that the values of daily average erosive wind power density (AWPD) calculated from generated wind speeds fit the counterparts computed from measured wind speeds well with high models' efficiency (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient). So that the hourly wind speed data can be predicted from daily average and maximu...

  19. First and second order semi-Markov chains for wind speed modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in renewable energy, particularly in wind, has given rise to the necessity of accurate models for the generation of good synthetic wind speed data. Markov chains are often used with this purpose but better models are needed to reproduce the statistical properties of wind speed data. We downloaded a database, freely available from the web, in which are included wind speed data taken from L.S.I. -Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes. With the aim of reproducing the statistical properties of this data we propose the use of three semi-Markov models. We generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The time lagged autocorrelation is then used to compare statistical properties of the proposed models with those of real data and also with a synthetic time series generated though a simple Markov chain.

  20. MCMC SAMPLING FOR JOINT SEGMENTATION OF WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION Nicolas Dobigeon and Jean-Yves Tourneret

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    MCMC SAMPLING FOR JOINT SEGMENTATION OF WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION Nicolas Dobigeon and Jean.dobigeon, jean-yves.tourneret}@enseeiht.fr ABSTRACT The problem of detecting changes in wind speed and direction for correlations between the wind speed and direction. A Gibbs sampling strategy overcomes the computational

  1. Measurement of turbulent wind velocities using a rotating boom apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandborn, V.A.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The present report covers both the development of a rotating-boom facility and the evaluation of the spectral energy of the turbulence measured relative to the rotating boom. The rotating boom is composed of a helicopter blade driven through a pulley speed reducer by a variable speed motor. The boom is mounted on a semiportable tower that can be raised to provide various ratios of hub height to rotor diameter. The boom can be mounted to rotate in either the vertical or horizontal plane. Probes that measure the three components of turbulence can be mounted at any location along the radius of the boom. Special hot-film sensors measured two components of the turbulence at a point directly in front of the rotating blade. By using the probe rotated 90/sup 0/ about its axis, the third turbulent velocity component was measured. Evaluation of the spectral energy distributions for the three components of velocity indicates a large concentration of energy at the rotational frequency. At frequencies slightly below the rotational frequency, the spectral energy is greatly reduced over that measured for the nonrotating case measurements. Peaks in the energy at frequencies that are multiples of the rotation frequency were also observed. We conclude that the rotating boom apparatus is suitable and ready to be used in experiments for developing and testing sensors for rotational measurement of wind velocity from wind turbine rotors. It also can be used to accurately measure turbulent wind for testing theories of rotationally sampled wind velocity.

  2. Wind speed forecasting at different time scales: a non parametric approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of wind speed is one of the most important aspects when dealing with renewable energy. In this paper we show a new nonparametric model, based on semi-Markov chains, to predict wind speed. Particularly we use an indexed semi-Markov model, that reproduces accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed, to forecast wind speed one step ahead for different time scales and for very long time horizon maintaining the goodness of prediction. In order to check the main features of the model we show, as indicator of goodness, the root mean square error between real data and predicted ones and we compare our forecasting results with those of a persistence model.

  3. Construction of SDE-based wind speed models with exponential autocorrelation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miñano, Rafael Zárate

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic method to build wind speed models based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The resulting models produce stochastic processes with a given probability distribution and exponential decaying autocorrelation function. The only information needed to build the models is the probability density function of the wind speed and its autocorrelation coefficient. Unlike other methods previously proposed in the literature, the proposed method leads to models able to reproduce an exact exponential autocorrelation even if the probability distribution is not Gaussian. A sufficient condition for the property above is provided. The paper includes the explicit formulation of SDE-based wind speed models obtained from several probability distributions used in the literature to describe different wind speed behaviors.

  4. Scalable, High-Speed Measurement-Based Quantum Computer Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurement-based quantum computing with trapped ions. Measurement-based architectures offer a way to speed up operation of a quantum computer significantly by parallelizing the...

  5. The feasibility of sodar wind profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Allison M. (Allison May)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the feasibility of making wind speed profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy using a Doppler sodar. In the fall of 2005, we deployed a Scintec SFAS sodar on an ASIS buoy. Roughly one week of ...

  6. Microsoft Word - utah_wind_speed_summary.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November (110102 - 111302) 6.3 mph Overall Average (110901 - 111302) 7.0 mph Kirk SmithLee Llewellyn Washington Correctional Facility Site Hurricane, Utah Average Wind...

  7. DIRECT REGULATION OF LARGE SPEED EXCURSIONS FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F. Hardan, H.Markou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    DIRECT REGULATION OF LARGE SPEED EXCURSIONS FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J turbine aims to maintain the rotor speed within a permitted range. However, this requirement can of a pitch controller for 1 MW variable speed turbine which directly responds to a strong gust by pitching

  8. Vermont Wind Measurement Company Still Strong

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This small business has made products to help its customers measure and understand the potential of wind energy since 1982. Now, because of additional opportunities the Recovery Act has created for renewable energy companies, small businesses like this are poised to grow with the increased demand for proven wind measurement and turbine control equipment.

  9. THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS Ruba A. Amarin1 Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 4 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA ABSTRACT The knowledge of peak winds in hurricanes is critical to classification of hurricane intensity

  10. Anemometer Data (Wind Speed, Direction) for Pascua Yaqui, AZ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from a height of 20 m. The data was originally made available by Wind Powering America, a DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Data and Resources...

  11. Fixed-Speed and Variable-Slip Wind Turbines Providing Spinning Reserves to the Grid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-11-01

    As the level of wind penetration increases, wind turbine technology must move from merely generating power from wind to taking a role in supporting the bulk power system. Wind turbines should have the capability to provide inertial response and primary frequency (governor) response so they can support the frequency stability of the grid. To provide governor response, wind turbines should be able to generate less power than the available wind power and hold the rest in reserve, ready to be accessed as needed. This paper explores several ways to control wind turbine output to enable reserve-holding capability. This paper focuses on fixed-speed (also known as Type 1) and variable-slip (also known as Type 2) turbines.

  12. Space-time forecasting and evaluation of wind speed with statistical tests for comparing accuracy of spatial predictions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2010-10-12

    High-quality short-term forecasts of wind speed are vital to making wind power a more reliable energy source. Gneiting et al. (2006) have introduced a model for the average wind speed two hours ahead based on both spatial and temporal information...

  13. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kathryn E. (Boulder, CO); Fingersh, Lee Jay (Westminster, CO)

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  14. Offshore Wind Project Surges Ahead in South Carolina

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Center for Marine and Wetland Studies studies wind speed data from buoys, which have been measuring wind speed and direction for the past year.

  15. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  16. A study of wind-speed maxima near the surface over the south central United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckman, Samuel Karl

    1973-01-01

    A STUDY OF WIND-SPEED MAXIMA NEAR THE SURFACE OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL UNITED STATES A Thesis by Samuel Karl Beckman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Addd University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Meteorology A STUDY OF WIND-SPEED MAXIMA NEAR THE SURFACE OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL UNITED STATES A Thesis by Samuel Karl Beckman Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Head of D p tment...

  17. Effect of wind speed on the growth of the upper convective zone in a solar pond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMinn, Steven Lee

    1990-01-01

    EFFECT OF WIND SPEED ON THE GROWTH OF THE UPPER CONVECTIVE ZONE IN A SOLAR POND A Thesis by STEVEN LEE MCMINN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECT OF WIND SPEED ON THE GROWTH OF THE UPPER CONVECTIVE ZONE IN A SOLAR POND A Thesis by STEVEN LEE MCMINN Approved as to style and content by: W. R. Laster (Chair...

  18. Wind speed modeled as a semi-Markov process with memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in renewable energy, particularly in wind, has given rise to the necessity of accurate models for the generation of good synthetic wind speed data. Markov chains are often used with this purpose but better models are needed to reproduce the statistical properties of wind speed data. In a previous paper we showed that semi-Markov processes are more appropriate for this purpose but to reach an accurate reproduction of real data features high order model should be used. In this work we introduce an indexed semi-Markov process that is able to fit real data. We downloaded a database, freely available from the web, in which are included wind speed data taken from L.S.I. -Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes. We then generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The time lagged autocorrelation is then used to compare statistical properties of the proposed model with those of real data and also with a synthetic time series generated though a ...

  19. An event-based approach to validating solar wind speed predictions: High-speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    December 2005. [1] One of the primary goals of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM for the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) solar wind models and suggest an event-based approach-Sheeley-Arge Model [3] CISM is using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model (WSA) [Arge and Pizzo, 2000; Arge et al., 2003

  20. Wind Resource Assessment and Characterization | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to accurately define, measure, and forecast the nation's land-based and offshore wind resources. More accurate prediction and measurement of wind speed and direction allow...

  1. The Influence of Boundary Layer Processes on the Diurnal Variation of the Climatological Near-Surface Wind Speed Probability Distribution over Land*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yanping

    -Surface Wind Speed Probability Distribution over Land* YANPING HE School of Earth and Ocean Sciences wind speed probability distribution is essential for surface flux estimation and wind power management. Global observations indicate that the surface wind speed probability density function (PDF

  2. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbine by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, we describe the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes.

  3. Wind Scanner: A full-scale Laser Facility for Wind and Turbulence Measurements around large Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Scanner: A full-scale Laser Facility for Wind and Turbulence Measurements around large Wind Turbines Torben Mikkelsen, Jakob Mann and Michael Courtney Wind Energy Department, Risø National Laboratory:Torben.Mikkelsen@Risoe.dk Summary RISØ DTU has started to build a newly designed laser-based lidar scanning facility for remote wind

  4. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2015-10-21

    Observed and projected trends in large scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how might marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to future changes in large scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum, and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment. The dynamicalmore »driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning – afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m?2, long wave emissions are very insensitive to LWP. This leads to the more general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find furthermore that large scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment, and in part because circulation driven by shear from large scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large scale wind takes over from buoyancy-driven circulation in transporting moisture from the surface to cloud base, and thereby reduces decoupling and helps maintain LWP. The cloud radiative effect (CRE) responds to changes in LWP and cloud fraction, and higher wind speed translates to a stronger diurnally averaged CRE. However, the sensitivity of the diurnally averaged CRE to wind speed decreases with increasing wind speed.« less

  5. Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    operation regions depending on wind turbines tip speed ratio. They are distinguished by a minimum phase such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine and the generator as well as to electric grid turbine to evaluate its consistency and performance. The next step was the validation using the NREL

  6. HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

  7. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlatedLong-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4

  8. Solar wind suprathermal electron Stahl widths across high-speed stream structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoug, Ruth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steinberg, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodrich, Katherine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Brett R [DARTMUTH UNIV.

    2011-01-03

    Suprathermal electrons (100-1500 eV) observed in the solar wind typically show a strahl distribution, that is, a beam directed away from the Sun along the magnetic field direction. The strahl width observed at 1 AU is highly variable, ranging from 10-70 degrees. The obsenred finite width of the strahl results from the competition between beam focusing as the interplanetary magnetic field strength drops with distance from the Sun, and pitch-angle scattering as the beam interacts with the solar wind plasma in transit from the sun. Here we examine strahl width, observed with ACE SWEPAM across high-speed stream structures to investigate variations in electron scattering as a function of local plasma characteristics. We find that narrow strahls (less than 20 degrees wide), indicating reduced scattering, are observed within high-speed streams. Narrow strahls are also observed in both very low temperature solar wind, in association with ICMEs. Case studies of high-speed streams typically show the strahl narrowing at the leading edge of the stream. In some cases, the strahl narrows at the reverse shock or pressure wave, in other cases at the stream interface. The narrowing can either occur discontinuously or gradually over a period of hours. Within the high-speed wind, the strahl remains narrow for a period of hours to days, and then gradually broadens. The strahl width is roughly constant at all energies across these structures. For some fraction of high-speed streams, counterstreaming is associated with passage of the corotating interaction region. In these cases, we find the widths of the two counterstreaming beams frequently differ by more than 40 degrees. This dramatic difference in strahl width contrasts with observations in the solar wind as a whole, in which counterstreaming strahls typically differ in width by less than 20 degrees.

  9. Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

  10. High resolution reanalysis of wind speeds over the British Isles for wind energy integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Samuel Lennon

    2012-11-29

    The UK has highly ambitious targets for wind development, particularly offshore, where over 30GW of capacity is proposed for development. Integrating such a large amount of variable generation presents enormous challenges. ...

  11. SPINNER ANEMOMETRY -AN INNOVATIVE WIND MEASUREMENT CONCEPT TF Pedersen*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPINNER ANEMOMETRY - AN INNOVATIVE WIND MEASUREMENT CONCEPT TF Pedersen*) , N Sørensen, HA Madsen, R Møller, M Courtney, Risø National Laboratory P Enevoldsen, P Egedal, Siemens *) Risø, Wind Energy, fax +45 46 77 50 83 SUMMARY: An innovative and new concept for measurements of wind on a wind turbine

  12. Log-normal distribution based EMOS models for probabilistic wind speed forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baran, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of forecasts are obtained from multiple runs of numerical weather forecasting models with different initial conditions and typically employed to account for forecast uncertainties. However, biases and dispersion errors often occur in forecast ensembles, they are usually under-dispersive and uncalibrated and require statistical post-processing. We present an Ensemble Model Output Statistics (EMOS) method for calibration of wind speed forecasts based on the log-normal (LN) distribution, and we also show a regime-switching extension of the model which combines the previously studied truncated normal (TN) distribution with the LN. Both presented models are applied to wind speed forecasts of the eight-member University of Washington mesoscale ensemble, of the fifty-member ECMWF ensemble and of the eleven-member ALADIN-HUNEPS ensemble of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, and their predictive performances are compared to those of the TN and general extreme value (GEV) distribution based EMOS methods an...

  13. Nonlinear Dual-Mode Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Choon Yik; Jiang, John N

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a feedback/feedforward nonlinear controller for variable-speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators. By appropriately adjusting the rotor voltages and the blade pitch angle, the controller simultaneously enables: (a) control of the active power in both the maximum power tracking and power regulation modes, (b) seamless switching between the two modes, and (c) control of the reactive power so that a desirable power factor is maintained. Unlike many existing designs, the controller is developed based on original, nonlinear, electromechanically-coupled models of wind turbines, without attempting approximate linearization. Its development consists of three steps: (i) employ feedback linearization to exactly cancel some of the nonlinearities and perform arbitrary pole placement, (ii) design a speed controller that makes the rotor angular velocity track a desired reference whenever possible, and (iii) introduce a Lyapunov-like function and present a gradient-based approach for mini...

  14. Airâ??sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, T. G; De Bruyn, W.; Miller, S. D; Ward, B.; Christensen, K.; Saltzman, E. S

    2013-01-01

    al. , 2004). Small-scale wave properties are primarily wind-displayed a small linear dependence on mean wind speed (G hfsmall areal coverage of whitecaps observed during Knorr_11. The weak- ened wind

  15. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Isenberg, P.A. (eds. ) Solar Wind Nine, AIP Conf. Proc. 471,AT SOLAR MINIMUM Solar Wind Sources in the Late Decliningfor their high speed solar wind streams that dominate the

  16. Prediction of wind speed profiles for short-term forecasting in the offshore environment R.J. Barthelmie and G. Giebel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in planning of maintenance visits to offshore wind farms. In most cases the basis for the predictionPrediction of wind speed profiles for short-term forecasting in the offshore environment R wind farms. The main effects considered here are: wind speed gradients in the coastal zone, vertical

  17. THE HUYGENS DOPPLER WIND EXPERIMENT Titan Winds Derived from Probe Radio Frequency Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE HUYGENS DOPPLER WIND EXPERIMENT Titan Winds Derived from Probe Radio Frequency Measurements M 1998; Accepted in final form 20 December 2001 Abstract. A Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE of Titan's zonal winds will be determined with an accuracy better than 1 m s-1 from the start of mission

  18. Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind; received in revised form 6 April 2005; accepted 25 April 2005 Abstract We present the solar wind plasma parameters obtained from the Wind spacecraft during more than nine years, encompassing almost the whole solar

  19. Evidence of a Threshold Wind Speed in Tower-mounted Scatterometer Data David W. Draper and David G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    . Evidence of the threshold wind speed and a hysteresis effect have been observed in airship and wave tank in airship data [2]. YSCAT, an ultra-wideband (2-14 GHz) tower-mounted scat- terometer, provides significant

  20. High-Speed Optical Spectroscopy of a Cataclysmic Variable Wind BZ Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringwald, F A

    1997-01-01

    BZ Cam is the first cataclysmic variable star with an accretion disk wind evident in its optical spectrum. The wind was found by Thorstensen, who discovered intermittent P Cygni profiles occurring simultaneously in He I 5876 Angstroms and H alpha. We have since obtained spectra with 0.4-Angstroms/pixel dispersion and 60-s time resolution. We find a wind much faster and more rapidly variable than the radiatively accelerated winds of OB stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or luminous blue variables. Instead of showing blob ejection, the whole wind of BZ Cam appears to turn on and off. We use this to measure the acceleration law of a CV wind for the first time. The velocity increases linearly with time, attaining blue edge velocities near -3000 km/s, and absorption velocities near -1700 km/s, in 6 to 8 min after starting near rest. We also find a subsequent linear deceleration to nearly rest in 30 to 40 min, perhaps an effect of dilution as the wind expands. No periodicity from rotational outflow is obvious. This wind is e...

  1. Rotor Speed Dependent Yaw Control of Wind Turbines Based on Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kragh, K. A.; Fleming, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    When extracting energy from the wind using horizontal-axis upwind wind turbines, a primary condition for maximum power yield is the ability to align the rotor axis with the dominating wind direction. Attempts have been made to improve yaw alignment by applying advanced measurement techniques such as LIDARs. This study is focused at assessing the current performance of an operating turbine and exploring how the yaw alignment can be improved using existing measurements. By analyzing available turbine and met mast data a correction scheme for the original yaw alignment system is synthesized. The correction scheme is applied and it is seen that with the correction scheme in place, the power yield below rated is raised 1-5 percent. Furthermore, results indicate that blade load variations are decreased when the correction scheme is applied. The results are associated with uncertainties due to the amount of available data and the wind site climate. Further work should be focused at gathering more experimental data.

  2. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  3. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  4. EXPERIENCES WITH SONIC WIND SENSORS IN OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS Wiel M.F. Wauben

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    ) uses conventional cup anemometers and wind vanes to measure wind speed and direction. Although the KNMI sonic considered in the previous evaluation. The advanced sensor has the required wind speed range up. An uncertainty of the wind speed of maximally 2 % at all wind directions is required for the wind profile

  5. High-Speed Optical Spectroscopy of a Cataclysmic Variable Wind: BZ Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Ringwald; T. Naylor

    1997-10-02

    BZ Cam is the first cataclysmic variable star with an accretion disk wind evident in its optical spectrum. The wind was found by Thorstensen, who discovered intermittent P Cygni profiles occurring simultaneously in He I 5876 Angstroms and H alpha. We have since obtained spectra with 0.4-Angstroms/pixel dispersion and 60-s time resolution. We find a wind much faster and more rapidly variable than the radiatively accelerated winds of OB stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or luminous blue variables. Instead of showing blob ejection, the whole wind of BZ Cam appears to turn on and off. We use this to measure the acceleration law of a CV wind for the first time. The velocity increases linearly with time, attaining blue edge velocities near -3000 km/s, and absorption velocities near -1700 km/s, in 6 to 8 min after starting near rest. We also find a subsequent linear deceleration to nearly rest in 30 to 40 min, perhaps an effect of dilution as the wind expands. No periodicity from rotational outflow is obvious. This wind is erratic and incessantly variable, and perhaps bipolar and face-on, but not highly collimated. The P Cygni absorption events trace out sawtooth waves, occurring within 30 to 40 white dwarf radii from the disk. This is the approximate size of the disk, as well as the disk/wind transition region recently postulated by Knigge and Drew. We estimate a distance of 830 +/- 160 pc, and an orbital inclination i such that 12 < i(degrees) < 40.

  6. Error propagation equations for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.L.

    1994-07-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, and calibration Mach number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-steam Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for five fundamental aerodynamic ratios which relate free-steam test conditions to a reference condition.

  7. Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Resor, B.; Platt, A.; Guo, Y.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Parsons, T.; Petch, D.; Veers, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of tip-velocity constraints on system levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The results indicate that a change in maximum tip speed from 80 to 100~m/s could produce a 32% decrease in gearbox weight (a 33% reduction in cost) which would result in an overall reduction of 1%-9% in system LCOE depending on the design approach. Three 100~m/s design cases were considered including a low tip-speed ratio/high-solidity rotor design, a high tip-speed ratio/ low-solidity rotor design, and finally a flexible blade design in which a high tip-speed ratio was used along with removing the tip deflection constraint on the rotor design. In all three cases, the significant reduction in gearbox weight caused by the higher tip-speed and lower overall gear ratio was counterbalanced by increased weights for the rotor and/or other drivetrain components and the tower. As a result, the increased costs of either the rotor or drivetrain components offset the overall reduction in turbine costs from down-sizing the gearbox. Other system costs were not significantly affected, whereas energy production was slightly reduced in the 100~m/s case low tip-speed ratio case and increased in the high tip-speed ratio case. This resulted in system cost of energy reductions moving from the 80~m/s design to the 100~m/s designs of 1.2% for the low tip-speed ratio, 4.6% for the high tip-speed ratio, and 9.5% for the final flexible case (the latter result is optimistic because the impact of deflection of the flexible blade on power production was not modeled). Overall, the results demonstrate that there is a trade-off in system design between the maximum tip velocity and the overall wind plant cost of energy, and there are many trade-offs within the overall system in designing a turbine for a high maximum tip velocity.

  8. Upstream Measurements of Wind Profiles with Doppler Lidar for Improved Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Frehlich

    2012-10-30

    New upstream measurements of wind profiles over the altitude range of wind turbines will be produced using a scanning Doppler lidar. These long range high quality measurements will provide improved wind power forecasts for wind energy integration into the power grid. The main goal of the project is to develop the optimal Doppler lidar operating parameters and data processing algorithms for improved wind energy integration by enhancing the wind power forecasts in the 30 to 60 minute time frame, especially for the large wind power ramps. Currently, there is very little upstream data at large wind farms, especially accurate wind profiles over the full height of the turbine blades. The potential of scanning Doppler lidar will be determined by rigorous computer modeling and evaluation of actual Doppler lidar data from the WindTracer system produced by Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies, Inc. of Louisville, Colorado. Various data products will be investigated for input into numerical weather prediction models and statistically based nowcasting algorithms. Successful implementation of the proposed research will provide the required information for a full cost benefit analysis of the improved forecasts of wind power for energy integration as well as the added benefit of high quality wind and turbulence information for optimal control of the wind turbines at large wind farms.

  9. GLOBAL GAIN-SCHEDULING CONTROL FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F. Hardan, H.Markou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    1 GLOBAL GAIN-SCHEDULING CONTROL FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F wind turbines exhibit a separability property similar to that previously established for constant speed wind turbines. The importance of this result is that it establishes that from a control viewpoint

  10. Wind turbine impacts on HF radar ocean surface measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Lucy

    Wind turbine impacts on HF radar ocean surface measurements in Liverpool Bay Alice Robinson School. The characterisation of the wind turbine interference is assessed and the radar cross section estimated. The modulation with wind turbine interference in a HF radar footprint are made. #12;Contents Contents iv List of Tables vii

  11. Offshore wind profile measurements from remote sensing instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Offshore wind profile measurements from remote sensing instruments Ioannis Antoniou (1) , Hans E) have been mounted on top of a transformer platform situated offshore close to the Nysted wind farm offshore wind energy potential depends greatly on the ability to make offshore windfarms economically

  12. Effect on Speed Distribution due to Intrusive and Non-Intrusive Portable Speed Measurement Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasrotia, Romika

    2011-06-02

    with pneumatic tubes, Smartsensor, Autoscope with camera trailer and Lidar gun were compared. Results showed that drivers did not react to pneumatic tubes and continued driving at the same speed; there was no significant difference in speeds at different...

  13. Design of a high angle of attack robotic sting mount for tests in a low speed wind tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubler, Tommy Jack

    1989-01-01

    DESIGN OF A HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK ROBOTIC STING MOUNT FOR TESTS IN A LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL A Thesis by TOMMY JACK KUBLER Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas AJcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering DESIGN OF A HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK ROBOTIC STING MOUNT FOR TESTS IN A IOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL A Thesis bv TOMMY JACK KHBLER Approved as to style and content by: Thomas C...

  14. STANDARDS FOR MEASUREMENTS AND TESTING OF WIND TURBINE POWER QUALITY Poul Srensen, Ris National Laboratory, P.O.Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed . Kewords: Power Quality, Standards, Electrical System quality of the power system. Methods to measure and quantify the power quality of wind turbines were early] funded by the Joule II Programme defined an "Electrical Power Quality Measurement Procedure" in February

  15. IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE@mail.ucf.edu ABSTRACT The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new imaging technology microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  16. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  17. Systematic Measurements of Ion-Proton Differential Streaming in the Solar Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Gloeckler, G. [Extraterrestrial Physics, Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11-19, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The small amount of heavy ions in the highly rarefied solar wind are sensitive tracers for plasma-physics processes, which are usually not accessible in the laboratory. We have analyzed differential streaming between heavy ions and protons in the solar wind at 1 AU. 3D velocity vector and magnetic field measurements from the Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor and the Magnetometer aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer were used to reconstruct the ion-proton difference vector v{sub ip}=v{sub i}-v{sub p} from the 12 min 1D Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer observations. We find that all 44 analyzed heavy ions flow along the interplanetary magnetic field at velocities which are smaller than, but comparable to, the local Alfven speed C{sub A}. The flow speeds of 35 of the 44 ion species lie within the range of {+-}0.15C{sub A} around 0.55C{sub A}, the flow speed of He{sup 2+}.

  18. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  19. Low-dimensional Models in Spatio-Temporal Wind Speed Forecasting Borhan M. Sanandaji, Akin Tascikaraoglu, , , Kameshwar Poolla, and Pravin Varaiya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Tascikaraoglu, , , Kameshwar Poolla, and Pravin Varaiya Abstract-- Integrating wind power into the grid to achieve the power balance needed for its integration into the grid [3], [4]. The use of ancillary services of wind power. The paper presents a spatio-temporal wind speed forecasting algorithm that incorporates

  20. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.

    1988-11-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Forecasting of wind speed using wavelets analysis and cascade-correlation neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as sunlight, wind, rain or geothermal heat. Wind energy is actually one of the fastest-growing forms, that is why its wind energy market has been progressing steadily in recent years. While in 2000, there were only 30 MW of wind generating capacity in France, the total installed capacity at the end of 2007

  2. Approach to accurately measuring the speed of optical precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Chuanfeng; Zhou Zongquan; Guo Guangcan; Jeong, Heejeong

    2011-10-15

    Precursors can serve as a bound on the speed of information with dispersive medium. We propose a method to identify the speed of optical wave fronts using polarization-based interference in a solid-state device, which can bound the accuracy of the speed of wave fronts to less than 10{sup -4} with conventional experimental conditions. Our proposal may have important implications for optical communications and fast information processing.

  3. CRYOPUMP MEASUREMENTS RELATING TO SAFETY, PUMPING SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING* William G. Graham andspeeds, and to study outgassing such as might be produced byi w I C" Radiation Outgassing Rad:lation-induced outgassing

  4. Wind climatology of Schiphol Andrew Stepek, Xueli Wang and Dirk Wolters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Wind climatology of Schiphol Andrew Stepek, Xueli Wang and Dirk Wolters De Bilt, May 2012 #12;2 Contents Summary 2 Introduction 3 Data 3 Hourly wind measurements 3 Yearly averages of wind speed measurements 4 Quality and sources of error 6 Method 7 Trends in wind speed 7 Definition of cross and tail wind

  5. Wind stress measurements from the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission and the impact on an ocean model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Wind stress measurements from the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission and the impact by the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission (April­October 2003) and their impact on ocean model simulation. The diurnal variability captured by twice-daily scatterometer wind from the tandem mission

  6. Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiens, R.H.; Shepherd, G.G.; Gault, W.A. (York Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Kosteniuk, P.R. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada))

    1988-06-01

    WAMDII, the wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer, was used to measure the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere by the Doppler shift of the O I 557-nm line. Observations were made at Saskatoon (60.5{degree} N invariant) around the spring equinox of 1985 with WAMDII coupled to an all-sky lens. With dopplergrams averaged over 3 to 30 min, no evidence was found for persistent highly localized winds on either of the two nights studied, one viewing only aurora and one viewing only airglow. The nocturnal variation was determined for both nights using average horizontal wind for the whole all-sky image. The pattern for the auroral case shows winds parallel to the aurora orientation in the evening but substantial crosswinds near midnight. High latitude general circulation models seem to represent this case better than local auroral generation models. The airglow case showed eastward winds in the morning sector.

  7. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  8. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  9. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ ...

  10. Precision measurement of the speed of propagation of neutrinos using the MINOS detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.

    2015-09-17

    We report a two-detector measurement of the propagation speed of neutrinos over a baseline of 734 km. The measurement was made with the NuMI beam at Fermilab between the near and far MINOS detectors. Furthermore, the fractional difference between the neutrino speed and the speed of light is determined to be (v/c-1)=(1.0±1.1)×10-6, consistent with relativistic neutrinos.

  11. Reliability measures of second order semi-Markov chain in state and duration with application to wind energy production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of wind energy production using a second order semi-Markov chain in state and duration as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, we describe the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes. The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in the planning and development of a wind farm.

  12. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtsekhowski, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180° magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  13. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B. [JLAB

    2014-11-01

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180 degree magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  14. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Wojtsekhowski

    2014-11-28

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180 degree magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  15. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2014-10-22

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180° magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  16. Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Carlin, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

  17. Surface-Layer Wind and Turbulence Profiling from LIDAR: Theory and Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface-Layer Wind and Turbulence Profiling from LIDAR: Theory and Measurements Régis DANIELIAN (Vestas Wind System) Hans Ejsing JØRGENSEN (Wind Energy Department, Risø. Contact: haej@risoe.dk) Torben MIKKELSEN (Wind Energy Department, Risø. Contact: tomi@risoe.dk) Jacob MANN (Wind Energy Department, Risø

  18. Difference in the wind speeds required for initiation versus continuation of sand transport on Mars: Implications for dunes and dust storms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kok, Jasper F

    2010-01-01

    Much of the surface of Mars is covered by dunes, ripples, and other features formed by the blowing of sand by wind, known as saltation. In addition, saltation loads the atmosphere with dust aerosols, which dominate the Martian climate. We show here that saltation can be maintained on Mars by wind speeds an order of magnitude less than required to initiate it. We further show that the resulting hysteresis effect causes saltation to occur for much lower wind speeds than previously thought. These findings have important implications for the formation of dust storms, sand dunes, and ripples on Mars.

  19. Spatial and temporal distributions of U.S. winds and wind power at 80 m derived from measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and reliable source of electric power. Data from 1327 surface stations and 87 soundings in the United StatesSpatial and temporal distributions of U.S. winds and wind power at 80 m derived from measurements 2002; published 13 May 2003. [1] This is a study to quantify U.S. wind power at 80 m (the hub height

  20. WIND ATLAS FOR EGYPT: MEASUREMENTS, MICRO-AND MESOSCALE MODELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WIND ATLAS FOR EGYPT: MEASUREMENTS, MICRO- AND MESOSCALE MODELLING Niels G. Mortensen1 , Jens atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model, KAMM. The observations have been

  1. P2R.11 BISTATIC INTERFEROMETRY TO MEASURE CLEAR AIR WIND Guifu Zhang+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guifu

    wind have poor accuracyat small angles. Furthermore, vertical resolution of the horizontal wind1 P2R.11 BISTATIC INTERFEROMETRY TO MEASURE CLEAR AIR WIND Guifu Zhang+ , Richard J. Doviak, 1313, Halley Circle, Norman, OK 73069 1. INTRODUCTION The wind field can be measured either by Doppler

  2. Meteorological field measurements at potential and actual wind turbine sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of experiences gained in a meteorological measurement program conducted at a number of locations around the United States for the purpose of site evaluation for wind energy utilization is provided. The evolution of the measurement program from its inception in 1976 to the present day is discussed. Some of the major accomplishments and areas for improvement are outlined. Some conclusions on research using data from this program are presented.

  3. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle June 1, 2005 ­ August 31, 2005 Prepared for United States Department...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  4. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle December 1, 2004 ­ February 28, 2005 Prepared for United States.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  5. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle December 1, 2004 ­ December 1, 2005 Prepared for United States ......................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  6. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2003 ­ August 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  7. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribution

  8. WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Presque Isle March 1, 2005 ­ May 31, 2005 Prepared for United States Department.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  9. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2003 ­ May 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  10. WIND DATA REPORT FALMOUTH, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT FALMOUTH, MA June1, 2004 to August 31, 2004. Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 8 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 8 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island September 1, 2003 ­ November 30, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  12. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  13. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2004 ­ August 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  14. WIND DATA REPORT Nantucket, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Nantucket, MA March 1st 2006 to May 31th 2006 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribut

  15. Error analysis of pose measurement from sonic sensors without using speed of sound information 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chih-Chien

    1999-01-01

    Scott Burnett (1) demonstrated the feasibility of using acoustic sensors to locate an object without information about speed of sound. The algorithms of triangulation and pose measurement, which were introduced in his paper to fulfill the goal...

  16. An aero-elastic flutter based electromagnetic energy harvester with wind speed augmenting funnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    area as demands for renewable energy sources increase. Energy harvesting systems refer to devices-scale renewable energy generating systems such as wind turbines, thermal generators, and solar panels, energy source for energy harvesters because of its potential capacity for generating electrical power. Flutter

  17. Processing data, for improved, accuracy, from device for measuring speed of sound in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2006-09-19

    A method, used in connection with a pulse-echo type sensor for determining the speed of sound in a gas, for improving the accuracy of speed of sound measurements. The sensor operates on the principle that speed of sound can be derived from the difference between the two-way travel time of signals reflected from two different target faces of the sensor. This time difference is derived by computing the cross correlation between the two reflections. The cross correlation function may be fitted to a parabola whose vertex represents the optimum time coordinate of the coherence peak, thereby providing an accurate measure of the two-way time diffference.

  18. Measurement of wind set-up on an open coast 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, William Howard

    1956-01-01

    *9oL where 71 is a function of x. Combining equations 2,3> 2,5 with 2.8, we have, d7\\ d'l ^ pe 17 - II ? 2*10 Integrating with respect to z between the limits -h and 7\\ (the bottom and the surface) gives: T + T dTl s ___ b dx ? pg(h+7]) 9... than the standard level of ten meters. Adjustment of 5.1 to the ten-meter level can be made through use of equation 1.1. By this equation, the ratio of wind speeds at elevations z^ and z^ is for u greater than fifteen miles per hour approximately...

  19. Benchmarking Knowledge-assisted Kriging for Automated Spatial Interpolation of Wind Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Middleton, Stuart E.

    Benchmarking Knowledge-assisted Kriging for Automated Spatial Interpolation of Wind Measurements-case is to create wind interpolation grids for input into a bathing water quality model of microbial contamination-office wind data (189 sensors). Our wind estimation results are comparable, but not better than ordinary

  20. Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2005-05-31

    A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.

  1. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Wind Speed Sensor 2740 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK ISDB/Sensors/SmartMHKInformation Speed (with

  2. Watercut Measurement Method by Using High Speed Impedance Sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdogan, Burak

    2014-08-20

    electrodes configuration [16]. The impedance method is applicable for both gas-liquid mixture and liquid-liquid emulsion [1]. In the Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M University, the impedance measurement method was used for gas volume fraction... be tested for pipe flow. 41 REFERENCES [1] Falcone, G., Hewitt, G., & Alimonti, C. (2009). Multiphase flow metering: principles and applications (Vol. 54). (1st ed.). Oxford: UK. Elsevier. [2] Liu, L., Matar, O. K., Susana Perez de Ortiz, E...

  3. Bachelor thesis: "Validation of an engineering model of the near wake wind field of wind turbines based on nacelle based lidar measurements"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    , in an early stage of wind farm layout optimisation and wind turbine loading calculation in wind farms by Ainslie[1], This is widely used in the industry for wind farming purposes. Scope During this project analysis are performed of near wake measurements of a 5 MW wind turbine at the offshore test field alpha

  4. Error propagation equations and tables for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, calibration Mach number and Reynolds number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-stream Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for nine fundamental aerodynamic ratios, most of which relate free-stream test conditions (pressure, temperature, density or velocity) to a reference condition. Tables of the ratios, R, absolute sensitivity coefficients, {partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}, and relative sensitivity coefficients, (M{infinity}/R) ({partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}), are provided as functions of M{infinity}.

  5. Analysis of Wind Power Generation of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Z.; Haberl, J.; Subbarao, K.; Baltazar, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    ? Not appropriate for predicting hourly power using power curve ? On-site wind: ? Measured power vs. on-site wind following well the power curve prediction ? No curtailment at this site ? Green curves showing a band of 5 MW from the power curve WHY NOT Use... APPLICATION ? Indian Mesa Wind Farm Measured MW Plotted Against Hourly NOAA Wind Speed? ANN significantly improves the prediction of on-site wind speed compared to NOAA. ? Green curves showing a band of 5 MW from the power curve Hourly Wind Power...

  6. MSU-Wind Applications Center: Wind Resource Worksheet Theoretical Power Calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    MSU-Wind Applications Center: Wind Resource Worksheet Theoretical Power Calculation Equations: A= swept area = air density v= velocity R= universal gas constant Steps: 1. Measure wind speed from fan. = ___________/(________*________)= _________kg/m3 5. Theoretical Power a. Low Setting Theoretical Wind Power i. Power= ½*______*______*______*.59

  7. WIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    to generate in this way wind speed fluctuations with similar statistics as observed in nature. Forces wereWIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014) Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary wind inflow conditions M. R. Luhur, J. Peinke, J. Schneemann and M. Wächter ForWind-Center for Wind

  8. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Wind Speed (with 3m cable) Smart Sensor | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK ISDB/Sensors/SmartMHKInformation Speed (with 3m

  9. Synchrophasor Measurement-Based Wind Plant Inertia Estimation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Bank, J.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.; Corbus, D.

    2013-05-01

    The total inertia stored in all rotating masses that are connected to power systems, such as synchronous generations and induction motors, is an essential force that keeps the system stable after disturbances. To ensure bulk power system stability, there is a need to estimate the equivalent inertia available from a renewable generation plant. An equivalent inertia constant analogous to that of conventional rotating machines can be used to provide a readily understandable metric. This paper explores a method that utilizes synchrophasor measurements to estimate the equivalent inertia that a wind plant provides to the system.

  10. Wind velocity measurements using a pulsed LIDAR system: first results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    , M K¨uhn3 and J Peinke4 1,4 ForWind Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg, Germany 2,3 Endowed Chair of Wind Energy, University of Stuttgart, Germany E-mail: 1 matthias relevance for wind energy utilization. Different technologies are in use in this field, among them LIDAR

  11. Uncovering wind turbine properties through two-dimensional stochastic modeling of wind dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raischel, Frank; Lopes, Vitor V; Lind, Pedro G

    2012-01-01

    Using a method for stochastic data analysis, borrowed from statistical physics, we analyze synthetic data from a Markov chain model that reproduces measurements of wind speed and power production in a wind park in Portugal. From the theoretical point of view we argue that our methods can be used to extract unknown functional relations between two variables. We first show that indeed our analysis retrieves the power performance curve, which yields the relationship between wind speed and power production and discuss how such procedure can be extended for extracting functional relationships between pairs of physical variables in general. Second, we show how specific features, such as the turbine rated wind speed or the descriptive wind speed statistics, can be related with the equations describing the evolution of power production and wind speed at single wind turbines.

  12. Using the Tremaine-Weinberg method to measure pattern speeds from H?velocity maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Beckman; Kambiz Fathi; Nuria Piñol; Olivier Hernandez; Claude Carignan; Isabel Pérez

    2008-10-29

    The Tremaine-Weinberg method is a well-known model independent technique for measuring density wave pattern speeds in spiral galaxies. Here we show how it can be applied to the data cubes (maps of surface brightness and velocity) obtained in H-alpha emission using a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. One of the main difficulties, the discontinuity of the H-alpha emission, is resolved using the neighbouring stellar continuum delivered by the data cube. We argue from symmetry that the motions not associated with the density wave should cancel. We show that our pattern speeds are reasonable by computing corotation radii, and comparing them to measured bar lengths. Simulations including star forming gas also add credibility to our results. Nevertheless it will be necessary to compare them with results using the spectra of the stellar components to quantify any systematic deviations from valid pattern speed values.

  13. Using the Tremaine-Weinberg method to measure pattern speeds from H\\alpha velocity maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckman, John; Piñol, Nuria; Hernandez, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Pérez, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    The Tremaine-Weinberg method is a well-known model independent technique for measuring density wave pattern speeds in spiral galaxies. Here we show how it can be applied to the data cubes (maps of surface brightness and velocity) obtained in H-alpha emission using a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. One of the main difficulties, the discontinuity of the H-alpha emission, is resolved using the neighbouring stellar continuum delivered by the data cube. We argue from symmetry that the motions not associated with the density wave should cancel. We show that our pattern speeds are reasonable by computing corotation radii, and comparing them to measured bar lengths. Simulations including star forming gas also add credibility to our results. Nevertheless it will be necessary to compare them with results using the spectra of the stellar components to quantify any systematic deviations from valid pattern speed values.

  14. Simulation of winds as seen by a rotating vertical axis wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    The objective of this report is to provide turbulent wind analyses relevant to the design and testing of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). A technique was developed for utilizing high-speed turbulence wind data from a line of seven anemometers at a single level to simulate the wind seen by a rotating VAWT blade. Twelve data cases, representing a range of wind speeds and stability classes, were selected from the large volume of data available from the Clayton, New Mexico, Vertical Plane Array (VPA) project. Simulations were run of the rotationally sampled wind speed relative to the earth, as well as the tangential and radial wind speeds, which are relative to the rotating wind turbine blade. Spectral analysis is used to compare and assess wind simulations from the different wind regimes, as well as from alternate wind measurement techniques. The variance in the wind speed at frequencies at or above the blade rotation rate is computed for all cases, and is used to quantitatively compare the VAWT simulations with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) simulations. Qualitative comparisons are also made with direct wind measurements from a VAWT blade.

  15. Laminar Flame Speed Measurments of Synthetic Gas Blends with Hydrocarbon Impurities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keesee, Charles Lewis

    2015-04-09

    New laminar flame speed measurements have been taken for a wide range of synthetic gas, or syngas, mixtures. These experiments began with two baseline mixtures. The first of these baseline mixtures was a bio-syngas surrogate with a 50/50 H2/CO split...

  16. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-06-04

    We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

  17. Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Pukayastha, A.; St. Martin, C.; Newsom, R.

    2014-03-01

    Previous estimates of the wind resources in Uttarakhand, India, suggest minimal wind resources in this region. To explore whether or not the complex terrain in fact provides localized regions of wind resource, the authors of this study employed a dynamic down scaling method with the Weather Research and Forecasting model, providing detailed estimates of winds at approximately 1 km resolution in the finest nested simulation.

  18. Comparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    a ship-mounted sodar at a small offshore wind farm. The experiments were conducted at varying distances Offshore wind farms have increased in size from the first phase of installation with up to 20 turbinesComparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar R

  19. THEMIS observations of a hot flow anomaly: Solar wind, magnetosheath, and ground-based measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mende, Stephen B.

    solar wind, and it has been suggested that they have a significant impact on the mag- netosphere [eTHEMIS observations of a hot flow anomaly: Solar wind, magnetosheath, and ground-based measurements and the subsequent downstream response. THEMIS-A, in the solar wind, observed classic HFA signatures. Isotropic

  20. Energy analysis of substorms based on remote sensing techniques, solar wind measurements, and geomagnetic indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?stgaard, Nikolai

    Energy analysis of substorms based on remote sensing techniques, solar wind measurements to balance the energy budget. We find that a viscous interaction that transfers 0.17% of the solar wind, is sufficient to balance the total energy dissipation UT. INDEX TERMS: 2784 Magnetospheric Physics: Solar wind

  1. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  2. Measurement of Infrasound Emissions from Wind Turbines Dave Pepyne, Michael Zink and Jamyang Tenzin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Measurement of Infrasound Emissions from Wind Turbines Dave Pepyne, Michael Zink and Jamyang Tenzin energy has made wind turbine technology a suitable candidate for pollution-free energy. With its great that received many complaints from the residents living near the large wind turbine poles. Many scientists

  3. Final Map Draft Comparison Report WIND ENERGY RESOURCE MODELING AND MEASUREMENT PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    II Final Map Draft Comparison Report #12;WIND ENERGY RESOURCE MODELING AND MEASUREMENT PROJECT Tel: 978-749-9591 Fax: 978-749-9713 mbrower@awstruewind.com August 10, 2004 #12;2 WIND ENERGY RESOURCE issues. 1 Background In Task 2 of the project, five promising areas of the state for wind energy

  4. Adaptive Beamforming Technique for Accurate Vertical Wind Measurements with Multichannel MST Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Toru

    -constrained minimization of power (NC-DCMP) algo- rithm, which provides not only robustness but also higher accuracy thanAdaptive Beamforming Technique for Accurate Vertical Wind Measurements with Multichannel MST Radar wind estimates due to contamination by horizontal wind components. An adaptive beamforming technique

  5. RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND IONS WITH THE TRIANA PLASMAG FARADAY CUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    of the solar wind all the time, data in a new energy per charge window can be taken as soon as the power supply for several instruments on various spacecraft (s/c). Instrument s/c stabilization tspec [s] Launch year WIND/SWE/FCRAPID MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND IONS WITH THE TRIANA PLASMAG FARADAY CUP MATTHIAS R. AELLIG, ALAN

  6. ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2002 ­ February 28, 2003 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distributions

  7. WIND DATA REPORT January -December, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven January - December, 2003 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric Cooperative...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  8. WIND DATA REPORT January -March, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven January - March, 2004 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric Cooperative...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  9. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall August 18, 2003 ­ December 4, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

  10. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot May 1, 2003 ­ July 15, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non-hydrostatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non- hydrostatic model Vincent Guénard, Center for Energy is developed for assessing the wind resource and its uncertainty. The work focuses on an existing wind farm mast measurements. The wind speed and turbulence fields are discussed. It is shown that the k

  12. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  13. High temperature measurement using very high shutter speed to avoid image saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    This paper explores the adaptation of the two-colour principle to develop a high-speed colour temperature correlation system, which is able to cover a range of temperature that is challenging to achieve before. A colour digital camera has built in RGB filters. It is possible to measure the temperature from the ratio of intensity of the green and red pixels using the two-colour principle based on the expansion of the Plank’s radiation law. In this study, experiments were carried out using a temperature calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp which can be tuned to vary from 1300 to 2200°C. Using very high shutter speed and small aperture, the high-speed camera successfully captured the tungsten ribbon without image saturation at the full temperature scale. Tests have been carried out at different temperature and camera settings. The sensitivity and errors have been analysed, and experiment results demonstrate the potential of using very high shutter speed is available for measuring the temperature even beyond 2200°C.

  14. High Speed Peltier Calorimeter for the Calibration of High Bandwidth Power Measurement Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frost, Damien F

    2015-01-01

    Accurate power measurements of electronic components operating at high frequencies are vital in determining where power losses occur in a system such as a power converter. Such power measurements must be carried out with equipment that can accurately measure real power at high frequency. We present the design of a high speed calorimeter to address this requirement, capable of reaching a steady state in less than 10 minutes. The system uses Peltier thermoelectric coolers to remove heat generated in a load resistance, and was calibrated against known real power measurements using an artificial neural network. A dead zone controller was used to achieve stable power measurements. The calibration was validated and shown to have an absolute accuracy of +/-8 mW (95% confidence interval) for measurements of real power from 0.1 to 5 W.

  15. Solar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    for the Solar Orbiter mission. One can already figure out what could be the Te gra- dients in this radial rangeSolar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise Abstract The measurement of the solar wind electron temperature in the unexplored region between 1 and 45

  16. Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.206) Track: Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.206) Track: Technical INVESTIGATION OF THE MEASUREMENT OF THE WIND SPEED STANDARD DEVIATION USING) Siemens wind power The LiDAR seems to be an effective alternative to met masts measurements of wind

  17. Ris-R-Report Verification test for three WindCubeTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sensors mounted at a meteorological mast. Results are presented for three tested units ­ in detail the evaluation of measured mean wind speeds, wind directions and wind speed standard deviations. The data.6 Specifications of reference sensors 10 2.7 Time synchronization 10 3 Procedure of testing (verification test

  18. Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind S.C. Pryor1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind Speeds S.C. Pryor1,2 , R, Bloomington, IN47405, USA. Tel: 1-812-855-5155. Fax: 1-812-855-1661 Email: spryor@indiana.edu 2 Dept. of Wind an attractive proposition for measuring wind speeds over the oceans because in principle they also offer

  19. On local and global measurements of the speed of light on rotating platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Rizzi; A. Tartaglia

    1999-04-12

    The paper shows that, conceptually and operationally, the speed of light as measured locally in the inertial comoving frame of a point on the rim of a rotating disk, is different from the one measured globally for a round trip along the rim, obtained dividing the length of the rim (as measured in the ''relative space'' of the disk) by the time of flight of the light beam (as measured by a clock at rest on the disk). As a consequence, contrary to some recent claims, the anisotropy found in the global value, obtained by the above procedure, in no way conflicts with the local isotropy, and the internal consistency of the special relativity theory remains unchallenged.

  20. Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layer stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2009-01-01

    Can satellite sampling of offshore wind speeds realisticallydata to evaluate the offshore wind power resource of

  1. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholbrock, F. A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon M.; Vercherin, B.

    2014-02-01

    Integrating Lidar to improve wind turbine controls is a potential breakthrough for reducing the cost of wind energy. By providing undisturbed wind measurements up to 400m in front of the rotor, Lidar may provide an accurate update of the turbine inflow with a preview time of several seconds. Focusing on loads, several studies have evaluated potential reductions using integrated Lidar, either by simulation or full scale field testing.

  2. The effect of imbalance distribution and measurement locations on critical speeds in a turboprop engine rotor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, Manuel

    1996-01-01

    The critical speeds of a turbomachine can be defined as the speeds at which synchronous response to imbalance is maximum (Vance,1988). Identifying the proper placement of critical speeds is very important in the design process of turbomachinery...

  3. DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models 1 BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND TURBINES Dipl.-Ing. René Kamieth, Prof. Dr, Germany, Tel.: +49-(0)30-314-23603, Fax: +49-(0)30-314-26131 Summary Wind turbines built in the last

  4. Verification of the helioseismology travel-time measurement technique and the inversion procedure for sound speed using artificial data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parchevsky, K. V.; Zhao, J.; Hartlep, T.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-04-10

    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar surface acoustic wave field for the quiet Sun and for three models with different localized sound-speed perturbations in the interior with deep, shallow, and two-layer structures. We used the simulated data generated by two solar acoustics codes that employ the same standard solar model as a background model, but utilize different integration techniques and different models of stochastic wave excitation. Acoustic travel times were measured using a time-distance helioseismology technique, and compared with predictions from ray theory frequently used for helioseismic travel-time inversions. It is found that the measured travel-time shifts agree well with the helioseismic theory for sound-speed perturbations, and for the measurement procedure with and without phase-speed filtering of the oscillation signals. This testing verifies the whole measuring-filtering-inversion procedure for static sound-speed anomalies with small amplitude inside the Sun outside regions of strong magnetic field. It is shown that the phase-speed filtering, frequently used to extract specific wave packets and improve the signal-to-noise ratio, does not introduce significant systematic errors. Results of the sound-speed inversion procedure show good agreement with the perturbation models in all cases. Due to its smoothing nature, the inversion procedure may overestimate sound-speed variations in regions with sharp gradients of the sound-speed profile.

  5. Stochastic model for indirect estimation of instantaneous and cumulative loads in wind turbines: a systematic approach for off-shore wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Stochastic model for indirect estimation of instantaneous and cumulative loads in wind turbines present our recent findings for estimating instantaneous and cumulative loads in singles wind turbines at single wind turbines, driven by wind speed measurements. Through a standard fatigue analysis of data

  6. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2004), 130, pp. 120 Using mesocale model winds for correcting wind-drift errors in radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    2004-01-01

    itself moving horizontally with the speed of the wind at the height of the generating level. More recenQ. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2004), 130, pp. 1­20 Using mesocale model winds for correcting wind are inferred from measurements made in the snow and ice. Snow and ice are more susceptible to wind-drift than

  7. Measurement and Numerical Simulation of Wind Environment for One Residential District 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, C.; Li, N.

    2006-01-01

    . In this study the wind environment of this area is measured and the influence factor is analyzed. Based on these testing data, some of which are regarded as the boundary conditions, this study employs the commercial software FLUENT to calculate the wind field...

  8. X-ray Spectral Measurements of the Most Massive Stars: Stellar Wind Mass-Loss Rates and Shock Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Spectral Measurements of the Most Massive Stars: Stellar Wind Mass-Loss Rates and Shock, and their winds (the site of X-ray production). From the basic question of how the X-rays are produced, I have branched out to questions of wind structure and wind mass-loss rates that the X-ray observations can

  9. Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban; Sinha, Dipen N.; Osterhoudt, Curtis F.

    2012-08-15

    Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

  10. WIND DATA REPORT September 1 2003 November 30 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Paxton, MA September 1 2003 ­ November 30 2003 by James F. Manwell Anthony F.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. WIND DATA REPORT September 1, 2003 November 31, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Mt. Tom September 1, 2003 ­ November 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  12. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME December 1, 2006 ­ February 28, 2007...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 8 Wind Speed Distributions

  13. WIND DATA REPORT January 1, 2004 December 31, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven January 1, 2004 ­ December 31, 2004 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  14. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME March 1st 2006 to May 31th 2006 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  15. WIND DATA REPORT December 1 2003 February 29 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Paxton, MA December 1 2003 ­ February 29 2004 Prepared for Diane Dillman, Paxton.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  16. WIND DATA REPORT December, 2003 February 29, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Orleans December, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  17. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME September 1st 2006 to November 30th 2006.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  18. WIND DATA REPORT October 27, 2003 November 31, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Orleans October 27, 2003 ­ November 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  19. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME December 1st 2005 to February 28th 2006.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  20. WIND DATA REPORT March 1, 2004 May 31, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Eastham March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  1. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME June 1st 2006 to August 31th 2006 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  2. WIND DATA REPORT December 1, 2003 February 29, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Mt. Tom December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  3. WIND DATA REPORT August 28 -December 31, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Vinalhaven August 28 - December 31, 2002 Prepared for Fox Islands Electric...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  4. Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind by truncating those bins. I do so by assuming that the sub-bin distribution follows the power law found by both

  5. Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound of Liquid HBO2: On Unlocking the Fuel Potential of Boron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S; Crowhurst, J; Armstrong, M; ., N T

    2010-03-24

    Elucidation of geodynamic, geochemical, and shock induced processes is often limited by challenges to accurately determine molecular fluid equations of state (EOS). High pressure liquid state reactions of carbon species underlie physiochemical mechanisms such as differentiation of planetary interiors, deep carbon sequestration, propellant deflagration, and shock chemistry. Here we introduce a versatile photoacoustic technique developed to measure accurate and precise speeds of sound (SoS) of high pressure molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. SoS of an intermediate boron oxide, HBO{sub 2} are measured up to 0.5 GPa along the 277 C isotherm. A polarized Exponential-6 interatomic potential form, parameterized using our SoS data, enables EOS determinations and corresponding semi-empirical evaluations of > 2000 C thermodynamic states including energy release from bororganic formulations. Our thermochemical model propitiously predicts boronated hydrocarbon shock Hugoniot results.

  6. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

    2014-05-01

    Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

  7. Fast Verification of Wind Turbine Power Summary of Project Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast Verification of Wind Turbine Power Curves: Summary of Project Results by: Cameron Brown ­ s in the FastWind project. Several methods of estimating the power curve uncertainty were developed, it was found to be sensitive to the coherence of high frequency wind speed and power measurements

  8. Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-31

    An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

  9. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F. [Center for Applied Nanobioscience and Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, 425 N 5th Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85004 (United States)] [Center for Applied Nanobioscience and Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, 425 N 5th Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85004 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  10. Rotationally sampled wind characteristics and correlations with MOD-OA wind turbine response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, R.L.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents results of a comprehensive wind and wind turbine measurement program: the Clayton, New Mexico, vertical plane array/MOD-OA project. In this experiment, the turbulent wind was measured for a large array of fixed anemometers located two blade diameters upwind of a 200-kW horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). Simultaneously, key wind turbine response parameters were also measured. The first of two major objectives of this experiment was to determine the turbulent wind, rotationally sampled to emulate the motion of the wind turbine blade, for the range of different wind speeds and stability classes actually experienced by the wind turbine. The second major objective was to correlate this rotationally sampled wind with the wind turbine blade stress and power, in order to assess the usefulness of the wind measurements for wind turbine loads testing a prediction. Time series of rotationally sampled winds and wind turbine blade bending moments and power were converted to frequency spectra using Fourier transform techniques. These spectra were used as the basis for both qualitative and quantitative comparisons among the various cases. A quantitative comparison between the rotationally sampled wind input and blade bending response was made, using the Fourier spectra to estimate the blade transfer function. These transfer functions were then used to calculate an approximate damping coefficient for the MOD-OA fiberglass blade.

  11. A WRF Ensemble for Improved Wind Speed Forecasts at Turbine Height ADAM J. DEPPE AND WILLIAM A. GALLUS JR.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    University, Ames, Iowa (Manuscript received 2 October 2011, in final form 15 May 2013) ABSTRACT The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with 10-km horizontal grid spacing was used to explore improvements.S. Department of Energy goal of having 20% of the nation's electrical energy from wind by 2030 will require

  12. High speed measurements of neutral beam turn-on and impact of beam modulation on measurements of ion density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, B. A., E-mail: bgriers@pppl.gov; Grisham, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Crowley, B.; Scoville, J. T. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Modulation of neutral beams on tokamaks is performed routinely, enabling background rejection for active spectroscopic diagnostics, and control of injected power and torque. We find that there exists an anomalous initial transient in the beam neutrals delivered to the tokamak that is not accounted for by the accelerator voltage and power supply current. Measurements of the charge-exchange and beam photoemission on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] at high speed (200 ?s) reveal that the energy of the beam neutrals is constant, but the density of beam neutrals displays dramatic variation in the first 2–3 ms following beam turn-on. The impact of this beam density variation on inferred ion densities and impurity transport is presented, with suggested means to correct for the anomalous transient.

  13. Seasonal variations in the equatorial thermospheric wind measured at Arequipa, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondi, M.A.; Merriwether, J.W.; Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A.

    1990-08-01

    Studies have been carried out Arequipa, Peru, of the seasonal variations in the thermospheric winds at moderate solar flux levels and geomagnetic activity. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the doppler shifts in the 630.0 nm nightglow emission line from March to August 1983 and from April to October 1988 have yielded monthly-average meridional winds that are nearly zero (<50 m/s) and possible fluctuating in direction through much of the night but develop a southward flow at 50 - 100 m/s in the early and the late night from May onward. The average zonal winds are eastward throughout the night, reaching peak velocities before local midnight and then decreasing. The peak velocities increase to a maximum around the June solstice. The winds are generally stronger in 1988 than in 1983, even thought the solar EUV fluxes are comparable fro both years. Comparison of the present results with earlier satellite measurements, as embodied in the Horizontal Wind Model of Hedin et al., reveals generally satisfactory agreement at the equinox and June solstice, except for the June 1988 period. NCAR Therospheric General Circulation Model, calculated for similar solar flux levels, yields meridional and zonal wind variations which exhibit the same temporal behaviors but generally smaller values than the present measurements.

  14. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  15. Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01

    Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the UnitedScale Integration of Wind Power and on Transmission Networks11 Wind Power Density and Wind Speed

  16. 3D Pitot Tube Measurements and Calibration in the Wind Tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D Pitot Tube Measurements and Calibration in the Wind Tunnel Center for Measurement Standards by CFD 9 #12;Copyright 2014 ITRI Omni-type 3D pitot tube Characterization of Pitot Tubes - Design of 3D.4) % · With grid No.4: T.I.= (1.7 to 4.4) % Grid-generated turbulent flow Calibration Facilities - Turbulence

  17. A sound budget for the southeastern Bering Sea: measuring wind, rainfall, shipping and other sources of underwater sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by wind-driven breaking waves and precipitation. These physical processes generate sound principally,6 . Because wind-driven breaking waves and raindrop splashes generate different distributions of bubbles sizesA sound budget for the southeastern Bering Sea: measuring wind, rainfall, shipping and other

  18. Strong wind forcing of the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    of mesoscale and steady wind driven 1. Introduction 2. Modelparameterization at high wind speeds 1. Introduction 2. DataSupplementary Formulae 1. Wind Stress 2. Rankine Vortex A .

  19. A differential model for predicting growth of the upper convective zone of a solar pond due to wind speed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hullender, Todd Allan

    1991-01-01

    pond, containing less empiricism and therefore a better model of the physics. Secondly, this model is heated from below, just as the experimental wind/wave tank constructed at the Texas A8cM Energy Systems Laboratory [9[. This tank has dimensions 2... for the anisotropic component of the dissipation. The conservation equation for dissipation is of the form ? f C~2/k where the terms on the RHS account for molecular and turbulent diffusion, buoyant production or destruction, and viscous destruction. Before...

  20. Temporal variability of the trade wind inversion: Measured with a boundary layer vertical profiler. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grindinger, C.M.

    1992-05-01

    This study uses Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) data, from the summer of 1991, to show a boundary layer wind profiler can be used to measure the trade wind inversion. An algorithm has been developed for the profiler that objectively measures the depth of the moist oceanic boundary layer. The Hilo inversion, measured by radiosonde, is highly correlated with the moist oceanic boundary layer measured by the profiler at Paradise Park. The inversion height on windward Hawaii is typically 2253 + or - 514 m. The inversion height varies not only on a daily basis, but on less than an hourly basis. It has a diurnal, as well as a three to four day cycle. There appears to be no consistent relationship between inversion height and precipitation. Currently, this profiler is capable of making high frequency (12 minute) measurements of the inversion base variation, as well as other features.

  1. NREL Develops New Controls that Proactively Adapt to the Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    Until now, wind turbine controls that reduce the impacts of wind gusts and turbulence were always reactive-responding to the wind rather than anticipating it. But with today's laser-based sensors that measure wind speed ahead of the turbine, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and their industry partners are developing more intelligent controls. The world's first field tests of these controls are currently underway at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL, with plans for future commercialization.

  2. NREL Develops New Controls that Proactively Adapt to the Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Until now, wind turbine controls that reduce the impacts of wind gusts and turbulence were always reactive -- responding to the wind rather than anticipating it. But with today's laser-based sensors that measure wind speed ahead of the turbine, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and their industry partners are developing more intelligent controls. The world's first field tests of these controls are currently underway at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL, with plans for future commercialization.

  3. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind and HydropowerSpeed Sites. ” European Wind Energy Association. Marseille,Innovation and the price of wind energy in the US. ” Energy

  4. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Speed Sites. ” European Wind Energy Association. Marseille,Innovation and the price of wind energy in the US. ” EnergyThe Economics of Wind Energy. ” Renewable and Sustainable

  5. Indirect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Multi-Component Gas By Measuring The Speed Of Sound At Two States Of The Gas.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

    2004-10-12

    A methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a gas mixture. The molecular weight of the gas is modeled as a function of the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the speed of sound in the gas is measured at two states and diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, two equations for molecular weight can be equated and solved for the nitrogen concentration in the gas mixture.

  6. RADARSAT SCANSAR WIND RETRIEVAL AND RAIN EFFECTS ON SCANSAR MEASUREMENTS UNDER HURRICANE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RADARSAT SCANSAR WIND RETRIEVAL AND RAIN EFFECTS ON SCANSAR MEASUREMENTS UNDER HURRICANE CONDITIONS CB, Provo, Utah 84602 ABSTRACT RADARSAT-1 ScanSAR SWA images of Hurricane Katrina are used-band polarization ratio models have been proposed, none have been well verified in hurricane conditions. Although C

  7. Airâ??sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, T. G; De Bruyn, W.; Miller, S. D; Ward, B.; Christensen, K.; Saltzman, E. S

    2013-01-01

    O. : Modulation of short wind waves by long waves, J.P. , and Donelan, M. A. : Wind stress in the presence ofunder moderate to strong wind conditions, J. Geophys. Res. -

  8. Preprint submitted to the Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference EWEC in Madrid, Spain June 2003 PREVIENTO meets HORNS REV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    of future offshore wind farms. Surprisingly, in all possible thermal conditions measured speeds of westerly Horns Rev offshore wind farm has to be considered as a step to new dimensions in wind power production June 2003 1 PREVIENTO meets HORNS REV Short-Term Wind-Power Prediction ­ adaptation to Offshore Sites

  9. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    B spacecraft for L1 solar wind prediction purposes (e.g.solar wind model currently running at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction

  10. A Note on the Estimation of Eddy Diffusivity and Dissipation Length in Low Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    poses a challenge for modeling air pollutant diffusion. In tropics, because of the dominant low wind atmosphere in low­wind speeds. Turbulence measurements at 1 Hz were made at 4-m level over an urban terrainA Note on the Estimation of Eddy Diffusivity and Dissipation Length in Low Winds over a Tropical

  11. Comparison of optically measured and radar-derived horizontal neutral winds. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christie, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Nighttime thermospheric winds for Sondrestrom, Greenland from 11 nights between 1983 and 1988, have been compared to learn about the O(+)-O collision cross section and the high-latitude atomic oxygen density. The horizontal winds in the magnetic meridian were derived indirectly from incoherent-scatter radar (ISR) measurements on ion velocities antiparallel to the magnetic field and directly from Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) measurements of Doppler shifts of the (6300-A) emission of atomic oxygen. In deriving the radar winds, the O(+)-O collision cross section, was scaled by a factor of f what was varied from 0.5 to 5.1. On the basis of several arguments the altitude of the 6300-A emission was assumed to be 230 km. The best agreement between the ISR and FPI winds was obtained when f was increased substantially, to between 1.7 and 3.4. If the average peak emission altitude were higher, these factors would be larger; if it were lower, they would be somewhat smaller. However, if the average altitude were substantially lower it would have been more difficult to have obtained agreement between the two techniques.

  12. Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  13. Wind measurements are fundamental inputs for the evaluation of potential energy yield and performance of wind farms. Three-dimensional scanning coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) may provide a new basis for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for wind farm site selection, design, and control. In this research, CDL measurements obtained from, terrain effects, spatial variation of winds, power density, and the effect of shear at different layers is used to estimate the spatial power density at hub height. Since CDL can measure winds at different

  14. Performance Indicators of Wind Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, G; Prattico, F

    2015-01-01

    Modeling wind speed is one of the key element when dealing with the production of energy through wind turbines. A good model can be used for forecasting, site evaluation, turbines design and many other purposes. In this work we are interested in the analysis of the future financial cash flows generated by selling the electrical energy produced. We apply an indexed semi-Markov model of wind speed that has been shown, in previous investigation, to reproduce accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed. The model is applied to the evaluation of financial indicators like the Internal Rate of Return, semi-Elasticity and relative Convexity that are widely used for the assessment of the profitability of an investment and for the measurement and analysis of interest rate risk. We compare the computation of these indicators for real and synthetic data. Moreover, we propose a new indicator that can be used to compare the degree of utilization of different power plants.

  15. Measurement of Truck Cab Flow in Support of Wind Turbine Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larwood, S. M. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Acker, B.; Sencenbaugh, J. (Windlite Corporation)

    1998-12-17

    This report describes an experiment to measure the airflow over a truck cab that can be used to conduct steady-state tests on an 8-kW wind turbine. The cab airflow measurements were made to document the turbine inflow for analytical models. The airflow measurements were made with an array of anemometers positioned to represent the turbine rotor disk. The data showed that the influence of the truck cab was primarily in the lower sector of the rotor disk. The influence was negligible in the rest of the rotor disk.

  16. SU-E-T-598: The Effects of Arm Speed for Quality Assurance and Commissioning Measurements in Rectangular and Cylindrical Scanners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhtiari, M; Schmitt, J [RadAmerica, LLC--MedStar Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cylindrical and rectangular scanning water tanks are examined with different scanning speeds to investigate the TG-106 criteria and the errors induced in the measurements. Methods: Beam profiles were measured in a depth of R50 for a low-energy electron beam (6 MeV) using rectangular and cylindrical tanks. The speeds of the measurements (arm movement) were varied in different profile measurements. Each profile was measured with a certain speed to obtain the average and standard deviation as a parameter for investigating the reproducibility and errors. Results: At arm speeds of ?0.8 mm/s the errors were as large as 2% and 1% with rectangular and cylindrical tanks, respectively. The errors for electron beams and for photon beams in other depths were within the TG-106 criteria of 1% for both tank shapes. Conclusion: The measurements of low-energy electron beams in a depth of R50, as an extreme case scenario, are sensitive to the speed of the measurement arms for both rectangular and cylindrical tanks. The measurements in other depths, for electron beams and photon beams, with arm speeds of less than 1 cm/s are within the TG-106 criteria. An arm speed of 5 mm/s appeared to be optimal for fast and accurate measurements for both cylindrical and rectangular tanks.

  17. Amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarewicz, Rufin

    2013-01-01

    Due to swish and thump amplitude modulation, the noise of wind turbines cause more annoyance than other environmental noise of the same average level. The wind shear accounts for the thump modulation (van den Berg effect). Making use of the wind speed measurements at the hub height, as well as at the top and the bottom of the rotor disc (Fig.1), the non-standard wind profile is applied. It causes variations in the A-weighted sound pressure level, LpA. The difference between the maximum and minimum of LpA characterizes thump modulation (Fig.2).

  18. VLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements: Ulysses observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    solar wind streams, Ulysses observed nearly continuous electric wave activity with peak power belowVLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements present observations of very low frequency (VLF) waves (0.2 to 448 Hz) made by Ulysses during the solar

  19. Airplane and the wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Airplane and the wind. An airplane starts from the point A and flies to B. The speed of the airplane with respect to the air is v (constant). There is also a wind of

  20. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Schweizer, T.; Laxson, A.; Butterfield, S.; Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Veers, P.; Ashwill, T.

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  1. Measurement of laminar burning speeds and Markstein lengths using a novel methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahtouh, Toni; Halter, Fabien; Mounaim-Rousselle, Christine [Institut PRISME, Universite d'Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci-45072, Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2009-09-15

    Three different methodologies used for the extraction of laminar information are compared and discussed. Starting from an asymptotic analysis assuming a linear relation between the propagation speed and the stretch acting on the flame front, temporal radius evolutions of spherically expanding laminar flames are postprocessed to obtain laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths. The first methodology fits the temporal radius evolution with a polynomial function, while the new methodology proposed uses the exact solution of the linear relation linking the flame speed and the stretch as a fit. The last methodology consists in an analytical resolution of the problem. To test the different methodologies, experiments were carried out in a stainless steel combustion chamber with methane/air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.55 to 1.3. The classical shadowgraph technique was used to detect the reaction zone. The new methodology has proven to be the most robust and provides the most accurate results, while the polynomial methodology induces some errors due to the differentiation process. As original radii are used in the analytical methodology, it is more affected by the experimental radius determination. Finally, laminar burning velocity and Markstein length values determined with the new methodology are compared with results reported in the literature. (author)

  2. Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layer stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2009-01-01

    2005), Evaluation of global wind power, J. Geophys. Res. ,Pryor (2003), Can satellite sampling of offshore wind speedsrealistically represent wind speed distributions? , J. Appl.

  3. An experimental and numerical study of wind turbine seismic behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prowell, I.

    2011-01-01

    wind was unavailable, power (from an external electric generator)wind conditions and 22 RPM in higher wind speeds by adjusting the generator power

  4. Temporal trends in and influence of wind on PAH concentrations measured near the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes, D.R.; Basu, I.; Sweet, C.W.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    This paper reports on temporal trends in gas- and particle-phase PAH concentrations measured at three sites in the Great Lakes' Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network: Eagle Harbor, near Lake Superior, Sleeping Bear Dunes, near Lake Michigan, and Sturgeon Point, near Lake Erie. While gas-phase concentrations have been decreasing since 1991 at all sites, particle-phase concentrations have been decreasing only at Sleeping Bear Dunes. To determine whether these results represent trends in background levels or regional emissions, the average concentrations are compared to those found in urban and rural studies. In addition, the influence of local wind direction on PAH concentrations is investigated, with the assumption that dependence on wind direction implies regional sources. Using these two methods, it is found that PAH concentrations at Eagle Harbor and Sleeping Bear Dunes represent regional background levels but that PAH from the Buffalo Region intrude on the background levels measured at the Sturgeon Point site. At this site, wind from over Lake Erie reduces local PAH concentrations.

  5. Experimental and numerical study of the accuracy of flame-speed measurements for methane/air combustion in a slot burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selle, L.; Ferret, B. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-15

    Measuring the velocities of premixed laminar flames with precision remains a controversial issue in the combustion community. This paper studies the accuracy of such measurements in two-dimensional slot burners and shows that while methane/air flame speeds can be measured with reasonable accuracy, the method may lack precision for other mixtures such as hydrogen/air. Curvature at the flame tip, strain on the flame sides and local quenching at the flame base can modify local flame speeds and require corrections which are studied using two-dimensional DNS. Numerical simulations also provide stretch, displacement and consumption flame speeds along the flame front. For methane/air flames, DNS show that the local stretch remains small so that the local consumption speed is very close to the unstretched premixed flame speed. The only correction needed to correctly predict flame speeds in this case is due to the finite aspect ratio of the slot used to inject the premixed gases which induces a flow acceleration in the measurement region (this correction can be evaluated from velocity measurement in the slot section or from an analytical solution). The method is applied to methane/air flames with and without water addition and results are compared to experimental data found in the literature. The paper then discusses the limitations of the slot-burner method to measure flame speeds for other mixtures and shows that it is not well adapted to mixtures with a Lewis number far from unity, such as hydrogen/air flames. (author)

  6. Best Practices in Grid Integration of Variable Wind Power: Summary of Recent US Case Study Results and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J. Charles (UWIG); Parsons, B.; (NREL), Acker, T.; (NAU), Milligan, M.; (NREL), Zavadil, R.

    2010-01-22

    This paper will summarize results from a number of utility wind integration case studies conducted recently in the US, and outline a number of mitigation measures based on insights from those studies.

  7. Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  8. With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the Northwest side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps to the Northwest, measuring up to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the Northwest side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass. The method being explored uses real-time measurements of wind velocity made upstream of the wind farm and models the power output of a turbine in the wind farm as though it were located upstream. This determines

  9. Wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  10. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  11. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts little impact on power output during the winter and autumn periods. During the spring and summer seasons, power output for a given wind speed was significantly higher during stable conditions and significantly lower during strongly convective conditions: power output differences approached 20% between stable and convective regimes. The dependency of stability on power output was apparent only when both turbulence and the shape of the wind speed profile were considered. Turbulence is one of the mechanisms by which atmospheric stability affects a turbine's power curve at this particular site, and measurements of turbulence can yield actionable insights into wind turbine behavior.

  12. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Bolinger, M. ( 2011). 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report.Cost of Energy From U.S. Wind Power Projects. Presentationand Energy Capture at Low Wind Speed Sites. ” European Wind

  13. High-speed non-contact measuring apparatus for gauging the thickness of moving sheet material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grann, Eric B. (San Ramon, CA); Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An optical measurement apparatus is provided for measuring the thickness of a moving sheet material (18). The apparatus has a pair of optical measurement systems (21, 31) attached to opposing surfaces (14, 16) of a rigid support structure (10). A pair of high-power laser diodes (20,30) and a pair of photodetector arrays (22,32) are attached to the opposing surfaces. Light emitted from the laser diodes is reflected off of the sheet material surfaces (17, 19) and received by the respective photodetector arrays. An associated method for implementing the apparatus is also provided.

  14. Acoustic method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in automotive applications, such as measuring the ex- haust gas recirculation EGR in combustion engines and the quality of gaseous fuels for alternative fueled vehicles such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane

  15. Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound and the Equation of State of HBO2: On Understanding Detonation with Boron Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaug, J M; Bastea, S; Crowhurst, J; Armstrong, M; Fried, L; Teslich, N

    2010-03-09

    Elucidation of geodynamic, geochemical, and shock induced processes is limited by challenges to accurately determine molecular fluid equations of state (EOS). High pressure liquid state reactions of carbon species underlie physiochemical mechanisms such as differentiation of planetary interiors, deep carbon sequestration, propellant deflagration, and shock chemistry. In this proceedings paper we introduce a versatile photoacoustic technique developed to measure accurate and precise speeds of sound (SoS) of high pressure molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. SoS of an intermediate boron oxide, HBO{sub 2} are measured up to 0.5 GPa along the 277 C isotherm. A polarized exponential-6 interatomic potential form, parameterized using our SoS data, enables EOS determinations and corresponding semi-empirical evaluations of >2000 C thermodynamic states including energy release from bororganic formulations. Our thermochemical model propitiously predicts boronated hydrocarbon shock Hugoniot results.

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 23, NO. 2, JUNE 2008 551 Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable-Speed Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    turbine to evaluate its consistency and performance. The next step was the validation using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine simulator called the fatigue, aerodynamics, structures

  17. Loading and Response of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures: Prediction with Comparison to Measured Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    Loading and Response of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures: Prediction with Comparison, offshore wind support platforms differ from oil platforms is several important ways: First, wind platforms turbines, combined with the relatively slender profit margins in the offshore wind business, makes cost

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 042146 (2013) Uncovering wind turbine properties through two-dimensional stochastic modeling of wind dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 042146 (2013) Uncovering wind turbine properties through two, such as the rated speed of the wind turbine or the descriptive wind speed statistics, can be related to the equations describing the evolution of power production and wind speed at single wind turbines. DOI: 10

  19. Inflow Characterization and Aerodynamics Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.; Fingersh, L.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Post processing techniques for aerodynamic data acquired from a Siemens SWT-2.3-101 turbine have been developed and applied in this paper. The turbine is installed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as part of Cooperative Research And Development Agreement between Siemens Wind Power and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The results indicate that the use of these corrections is essential for accurate analysis of the data. An example of local inflow angles, velocities, and inflow velocity over the rotor plane derived from measurements from a 5-hole probe is also presented. Finally the pressure measurements are used to characterize unsteady phenomenon, namely, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall on an inboard station. The results show that the rotational augmentation can considerably increase the attached flow regime compared to the 2D CFD results. The dynamic stall event was seen to significantly delay the stall. Furthermore, the nondimensionalized vortex convection derived from the dynamic stall event was found to agree well with results from others studies.

  20. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures; (2) Updated and improved application guidelines and manuals from associations and manufacturers; (3) Launched certified product installer programs; and (4) Submitted building code changes to improve product installation. Estimated wind speeds at the damage locations came from simulated hurricane models prepared by Applied Research Associates of Raleigh, North Carolina. A dynamic hurricane wind field model was calibrated to actual wind speeds measured at 12 inland and offshore stations. The maximum estimated peak gust wind speeds in Katrina were in the 120-130 mph range. Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana, and traveled almost due north across the city of New Orleans. Hurricane winds hammered the coastline from Houma, Louisiana, to Pensacola, Florida. The severe flooding problems in New Orleans made it almost impossible for the investigating teams to function inside the city. Thus the WIP investigations were all conducted in areas east of the city. The six teams covered the coastal areas from Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi, on the west to Pascagoula, Mississippi, on the east. Six teams involving a total of 25 persons documented damage to both low slope and steep slope roofing systems. The teams collected specific information on each building examined, including type of structure (use or occupancy), wall construction, roof type, roof slope, building dimensions, roof deck, insulation, construction, and method of roof attachment. In addition, the teams noted terrain exposure and the estimated wind speeds at the building site from the Katrina wind speed map. With each team member assigned a specific duty, they described the damage in detail and illustrated important features with numerous color photos. Where possible, the points of damage initiation were identified and damage propagation described. Because the wind speeds in Katrina at landfall, where the investigations took place, were less than code-specified design speeds, one would expect roof damage to be minimal. One team speculated that damage to all roofs in the area they examined was les

  1. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  2. Wind Climate Analyses for National Weather Service Stations in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, A.H.

    2003-02-10

    Wind speed and direction data have been collected by National Weather Service (NWS) Stations in the U.S. for a number of years and presented in various forms to help depict the climate for different regions. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is particularly interested in the Southeast since mesoscale models using NWS wind observations are run on a daily basis for emergency response and other operational purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Historically, wind roses have been a convenient method to depict the predominant wind speeds and directions at measurement sites. Some typical applications of wind rose data are for climate and risk assessment; air pollution exposure and dose calculations; siting industrial plants, wind turbine generators, businesses, and homes; city planning; and air stagnation and high ozone concentration studies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the overall relationships of wind patterns for NWS stations in the Southeast. Since organized collection of wind data records in the NWS developed rapidly in conjunction with the expansion of commercial aviation after World War II there are now about 50 years of wind speed and direction data available for a large number of NWS stations in this area. In this study we used wind roses for relatively short time scales to show the progression of winds diurnally and monthly to span a typical year. The date used here consist of wind records from 13 National Weather Service Stations in the Southeastern U.S. for approximately 50-year periods.

  3. Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paudel, Subodh; Santarelli, Massimo; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Le Corre, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    to change in upstream and downstream wind speed from 850 kW,1650 kW and 3000 kW wind turbinesseJ/J) Transformity of Wind Turbine (1650kW) Latitude

  4. Tracking large tabular icebergs using the SeaWinds Ku-band microwave scatterometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    . Originally designed to measure wind speed and direction over the ocean, SeaWinds is a microwave scatterometer. For instance, iceberg positions affect shipping lanes, outline ocean currents, and influence biological. Optical sensors produce high-resolution images but are unable to penetrate cloud cover and are dependent

  5. Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala-processed winds, press., temp, and RH

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Coulter, Richard; Ritsche, Michael

    Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala-processed winds, press., temp, and RH. The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

  6. Observed drag coefficients in high winds in the near offshore of the South China Sea

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bi, Xueyan; Liu, Yangan; Gao, Zhiqiu; Liu, Feng; Song, Qingtao; Huang, Jian; Huang, Huijun; Mao, Weikang; Liu, Chunxia

    2015-07-14

    This paper investigates the relationships between friction velocity, 10 m drag coefficient, and 10 m wind speed using data collected at two offshore observation towers (one over the sea and the other on an island) from seven typhoon episodes in the South China Sea from 2008 to 2014. The two towers were placed in areas with different water depths along a shore-normal line. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m, and the depth of water near the island is about 10 m. The observed maximum 10 min average wind speed at a heightmore »of 10 m is about 32 m s?¹. Momentum fluxes derived from three methods (eddy covariance, inertial dissipation, and flux profile) are compared. The momentum fluxes derived from the flux profile method are larger (smaller) over the sea (on the island) than those from the other two methods. The relationship between the 10 m drag coefficient and the 10 m wind speed is examined by use of the data obtained by the eddy covariance method. The drag coefficient first decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when the wind speeds are 5–10 m s?¹, then increases and reaches a peak value of 0.002 around a wind speed of 18 m s?¹. The drag coefficient decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when 10 m wind speeds are 18–27 m s?¹. A comparison of the measurements from the two towers shows that the 10 m drag coefficient from the tower in 10 m water depth is about 40% larger than that from the tower in 15 m water depth when the 10 m wind speed is less than 10 m s?¹. Above this, the difference in the 10 m drag coefficients of the two towers disappears.« less

  7. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s{sup –1}, we find Ne/O = 0.10 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s{sup –1}, Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 ± 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 ± 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  8. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    r r r r rated power of wind turbine generator rated speed ofWind Characteristics on Annual Power Estimates from Wind Turbine Generators,WIND ARRAYS With the introduction of large generators into power

  9. Wind Technology Advancements and Impacts on Western Wind Resources (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-09-01

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation at the Bureau of Land Management West-wide Wind Opportunities and Constraints Mapping (WWOCM) Project public meeting in Denver, Colorado in September 2014. This presentation outlines recent wind technology advancements, evolving turbine technologies, and industry challenges. The presentation includes maps of mean wind speeds at 50-m, 80-m, and 100-m hub heights on BLM lands. Robichaud also presented on the difference in mean wind speeds from 80m to 100m in Wyoming.

  10. Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar wind and interplanetary magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar, or cross polar cap potential, ÈPC. Periods are chosen to satisfy the criteria that (1) the solar wind-based radars to functional forms of the electrostatic potential [Ruohoniemi and Baker, 1998]; and global mag

  11. Synoptic and local influences on boundary layer processes, with an application to California wind power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansbach, David K.

    2010-01-01

    3.4.2 Wind roses . . . . . . . .Figure 5.5: Downscaled wind speed changes and componentin?uences on California’s wind energy resource. Part 1:

  12. The Effect of Steady Winds on Radon-222 Entry from soil into houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    data generated in a small wind tunnel and meteorologicaldifference was small, high wind speeds were associated withof days. In contrast, small scale wind fluctuations have

  13. International Statistical Review (2012), 80, 1, 223 doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2011.00168.x Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    @stat.tamu.edu Summary The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind mix and develop diverse sources of clean, renewable energy. Cost-effective energy that can be produced to 1990), to increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and to reduce

  14. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  15. Variability in Speed of Information Processing: A New Measure of Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodling, Angela Michelle

    2010-06-14

    Cognitive slowing has been firmly established as one of the few primary cognitive deficits associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have documented impairments in speed of information processing for MS ...

  16. Structural responses and power output of a wind turbine are strongly affected by the wind field acting on the wind turbine. Knowledge about the wind field and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    ABSTRACT Structural responses and power output of a wind turbine are strongly affected by the wind affect the power output and structural responses of a wind turbine. Wind field characteristics are conventionally described by time averaged features, such as mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and power

  17. Description of the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Nelson, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide background information about the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES). This study, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program, was conducted from 16 November 2010 through 21 March 2012 at a field site in northeastern Oregon. The primary goal of the study was to provide profiles of wind speed and wind direction over the depth of the boundary layer in an operating wind farm located in an area of complex terrain. Measurements from propeller and vane anemometers mounted on a 62 m tall tower, Doppler Sodar, and Radar Wind Profiler were combined into a single data product to provide the best estimate of the winds above the site during the first part of CBWES. An additional goal of the study was to provide measurements of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) near the surface. To address this specific goal, sonic anemometers were mounted at two heights on the 62 m tower on 23 April 2011. Prior to the deployment of the sonic anemometers on the tall tower, a single sonic anemometer was deployed on a short tower 3.1 m tall that was located just to the south of the radar wind profiler. Data from the radar wind profiler, as well as the wind profile data product are available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Data Archive (http://www.arm.gov/data/campaigns). Data from the sonic anemometers are available from the authors.

  18. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of EnergyWIND ENERGY by as much as 270% when comparing today’s turbines

  19. Measurement Analysis of GC-FID Methane Network in East Anglia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    for monitoring urban air quality in low-cost, high-density networks, Atmospheric Environment 70 (2013) 186e203 inventory. Atmospheric measurements of methane are used in an Inversion model to achieve this. A measurement monoxide were measured along with the meteorological variables wind speed, wind direction and temperature

  20. Wednesday, March 25, 2009 SOLAR WIND AND GENESIS: MEASUREMENTS AND INTERPRETATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    and to photospheric data to rule on fractionation between the Sun and the SW. 2:00 p.m. Grimberg A. * Bühler F. Wieler Aluminum Solar Wind Collector on Genesis [#2037] Here we report the results of our Ar-Kr-Xe analysis of solar wind captured by the Genesis Polished Aluminum Collector. 2:45 p.m. Kitts K. * Choi Y. Eng P

  1. Thermal Wind The thermal wind is defined as the vector difference between the geostrophic winds at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    ATMS 310 Thermal Wind The thermal wind is defined as the vector difference between the geostrophic winds at two levels. It is not really a wind at all, just a measure of the shear of the geostrophic wind. But there are good reasons for considering the geostrophic wind; mainly, it provides a convenient way of connecting

  2. Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Scott, G.; Kelley, N.; Lundquist, J.

    2012-01-01

    Utility-scale wind turbines operate in dynamic flows that can vary significantly over timescales from less than a second to several years. To better understand the inflow to utility-scale turbines, two inflow towers were installed and commissioned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, in 2011. These towers are 135 m tall and instrumented with a combination of sonic anemometers, cup anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature measurements to characterize the inflow wind speed and direction, turbulence, stability and thermal stratification to two utility-scale turbines. Herein, we present variations in mean and turbulent wind parameters with height, atmospheric stability, and as a function of wind direction that could be important for turbine operation as well as persistence of turbine wakes. Wind speed, turbulence intensity, and dissipation are all factors that affect turbine performance. Our results shown that these all vary with height across the rotor disk, demonstrating the importance of measuring atmospheric conditions that influence wind turbine performance at multiple heights in the rotor disk, rather than relying on extrapolation from lower levels.

  3. Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power Bioenergy Power Systems Wind Power Wind Power Main Page Outreach Programs Image Gallery FAQs Links Software Hydro Power INL Home Wind Power Introduction The Wind Power...

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF RAPID DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    February 9 ABSTRACT The power spectrum of density fluctuations in the solar wind is inferred by trackingMEASUREMENTS OF RAPID DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND This article has been downloaded from is available Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;The Astrophysical Journal, 711

  5. Operational behavior of a double-fed permanent magnet generator for wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Sivananda Kumjula

    2005-01-01

    Greater efficiency in wind turbine systems is achieved by allowing the rotor to change its rate of rotation as the wind speed changes. The wind turbine system is decoupled from the utility grid and a variable speed operation ...

  6. Measurement of rotordynamic coefficients for a high-speed flexure pivot tilting-pad bearing(load between pad) configuration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Ghasem, Adnan Mahmoud

    2005-08-29

    . ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ?+ ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ?+ ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ?= ?? ? ?? ?? y x M M y x C C y x K K f f yy xy yy xy yy xy by bx && && & & In performing a stability analysis of high-speed machinery running on tilting-pad bearings, one would ask if the rotordynamic coefficients should be calculated at the synchronous...

  7. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  8. A doubly-fed permanent magnet generator for wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew J. (Andrew Joseph), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Optimum extraction of energy from a wind turbine requires that turbine speed vary with wind speed. Existing solutions to produce constant-frequency electrical output under windspeed variations are undesirable due to ...

  9. Eos,Vol. 85, No. 15, 13 April 2004 Fig.1.(a) SST and wind speed were observed by buoy 44014 (36.61N,74.84W) atVirginia Beach,Virginia,in July 2003.Averaged GOES SST (shaded)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    Eos,Vol. 85, No. 15, 13 April 2004 Fig.1.(a) SST and wind speed were observed by buoy 44014 (36 in the area [Kelly,2003].Satellite data,buoy observations,and weather maps were analyzed to investigate the anomalous cold water along the coast. The sea surface temperature (SST) observations made by buoy 44014 (0

  10. The combustion chemistry of a fuel tracer: Measured flame speeds and ignition delays and a detailed chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of acetone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichon, S.; Black, G.; Simmie, J.M.; Curran, H.J.; Chaumeix, N.; Yahyaoui, M.; Donohue, R.

    2009-02-15

    Acetone ignition delay and stretch-free laminar flame speed measurements have been carried out and a kinetic model has been developed to simulate these and literature data for acetone and for ketene, which was found to be an important intermediate in its oxidation. The mechanism has been based on one originally devised for dimethyl ether and modified through validation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane sub-mechanisms. Acetone oxidation in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1340-1930 K, at 1 atm and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2; it is also shown that the addition of up to 15% acetone to a stoichiometric n-heptane mixture has no effect on the measured ignition delay times. Flame speeds at 298 K and 1 atm of pure acetone in air were measured in a spherical bomb; a maximum flame speed of {proportional_to}35 cm s{sup -1} at {phi}=1.15 is indicated. (author)

  11. Wind-Shield Display(WSD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kameda, Yoshinari

    AR *1 *2 *2 *2 *1 *2 Wind-Shield Display(WSD) Evaluation of Driver's Speed Sensation by Augmented Reality on Wind-Shield Display Hayato TOUI*1 Yoshinari KAMEDA*2 Kitahara is drawn on optical see-through display called Wind-Shield Display. Spontaneous speed suppression

  12. Dynamic valuation model For wind development in regard to land value, proximity to transmission lines, and capacity factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikandrou, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Developing a wind farm involves many variables that can make or break the success of a potential wind farm project. Some variables such as wind data (capacity factor, wind rose, wind speed, etc.) are readily available in ...

  13. Analyzing the Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity at Different Sites in California and the Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fripp, Matthias; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    a) (b) Effect of Wind Timing with Forecast California Pricesa) (b) Effect of Wind Timing with Forecast Northwest Pricesby TrueWind, to develop a forecast of wind speeds. Or, going

  14. Measurement of the Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Rooftop Lawns in a Hot-Climate Wind Tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2006-01-01

    rooftop lawn. A hot-climate wind tunnel experiment was carried out in order to obtain and analyze the heat and moisture transport in the rooftop lawn. Furthermore, a calculation with the energy conservation equation was carried out using the results...

  15. Using satellite data for mapping offshore wind resources and wakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (no wind) Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Blaavandshuk Met. mast N #12;Wind Horns Rev Wind speed map from · Wake near large offshore wind farms is quantified in space and time · Software for usersUsing satellite data for mapping offshore wind resources and wakes Charlotte Bay Hasager, Merete

  16. Analysis of the effects of integrating wind turbines into a conventional utility: a case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldenblatt, M.K.; Wegley, H.L.; Miller, A.H.

    1982-08-01

    The impact on a utility incorporating wind turbine generation due to wind speed sampling frequency, wind turbine performance model, and wind speed forecasting accuracy is examined. The utility analyzed in the study was the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and the wind turbine assumed was the MOD-2. The sensitivity of the economic value of wind turbine generation to wind speed sampling frequency and wind turbine modeling technique is examined as well as the impact of wind forecasting accuracy on utility operation and production costs. Wind speed data from San Gorgonio Pass, California during 1979 are used to estimate wind turbine performance using four different simulation methods. (LEW)

  17. Analysis of the effects of integrating wind turbines into a conventional utility: a case study. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldenblatt, M.K.; Wegley, H.L.; Miller, A.H.

    1983-03-01

    The impact on a utility incorporating wind turbine generation due to wind speed sampling frequency, wind turbine performance model, and wind speed forecasting accuracy is examined. The utility analyzed in this study was the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, and the wind turbine assumed was the MOD-2. The sensitivity of the economic value of wind turbine generation to wind speed sampling frequency and wind turbine modeling technique is examined as well as the impact of wind forecasting accuracy on utility operation and production costs. Wind speed data from San Gorgonio Pass, California during 1979 are used to estimate wind turbine performance using four different simulation methods. (LEW)

  18. Characterizing Inflow Conditions Across the Rotor Disk of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Kelley, N.; Scott, G.; Jager, D.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-megawatt utility-scale wind turbines operate in a turbulent, thermally-driven atmosphere where wind speed and air temperature vary with height. Turbines convert the wind's momentum into electrical power, and so changes in the atmosphere across the rotor disk influence the power produced by the turbine. To characterize the inflow into utility scale turbines at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado, NREL recently built two 135-meter inflow monitoring towers. This poster introduces the towers and the measurements that are made, showing some of the data obtained in the first few months of operation in 2011.

  19. Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines. Energies, 6(8), 3807-3821. 10.3390/en6083807 General.mdpi.com/journal/energies Article Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind

  20. Measuring the speed of light and the moon distance with an occultation of Mars by the Moon: a Citizen Astronomy Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Moncada, Jonathan; Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto; Rojas, Mario; Ariza, Leonardo D; Vanegas, Santiago; Aristizábal, Lorena; Salas, Jorge L; Ocampo, Luis F; Ospina, Jonathan; Gómez, Juliana; Cortés, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In July 5th 2014 an occultation of Mars by the Moon was visible in South America. Citizen scientists and professional astronomers in Colombia, Venezuela and Chile performed a set of simple observations of the phenomenon aimed to measure the speed of light and lunar distance. This initiative is part of the so called "Aristarchus Campaign", a citizen astronomy project aimed to reproduce observations and measurements made by astronomers of the past. Participants in the campaign used simple astronomical instruments (binoculars or small telescopes) and other electronic gadgets (cell-phones and digital cameras) to measure occultation times and to take high resolution videos and pictures. In this paper we describe the results of the Aristarchus Campaign. We compiled 9 sets of observations from sites separated by distances as large as 2,500 km. We achieve at measuring the speed of light in vacuum and lunar distance with uncertainties of few percent. The goal of the Aristarchus Campaigns is not to provide improved val...

  1. Use of synthetic aperture radar for offshore wind resource assessment and wind farm development in the UK 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Iain Dickson

    2008-01-01

    The UK has an abundant offshore wind resource with offshore wind farming set to grow rapidly over the coming years. Optimisation of energy production is of the utmost importance and accurate estimates of wind speed distributions are critical...

  2. The detection of carbon dioxide leaks using quasi-tomographic laser absorption spectroscopy measurements in variable wind

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levine, Z. H.; Pintar, A. L.; Dobler, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T. G.

    2015-11-24

    Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) has been used over the last several decades for the measurement of trace gasses in the atmosphere. For over a decade, LAS measurements from multiple sources and tens of retroreflectors have been combined with sparse-sample tomography methods to estimate the 2-D distribution of trace gas concentrations and underlying fluxes from pointlike sources. In this work, we consider the ability of such a system to detect and estimate the position and rate of a single point leak which may arise as a failure mode for carbon dioxide storage. The leak is assumed to be at a constantmore »rate giving rise to a plume with a concentration and distribution that depend on the wind velocity. We demonstrate the ability of our approach to detect a leak using numerical simulation and a preliminary measurement.« less

  3. The effects of energy storage properties and forecast accuracy on mitigating variability in wind power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaworsky, Christina A

    2013-01-01

    Electricity generation from wind power is increasing worldwide. Wind power can offset traditional fossil fuel generators which is beneficial to the environment. However, wind generation is unpredictable. Wind speeds have ...

  4. Floating offshore wind farms : demand planning & logistical challenges of electricity generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nnadili, Christopher Dozie, 1978-

    2009-01-01

    Floating offshore wind farms are likely to become the next paradigm in electricity generation from wind energy mainly because of the near constant high wind speeds in an offshore environment as opposed to the erratic wind ...

  5. MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY WIND APPLICATION CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    , be it aerodynamics studies of automobiles or supersonic applications in aerospace. In the design of the KidWind of these was to accurately mimic the wind speed conditions an actual wind turbine in the field would experience. A second as minimum and maximum flow parameters because they mimic actual flow conditions in which wind turbines

  6. Wind farm electrical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  7. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  8. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Avery, Don E. (45-437 Akimala St., Honolulu, HI 96744)

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  9. to the PORTAL servers, including count, occupancy, and time mean speeds in each lane. PORTAL also includes incident and variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    measures are temperature, visibility, wind speed, and rainfall. From the basic sensor data PORTAL computes and is often broken into three component areas: environmental, economic, and social (3). Environmental consumption of nonrenewable fossil fuels. Economic Sustainability The cost of fuel consumed for transportation

  10. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, John; Ferguson, James; Ahmed-Zaid, Said; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Bennett, Keith

    2009-01-31

    Project Objective: This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho. Background: At its core, the technological challenge inherent in Wind Energy is the transformation of a highly variable form of energy to one which is compatible with the commercial power grid or another useful application. A major economic barrier to the success of distributed wind technology is the relatively high capital investment (and related long payback periods) associated with wind turbines. This project will carry out fundamental research and technology development to address both the technological and economic barriers. � Active drive train control holds the potential to improve the overall efficiency of a turbine system by allowing variable speed turbine operation while ensuring a tight control of generator shaft speed, thus greatly simplifying power conditioning. � Recent blade aerodynamic advancements have been focused on large, utility-scale wind turbine generators (WTGs) as opposed to smaller WTGs designed for distributed generation. Because of Reynolds Number considerations, blade designs do not scale well. Blades which are aerodynamically optimized for distributed-scale WTGs can potentially reduce the cost of electricity by increasing shaft-torque in a given wind speed. � Grid-connected electric generators typically operate at a fixed speed. If a generator were able to economically operate at multiple speeds, it could potentially convert more of the wind�s energy to electricity, thus reducing the cost of electricity. This research directly supports the stated goal of the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program for Distributed Wind Energy Technology: By 2007, reduce the cost of electricity from distributed wind systems to 10 to 15 cents/kWh in Class 3 wind resources, the same level that is currently achievable in Class 5 winds.

  11. Gas-flow measurements in a jet flame using cross-correlation of high speed particle-images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shioji, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kawanabe, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Makoto

    1999-07-01

    Time changes of a two-dimensional distribution of velocities in a methane jet flame and a nitrogen jet are measured by cross-correlation particle image velocimetry (PIV). The mean velocity and the intensity of turbulence are obtained and compared with those measured by HWA in order to ascertain the accuracy of PIV. Furthermore, the effect of combustion on turbulence characteristics is discussed based on the deformation of eddies with time change and distribution of time and spatial scales.

  12. Empirical Solar Wind Forecasting from the Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert J. Leamon; Scott W. McIntosh

    2007-01-12

    Recently, we correlated the inferred structure of the solar chromospheric plasma topography with solar wind velocity and composition data measured at 1AU. We now offer a physical justification of these relationships and present initial results of a empirical prediction model based on them. While still limited by the fundamentally complex physics behind the origins of the solar wind and how its structure develops in the magnetic photosphere and expands into the heliosphere, our model provides a near continuous range of solar wind speeds and composition quantities that are simply estimated from the inferred structure of the chromosphere. We suggest that the derived quantities may provide input to other, more sophisticated, prediction tools or models such as those to study Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) propagation and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) generation.

  13. Evaluation of global wind power Cristina L. Archer and Mark Z. Jacobson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % of all reporting stations experience annual mean wind speeds ! 6.9 m/s at 80 m (i.e., wind power class 3Evaluation of global wind power Cristina L. Archer and Mark Z. Jacobson Department of Civil the world's wind power potential for the first time from data. Wind speeds are calculated at 80 m, the hub

  14. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and Sand Point have allowed for proper wind turbine siting without killing birds, especially endangered species and bald eagles. APIA continues coordinating and looking for funding opportunities for regional renewable energy projects. An important goal for APIA has been, and will continue to be, to involve community members with renewable energy projects and energy conservation efforts.

  15. Wind measurements in Mars' middle atmosphere at equinox and solstice: IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometric CO observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Moreno; E. Lellouch; T. Encrenaz; F. Forget; E. Chassefiere; F. Hourdin; Stéphane Guilloteau

    2007-01-31

    Characterizing the Martian atmosphere is an essential objective to understand its meteorology and its climate. The lower atmosphere (< 40 km) and middle atmosphere (40-80 km) of Mars appear dynamically coupled at much higher levels than in the case of the Earth. The vertical extension of the weather phenomena is considerable with for example Hadley's cells reaching the top of the neutral atmosphere (120 km). The circulation in the middle atmosphere modifies the meteorology of the lower atmosphere, affecting the transport and climatic processes Observations of the CO rotational lines at millimeter (mm) wavelengths (Clancy et al 1990) have strongly contributed in the study of the vertical distribution of this compound and the thermal profile in the atmosphere of Mars over 0-70 km. Singledish observations of the CO Doppler lineshift have allowed direct wind measurements in the martian middle atmosphere near 50 km altitude (Lellouch et al 1991), but at a low spatial resolution (12'') enabling only an essentially hemispheric resolution of the martian disk. The use of mm interferometry has allowed us to better spatially resolve the Martian disk, in order to obtain wind maps of the middle atmosphere (Moreno et al 2001).

  16. Measurements of Drag Torque and Lift Off Speed and Identification of Stiffness and Damping in a Metal Mesh Foil Bearing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chirathadam, Thomas A.

    2010-07-14

    performance. Application of a sacrificial layer of solid lubricant on the top foil surface aids to reduce the rotor break-away torque. The measurements give confidence on this simple bearing technology for ready application into oil-free turbomachinery. Impact...

  17. Increasing the High Speed Torque of Bipolar Stepper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    the windings of the motor dictates the high speed torque. This application note shows that increasing the slew rates of the winding currents in a bipolar stepper motor pushes the motor to deliver more torque at high°) bipolar currents (Figure 1) energize the windings of a bipolar stepper motor. One step occurs at each

  18. Optimum propeller wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, R.J.; Archer, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    The Prandtl-Betz-Theodorsen theory of heavily loaded airscrews has been adapted to the design of propeller windmills which are to be optimized for maximum power coefficient. It is shown that the simpler, light-loading, constant-area wake assumption can generate significantly different ''optimum'' performance and geometry, and that it is therefore not appropriate to the design of propeller wind turbines when operating in their normal range of high-tip-speed-to-wind-speed ratio. Design curves for optimum power coefficient are presented and an example of the design of a typical two-blade optimum rotor is given.

  19. Wind measurements in Mars' middle atmosphere at equinox and solstice: IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometric CO observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, R; Encrenaz, T; Forget, F; Chassefière, E; Hourdin, F; Guilloteau, S; Guilloteau, St\\'{e}phane

    2007-01-01

    Characterizing the Martian atmosphere is an essential objective to understand its meteorology and its climate. The lower atmosphere (< 40 km) and middle atmosphere (40-80 km) of Mars appear dynamically coupled at much higher levels than in the case of the Earth. The vertical extension of the weather phenomena is considerable with for example Hadley's cells reaching the top of the neutral atmosphere (120 km). The circulation in the middle atmosphere modifies the meteorology of the lower atmosphere, affecting the transport and climatic processes Observations of the CO rotational lines at millimeter (mm) wavelengths (Clancy et al 1990) have strongly contributed in the study of the vertical distribution of this compound and the thermal profile in the atmosphere of Mars over 0-70 km. Singledish observations of the CO Doppler lineshift have allowed direct wind measurements in the martian middle atmosphere near 50 km altitude (Lellouch et al 1991), but at a low spatial resolution (12'') enabling only an essential...

  20. Measurement of Small Ions near a Busy Motorway Xuan Ling, Rohan Jayaratne and Lidia Morawska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Paul

    and negative small ion concentrations. Wind speeds, wind direction and traffic density and composition wereMeasurement of Small Ions near a Busy Motorway Xuan Ling, Rohan Jayaratne and Lidia Morawska are one of the main sources of ions in urban environments. The presence of charged particles in motor

  1. Urban Form, Wind, Comfort, and Sustainability: The San Francisco Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungkoo

    2014-01-01

    59 Figure 46. Measurement of windDesigning for an Acceptable Wind Environment. Transportation1989). Developing the San Francisco wind ordinance and its

  2. Influence of the ambient solar wind flow on the propagation behavior of interplanetary CMEs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temmer, Manuela; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M; Vrsnak, Bojan; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    We study three CME/ICME events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of STEREO Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in IP space that is governed by two forces, the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question at which heliospheric distance range the drag becomes dominant and the CME gets adjusted to the solar wind flow. To this aim we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL 3D MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) and MHD-Around-A-Sphere (MAS). Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models we find that the CME speed gets adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 Rs, to beyond 1 AU, depend...

  3. Wind Tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The increased interest in the offshore wind resource in both industry and academic and the extension of the wind field where offshore wind turbine can be deployed has stimulated quite a number of offshore wind turbines concepts. This thesis presents...

  4. Space and Time: Wind in an Investment Planning Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Ehrenmann, A.; Butler, Lucy; Cust, J.; Hoexter, Harriet; Keats, Kim; Kreczko, Adam; Sinden, Graham

    2006-03-14

    is the cross-correlation of wind. We assess wind speeds in 7 zones. It is well understood that wind speeds in a single location follow a Weibull distribution (http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/weibull.htm). We avoided the technical difficulty to fit a...

  5. Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind Speed Distributions: Characterization, Comparison, and Bias climatological surface wind speed probability density functions (PDFs) estimated from observations and use them to evaluate, for the first time, contemporaneous wind PDFs predicted by a GCM. The ob- servations include NASA

  6. Inverse Load Calculation of Wind Turbine Support Structures - A Numerical Verification Using the Comprehensive Simulation Code FAST: Preprint (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahn, T.; Jonkman, J.; Rolges, R.; Robertson, A.

    2012-11-01

    Physically measuring the dynamic responses of wind turbine support structures enables the calculation of the applied loads using an inverse procedure. In this process, inverse means deriving the inputs/forces from the outputs/responses. This paper presents results of a numerical verification of such an inverse load calculation. For this verification, the comprehensive simulation code FAST is used. FAST accounts for the coupled dynamics of wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and turbine controls. Simulations are run using a 5-MW onshore wind turbine model with a tubular tower. Both the applied loads due to the instantaneous wind field and the resulting system responses are known from the simulations. Using the system responses as inputs to the inverse calculation, the applied loads are calculated, which in this case are the rotor thrust forces. These forces are compared to the rotor thrust forces known from the FAST simulations. The results of these comparisons are presented to assess the accuracy of the inverse calculation. To study the influences of turbine controls, load cases in normal operation between cut-in and rated wind speed, near rated wind speed and between rated and cut-out wind speed are chosen. The presented study shows that the inverse load calculation is capable of computing very good estimates of the rotor thrust. The accuracy of the inverse calculation does not depend on the control activity of the wind turbine.

  7. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine in Boulder, CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and utilized binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  8. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the Viryd CS8 is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  9. Computational Analysis of Shrouded Wind Turbine Configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Computational Analysis of Shrouded Wind Turbine Configurations Aniket C. Aranake Vinod K-dimensional simulations of shrouded wind turbines are performed for selected shroud geometries. The results are compared at the highest wind speed for which the flow over the bare turbine blade stays attached. Flow fields are examined

  10. Offshore wind resource assessment through satellite images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Slide no. 4 Offshore wind resource assessment through satellite images Charlotte Bay Hasager images for offshore wind ressource assessment in lieu of in-situ mast observations #12;4 Slide no Hasager, Dellwik, Nielsen and Furevik, 2004, Validation of ERS-2 SAR offshore wind-speed maps in the North

  11. Geographical and seasonal variability of the global "practical" wind Cristina L. Archer a,*, Mark Z. Jacobson b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keywords: Wind power Wind energy Wind Numerical modeling Capacity factor a b s t r a c t This paper (GATOR-GCMOM) that dynamically calculates the instantaneous wind power of a modern 5 MW wind turbine turbines in high-wind locations (year-average 100-m wind speed ! 7 m/s) over land and near-shore, excluding

  12. Solar Wind Forecasting with Coronal Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Robbins; C. J. Henney; J. W. Harvey

    2007-01-09

    An empirical model for forecasting solar wind speed related geomagnetic events is presented here. The model is based on the estimated location and size of solar coronal holes. This method differs from models that are based on photospheric magnetograms (e.g., Wang-Sheeley model) to estimate the open field line configuration. Rather than requiring the use of a full magnetic synoptic map, the method presented here can be used to forecast solar wind velocities and magnetic polarity from a single coronal hole image, along with a single magnetic full-disk image. The coronal hole parameters used in this study are estimated with Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope He I 1083 nm spectrograms and photospheric magnetograms. Solar wind and coronal hole data for the period between May 1992 and September 2003 are investigated. The new model is found to be accurate to within 10% of observed solar wind measurements for its best one-month periods, and it has a linear correlation coefficient of ~0.38 for the full 11 years studied. Using a single estimated coronal hole map, the model can forecast the Earth directed solar wind velocity up to 8.5 days in advance. In addition, this method can be used with any source of coronal hole area and location data.

  13. THE VIOLATION OF THE TAYLOR HYPOTHESIS IN MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, qualitative and quantitative predictions are made for the effects of the violation of the Taylor hypothesis on the magnetic energy frequency spectrum measured in the near-Sun environment. The synthetic spacecraft data method is used to predict observational signatures of the violation for critically balanced Alfvénic turbulence or parallel fast/whistler turbulence. The violation of the Taylor hypothesis can occur in the slow flow regime, leading to a shift of the entire spectrum to higher frequencies, or in the dispersive regime, in which the dissipation range spectrum flattens at high frequencies. It is found that Alfvénic turbulence will not significantly violate the Taylor hypothesis, but whistler turbulence will. The flattening of the frequency spectrum is therefore a key observational signature for fast/whistler turbulence.

  14. Enhancing Low-Cost Ozone Spectrometers to Measure Mesospheric Winds and Tides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, O B

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based spectrometers have been developed to measure the concentration, velocity, and temperature of ozone in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) using low-cost satellite television electronics to observe the 11.072 GHz spectral line of ozone. A two-channel spectrometer has been engineered to yield various performance improvements, including a doubling of the signal-to-noise ratio, improved data processing efficiency, and lower power consumption at 15 W. Following 2009 and 2012 observations of the seasonal and diurnal variations in ozone concentration near the mesopause, the ozone line was observed at an altitude near 95 km and latitude of 38 degrees north using three single-channel spectrometers located at the MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA), Chelmsford High School (Chelmsford, MA), and Union College (Schenectady, NY) pointed south at 8 degrees. Observations from 2009 through 2014 are used to derive the nightly-averaged seasonal variation in meridional velocity, as well as the seasonally...

  15. WInd engineering and Renewable Energy laboratory Gnie Mcanique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    in the WIRE group, consists in performing wind tunnel investigations on wind turbines with horizontal axis Characterization of the wake produced from a single wind turbine Horizontal velocity Vertical velocity Wind farm measurements were performed for a single wind turbine and then, several wind turbines forming wind farms were

  16. Coastal Ohio Wind Project for Reduced Barriers to Deployment of Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Carroll, Michael

    2014-04-09

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project was created to establish the viability of wind turbines on the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project’s main goal was to improve operational unit strategies used for environmental impact assessment of offshore turbines on lake wildlife by optimizing and fusing data from the multi-instrument surveillance system and providing an engineering analysis of potential design/operational alternatives for offshore wind turbines. The project also developed a general economic model for offshore WTG deployment to quantify potential revenue losses due to wind turbine shutdown related to ice and avian issues. In a previous phase of this project (Award Number: DE-FG36-06GO86096), we developed a surveillance system that was used to collect different parameters such as passage rates, flight paths, flight directions, and flight altitudes of nocturnal migrating species, movements of birds and bats, and bird calls for assessing patterns and peak passage rates during migration. To derive such parameters we used thermal IR imaging cameras, acoustic recorders, and marine radar Furuno (XANK250), which was coupled with a XIR3000B digitizing card from Russell Technologies and open source radR processing software. The integration yielded a development of different computational techniques and methods, which we further developed and optimized as a combined surveillance system. To accomplish this task we implemented marine radar calibration, optimization of processing parameters, and fusion of the multi-sensor data in order to make inferences about the potential avian targets. The main goal of the data fusion from the multi-sensor environment was aimed at reduction of uncertainties while providing acceptable confidence levels with detailed information about the migration patterns. Another component comprised of an assessment of wind resources in a near lake environment and an investigation of the effectiveness of ice coating materials to mitigate adverse effects of ice formation on wind turbine structures. Firstly, a Zephir LiDAR system was acquired and installed at Woodlands School in Huron, Ohio, which is located near Lake Erie. Wind resource data were obtained at ten measurement heights, 200m, 150m, 100m, 80m, 60m, 40m, 38m, 30m, 20m, and 10m. The Woodlands School’s wind turbine anemometer also measured the wind speed at the hub height. These data were collected for approximately one year. The hub anemometer data correlated well with the LiDAR wind speed measurements at the same height. The data also showed that on several days different power levels were recorded by the turbine at the same wind speed as indicated by the hub anemometer. The corresponding LiDAR data showed that this difference can be attributed to variability in the wind over the turbine rotor swept area, which the hub anemometer could not detect. The observation suggests that single point hub wind velocity measurements are inadequate to accurately estimate the power generated by a turbine at all times since the hub wind speed is not a good indicator of the wind speed over the turbine rotor swept area when winds are changing rapidly. To assess the effectiveness of ice coatings to mitigate the impact of ice on turbine structures, a closed-loop icing research tunnel (IRT) was designed and constructed. By controlling the temperature, air speed, water content and liquid droplet size, the tunnel enabled consistent and repeatable ice accretion under a variety of conditions with temperatures between approximately 0°C and -20°C and wind speeds up to 40 miles per hour in the tunnel’s test section. The tunnel’s cooling unit maintained the tunnel temperature within ±0.2°C. The coatings evaluated in the study were Boyd Coatings Research Company’s CRC6040R3, MicroPhase Coatings Inc.’s PhaseBreak TP, ESL and Flex coatings. Similar overall performance was observed in all coatings tested in that water droplets form on the test articles beginning at the stagnation region and spreading in the downstream direction in time. When compari

  17. A Multispacecraft Analysis of a Small-Scale Transient Entrained by Solar Wind Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    panels show IMPACT observations of solar wind proton speed (Entrained by Solar Wind Streams Figure 8 PLASTIC and IMPACTIMPACT package, are used in the present study. Near-Earth solar wind

  18. Dust Detection by the Wave Instrument on STEREO: Nanoparticles Picked up by the Solar Wind?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    2007, Basics of the Solar Wind, Cambridge University Press,Picked up by the Solar Wind? N. Meyer-Vernet · M. Maksimovicof magnitude of the solar wind speed. Nanoparticles, which

  19. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Azad

    2013-01-01

    Output power leveling of wind turbine generator for allpower map of Distributed Generators (DG), including Photo- voltaic (PV) and WindGenerator (IG) stator. Introduction A variable speed wind turbine generates power

  20. Measurement of Turbulent Flame Speeds of Hydrogen and Natural Gas Blends (C1-C5 Alkanes) using a Newly Developed Fan-Stirred Vessel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravi, Sankaranarayana

    2014-05-06

    A fan-stirred flame speed vessel was developed at Texas A&M University to conduct turbulent combustion studies. Four high-speed impellers were installed in a central-symmetric pattern at the central circumference of an existing cylindrical laminar...

  1. Wind driven capillary-gravity waves on Titan's lakes: Hard to detect or non-existent?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    to generating wind waves. Cassini observations thus far, however, show no indication of waves. We apply models for wind wave generation and detection to the Titan environment. Results sug- gest wind speed thresholds expected wind speeds and the conditions re- quired for wave generation on Titan and Earth. The physical

  2. Wind Turbine Generator KanaKanapathipillai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Wind Turbine Generator Noise KanaKanapathipillai Reliable and accurate measurement of wind turbine & Associates on wind turbine noise for a number of years. Treatment for Presbyopia Hooman M. Pour Presbyopia

  3. Investigation of vortex generators for augmentation of wind turbine power performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, D.A. [Lynette (R.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This study focuses on the use of vortex generators (VGs) for performance augmentation of the stall-regulated AWT-26 wind turbine. The goal was to design a VG array which would increase annual energy production (AEP) by increasing power output at moderate wind speeds, without adversely affecting the loads or stall-regulation performance of the turbine. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the University of Washington to evaluate the effect of VGs on the AWT-26 blade, which is lofted from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) S-series airfoils. Based on wind-tunnel results and analysis, a VG array was designed and then tested on the AWT-26 prototype, designated P1. Performance and loads data were measured for P1, both with and without VGs installed. the turbine performance with VGs met most of the design requirements; power output was increased at moderate wind speeds with a negligible effect on peak power. However, VG drag penalties caused a loss in power output for low wind speeds, such that performance with VGs resulted in a net decrease in AEP for sites having annual average wind speeds up to 8.5 m/s. While the present work did not lead to improved AEP for the AWT-2 turbine, it does provide insight into performance augmentation of wind turbines with VGs. The safe design of a VG array for a stall-regulated turbine has been demonstrated, and several issues involving optimal performance with VGs have been identified and addressed. 15 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Low-Resolution STELab IPS 3D Reconstructions of the Whole Heliosphere Interval and Comparison with in-Ecliptic Solar Wind Measurements from STEREO and Wind Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Tokumaru, M.

    2009-01-01

    structure of the fast solar wind. J. Geophys. Res. 112,observations of the solar wind. Proc. SPIE 6689, 668911-1.W.A. , Maagoe, S. : 1972, Solar wind velocity from ips

  5. Real time Markov chains: Wind states in anemometric data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, P A; Jaramillo, O A

    2015-01-01

    The description of wind phenomena is frequently based on data obtained from anemometers, which usually report the wind speed and direction only in a horizontal plane. Such measurements are commonly used either to develop wind generation farms or to forecast weather conditions in a geographical region. Beyond these standard applications, the information contained in the data may be richer than expected and may lead to a better understanding of the wind dynamics in a geographical area. In this work we propose a statistical analysis based on the wind velocity vectors, which we propose may be grouped in "wind states" associated to binormal distribution functions. We found that the velocity plane defined by the anemometric velocity data may be used as a phase space, where a finite number of states may be found and sorted using standard clustering methods. The main result is a discretization technique useful to model the wind with Markov chains. We applied such ideas in anemometric data for two different sites in M...

  6. Pitfalls of modeling wind power using Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirtley, James L., Jr.

    An increased penetration of wind turbines have given rise to a need for wind speed/power models that generate realistic synthetic data. Such data, for example, might be used in simulations to size energy storage or spinning ...

  7. Final Project Report, Bristol Bay Native Corporation Wind and Hydroelectric Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaught, Douglas J.

    2007-03-31

    The Bristol Bay Native Corporation (BBNC) grant project focused on conducting nine wind resource studies in eight communities in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska and was administered as a collaborative effort between BBNC, the Alaska Energy Authority, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Nushagak Electric Cooperative (NEC), Naknek Electric Association (NEA), and several individual village utilities in the region. BBNC’s technical contact and the project manager for this study was Douglas Vaught, P.E., of V3 Energy, LLC, in Eagle River, Alaska. The Bristol Bay region of Alaska is comprised of 29 communities ranging in size from the hub community of Dillingham with a population of approximately 3,000 people, to a few Native Alaska villages that have a few tens of residents. Communities chosen for inclusion in this project were Dillingham, Naknek, Togiak, New Stuyahok, Kokhanok, Perryville, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek. Selection criteria for conduction of wind resource assessments in these communities included population and commercial activity, utility interest, predicted Class 3 or better wind resource, absence of other sources of renewable energy, and geographical coverage of the region. Beginning with the first meteorological tower installation in October 2003, wind resource studies were completed at all sites with at least one year, and as much as two and a half years, of data. In general, the study results are very promising for wind power development in the region with Class 6 winds measured in Kokhanok; Class 4 winds in New Stuyahok, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek; Class 3 winds in Dillingham, Naknek, and Togiak; and Class 2 winds in Perryville. Measured annual average wind speeds and wind power densities at the 30 meter level varied from a high of 7.87 meters per second and 702 watts per square meter in Kokhanok (Class 6 winds), to a low of 4.60 meters per second and 185 watts per square meter in Perryville (Class 2 winds).

  8. Collegiate Wind Competition Wind Tunnel Specifications | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wind Tunnel Specifications Collegiate Wind Competition Wind Tunnel Specifications Collegiate Wind Competition Wind Tunnel Specifications Teams competing in the U.S. Department of...

  9. Dynamic Simulation of DFIG Wind Turbines on FPGA Boards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zambreno, Joseph A.

    Dynamic Simulation of DFIG Wind Turbines on FPGA Boards Hao Chen, Student Member, IEEE, Song Sun is a friction coefficient. The wind turbine model is based on the relation between the upstream wind speed V w + 1 where p is the air density; Rw is the wind turbine radius; cp (A, (3) is the performance

  10. Nonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ratio P e [W ] ­ Power generated by generator P r [W ] ­ Mechanical power absorbed from the wind R r [mNonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen Kongens Lyngby 2006 #12; Technical describes analysis of various nonlinear control methods for controlling a wind turbine. High speed wind

  11. Ris National Laboratory Satellite SAR applied in offshore wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø National Laboratory Satellite SAR applied in offshore wind ressource mapping: possibilities is to quantify the regional offshore wind climate for wind energy application based on satellite SAR ·Study of 85SAR(m/s) Hasager, Dellwik, Nielsen and Furevik, 2004, Validation of ERS-2 SAR offshore wind-speed maps

  12. Temporal variability of the elemental composition of African dust measured in trade wind aerosols at Barbados and Miami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    at Barbados and Miami John Michael Trapp, Frank J. Millero, Joseph M. Prospero University of Miami variability of the elemental composition of aerosol samples collected in the Trade Winds at Barbados and Miami

  13. Wind Spires as an Alternative Energy Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid Rashidi, Ph.D., P.E.

    2012-10-30

    This report discloses the design and development of an innovative wind tower system having an axisymmetric wind deflecting structure with a plurality of symmetrically mounted rooftop size wind turbines near the axisymmetric structure. The purpose of the wind deflecting structure is to increase the ambient wind speed that in turn results in an overall increase in the power capacity of the wind turbines. Two working prototypes were constructed and installed in the summer of 2009 and 2012 respectively. The system installed in the Summer of 2009 has a cylindrical wind deflecting structure, while the tower installed in 2012 has a spiral-shape wind deflecting structure. Each tower has 4 turbines, each rated at 1.65 KW Name-Plate-Rating. Before fabricating the full-size prototypes, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses and scaled-down table-top models were used to predict the performance of the full-scale models. The performance results obtained from the full-size prototypes validated the results obtained from the computational models and those of the scaled-down models. The second prototype (spiral configuration) showed at a wind speed of 11 miles per hour (4.9 m/s) the power output of the system could reach 1,288 watt, when a typical turbine installation, with no wind deflecting structure, could produce only 200 watt by the same turbines at the same wind speed. At a wind speed of 18 miles per hour (8 m/sec), the spiral prototype produces 6,143 watt, while the power generated by the same turbines would be 1,412 watt in the absence of a wind deflecting structure under the same wind speed. Four US patents were allowed, and are in print, as the results of this project (US 7,540,706, US 7,679,209, US 7,845,904, and US 8,002,516).

  14. South Carolina Opens Nation's Largest Wind Drivetrain Testing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the facility will help test and validate new turbines, particularly for offshore wind-helping to speed deployment of next generation energy technology, reduce costs for...

  15. South Carolina Opens Nation's Largest Wind Drivetrain Testing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    South Carolina. The facility will help test and validate new turbines, particularly for offshore wind- helping to speed deployment of next generation energy technology,...

  16. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  17. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  18. WIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    , wind power has been expanding globally in recent years and it has become a dominant renewable energy the turbulent atmosphere and the wind turbine wake in order to optimize the design of the wind turbine as wellWIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (2014) Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary

  19. Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity in California and the Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2008-01-01

    value of re- newable electricity; and customer surveys ofCalifornia or Northwestern electricity demand. This may bebetween wind speed and electricity demand," Solar Energy,

  20. ARM - Measurement - Horizontal wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle sizefraction ARM

  1. MEASUREMENT AND CORRECTION OF ULTRASONIC ANEMOMETER ERRORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    commonly show systematic errors depending on wind speed due to inaccurate ultrasonic transducer mounting three- dimensional wind speed time series. Results for the variance and power spectra are shown. 1 wind speeds with ultrasonic anemometers: The measu- red flow is distorted by the probe head

  2. wind energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Pantex to Become Wind Energy Research Center http:nnsa.energy.govfieldofficesnponpopressreleasespantex-become-wind-energy-research-center

  3. 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (915RWP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, R

    2005-01-01

    The 915 MHz radar wind profiler/radio acoustic sounding system (RWP/RASS) measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 0.1 km and 5 km and virtual temperature profiles between 0.1 km and 2.5 km. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. Because the propagation speed of the acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature of the air, the virtual temperature can be recovered by measuring the Doppler shift of the scattered electromagnetic wave.

  4. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  5. Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubicthe FOIA?ResourceMeasurement Buoy AdvancesWind

  6. 756 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 3, JULY 2013 Minimization of Wind Farm Operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    turbines installed at a wind farm. Wind turbine index. Grid demand at time . Power generated by wind turbine at time . Expected power generated by wind turbine at time window . Average wind speed at time price at time . Power shortage (demand minus generated wind power) at time . Levelized unit operations

  7. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  8. Field Wind Tunnel Assessment of the Potential for Wind Transport of Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, Nicholas [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Metzger, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2005-02-01

    This report documents a series of field experiments carried out in the Double Tracks area of the Tonopah Test Range in June, July, and August 1996 and March and July 1997. The aim of the experiments was to: (1) determine the wind speeds necessary to entrain surface particles from excavated surfaces in the study area and (2) determine dust emissions from surfaces that had been stabilized permanently by planted natural vegetation. This investigation assessed the potential for wind transport of surface soils, including resuspension and emission of dust sized particles from areas of surface heavy metal contamination, following site remediation, as well as the actual emissions from these areas. The remediation site is located in Area 73 of the Tonopah Test Range. The goal of the field experiments was to measure the velocities with which boundary layer winds might initiate dust emissions from the affected site, and to gage the effectiveness of surface stabilization procedures to prevent such emissions. Particle movement measurements were generated through the use of a portable wind tunnel laid directly on the excavated surface.

  9. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Selawik, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Selawik, Alaska. Data provided for this project include community load data, wind turbine output, diesel plant output, thermal load data, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, average net wind penetration, and estimated fuel savings.

  10. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  11. On the study of wind energy at great heights using remote sensing techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the study of wind energy at great heights using remote sensing techniques Alfredo Pe~na1 for a wind assessment campaign on the transformer/platform of Horns Rev, the world's largest offshore wind masts surrounding the wind farm. LiDAR and SoDAR observations of mean wind speed agree for the first

  12. Prediction, operations, and condition monitoring in wind energy Andrew Kusiak a,*, Zijun Zhang b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Review Prediction, operations, and condition monitoring in wind energy Andrew Kusiak a,*, Zijun 2013 Available online 23 August 2013 Keywords: Wind energy Wind speed prediction Wind turbine control Condition monitoring and fault detection a b s t r a c t Recent developments in wind energy research

  13. Impact of DFIG wind turbines on transient stability of power systems a review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Impact of DFIG wind turbines on transient stability of power systems ­ a review Authors Na Abstract of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators. Therefore, the analysis of wind power

  14. Abstract--This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS) which involve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS-inverter. The goal of control is to maximize wind energy extraction and this needs letting the wind turbine rotor wind energy extraction) only for one wind speed value depending on the considered value of turbine

  15. RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We use a hurricane model to generate prior distributions for the wind speed, wind di- rection, and rain

  16. Generated using V3.0 of the official AMS LATEX templatejournal page layout FOR AUTHOR USE ONLY, NOT FOR SUBMISSION! Measurement and statistical modeling of the urban heat island of the city of Utrecht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandsma, Theo

    , NOT FOR SUBMISSION! Measurement and statistical modeling of the urban heat island of the city of Utrecht (the on wind direction, cloudiness and wind speed. Statistical models are constructed that relate the mean nighttime urban heat island intensity in Utrecht. Both models explain more than 75% of the variance

  17. The solar wind in the outer heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John D.

    The solar wind evolves as it moves outward due to interactions with both itself and with the circum-heliospheric interstellar medium. The speed is, on average, constant out to 30 AU, then starts a slow decrease due to the ...

  18. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  19. Wind extremes in the North Sea Basin under climate change: An ensemble study of 12 CMIP5 GCMs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Wind extremes in the North Sea Basin under climate change: An ensemble study of 12 CMIP5 GCMs R. C levels and waves are generated by low atmospheric pressure and severe wind speeds during storm events. As a result of the geometry of the North Sea, not only the maximum wind speed is relevant, but also wind

  20. ACOUSTIC STUDY OF THE UD / GAMESA WIND TURBINE PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    /s). Maximum sound power is first produced by the wind turbine at the design wind speed. The study at or above 4.2 m/s) and 108.4 dBA for the design wind condition (hub height winds at or above 9.7 m average sound levels are in the range of 34 to 56 dBA. · The maximum wind turbine sound level under design

  1. Effectiveness of speed trailers on low-speed urban roadways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrillo, Kerry Victoria

    1997-01-01

    Efforts are being made to use speed management methods to match operating speeds to posted speeds and to reduce the variability in vehicle speeds. The effectiveness of many different methods of speed management has not been documented. This thesis...

  2. Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J., Brown

    2012-01-01

    15 percent)). Cumulative wind turbine capacity installed inper capita income of wind turbine development (measured inour sample, cumulative wind turbine capacity on a per person

  3. Understanding Inertial and Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze and quantify the inertia and frequency responses of wind power plants with different wind turbine technologies (particularly those of fixed speed, variable slip with rotor-resistance controls, and variable speed with vector controls).

  4. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  5. Wind resource and site assessment in the German Bight: Extreme Winds at Meso-to Microscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    in the offshore wind farms. In the following, the validated Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model simulations resolution which resolves sites of the individual offshore wind farms. In addition, the FINO-1 measurements of offshore wind farms, where in-situ measurements are scarce and expensive, the validated mesoscale wind

  6. Previous Wind Power Announcements (generation/wind)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines ThisHENPDepartment'sPrestonPreviousMembers | HomeWind

  7. Riso-M-2546 g Wind Turbine Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riso-M-2546 g Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 17S Troels Friis Pedersen The Test Station for Windmills Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde Denmark April 1986 #12;#12;RIS0-M-2546 WIND TURBINE describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements

  8. ISU Wind Energy Laboratory Nicholas David

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    , Dynamometers, Power Electronics Blades, Gearboxes, Structures Sensors & Actuators Design and Analysis Tools Speed Aerodynamics M2I lab - Design and Fabrication Industrial & Manufacturing Systems Engineering: Wind & Characterization U.S. Dept. of Energy - 3D Metals Printing ISU Power Plant - 100 kW Wind Turbine N. David & J. Mc

  9. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  10. Wind Farm

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The wind farm in Greensburg, Kansas, was completed in spring 2010, and consists of ten 1.25 megawatt (MW) wind turbines that supply enough electricity to power every house, business, and municipal...

  11. Dynamic control of wind turbines Andrew Kusiak*, Wenyan Li, Zhe Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . It is known that smoothing the turbine power output is important in its integration with the electricity grid on wind turbine control have focused on maxi- mizing power [2,4,15,17,18,27] for wind speed in the range torque so that the rotor speed producing the optimum power coefficient is attained. The wind power

  12. Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.139) Track: Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session: Poster Session + Poster Award + Scientific Award + Excellent young wind doctor award (PO.139) Track: Technical VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES ­ FAULT RIDE-THROUGH AND GRID SUPPORT CAPABILITIES is on the fault ride through and grid support capability of variable speed wind turbines. The paper focuses

  13. Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xuepu

    Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model. This inverse relation has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed at 1 AU using a potential between the magnetic flux tube expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed

  14. Grid Operation and Coordination with Wind -2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) states in [2], "As a minimum, the Balancing Authority or Reserve), will generally differ from the wind speed for turbine k at time t2, vk(t2), where t2>t1. For fixed speed machines, because the mechanical power into a turbine depends on the wind speed, and because electric power out

  15. Guide to Using the WIND Toolkit Validation Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Draxl, C.; Clifton, A.

    2014-12-01

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy's goal of using 20% wind energy by 2030, the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit was created to provide information on wind speed, wind direction, temperature, surface air pressure, and air density on more than 126,000 locations across the United States from 2007 to 2013. The numerical weather prediction model output, gridded at 2-km and at a 5-minute resolution, was further converted to detail the wind power production time series of existing and potential wind facility sites. For users of the dataset it is important that the information presented in the WIND Toolkit is accurate and that errors are known, as then corrective steps can be taken. Therefore, we provide validation code written in R that will be made public to provide users with tools to validate data of their own locations. Validation is based on statistical analyses of wind speed, using error metrics such as bias, root-mean-square error, centered root-mean-square error, mean absolute error, and percent error. Plots of diurnal cycles, annual cycles, wind roses, histograms of wind speed, and quantile-quantile plots are created to visualize how well observational data compares to model data. Ideally, validation will confirm beneficial locations to utilize wind energy and encourage regional wind integration studies using the WIND Toolkit.

  16. Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

  17. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  18. Model Predictive Control of a Wind Aleksander Gosk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are aiming for maximizing the produced electric power for some range of wind speeds and keeping it constant. This work focuses on one of the most common wind energy conversion systems: horizontal axis wind turbine It's efficiency and longevity relies heavily on the quality of the control approach used. Controller designers

  19. Cambridge Danehy Park Wind Turbine Preliminary Project Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge Danehy Park Wind Turbine Preliminary Project Assessment Overview MIT Wind Energy Projects Impact Community Impact Financial Analysis Turbine Evaluation Set For the full report, please visit: http 4 / 25 2.5 / 25 Rated Wind Speed (m/s) 13 10 14.5 ~15 12 The above turbines were chosen to provide

  20. The Solar Wind, CMEs and the Origins of Heliospheric Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    release o Coronal holes o Source of high-speed solar wind #12;peter.gallagher@tcd.ie #12;#12;peter Parker => Parker Spiral: r - r0 = -(v/ )( - 0) o Winding angle: o Inclined at ~45º at 1 AU and ~90º by 10The Solar Wind, CMEs and the Origins of Heliospheric Activity Peter T. Gallagher School of Physics

  1. Large fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    are too small to deteriorate the image in normal observing situations with wind speeds up to 20 mLarge fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind Felix C.M. Bettonvil a the telescopes are in operation. The telescopes and enclosures also operate in hard wind. The prototypes

  2. Taming Hurricanes With Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Taming Hurricanes With Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Mark Z. Jacobson Cristina Archer, Willet #12;Representation of a vertically-resolved wind turbine in model Lines are model layers) or 50 m/s (destruction) speed. Can Walls of Offshore Wind Turbines Dissipate Hurricanes? #12;Katrina

  3. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of EnergyCOST OF WIND ENERGY by as much as 270% when comparing today’s turbinescosts observed in most markets from 2004 and 2009 has been largely tied to increases in the price of wind turbines [

  4. Nonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generated by generator Pr [W] - Mechanical power absorbed from the wind Rr [m] - Radius of rotors Tg [Nm to generator Tsr [Nm] - Generator torque transfered to rotor v [m/s] - Effective wind speed vf [mNonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine Sven Creutz Thomsen Kongens Lyngby 2006 #12;Technical

  5. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2008-10-10

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  6. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego Paiva Pires; Marco Cianciaruso; Lucas C. Céleri; Gerardo Adesso; Diogo O. Soares-Pinto

    2015-09-30

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the non uniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits, and provides instances of novel bounds which are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, clarifying the role of classical populations versus quantum coherences in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  7. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  8. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  9. Design and Commissioning of a Wind Tunnel for Integrated Physical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commissioning of a Wind Tunnel for Integrated Physical and Chemical Measurements of PM Dispersing Plume of Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Design and Commissioning of a Wind Tunnel for...

  10. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  11. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  12. PowerJet Wind Turbine Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, Raymond J

    2008-11-30

    PROJECT OBJECTIVE The PowerJet wind turbine overcomes problems characteristic of the small wind turbines that are on the market today by providing reliable output at a wide range of wind speeds, durability, silent operation at all wind speeds, and bird-safe operation. Prime Energy�s objective for this project was to design and integrate a generator with an electrical controller and mechanical controls to maximize the generation of electricity by its wind turbine. The scope of this project was to design, construct and test a mechanical back plate to control rotational speed in high winds, and an electronic controller to maximize power output and to assist the base plate in controlling rotational speed in high winds. The test model will continue to operate beyond the time frame of the project, with the ultimate goal of manufacturing and marketing the PowerJet worldwide. Increased Understanding of Electronic & Mechanical Controls Integrated With Electricity Generator The PowerJet back plate begins to open as wind speed exceeds 13.5 mps. The pressure inside the turbine and the turbine rotational speed are held constant. Once the back plate has fully opened at approximately 29 mps, the controller begins pulsing back to the generator to limit the rotational speed of the turbine. At a wind speed in excess of 29 mps, the controller shorts the generator and brings the turbine to a complete stop. As the wind speed subsides, the controller releases the turbine and it resumes producing electricity. Data collection and instrumentation problems prevented identification of the exact speeds at which these events occur. However, the turbine, controller and generator survived winds in excess of 36 mps, confirming that the two over-speed controls accomplished their purpose. Technical Effectiveness & Economic Feasibility Maximum Electrical Output The output of electricity is maximized by the integration of an electronic controller and mechanical over-speed controls designed and tested during the course of this project. The output exceeds that of the PowerJet�s 3-bladed counterparts (see Appendix). Durability All components of the PowerJet turbine assembly�including the electronic and mechanical controls designed, manufactured and field tested during the course of this project�proved to be durable through severe weather conditions, with constant operation and no interruption in energy production. Low Cost Materials for the turbine, generator, tower, charge controllers and ancillary parts are available at reasonable prices. Fabrication of these parts is also readily available worldwide. The cost of assembling and installing the turbine is reduced because it has fewer parts and requires less labor to manufacture and assemble, making it competitively priced compared with turbines of similar output manufactured in the U.S. and Europe. The electronic controller is the unique part to be included in the turbine package. The controllers can be manufactured in reasonably-sized production runs to keep the cost below $250 each. The data logger and 24 sensors are for research only and will be unnecessary for the commercial product. Benefit To Public The PowerJet wind-electric system is designed for distributed wind generation in 3 and 4 class winds. This wind turbine meets DOE�s requirements for a quiet, durable, bird-safe turbine that eventually can be deployed as a grid-connected generator in urban and suburban settings. Results As described more fully below and illustrated in the Appendices, the goals and objectives outlined in 2060 SOPO were fully met. Electronic and mechanical controls were successfully designed, manufactured and integrated with the generator. The turbine, tower, controllers and generators operated without incident throughout the test period, surviving severe winter and summer weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, ice and sustained high winds. The electronic controls were contained in weather-proof electrical boxes and the elec

  13. Summary We analyzed assumptions and measurement er-rors in estimating canopy transpiration (EL) from sap flux (JS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    ) from sap flux (JS) measured with Granier-type sensors, and in calculating canopy stomatal conductance biosphere­atmosphere exchange of mass and energy. From porometry measure- ments, leaf conductance (gS) can are similar, a condition that occurs for small leaves exposed to a sufficiently high wind speed (Herbst 1995

  14. Laminar Flame Speeds of Nano-Aluminum/Methane Hybrid Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikes, Travis

    2014-12-12

    An existing flame speed bomb, which uses optical techniques to measure laminar flame speed, was employed to study the fundamental phenomena of flame propagation through a uniformly dispersed aerosol. In a previous thesis ...

  15. Thermal creep assisted dust lifting on Mars: Wind tunnel experiments for the entrainment threshold velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Küpper, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present laboratory measurements on the reduction of the threshold friction velocity necessary for lifting dust if the dust bed is illuminated. Insolation of a porous soil establishes a temperature gradient. At low ambient pressure this gradient leads to thermal creep gas flow within the soil. This flow leads to a sub-surface overpressure which supports lift imposed by wind. The wind tunnel was run with Mojave Mars Simulant and air at 3, 6 and 9 mbar, to cover most of the pressure range at martian surface levels. Our first measurements imply that the insolation of the martian surface can reduce the entrainment threshold velocity between 4 % and 19 % for the conditions sampled with our experiments. An insolation activated soil might therefore provide additional support for aeolian particle transport at low wind speeds.

  16. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of new wind energy capacity were installed in the United States in 2014. The 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report also finds that wind energy prices are at an all-time low and are competitive with wholesale power prices and traditional power sources across many areas of the United States. Additionally, a new trend identified by the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report shows utility-scale turbines with larger rotors designed for lower wind speeds have been increasingly deployed across the country in 2014. The findings also suggest that the success of the U.S. wind industry has had a ripple effect on the American economy, supporting 73,000 jobs related to development, siting, manufacturing, transportation, and other industries.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Annual Charac- Power Estimates for Wind Turbine Generators,Economy, Power Estimates for Wind Turbine Generators,wind speed, enough power is available to increase torque sufficiently to overcome internal losses in the generator

  18. “Open Hatch” Tour of Offshore Wind Buoy- Text Alt Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Director, Jose Zayas gives a behind the scenes tour of the AXYS WindSentinel research buoy, which uses high-tech instruments to measure conditions for potential offshore wind energy development.

  19. Large-scale structure of the fast solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Breen, A. R.; Habbal, S. Rifai; Jones, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    measurements of Solar Wind velocity, in press, Journal of1992), The Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment, AstronomyA. Hewish (1967), The solar wind outside the plane of the

  20. Temporal Evolution of the Solar-Wind Electron Core Density at Solar Minimum by Correlating SWEA Measurements from STEREO A and B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    IMPACT instrument suite, the SWEA electron exper- iment provides the solar-windIMPACT) investigation (Luh- mann et al. , 2008) on the STEREO mission provides multipoint solar-wind

  1. Wind Power Forecasting Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Call 2012 Retrospective Reports 2012 Retrospective Reports 2011 Smart Grid Wind Integration Wind Integration Initiatives Wind Power Forecasting Wind Projects Email...

  2. Idaho_Wind_Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Bryans Run Cell Tower Site Wilson Peak Eckert Site Loertscher Boise State's Wind Data Link Wind Power Idaho Wind Data See also: Idaho Energy Resources - Wind, American...

  3. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind Y. I. An updated empirical climatic zonally aver- aged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/ lower of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed

  4. Wind/SWE observations of firehose constraint on solar wind proton temperature anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Wind/SWE observations of firehose constraint on solar wind proton temperature anisotropy Justin C the Wind spacecraft are reported here. These measurements show for the first time with a comprehensive plasma and magnetic field data set that this constraint is statistically satisfied in the solar wind near

  5. Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    elds for reaction rate progress and ?uid velocity. Thefor the velocity ?elds and the scalar measure of reactionvelocity and the temperature. To evaluate the displacement speed we de?ne a reaction

  6. Optimization of Sodar Wind Profile Measurements in Low-Humidity Climates at High Altitudes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00246

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of potential wind energy sites in the region of the U.S. from the Rocky Mountains westward.

  7. High wind evaluation in the Southern Ocean Xiaojun Yuan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khatiwala, Samar

    1 High wind evaluation in the Southern Ocean Xiaojun Yuan Lamont-Doherty of Earth Observatory based scatterometer instruments provide crucial surface wind measurements with high resolution over winds at high wind bands because these regions host the strongest wind fields at the ocean surface

  8. Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Scott, G.

    2009-02-01

    This report describes a three-bladed, upwind, variable-speed, variable blade-pitch-to-feather-controlled multimegawatt wind turbine model developed by NREL to support concept studies aimed at assessing offshore wind technology.

  9. Quantifying the system balancing cost when wind energy is incorporated into electricity generation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Issaeva, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of wind energy into the electricity generation system requires a detailed analysis of wind speed in order to minimize system balancing cost and avoid a significant mismatch between supply and demand. Power ...

  10. Stochastic Real-Time Scheduling of Wind-thermal Generation Units ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-11

    time t (MW) wps,t. Percent of wind farm capacity available at scenario s and time t .... speeds at foreseen onshore and offshore wind farms locations is proposed.

  11. Influence of large scale oscillations on upwelling-favorable coastal wind off central Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahn, David A.

    2012-10-16

    Along the central coast of Chile is typically equatorward, upwelling-favorable wind associated with the southeast Pacific anticyclone. A coastal low-level jet often develops, and its wind speed is mostly controlled by the meridional pressure...

  12. Coordination of Voltage and Frequency Feedback in Load-Frequency Control Capability of Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da

    Coordination of Voltage and Frequency Feedback in Load-Frequency Control Capability of Wind Turbine-Frequency Control (LFC) is gradually shifted to Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWTs). In order to equip VSWT

  13. Dust transport: Wind blown and mechanical resuspension, July 1983 to December 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, G.

    1986-09-20

    This study defines the processes that resuspend plutonium (Pu) particles from Pu-contaminated soil at Rocky Flats. Such knowledge can predict the transport of Pu particles from the site and the population dose. A vertical dust flux tower profiled the plume of Pu particles from the site. The data show a 70% reduction between 1 and 10 m in the concentration of coarse and inhalable Pu particles. The respirable particle concentration remained steady at both heights, slightly above background levels. High winds visually resuspend large amounts of dust for short periods, but we suspected that present sampling devices do not function properly above 50 km/h. During a windstorm reaching 80 km/h, the size-selective sampler used seriously underestimated the dust(Pu) concentration. Wind tunnel studies measured resuspension versus wind speed from our prairie grass covered, arid soil. We failed to find a good correlation between resuspension and wind speed. This led to a search for alternative mechanisms of resuspension besides wind erosion. Resuspension of dust(Pu) from grass proved to be important, as well as resuspension from rain splash.

  14. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF WIND TURBINE POWER REGULATION BY SWITCHED LINEAR CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF WIND TURBINE POWER REGULATION BY SWITCHED LINEAR CONTROL D.J.Leith W Power regulation of horizontal-axis grid-connected up-wind constant-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines ENHANCEMENT OF WIND TURBINE POWER REGULATION BY SWITCHED LINEAR CONTROL D.J.Leith W.E.Leithead Department

  15. High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, Peter

    with the offshore wind speed, demonstrating that these high-frequency P- waves are excited by distant ocean windsHigh-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1 Peter Gerstoft,1 and Peter M, J., P. Gerstoft, and P. M. Shearer (2009), High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds

  16. AIAA-2004-0502 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    wind speed. For wind turbine generator systems, a similar reliability-based design format is employedAIAA-2004-0502 1 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS USING INVERSE, Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT* The influence of turbulence conditions on the design loads for wind turbines

  17. Ris-PhD-24(EN) Stability and Control of Wind Farms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models

  18. Lidars in Wind Energy Jakob Mann, Ferhat Bingl, Torben Mikkelsen, Ioannis Antoniou, Mike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lidars in Wind Energy Jakob Mann, Ferhat Bingöl, Torben Mikkelsen, Ioannis Antoniou, Mike Courtney, Gunner Larsen, Ebba Dellwik Juan Jose Trujillo* and Hans E. Jørgensen Wind Energy Department Risø of the presentation · Introduction to wind energy · Accurate profiles of the mean wind speed · Wakes behind turbines

  19. Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Data Bank Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara December 2010 Keywords: Wind Wind speed Energy Capacity factor Electricity Chile a b s t r a c t Bearing role in any future national energy generation matrix. With a view to understanding the local wind

  20. Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center: The Regime-Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genton, Marc G.

    Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center: The Regime at a wind energy site and fits a conditional predictive model for each regime. Geographically dispersed was applied to 2-hour-ahead forecasts of hourly average wind speed near the Stateline wind energy center

  1. Performance and safety of rooftop wind turbines: Use of CFD to gain insight into inflow conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    to overcome, including energy yield reduction due to lower mean wind speeds in urban areas, and environmental method to model wind flows in order to perform a resource assessment for the application of small wind presents the results of research using a CFD code to model wind flows over the roof of a building

  2. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  3. Preliminary design and viability consideration of external, shroud-based stators in wind turbine generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoemaker-Trejo, Nathaniel (Nathaniel Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine designs often included gearboxes or large direct-drive generators to compensate for the low peripheral speeds of the turbine hub. To take advantage of high blade tip speeds, an alternative ...

  4. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  5. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  6. Wind Tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building John Seryak Kelly Kissock Project Engineer Associate Professor Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Dayton... Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers, without mechanical...

  7. Operational risk of a wind farm energy production by Extreme Value Theory and Copulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use risk management techniques to evaluate the potential effects of those operational risks that affect the energy production of a wind farm. We concentrate our attention on three major risk factors: wind speed uncertainty, wind turbine reliability and interactions of wind turbines due mainly to their placement. As a first contribution, we show that the Weibull distribution, commonly used to fit recorded wind speed data, underestimates rare events. Therefore, in order to achieve a better estimation of the tail of the wind speed distribution, we advance a Generalized Pareto distribution. The wind turbines reliability is considered by modeling the failures events as a compound Poisson process. Finally, the use of Copula able us to consider the correlation between wind turbines that compose the wind farm. Once this procedure is set up, we show a sensitivity analysis and we also compare the results from the proposed procedure with those obtained by ignoring the aforementioned risk factors.

  8. Aeroacoustic Testing of Wind Turbine Airfoils: February 20, 2004 - February 19, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenport, W.; Burdisso, R. A.; Camargo, H.; Crede, E.; Remillieux, M.; Rasnick, M.; Van Seeters, P.

    2010-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), working through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is engaged in a comprehensive research effort to improve the understanding of wind turbine aeroacoustics. The motivation for this effort is the desire to exploit the large expanse of low wind speed sites that tend to be close to U.S. load centers. Quiet wind turbines are an inducement to widespread deployment, so the goal of NREL's aeroacoustic research is to develop tools that the U.S. wind industry can use in developing and deploying highly efficient, quiet wind turbines at low wind speed sites. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is implementing a multifaceted approach that includes wind tunnel tests, field tests, and theoretical analyses in direct support of low wind speed turbine development by its industry partners. NWTC researchers are working hand in hand with engineers in industry to ensure that research findings are available to support ongoing design decisions.

  9. Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors Abstract--A growing demand for deployment of autonomous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors Abstract--A growing demand a wide range of wind speeds. Results show that power harvesting capability using the discussed alternator electronics to be less than the available power for harvest, which varies as a function of wind speed

  10. Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model: An investigation of possible sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed (SWS) observed at Earth, which has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed near the Earth with reasonable accuracy. However

  11. Final Technical Report Recovery Act: Online Nonintrusive Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection for Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Qiao

    2012-05-29

    The penetration of wind power has increased greatly over the last decade in the United States and across the world. The U.S. wind power industry installed 1,118 MW of new capacity in the first quarter of 2011 alone and entered the second quarter with another 5,600 MW under construction. By 2030, wind energy is expected to provide 20% of the U.S. electricity needs. As the number of wind turbines continues to grow, the need for effective condition monitoring and fault detection (CMFD) systems becomes increasingly important [3]. Online CMFD is an effective means of not only improving the reliability, capacity factor, and lifetime, but it also reduces the downtime, energy loss, and operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines. The goal of this project is to develop novel online nonintrusive CMFD technologies for wind turbines. The proposed technologies use only the current measurements that have been used by the control and protection system of a wind turbine generator (WTG); no additional sensors or data acquisition devices are needed. Current signals are reliable and easily accessible from the ground without intruding on the wind turbine generators (WTGs) that are situated on high towers and installed in remote areas. Therefore, current-based CMFD techniques have great economic benefits and the potential to be adopted by the wind energy industry. Specifically, the following objectives and results have been achieved in this project: (1) Analyzed the effects of faults in a WTG on the generator currents of the WTG operating at variable rotating speed conditions from the perspective of amplitude and frequency modulations of the current measurements; (2) Developed effective amplitude and frequency demodulation methods for appropriate signal conditioning of the current measurements to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD; (3) Developed a 1P-invariant power spectrum density (PSD) method for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults with characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals, where 1P stands for the shaft rotating frequency of a WTG; (4) Developed a wavelet filter for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (5) Developed an effective adaptive noise cancellation method as an alternative to the wavelet filter method for signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (6) Developed a statistical analysis-based impulse detection method for effective fault signature extraction and evaluation of WTGs based on the 1P-invariant PSD of the current or current demodulated signals; (7) Validated the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies through extensive computer simulations and experiments for small direct-drive WTGs without gearboxes; and (8) Showed, through extensive experiments for small direct-drive WTGs, that the performance of the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies is comparable to traditional vibration-based methods. The proposed technologies have been successfully applied for detection of major failures in blades, shafts, bearings, and generators of small direct-drive WTGs. The proposed technologies can be easily integrated into existing wind turbine control, protection, and monitoring systems and can be implemented remotely from the wind turbines being monitored. The proposed technologies provide an alternative to vibration-sensor-based CMFD. This will reduce the cost and hardware complexity of wind turbine CMFD systems. The proposed technologies can also be combined with vibration-sensor-based methods to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD systems. When there are problems with sensors, the proposed technologies will ensure proper CMFD for the wind turbines, including their sensing systems. In conclusion, the proposed technologies offer an effective means to achieve condition-based smart maintenance for wind turbines and have a gre

  12. Offshore Wind Power USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Offshore Wind Power USA conference provides the latest offshore wind market updates and forecasts.

  13. Wind Turbine Test \\^ind Matic WM 15S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    00 ·2 V. v/ RisoM-2481 Wind Turbine Test \\^ind Matic WM 15S Troels Friis Pedersent The Test Station for Windmills Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark July 1986 #12;#12;RIS0-M-2481 WIND TURBINE describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements

  14. Wind Energy Leasing Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Wind Energy Leasing Handbook Wind Energy Leasing Handbook E-1033 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension?..................................................................................................................... 31 What do wind developers consider in locating wind energy projects?............................................................................................ 37 How do companies and individuals invest in wind energy projects?....................................................................

  15. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  16. California high speed rail proposal: “High speed rail and wildlife”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkerson, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Chapter Wildlife and High Speed Rail C ALIFORNIA H IGH SDan Leavitt, California High Speed Rail Authority) AbstractThe California High Speed Rail (HSR) Proposal is in the

  17. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  18. Effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    . In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine by using a force-moment sensor, a high in the incoming ABL wind with higher turbulence intensity levels. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4904375] I. INTRODUCTION Wind energy, as a renewable energy source, has been playing a

  19. Mathematical and Computational Applications, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 408-420, 2013 MODELING AND CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    OF A VARIABLE SPEED VARIABLE PITCH ANGLE PROTOTYPE WIND TURBINE Sanem Evren, Mustafa Ünel and Mahmut F. Akit on modeling, control and simulation of a 500 horizontal axis prototype wind turbine that is being developed in the context of the MILRES (National Wind Energy Systems) Project in Turkey. The prototype turbine is designed

  20. An evaluation of operating speed reduction as a surrogate measure for accident experience on horizontal curves on two-lane rural highways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ingrid Bernice

    1993-01-01

    of accidents is relatively small. This problem is especially significant at rural locations where low traffic volumes require several years to establish a sufficient accident rate. A small sample of accident data may not accurately reveal the safety... to accident records. " One geometric measure which several studies have shown to have a relationship with accident experience is degree of curvature. Glennon (7) cites five studies which concluded that accident experience increased with increasing degree...