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1

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Ventilated Building Speaker(s): Sezin Eren Ozcan Date: May 16, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Due to limited energy sources, countries are looking for alternative solutions to decrease energy needs. In that context, natural ventilation can be seen as a very attractive sustainable technique in building design. However, understanding of ventilation dynamics is needed to provide an efficient control. Ventilation rate has to be determined not only in terms of energy, but also for controlling indoor air quality and emissions. For these reasons, agricultural buildings (livestock houses, greenhouses, etc.), naturally ventilated industrial buildings, and residences require a reliable ventilation rate measuring technique. Measuring techniques suffer

2

Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutant Control Index: A New Method of Characterizing Ventilation in Commercial Buildings." Proceedings of Indoor Air'

Lunden, Melissa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measuring Residential Ventilation Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow Verification J. Chris Stratton, Iain S. Walker, Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-5982E 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

4

Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Title Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., David Faulkner, Douglas P. Sullivan, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Marion L. Russell, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5517-5528 Abstract A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a floor area of 4,600 m2, was located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building's four air handling units (AHUs). VOC concentrations in the AHU returns were measured on seven days during a 13-week period. VOC emission factors were determined for individual zones on days when they were operating at near steady-state conditions. The emission factor data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds. Potential sources of the PC vectors were ascribed based on information from the literature supporting the associations. Two vectors with high loadings of compounds including formaldehyde, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- pentanediol monoisobutyrate, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (d5 siloxane), and isoprene likely identified occupant-related sources. One vector likely represented emissions from building materials. Another vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. The relationships between indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations and ventilation rate were qualitatively examined for eight VOCs. Of these, acetaldehyde and hexanal, which were likely associated with material sources, and d5 siloxane exhibited general trends of higher concentrations at lower ventilation rates. For other compounds, the operation of the building and variations in pollutant generation and removal rates apparently combined to obscure the inverse relationship between VOC concentrations and ventilation. This result emphasizes the importance of utilizing source control measures, in addition to adequate ventilation, to limit concentrations of VOCs of concern in office buildings

5

Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions in a call center Title Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions in a call center Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., David Faulkner, Douglas P. Sullivan, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Marion L. Russell, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 2 Pagination 168-173 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of VOCs generated indoors was conducted in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated in the building's four air handling units (AHUs). Concentrations of VOCs in the AHU returns were measured on 7 days during a 13- week period. Indoor minus outdoor concentrations and emission factors were calculated. The emission factor data was subjected to principal component analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds based on source type. One vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. Another vector identified occupant sources. Direct relationships between ventilation rate and concentrations were not observed for most of the abundant VOCs. This result emphasizes the importance of source control measures for limiting VOC concentrations in buildings

6

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air Temperature Speaker(s): Henry Willem Date: July 2, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Max Sherman (THIS SEMINAR TO BE RESCHEDULED.) Sustainability of the built-environment must be achieved in parallel with the sustenance of occupants' health and comfort. Actions to conserve energy and resources require much forethought and careful consideration due to possible consequences on the human aspects. Thus, many extensive works in the recent decades have focused on identifying the associations between indoor environment and human responses. Results have shown moderate to strong implications of thermal and indoor air quality factors on the prevalence and intensity of sick

7

Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 Authors Fisk, William J., Mark J. Mendell, Molly Davies, Ekaterina Eliseeva, David Faulkner, Tienzen Hong, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords absence, building s, carbon dioxide, demand - controlled ventilation, energy, indoor air quality, schools, ventilation Abstract This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included:  The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).  Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.

8

Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Changing Ventilation Rates in U.S. Offices: Implications for Health, Work  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Changing Ventilation Rates in U.S. Offices: Implications for Health, Work Changing Ventilation Rates in U.S. Offices: Implications for Health, Work Performance, Energy, and Associated Economics Title Changing Ventilation Rates in U.S. Offices: Implications for Health, Work Performance, Energy, and Associated Economics Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed LBNL Report Number LBNL-5035E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Fisk, William J., Douglas R. Black, and Gregory Brunner Journal Building and Environment Volume 47 Pagination 368-372 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords cost-benefit analysis, economizer, health, office, ventilation rate, work performance Abstract This paper provides quantitative estimates of benefits and costs of providing different amounts of outdoor air ventilation in U.S. offices. For four scenarios that modify ventilation rates, we estimated changes in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, work performance, short-term absence, and building energy consumption. The estimated annual economic benefits were $13 billion from increasing minimum ventilation rates (VRs) from 8 to 10 L/s per person, $38 billion from increasing minimum VRs from 8 to 15 L/s per person, and $33 billion from increasing VRs by adding outdoor air economizers for the 50% of the office floor area that currently lacks economizers. The estimated $0.04 billion in annual energy-related benefits of decreasing minimum VRs from 8 to 6.5 L/s per person are very small compared to the projected annual costs of $12 billion. Benefits of increasing minimum VRs far exceeded energy costs while adding economizers yielded health, performance, and absence benefits with energy savings.

10

Energy Recovery Ventilator Membrane Efficiency Testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A test setup was designed and built to test energy recovery ventilator membranes. The purpose of this test setup was to measure the heat transfer and water vapor transfer rates through energy recover ventilator membranes and find their effectiveness...

Rees, Jennifer Anne

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of Californias Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 ?m. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were then used to determine the ventilation rates, filtration strategies, or source reductions needed to maintain indoor contaminant concentrations below reference levels. Several scenarios of potential concern were considered: (i) formaldehyde levels in furniture/hardware stores, (ii) contaminants associated with cooking (e.g., PM, acrolein, and acetaldehyde) in grocery stores, and (iii) outdoor contaminants (e.g., PM and O{sub 3}) impacting stores that use natural ventilation. Estimated formaldehyde emission rates suggest that retail stores would need to ventilate at levels far exceeding the current Title 24 requirement to lower indoor concentrations below Californias stringent formaldehyde reference level. Given the high costs of providing ventilation but only modest chronic health benefit is expected, effective source control is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by some retail stores in this study. Predictions showed that grocery stores need MERV 13 air filters, instead of MERV 8 filters that are more commonly used, to maintain indoor PM at levels that meet the chronic health standards for PM. Exposure to acrolein is a potential health concern in grocery stores, and should be addressed by increasing the use of kitchen range hoods or improving their contaminant removal efficiency. In stores that rely on natural ventilation, indoor PM can be a health concern if the stores are located in areas with high outdoor PM. This concern may be addressed by switching to mechanical ventilation when the outdoor air quality is poor, while continuing natural ventilation when outdoor air quality is good.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

to provide needed ventilation under drier summer and winter conditions and reduce the air introduced during periods of peak space conditioning. For more information, see the...

13

Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot-humid PERFORMANCE DATA Costs for reducing infiltration and incorporating mechanical ventilation in buildings will vary greatly depending on the condition and...

14

Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

Aldrich, R.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

16

Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control with ventilation, given current ventilation and filtration system practices, are the indoor-sourced gaseous pollutants with low octanal-air

Mendell, Mark J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECONOMIZER SYSTEM COST EFFECTIVENESS: ACCOUNTING FOR THEand economic benefits of an economizer ventilation controlanalyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs

Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality survey. In: Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisbon,In: Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisbon, Portugal:as ventilation varies. In: Healthy Buildings 2012. Brisbane,

Mendell, Mark J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background - The goal of this project, with a focus on commercial buildings in California, was to develop a new framework for evidence-based minimum ventilation rate (MVR) standards that protect occupants in buildings while also considering energy use and cost. This was motivated by research findings suggesting that current prescriptive MVRs in commercial buildings do not provide occupants with fully safe and satisfactory indoor environments. Methods - The project began with a broad review in several areas ? the diverse strategies now used for standards or guidelines for MVRs or for environmental contaminant exposures, current knowledge about adverse human effects associated with VRs, and current knowledge about contaminants in commercial buildings, including their their presence, their adverse human effects, and their relationships with VRs. Based on a synthesis of the reviewed information, new principles and approaches are proposed for setting evidence-based VRs standards for commercial buildings, considering a range of human effects including health, performance, and acceptability of air. Results ? A review and evaluation is first presented of current approaches to setting prescriptive building ventilation standards and setting acceptable limits for human contaminant exposures in outdoor air and occupational settings. Recent research on approaches to setting acceptable levels of environmental exposures in evidence-based MVR standards is also described. From a synthesis and critique of these materials, a set of principles for setting MVRs is presented, along with an example approach based on these principles. The approach combines two sequential strategies. In a first step, an acceptable threshold is set for each adverse outcome that has a demonstrated relationship to VRs, as an increase from a (low) outcome level at a high reference ventilation rate (RVR, the VR needed to attain the best achievable levels of the adverse outcome); MVRs required to meet each specific outcome threshold are estimated; and the highest of these MVRs, which would then meet all outcome thresholds, is selected as the target MVR. In a second step, implemented only if the target MVR from step 1 is judged impractically high, costs and benefits are estimated and this information is used in a risk management process. Four human outcomes with substantial quantitative evidence of relationships to VRs are identified for initial consideration in setting MVR standards. These are: building-related symptoms (sometimes called sick building syndrome symptoms), poor perceived indoor air quality, and diminished work performance, all with data relating them directly to VRs; and cancer and non-cancer chronic outcomes, related indirectly to VRs through specific VR-influenced indoor contaminants. In an application of step 1 for offices using a set of example outcome thresholds, a target MVR of 9 L/s (19 cfm) per person was needed. Because this target MVR was close to MVRs in current standards, use of a cost/benefit process seemed unnecessary. Selection of more stringent thresholds for one or more human outcomes, however, could raise the target MVR to 14 L/s (30 cfm) per person or higher, triggering the step 2 risk management process. Consideration of outdoor air pollutant effects would add further complexity to the framework. For balancing the objective and subjective factors involved in setting MVRs in a cost-benefit process, it is suggested that a diverse group of stakeholders make the determination after assembling as much quantitative data as possible.

Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program Interim Report on Cross Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels within a commercial retail building. Indoor Air, 18,andVentilationRatesinRetailStores WanyuR. Chan,exchange rates of the nine retail stores estimated from the

Chan, Wanyu R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UC-95d INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATIONVentilation on Indoor Air Quality and Energy Use in Schoo s,EEB~Vent INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION

Young, Rodger A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

System Performance Measurement Supports Design Recommendations for Solar Ventilation Preheat System (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

System Performance System Performance Measurement Supports Design Recommendations for Solar Ventilation Preheat System The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored the installation of a data monitoring system to analyze the efficiency and performance of a large solar ventilation preheat (SVP) system. The system was installed at a Federal installation to reduce energy consumption and costs and to help meet Federal energy goals and mandates. SVP systems draw ventilation air in through a perforated metal solar collector with a dark color on the south side of a build-

25

The International Journal of Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Buildings: Harrington C and Modera M 345 Estimates of Uncertainty in Multi-Zone Air Leakage Measurements. Introduction Heating, cooling and ventilation can account for 50 percent of total building energy use flow rate. Over the past 15 years, the subject of duct leakage in buildings other than single-family

California at Davis, University of

26

Ventilation Effectiveness Research at UT-Typer Lab Houses  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Effectiveness Research Ventilation Effectiveness Research at UT-Tyler Lab Houses Source Of Outside Air, Distribution, Filtration Armin Rudd Twin (almost) Lab Houses at UT-Tyler House 2: Unvented attic, House 1: Vented attic lower loads + PV Ventilation Effectiveness Research 30 April 2013 2 * 1475 ft 2 , 3-bedroom houses * House 2 was mirrored plan * 45 cfm 62.2 ventilation rate * Garage connected to house on only one wall * Access to attic via pull-down stairs in garage * Further access to House 2 unvented attic through gasket sealed door Ventilation Effectiveness Research 30 April 2013 3 Testing Approach  Building enclosure and building mechanical systems characterization by measurement of building enclosure air leakage, central air distribution system airflows, and ventilation system airflows.

27

CO2 tracer gas concentration decay method for measuring air change rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The measure of air change rate (ACR) in building is a difficult and usually expensive task. The tracer gas method is the reference technique but its implementation is difficult and the interpretation of results is not straightforward. In the present work, the concentration decay method by multiple CO2 transmitters is experimentally validated in the case of cross-ventilation. It is observed that in-situ CO2 transmitters lead to ACR values in good agreement with reference measurements obtained from mechanically controlled values. Whereas multiple transmitters in different sampling positions show the imperfect mixing, a sensor located at the outlet or an averaged value of all sensors can provide an accurate measure of the ACR. Moreover, the spatial variation of CO2 concentration can be used to assess the ventilation efficiency in the test chamber. Different measures and calculation methods are discussed, and the uncertainty analysis of each method is carried out.

Shuqing Cui; Michal Cohen; Pascal Stabat; Dominique Marchio

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graa, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Residential Ventilation & Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 Residential Ventilation & Energy Figure 1: Annual Average Ventilation Costs of the Current U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock ($/year/house). Infiltration and ventilation in dwellings is conventionally believed to account for one-third to one-half of space conditioning energy. Unfortunately, there is not a great deal of measurement data or analysis to substantiate this assumption. As energy conservation improvements to the thermal envelope continue, the fraction of energy consumed by the conditioning of air may increase. Air-tightening programs, while decreasing energy requirements, have the tendency to decrease ventilation and its associated energy penalty at the possible expense of adequate indoor air quality. Therefore, more energy may be spent on conditioning air.

32

Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Measurements of Relative K Radiative Decay Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relative radiative decay rates were measured for K-shell vacancies for elements between Z=62and92 with a high-resolution Ge(Li) spectrometer. The ratios ?2?1, ?1??1, and ?2??1 (Siegbahn notation) were determined, with ?2?1 significantly higher (4-14%) than those reported by Beckman but in excellent agreement with recent Hartree-Slater calculations of Scofield. The ratios ?1??1 and ?2??1 do not agree with either Beckman's experiment or Scofield's calculations.

P. J. Ebert and V. W. Slivinsky

1969-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

34

Frequency domain and finite difference modeling of ventilated concrete slabs and comparison with field measurements: Part 2. Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper is the second of two papers that present techniques and guidelines for frequency response (FR) and lumped-parameter finite difference (LPFD) approaches for the thermal modeling of building-integrated thermal energy storage (BITES) systems. To assist the thermal analysis and control of active BITES systems, development of FR and LPFD models are presented in this two-part paper. Modeling methodology and techniques are presented in paper Part 1 using ventilated concrete slabs (VCS) for demonstration. In this part, the methodology is applied to two types of VCS. The modeling results from different FR and explicit LPFD models with different time steps and discretization schemes are presented. The results are compared to each other, and with field-measured data from a solar demonstration house with a VCS. Simulation results show that time step of half an hour for FR models results in less than 3% error in thermal performance. For LPFD models, discretization with Biot number smaller than 0.5 can reduce error to about 5%.

Yuxiang Chen; Andreas K. Athienitis; Khaled E. Galal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Title Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-57730 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Russell, Marion L., Max H. Sherman, and Armin F. Rudd Journal HVAC&R Research Volume 13 Start Page Chapter Pagination 325-348 Abstract This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings in North America and a few in Europe. The major technologies reviewed include a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. Key parameters that are related to each system include operating costs, installation costs, ventilation rates, heat recovery potential. It also examines related issues such as infiltration, duct systems, filtration options, noise, and construction issues. This report describes a wide variety of systems currently on the market that can be used to meet ASHRAE Standard 62.2. While these systems generally fall into the categories of supply, exhaust or balanced, the specifics of each system are driven by concerns that extend beyond those in the standard and are discussed. Some of these systems go beyond the current standard by providing additional features (such as air distribution or pressurization control). The market will decide the immediate value of such features, but ASHRAE may wish to consider modifications to the standard in the future.

36

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. When creating an energy-efficient, airtight home through air sealing, it's very important to consider ventilation. Unless properly ventilated, an airtight home can seal in indoor air pollutants. Ventilation also helps control moisture-another important consideration for a healthy, energy-efficient home. Featured Whole-House Ventilation A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. Tight, energy-efficient homes require mechanical -- usually whole-house --

37

Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Solvent Penetration Rate in Tablet Measurement Using Video Image Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe a simple technique for the measurement of solvent penetration rates into spray-dried lactose (DCL) tablets ... results of the experimental study show that the penetration rate in some cases appears to...

D. Braido; Y. Gulak; A. Cuitino

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Measuring rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for measuring the flow rates of outside air into HVAC systems. This document describes one particular technology for measuring these airflows, a system and a related protocol developed to evaluate this and similar measurement technologies under conditions without wind, and the results of our evaluations. We conclude that the measurement technology evaluated can provide a reasonably accurate measurement of OA flow rate over a broad range of flow, without significantly increasing airflow resistance.

Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Delp, Woody

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University] [Auburn University

2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

42

Measuring gas emissions from livestock buildings: A review on uncertainty analysis and error sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measuring gaseous and particulate emissions from livestock houses has been the subject of intensive research over the past two decades. Currently, there is general agreement regarding appropriate methods to measure emissions from mechanically ventilated buildings. However, measuring emissions from naturally ventilated buildings remains an elusive target primarily because there is no reference method for measuring building ventilation rate. Ventilation rates and thus building emissions estimates for naturally ventilated buildings are likely to contain greater errors compared with those from mechanically ventilated buildings. This work reviews the origin and magnitude of errors associated with emissions from naturally ventilated buildings as compared to those typically found in mechanical ventilation. Firstly, some general concepts of error analysis are detailed. Then, typical errors found in the literature for each measurement technique are reviewed, and potential sources of relevant systematic and random errors are identified. The emission standard uncertainty in mechanical ventilation is at best 10% or more of the measured value, whereas in natural ventilation it may be considerably higher and there may also be significant unquantifiable biases. A reference method is necessary to obtain accurate emissions estimates, and for naturally ventilated structures this suggests the need for a new means of ventilation measurement. The results obtained from the analysis of information in this review will be helpful to establish research priorities, and to optimize research efforts in terms of quality of emission measurements.

Salvador Calvet; Richard S. Gates; GuoQiang Zhang; Fernando Estells; Nico W.M. Ogink; Sren Pedersen; Daniel Berckmans

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Frequency domain and finite difference modeling of ventilated concrete slabs and comparison with field measurements: Part 1, modeling methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper is the first of two papers that focus on the thermal modeling of building-integrated thermal energy storage (BITES) systems using frequency response (FR) and lumped-parameter finite difference (LPFD) techniques. Structural/non-structural building fabric components, such as ventilated concrete slabs (VCS) can actively store and release thermal energy effectively by passing air through their embedded air channels. These building components can be described as ventilated BITES systems. To assist the thermal analysis and control of BITES systems, modeling techniques and guidelines for FR and LPFD models of VCS are presented in this two-part paper. In this first part, modeling techniques for FR and LPFD approaches based on network theory are presented. A method for calculating the heat transfer between flowing air and ventilated components is developed for these two approaches. Discretization criteria for explicit LPFD models are discussed. For the FR approach, discrete Fourier series in complex frequency form are used to represent the boundary excitations. In the treatment of heat injection from the flowing air as internal source in the VCS, network techniques such as Thvenin theorem, heat flow division, and Y-diakoptic transform are employed. The techniques presented in this paper are applicable to other BITES with hydronic or electric charging/discharging systems. With the FR techniques, model-based control strategies based on transfer functions can be readily developed.

Yuxiang Chen; Andreas K. Athienitis; Khaled E. Galal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION FOR PBX 9502 OVER 87545 Detonation velocities and wave shapes were measured for PBX 9502 95 wt. TATB, 5 wt. Kel-F 800 rate and diameter e ect data. For each T0, the simplest detonation shock dynamics model assumes that the local

Aslam, Tariq

45

Enclosure 2 DOE's Position on Dose Rate "Measurement Uncertainty"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uncertainty concerns, as cited in their Technical Support Document (TSD), "Review of DOE Planned Change radiation survey instruments used to measure radiation dose rates in the field from waste containers are needed to provide this protection to workers. The purpose of these surface dose rate measurements

46

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Title Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5968E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Turner, William J. N., and Iain S. Walker Date Published 12/2012 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, california title 24, passive ventilation, residential ventilation, ventilation controller Abstract Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health, and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. At the same time we wish to reduce the energy use in homes and therefore minimize the energy used to provide ventilation. This study examined several approaches to reducing the energy requirements of providing acceptable IAQ in residential buildings. Two approaches were taken. The first used RIVEC - the Residential Integrated VEntilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. The second used passive and hybrid ventilation systems, rather than mechanical systems, to provide whole-house ventilation.

47

RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to account for 1/3 to 1/2 of the space conditioning energy. There is not a great deal of measurement data opportunities, the United States Department of Energy and others need to put into perspective the energy based on energy conservation and ventilation strategies. Because of the lack of direct measurements, we

48

DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

columns indicate the energy and cost savings for demandand class size. (The energy costs of classroom ventilationTotal Increase in Energy Costs ($) Increased State Revenue

Fisk, William J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

50

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

51

Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and ...

Camilli, Richard

52

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION FOR PBX 9502 OVER 87545 Detonation velocities and wave shapes were measured for PBX 9502 (95 wt.% TATB, 5 wt.% Kel­F 800 and diameter effect data. For each T 0 , the simplest detonation shock dynamics model assumes that the local

Aslam, Tariq

53

Test Plan to Evaluate the Relationship Among IAQ, Comfort, Moisture, and Ventilation in Humid Climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This experimental plan describes research being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in coordinatation with Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Florida HERO, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to evaluate the impact of ventilation rate on interior moisture levels, temperature distributions, and indoor air contaminant concentrations. Specifically, the research team will measure concentrations of indoor air contaminants, ventilation system flow rates, energy consumption, and temperature and relative humidity in ten homes in Gainesville, FL to characterize indoor pollutant levels and energy consumption associated with the observed ventilation rates. PNNL and FSEC have collaboratively prepared this experimental test plan, which describes background and context for the proposed study; the experimental design; specific monitoring points, including monitoring equipment, and sampling frequency; key research questions and the associated data analysis approach; experimental logistics, including schedule, milestones, and team member contact information; and clearly identifies the roles and responsibilities of each team in support of project objectives.

Widder, Sarah H.; Martin, Eric

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

55

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Title Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6257E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Amanda Parra, Marion L. Russell, and Wen-Yee Lee Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords indoor air quality, Passive Sampling, Uptake Rates, vocs Abstract Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick's Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

56

Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

columnsindicatetheenergyandcostsavingsfor demandclasssize. (Theenergycosts ofclassroomventilationTotal Increase in Energy Costs ($) Increased State Revenue

Fisk, William J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Building Science - Ventilation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Ventilation Joseph Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng, ASHRAE Fellow www.buildingscience.com Build Tight - Ventilate Right Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 2 Build Tight - Ventilate Right How Tight? What's Right? Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 3 Air Barrier Metrics Material 0.02 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Assembly 0.20 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Enclosure 2.00 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa 0.35 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.15 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 4 Getting rid of big holes 3 ach@50 Getting rid of smaller holes 1.5 ach@50 Getting German 0.6 ach@50 Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 5 Best As Tight as Possible - with - Balanced Ventilation Energy Recovery Distribution Source Control - Spot exhaust ventilation Filtration

58

Solar ventilation and tempering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper presents basic information about solar panels designed realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window facade chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system furnished with chimney can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Why We Ventilate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Why We Ventilate Why We Ventilate Title Why We Ventilate Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-5093E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., Phillip N. Price, Max H. Sherman, and Brett C. Singer Conference Name Proceedings of the 2011 32nd AIVC Conference and 1st Tightvent Conference Date Published October 2011 Conference Location Brussels, Belgium Keywords indoor environment department, resave, ventilation and air cleaning Abstract It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of "good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

60

Ventilation of Electrical Substations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE type of construction used for substations is generally governed by requirements, for example, fire and air-raid precautions, which ... Electrical Engineers, F. Favell and E. W. Connon record their experiences in overcoming substation ventilation problems in particular cases. Adequate and suitably planned ventilation will maintain ...

1943-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements in supersaturated water vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of homogeneous nucleation in supersaturated vapors of water was studied experimentally using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber. Helium was used as a carrier gas. Our study covers a range of nucleation rates from 3 10 ? 1 to 3 10 2 cm ? 3 s ? 1 at four isotherms: 290 300 310 and 320 K . The molecular content of critical clusters was estimated from the slopes of experimental data. The measured isothermal dependencies of nucleation rate of water on saturation ratio were compared with the prediction of the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation the empirical prediction of Wlk et al. [J. Chem. Phys.117 10 (2002)] the scaled model of Hale [Phys. Rev. A33 4156 (1986)] and the former nucleation onset data.

David Brus; Vladimr dmal; Ji? Smolk

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Whole Building Ventilation Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Whole-Building Whole-Building Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Home Performance / Weatherization  Addressing ventilation is the exception  Max tightness, e.g. BPI's "Building Airflow Standard" (BAS)  References ASHRAE 62-89  BAS = Max [0.35 ACH, 15 CFM/person], CFM50 eq.  If BD tests show natural infiltration below BAS...  Ventilation must be recommended or installed.  SO DON'T AIR SEAL TO MUCH! © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Ventilation Requirements Ventilation systems for existing homes that are:

63

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice?  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Dianne Griffiths April 29, 2013 Presentation Outline * Basic Objectives * Exhaust Systems * Make-up Air Systems Two Primary Ventilation Objectives 1) Providing Fresh Air - Whole-House 2) Removing Pollutants - Local Exhaust Our goal is to find the simplest solution that satisfies both objectives while minimizing cost and energy impacts. Common Solution: Align local exhaust with fresh air requirements (Ex: 25 Bath + 25 Kitchen) Exhaust-Driven Fresh Air Design * Exhaust slightly depressurizes the units * Outside air enters through leaks, cracks, or planned inlets * Widely used in the North Multifamily Ventilation Best Practice * Step 1: Understand ventilation requirements * Step 2: Select the simplest design that can

64

Measurement of the Formation Rate of Muonic Hydrogen Molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: The rate \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ characterizes the formation of pp\\mu\\ molecules in collisions of muonic p\\mu\\ atoms with hydrogen. In measurements of the basic weak muon capture reaction on the proton to determine the pseudoscalar coupling g_P, capture occurs from both atomic and molecular states. Thus knowledge of \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ is required for a correct interpretation of these experiments. Purpose: Recently the MuCap experiment has measured the capture rate \\Lambda_S from the singlet p\\mu\\ atom, employing a low density active target to suppress pp\\mu\\ formation (PRL 110, 12504 (2013)). Nevertheless, given the unprecedented precision of this experiment, the existing experimental knowledge in \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ had to be improved. Method: The MuCap experiment derived the weak capture rate from the muon disappearance rate in ultra-pure hydrogen. By doping the hydrogen with 20 ppm of argon, a competing process to pp\\mu\\ formation was introduced, which allowed the extraction of \\lambda_pp\\mu\\ from the observed t...

Andreev, V A; Carey, R M; Case, T A; Clayton, S M; Crowe, K M; Deutsch, J; Egger, J; Freedman, S J; Ganzha, V A; Gorringe, T; Gray, F E; Hertzog, D W; Hildebrandt, M; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Knaack, S; Kravtsov, P A; Krivshich, A G; Lauss, B; Lynch, K R; Maev, E M; Maev, O E; Mulhauser, F; Petitjean, C; Petrov, G E; Prieels, R; Schapkin, G N; Semenchuk, G G; Soroka, M A; Tishchenko, V; Vasilyev, A A; Vorobyov, A A; Vznuzdaev, M E; Winter, P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This project investigates the impact of air infiltration and ventilation on space cooling and moisture in residential buildings; research was conducted in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

66

Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

Turner, William; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Electron-Irradiation Damage-Rate Measurements in Aluminum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The resistivity increase upon electron irradiation near 8K of aluminum was measured as a function of incident electron energy from 0.19 to 1.6 MeV. A value of the displacement threshold energy of 16 eV was determined by extrapolation of the damage-rate curve to zero damage production. A reasonable fit between the experimental and theoretical values of the displacement cross section was achieved with an effective threshold energy of 19 eV, a value of the Frenkel resistivity of (1.3210-4 ohm cm)/(fractional concentration), and a unit step-displacement function. The tailing off in the damage rate near threshold that has been observed in Cu, Au, and Pt is apparently absent in Al.

H. H. Neely and Walter Bauer

1966-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Prospects for DNA methods to measure human heritable mutation rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A workshop cosponsored by ICPEMC and the US Department of Energy was held in Alta, Utah, December 9-13, 1984 to examine the extent to which DNA-oriented methods might provide new approaches to the important but intractable problem of measuring mutation rates in control and exposed human populations. The workshop identified and analyzed six DNA methods for detection of human heritable mutation, including several created at the meeting, and concluded that none of the methods combine sufficient feasibility and efficiency to be recommended for general application. 8 refs.

Mendelsohn, M.L.

1985-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

69

Natural Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation May 30, 2012 - 7:56pm Addthis Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion What does this mean for me? If you live in a part of the country with cool nights and breezes, you may be able to cool your house with natural ventilation. If you're building a new home, design it to take advantage of natural ventilation. Natural ventilation relies on the wind and the "chimney effect" to keep a home cool. Natural ventilation works best in climates with cool nights and regular breezes. The wind will naturally ventilate your home by entering or leaving windows, depending on their orientation to the wind. When wind blows against your

70

Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.J. : Effect of ventilation rate in a healthy building.IAQ '91: Healthy Buildings, American Society of Heating,

Thatcher, Tracy L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Title Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5889E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., and Max H. Sherman Journal Building and Environment Volume 59 Start Page 456 Pagination 456-465 Date Published 01/2013 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, filtration, infiltration, mechanical ventilation, ozone, simulation Abstract Elevated outdoor ozone levels are associated with adverse health effects. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone of outdoor origin would lower population exposures and might also lead to a reduction in ozone---associated adverse health effects. In most buildings, indoor ozone levels are diminished with respect to outdoor levels to an extent that depends on surface reactions and on the degree to which ozone penetrates the building envelope. Ozone enters buildings from outdoors together with the airflows that are driven by natural and mechanical means, including deliberate ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor---generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only the positive effects on removing pollutants of indoor origin but also the possibility that enhanced ventilation might increase indoor levels of pollutants originating outdoors. This study considers how changes in residential ventilation that are designed to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 might influence indoor levels of ozone. Simulation results show that the building envelope can contribute significantly to filtration of ozone. Consequently, the use of exhaust ventilation systems is predicted to produce lower indoor ozone concentrations than would occur with balanced ventilation systems operating at the same air---exchange rate. We also investigated a strategy for reducing exposure to ozone that would deliberately reduce ventilation rates during times of high outdoor ozone concentration while still meeting daily average ventilation requirements.

72

Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ?

Not Available

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Heat balance for two commercial broiler barns with solar preheated ventilation air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In temperate climatic zones, solar air heaters can reduce heating loads, and increase winter ventilation rates thereby improving inside air quality and livestock performance without additional fuel input. A heat balance was carried out to measure bird heat production under field conditions on two commercial broiler barns to evaluate the impact of solar heated ventilation air on bird performance, and identify strategies to reduce winter heating load. Located 40km east of Montreal, Canada, the experimental broiler barns were identically built with three floors housing 6500 birds per floor in an all-in all-out fashion. Equipped with solar air pre-heaters over their fresh air inlets, the barns were instrumented to monitor inlet, inside and outside air conditions, ventilation rate and heating system operating time. The effects on bird performance were observed from November 2007 to March 2009 by alternating their operation between the barns. The measured sensible and total heat productions of 4.5W and 8.4W, respectively, for 1kg birds corresponded to laboratory measured values. Bird performance was not affected by the solar air pre-heaters which increased the ventilation rate above normal during only 20% of the daytime period. Room air temperature stratification resulted in 2040kW of heat losses during the winter, representing 25% of the total natural gas heat load. Because inside air moved directly to the fans, large and rapid increases in ventilation inlet air temperature, produced by the solar air pre-heaters, resulted in further heat losses equivalent to 15% of the solar energy recovered. Sustainable energy management in livestock barns requiring heating should incorporate an air mixing system to eliminate air temperature stratification and improve fan flows.

Sbastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Experimental study on flow and ventilation behaviours over idealised urban roughness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flows in the urban boundary layer (UBL) are strongly affected by the inhomogeneous roughness elements at the bottom surface. In particular, in the near-ground region (roughness sublayer), the effect of the surface roughness dominates that complicates the behaviours of mean flow and turbulence and subsequently the near-wall transport processes. To safeguard the health of urban inhabitants, it is crucial to develop an in-depth understanding of the correlation among near-wall fluid motions, UBL turbulence and city ventilation. However, rather limited information is available. In this study, physical modelling in a laboratory wind tunnel is employed to measure the profiles of both stream-wise and vertical velocities over an array consisting of idealised two-dimensional (2D) roughness elements. Various arrangements are adopted in attempt to cover different flow regimes to examine city ventilation problems. The ventilation performance is measured by the air exchange rate (ACH). Consistent with our previous large-eddy simulation (LES) results, the current wind tunnel measurements suggest that city ventilation is dominated by the ACH turbulent component, i.e., air masses are mainly driven by atmospheric turbulence (at least 80% of the total ACH).

Yat-Kiu Ho; Chun-Ho Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Natural ventilation generates building form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation is an efficient design strategy for thermal comfort in hot and humid climates. The building forms can generate different pressures and temperatures to induce natural ventilation. This thesis develops a ...

Chen, Shaw-Bing

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

May 1999 LBNL -42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indoor air quality in dwellings and to set minimum standards that would allow for energy efficiency Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology of the U.S. Department measures to be evaluated. The standard has requirements for whole-house ventilation, local exhaust

78

A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures Giuseppe Germanò, M.D., Gianfranco Piccirillo, M.D., *Camillo We introduce a new index, Acceleration Ratio (AR), in order to investigate the dependence of Heart

Cammarota, Camillo

79

A New Empirical Model for Predicting Single-Sided, Wind-Driven Natural Ventilation in Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ventilation rate due to the pulsating flow and eddy penetration of single-sided, wind-driven natural Normal to the opening q Fluctuating flow rate e Eddy penetration Wang, H. and Chen, Q. 2012. "A new buildings. A new empirical model was developed that can predict the mean ventilation rate and fluctuating

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

80

How Well Do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental strengths, in contrast, do not accurately predict pollution levels or compliance violations. Levine Haas School of Business University of California at Berkeley 545 Student Services Building #1900 Responsibility? Abstract: Ratings of corporations' environmental activities and capabilities influence billions

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Validation of corrosion rates measured by the Tafel extrapolation method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the validity and limitations of the Tafel extrapolation method for the determination of corrosion rates for activation-controlled corrosion processes. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel method are compared with corrosion rates obtained by an independent chemical (i.e., non-electrochemical) method for iron in hydrochloric acid, iron in 3.5% NaCl, and for titanium in boiling 1M sulfuric acid. The methods of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved colorimetric analysis of the dissolved cation or the use of an ion-implanted inert Xe marker. Additional examples taken from the literature involving other metals and other methods of validation are also discussed.

E. McCafferty

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems Mukesh Khattar Michael J. Brandemuehl Manager, Space Conditioning and Refrigeration Associate Professor Customer Systems Group Joint Center for Energy Management Electric Power Research Institute Campus... costs, the small, modular nature of the system allows great flexibility for fitting into retrofit geometries and saves space in new construction. Moreover, a single chiller can serve multiple air-handling units-in stark contrast to packaged...

Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Variability in the Measurement of Hospital-wide Mortality Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the substantially different results we observed among methods may reflect flaws in the fundamental hypothesis that hospital-wide mortality is a valid metric for the quality of hospital care. Our study also does not rule out the possibility that the estimation of hospital-wide mortality rates on the... This study showed that four commonly used methods to calculate hospitals' risk-adjusted rates of death produced different results. The same hospitals were classified as having higher-than-expected mortality by one method and lower-than-expected mortality by other methods.

Shahian D.M.Wolf R.E.Iezzoni L.I.Kirle L.Normand S.-L.T.

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

84

Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and Nielsen et al. (1988) showed the impact of supply diffusers whereby increasing the entrainment of room air can decrease the temperature gradient in the occupied zone. #0;? Two important parameters to evaluate the performance of displacement ventilation... of Ventilated Rooms, Oslo, Norway. Nielsen, P.V., Hoff, L., Pedersen, L.G. 1988. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers. Proceedings of the 9 th AIVC Conference, Warwick. Niu, J. 1994. Modeling of Cooled-Ceiling Air-Conditioning Systems Ph...

Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

85

Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography Title Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6142E Year of Publication 2013 Authors J. Chris Stratton, and Craig P. Wray Keywords ASHRAE 62.2, commissioning, procedures, residential, standards, ventilation Abstract Beginning with the 2008 version of Title 24, new homes in California must comply with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007 requirements for residential ventilation. Where installed, the limited data available indicate that mechanical ventilation systems do not always perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. Commissioning such systems when they are installed or during subsequent building retrofits is a step towards eliminating deficiencies and optimizing the tradeoff between energy use and acceptable IAQ. Work funded by the California Energy Commission about a decade ago at Berkeley Lab documented procedures for residential commissioning, but did not focus on ventilation systems. Since then, standards and approaches for commissioning ventilation systems have been an active area of work in Europe. This report describes our efforts to collect new literature on commissioning procedures and to identify information that can be used to support the future development of residential-ventilation-specific procedures and standards. We recommend that a standardized commissioning process and a commissioning guide for practitioners be developed, along with a combined energy and IAQ benefit assessment standard and tool, and a diagnostic guide for estimating continuous pollutant emission rates of concern in residences (including a database that lists emission test data for commercially-available labeled products).

86

Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California: Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control should be the first priority instead of dilution of pollutants by ventilation or by cleaning the air.air quality, could better provide healthful indoor environments, and also reward designers and owners who control indoor pollutantsair quality, could better document healthful indoor environments, and also reward designers and owners who control indoor pollutants

Mendell, Mark

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Neutron detector for fusion reaction-rate measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a fast, sensitive neutron detector for recording the fusion reaction-rate history of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The detector is based on the fast rise-time of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC-422) and has a response < 25-ps FWHM. A thin piece of scintillator material acts as a neutron-to- light converter. A zoom lens images light from the scintillator surface to a high-speed (15 ps) optical streak camera for recording. The zoom lens allows the scintillator to be positioned between 1 and 50 cm from a target. The camera simulaneously records an optical fiducial pulse which allows the camera time base to be calibrated relative to the incident laser power. Bursts of x rays formed by focusing 20-ps, 2.5-TW laser pulses onto gold disk targets demonstrate the detector resolution to be < 25 ps. We have recorded burn histories for deuterium/tritium-filled targets producing as few as 3 {times} 10{sup 7} neutrons.

Lerche, R.A.; Phillion, D.W.; Tietbohl, G.L.

1993-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

Hospital ventilation standards and energy conservation: chemical contamination of hospital air. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an era of increasing energy conservation consciousness, a critical reassessment of the validity of hospital ventilation and thermal standards is made. If current standards are found to be excessively conservative, major energy conservation measures could be undertaken by rebalancing and/or modification of current HVAC systems. To establish whether or not reducing ventilation rates would increase airborne chemical contamination to unacceptable levels, a field survey was conducted to develop an inventory and dosage estimates of hospital generated airborne chemical contaminants to which patients, staff, and visitors are exposed. The results of the study are presented. Emphasis is on patient exposure, but an examination of occupational exposure was also made. An in-depth assessment of the laboratory air environment is documented. Housekeeping products used in survey hospitals, hazardous properties of housekeeping chemicals and probable product composition are discussed in the appendices.

Rainer, D.; Michaelsen, G.S.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Total analysis of cooling effects of cross-ventilation affected by microclimate around a building  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to develop a simulation system for evaluating the passive cooling effects, such as cross-ventilation, solar shading by trees, etc. Since the passive cooling effects are strongly affected by the spatial distributions of airflow, air temperature and radiative heat transports around a building, the microclimate around a building should be accurately predicted for this type of simulations. In this study, convective and radiative heat transports around buildings are analyzed by CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and radiation computations. Furthermore, the heat load calculation with the program TRNSYS was carried out, using the values of the cross-ventilation rates predicted by CFD computation and incoming solar radiation onto the building walls under the shade of trees obtained by the radiation computation as boundary conditions. Indoor velocity and indoor air temperature obtained by the simulation system developed here showed generally good agreement with measured data.

Akashi Mochida; Hiroshi Yoshino; Satoshi Miyauchi; Teruaki Mitamura

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Why We Ventilate - Recent Advances  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

WHY WE VENTILATE: WHY WE VENTILATE: Recent Advances Max Sherman BA Stakeholders meeting ASHRAE BIO  Distinguished Lecturer  Exceptional Service Award  Board of Directors; TechC  Chair of committees:  62.2; Standards Committee  TC 4.3; TC 2.5  Holladay Distinguished Fellow OVERVIEW QUESTIONS  What is Ventilation? What is IAQ?  What functions does it provide?  How much do we need? Why?  How should ventilations standards be made? LBL has working on these problems Who Are You?  Engineers (ASHRAE Members & not);  architects,  contractors,  reps,  builders,  vendors,  code officials WHAT IS VENTILATION  Medicine: To Exchange Air In the Lungs  Latin: Ventilare, "to expose to the wind"  Today: To Bring In Outdoor Air And Replace

91

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

92

Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Title Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5796E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., William J. N. Turner, Iain S. Walker, and Brett C. Singer Date Published 06/2012 Abstract Changing the rate of airflow through a home affects the annual thermal conditioning energy.Large-scale changes to airflow rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the energy consumption of the residential energy sector. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models hampers the ability to estimate the impact of policy changes on a state or nationwide level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study was designed to combine the output of simple airflow models and a limited set of home characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modelers to use existing databases of home characteristics to determine the impact of policy on ventilation at a population scale. In this report, we describe the IVE model and demonstrate that its estimates of energy change are comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model when applied to homes with limited parameterization. Homes with extensive parameterization would be more accurately characterized by complex residential energy models. The demonstration included a range of home types, climates, and ventilation systems that cover a large fraction of the residential housing sector.

93

Measurements of Film Flow Rate in Heated Tubes with Various Axial Power Distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of Film Flow Rate in Heated Tubes with Various Axial Power Distributions by Carl, Measurements of Film Flow Rate in Heated Tubes with Various Axial Power Distributions KTH Nuclear Reactor power is limited by a phenomenon called critical heat flux (CHF). It appears as a sudden detoriation

Haviland, David

94

Fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometer and method for measuring fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fast repetition rate fluorometer device and method for measuring in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton or higher plants chlorophyll and photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton or higher plants is revealed. The phytoplankton or higher plants are illuminated with a series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes effective to bring about and measure resultant changes in fluorescence yield of their Photosystem II. The series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes has a predetermined energy per flash and a rate greater than 10,000 Hz. Also, disclosed is a flasher circuit for producing the series of fast repetition rate flashes. 14 figs.

Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

95

Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

, 2011 , 2011 Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 2:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are also dialed into the telephone conference call: Dial-in number: 888-324-9601; Pass code: 5551971 Download the presentation at: www.buildingamerica.gov/meetings.html Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Building America: Introduction November 1, 2011 Cheryn Engebrecht Cheryn.engebrecht@nrel.gov Building Technologies Program Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov * Reduce energy use in new and existing residential buildings * Promote building science and systems engineering / integration approach * "Do no harm": Ensure safety, health and durability are maintained or improved * Accelerate adoption of high performance technologies

96

RATES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

97

RATES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

98

RATES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

99

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

100

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

102

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

103

Measurement and verification of rates of sediment phosphorus release for a hypereutrophic urban lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contribution of sediment release to the phosphorus budget of hypereutrophic Onondaga Lake was determined through laboratory measurements made on intact cores. Rates ranged from 921 mg P m?2 d?1 with a mean o...

Martin T. Auer; Ned A. Johnson; Michael R. Penn; Steven W. Effler

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Measurement and verification of rates of sediment phosphorus release for a hypereutrophic urban lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contribution of sediment release to the phosphorus budget of hypereutrophic Onondaga Lake was determined through laboratory measurements made on intact cores. Rates ranged from 9-21 mg P m-2 d-1 with a mean o...

Martin T. Auer; Ned A. Johnson

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Instrument for measuring the rate of penetration of oil and other liquids into paper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of penetration of oil into paper is assessed from the decrease in opacity as oil penetrates into the sheet. This is measured photoelectrically and the design of a suitable instrument is described. The sheet is illuminated on the underside with diffuse light and that transmitted is measured on a photoelectric cell immediately above. The derivation of the formulae for the rate of penetration and depth penetrated at any time after oiling is given as well as curves showing typical results.

A C Poulter

1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Simultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to simultaneously retrieve the vertical profile of precipitation and the near-surface wind speed. ResultsSimultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements simultaneously estimates the over ocean near-surface wind speed and rain rate profile using data from a 10.7 GHz

Ruf, Christopher

107

Comparing methods for measuring the rate of spread of invading populations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with known theoretical spread rates over a hypothetical region where a set of sampling points are distributed as well as the shape of the invaded area and then compare how different spread rate measurement methods biology, and in particular on the factors influencing spread into new environments (Sharov et al. 1999

Liebhold, Andrew

108

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure Ian Melbourne renewal sequences in the context of infinite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical systems technique, operator renewal theory, to obtain precise asymptotics and hence sharp mixing rates

109

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with in nite measure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with in#12;nite measure Ian of operator renewal sequences in the context of in#12;nite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical for mixing rates. Sarig [37] introduced a powerful new technique, operator renewal theory, to obtain precise

110

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Title Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed Year of Publication 2012 Authors Bennett, Deborah H., William J. Fisk, Michael G. Apte, X. Wu, Amber L. Trout, David Faulkner, and Douglas P. Sullivan Journal Indoor Air Volume 22 Issue 4 Pagination 309-20 Abstract This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healthcare facilities, grocery stores, dental offices, and fitness centers; and five other buildings. Fourteen (38%) of the buildings either could not or did not provide outdoor air through the HVAC system. The air exchange rate averaged 1.6 (s.d. = 1.7) exchanges per hour and was similar between buildings with and without outdoor air supplied through the HVAC system, indicating that some buildings have significant leakage or ventilation through open windows and doors. Not all buildings had sufficient air exchange to meet ASHRAE 62.1 Standards, including buildings used for fitness centers, hair salons, offices, and retail establishments. The majority of the time, buildings were within the ASHRAE temperature comfort range. Offices were frequently overcooled in the summer. All of the buildings had filters, but over half the buildings had a filter with a minimum efficiency reporting value rating of 4 or lower, which are not very effective for removing fine particles. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Most U.S. commercial buildings (96%) are small- to medium-sized, using nearly 18% of the country's energy, and sheltering a large population daily. Little is known about the ventilation systems in these buildings. This study found a wide variety of ventilation conditions, with many buildings failing to meet relevant ventilation standards. Regulators may want to consider implementing more complete building inspections at commissioning and point of sale.

111

Radiation source rate estimation through data assimilation of gamma dose rate measurements for operational nuclear emergency response systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of an innovative data assimilation method that has been recently developed in NCSR Demokritos for estimating an unknown emission rate of radionuclides in the atmosphere, with real-scale experimental data. The efficient algorithm is based on the assimilation of gamma dose rate measured data in the Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model DIPCOT and uses variational principles. The DIPCOT model is used in the framework of the nuclear emergency response system (ERS) RODOS. The evaluation is performed by computational simulations of dispersion of Ar-41 that was emitted routinely by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation's (ANSTO) previous research reactor, HIFAR, located in Sydney, Australia. In this paper the algorithm is evaluated against a more complicated case than the others used in previous studies: there was only one monitoring station available each day and the site topography is characterised as moderately complex. Overall the estimated release rate approaches the real one to a very satisfactory degree as revealed by the statistical indicators of errors.

Vasiliki Tsiouri; Spyros Andronopoulos; Ivan Kovalets; Leisa L. Dyer; John G. Bartzis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Measurement of the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys using Tafel extrapolation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hypothesis that the corrosion of Mg alloys can be adequately estimated using Tafel extrapolation of the polarisation curve is termed herein the electrochemical measurement hypothesis for Mg. In principle, such a hypothesis can be disproved by a single valid counter example. The critical review of Mg corrosion by Song and Atrens in 2003 indicated that, for Mg alloys, Tafel extrapolation had not estimated the corrosion rate reliably. This paper examines the recent literature to further examine the electrochemical measurement hypothesis for Mg. The literature shows that, for Mg alloys, corrosion rates evaluated by Tafel extrapolation from polarisation curves have not agreed with corrosion rates evaluated from weight loss and hydrogen evolution. Typical deviations have been ?5090%. These were much larger than the precision of the measurement methods and indicate a need for careful examination of the use of Tafel extrapolation for Mg. For research that nevertheless does intend to use Tafel extrapolation to elucidate corrosion of Mg associated with service, it is strongly recommended that these measurements be complemented by the use of at least two of the three other simple measurement methods: (i) weight loss rate, (ii) hydrogen evolution rate, and (iii) rate of Mg2+ leaving the metal surface. There is much better insight for little additional effort.

Zhiming Shi; Ming Liu; Andrej Atrens

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Measurement of small photodestruction rates of cold, charged biomolecules in an ion trap  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, we demonstrate quantitative measurements of photodestruction rates of translationally cold, charged biomolecules. The long-term stable storage of the molecular ions in an ion trap under ultra-high vacuum conditions allows measurement of small rates and verification that rates are linear in photodestruction laser intensity. Measurements were performed on singly protonated molecules of the organic compound glycyrrhetinic acid (C30H46O4), dissociated by a continuous-wave UV laser (266 nm) using different intensities. The molecules were sympathetically cooled by simultaneously trapped laser-cooled barium ions to translational temperatures of below 150 mK. Destruction rates of less than 0.05 s?1 and a cross section of (1.1 0.1) ? 10?17 cm2 have been determined. An extension to tunable UV laser sources would permit high-resolution dissociation spectroscopic studies on a wide variety of cold complex molecules.

D Offenberg; Ch Wellers; C B Zhang; B Roth; S Schiller

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study describes research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

115

Experimental analysis and model validation of an opaque ventilated facade  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural ventilation is a convenient way of reducing energy consumption in buildings. In this study an experimental module of an opaque ventilated faade (OVF) was built and tested for assessing its potential of supplying free ventilation and air preheating for the building. A numerical model was created and validated against the experimental data. The experimental results showed that the flow rates induced in the faade cavity were due to mixed driving forces: wind and buoyancy. Depending on the weather conditions one of them was the main driving force, or both were of the same order. When the wind force was the main driving force, higher flow rates were found. In these cases buoyancy acted as supporting driving force. When the wind speed was low and buoyancy prevailed lower flow rates were found. Air and surface temperatures were predicted by the numerical model with a better accuracy than flow and energy rates. The model predicts correctly the influence of the wind and buoyancy driving forces. The experimental OVF module showed potential for free ventilation and air preheating, although it depends on weather and geometrical variables. The use of the numerical model using the right parameters was found viable for analyzing the performance of an OVF.

F. Peci Lpez; R.L. Jensen; P. Heiselberg; M. Ruiz de Adana Santiago

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The impact of demand-controlled and economizer ventilation strategies on energy use in buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.

Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Industrial Ventilation Statistics Confirm Energy Savings Opportunity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is based on installed on-demand ventilation systems, where sensors and PLC are installed with each system, so data is easily collected. Another critical factor for effective dust collecting is proper air velocities in duct system. Having measured air... of the cutting tool is active or not. Information from the sensor is transmitted to the Omron PLC. The Omron PLC saves data in binary form every 5 minutes (24/7) to the CompactFlash card (a similar card is used in digital cameras) along with the time...

Litomisky, A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Whole-House Ventilation Whole-House Ventilation Whole-House Ventilation May 30, 2012 - 2:37pm Addthis A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. What does this mean for me? Whole-house ventilation is critical in an energy-efficient home to maintain adequate indoor air quality and comfort. The whole-house ventilation system you choose will depend upon your climate, budget, and the availability of experienced contractors in your area. Energy-efficient homes -- both new and existing -- require mechanical ventilation to maintain indoor air quality. There are four basic mechanical

119

Design of industrial ventilation systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This latest edition has a title change to reflect an expansion to cover the interrelated areas of general exhaust ventilation and makeup air supply. More coverage is also given the need for energy conservation and for the physical isolation of the workspace from major contaminant generation zones. Excellent and generous illustrative matter is included. Contents, abridged are as follows: flow of fluids; air flow through hoods; pipe resistance; piping design; centrifugal exhaust fans; axial-flow fans; monitoring industrial ventilization systems; isolation; and energy conservation.

Alden, J.L.; Kane, J.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Instantaneous corrosion rate measurement with small-amplitude potential intermodulation techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the intermodulation technique, a potential distortion using two sine waves is applied to a corrosion system. The alternating current (AC) response consists of amplitudes measured at different frequencies. Simple relations are derived form the current-vs-potential relation for a corroding process under activation control, from which the corrosion rate and Tafel parameters can be calculated. These are valid when the amplitude of the applied potential distortion is sufficiently small. With the intermodulation technique, the corrosion rate and Tafel parameters can be obtained within one measurement, which makes this technique an ideal candidate for application as a corrosion monitoring tool. Results obtained with this technique were shown to be in agreement with other electrochemical methods for corrosion rate measurement, such as Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

Bosch, R.W.; Bogaerts, W.F. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Ventilation Requirements in Hot Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Building America program, LBNL has simulated the effects of mechanical ventilation systems that meet ASHRAE Standard 62.2 on ventilation, energy use and indoor humidity levels. In order to capture moisture related HVAC system operation..., LBNL has simulated the effects of mechanical ventilation systems that meet ASHRAE Standard 62.2 on ventilation, energy use and indoor humidity levels for houses that meet current (2005) International Energy Conservation Code requirements...

Walker, I. S.; Sherman, M. H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

OGMS: A Facility to Measure Out-gassing Rate of Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract OGMS, the OutGassing Measurement System, is a facility to measure the outgassing rates of materials. The rate is highly important factor in vacuum science dealing with systems working at pressures below 10-6 mbar. In ultra- high vacuum range it plays role in system pressure at given pumping speed. For standard materials the data is available in literature but at times not under condition of specific application. Many application use very specific materials under vacuum conditions. Cryoadsorption Cryopump a project at Institute for plasma Research uses steel samples coated with activated carbon as sorbents. Various kinds of sorbents were used. Necessity to measure the outgassing rate of such unique materials established the OGMS. The OGMS facility has a known conductance of 2.46 l/s and base outgassing rate of ? 3x10-12 mbar-ltr/s-cm2. An ultimate vacuum of < 5 x10-9 mbar was achieved in a sample chamber of volume ?7.5 liters. This paper describes OGMS, its calibration, experiments to find outgassing rate of steel samples and comparison with reported data to establish authenticity for new materials. It also reports results of outgassing rates of cryo-adhesives and activated charcoal coated steel samples.

Ranjana Gangradey; Samiran Mukherjee; Paresh Panchal; N. Ravi Prakash

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values Title Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5969E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Turner, William J. N., Jennifer M. Logue, and Craig P. Wray Date Published 07/2012 Keywords commissioning, energy, health, indoor air quality, residential, valuation, ventilation Abstract Due to changes in building codes, whole-house mechanical ventilation systems are being installed in new California homes. Few measurements are available, but the limited data suggest that these systems don't always perform as code and forecasts predict. Such deficiencies occur because systems are usually field assembled without design specifications, and there is no consistent process to identify and correct problems. The value of such activities in terms of reducing energy use and improving indoor air quality (IAQ) is poorly understood. Commissioning such systems when they are installed or during subsequent building retrofits is a step towards eliminating deficiencies and optimizing the tradeoff between energy use and IAQ.

124

Measured dose rate constant from oncology patients administered 18F for positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Patient exposure rate measurements verify published patient dose rate data and characterize dose rates near 2-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) patients. A specific dose rate constant based on patient exposure rate measurements is a convenient quantity that can be applied to the desired distance, injection activity, and time postinjection to obtain an accurate calculation of cumulative external radiation dose. This study reports exposure rates measured at various locations near positron emission tomography (PET) {sup 18}F-FDG patients prior to PET scanning. These measurements are normalized for the amount of administered activity, measurement distance, and time postinjection and are compared with other published data. Methods: Exposure rates were measured using a calibrated ionization chamber at various body locations from 152 adult oncology patients postvoid after a mean uptake time of 76 min following injection with a mean activity of 490 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. Data were obtained at nine measurement locations for each patient: three near the head, four near the chest, and two near the feet. Results: On contact with, 30 cm superior to and 30 cm lateral to the head, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.482 (0.511), 0.135 (0.155), and 0.193 (0.223) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. On contact with, 30 cm anterior to, 30 cm lateral to and 1 m anterior to the chest, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.623 (0.709), 0.254 (0.283), 0.190 (0.218), and 0.067 (0.081) {mu}Sv/MBq h respectively. 30 cm inferior and 30 cm lateral to the feet, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.024 (0.022) and 0.039 (0.044) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. Conclusions: The measurements for this study support the use of 0.092 {mu}Sv m{sup 2}/MBq h as a reasonable representation of the dose rate anterior from the chest of patients immediately following injection. This value can then be reliably scaled to the desired time and distance for planning and staff dose evaluation purposes. At distances closer than 1 m, a distance-specific dose rate constant of 0.367 {mu}Sv/MBq h at 30 cm is recommended for accurate calculations. An accurate patient-specific dose rate constant that accounts for patient-specific variables (e.g., distribution and attenuation) will allow an accurate evaluation of the dose rate from a patient injected with an isotope rather than simply utilizing a physical constant.

Quinn, Brian; Holahan, Brian; Aime, Jean; Humm, John; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Title Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5554E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., Max H. Sherman, and Darryl J. Dickerhoff Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, california title 24, residential ventilation, ventilation controller Abstract The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20%, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

127

The impact of demand-controlled ventilation on energy use in buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.

Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

Hansen, René Rydhof

129

Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation experiments. We have also developed 4.3 mm diameter ion chambers with both tissue equivalent and carbon walls for the purpose of measuring dose mean lineal energy due to all radiations and due to all radiations except neutrons, respectively. By adjusting the gas pressure in the ion chamber, it can be made to simulate tissue volumes from a few nanometers to a few millimeters in diameter. The charge is integrated for 0.1 seconds, and the resulting pulse height is recorded by a multi channel analyzer. The system has been used in a variety of photon and neutron radiation fields, and measured values of dose and dose mean lineal energy are consistent with values extrapolated from measurements made by other techniques at much lower dose rates. It is expected that this technique will prove to be much more reliable than extrapolations from measurements made at low dose rates because these low dose rate exposures generally do not accurately reproduce the attenuation and scattering environment of the actual radiation exposure.

L. A. Braby; W. D. Reece; W. H. Hsu

2003-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

130

Measurement and Analysis of Fission Rates in a Spherical Mockup of Uranium and Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber(PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. And then, the fission count of 238U and 235U in an individual uranium shell was obtained. In this work, MCNP5 and continuous energy cross sections ENDF/BV.0 were used for the analysis of fission rate distribution and fission count. The calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculation of fission rate of DU and EU were found to agree with the measured ones within 10% except at the positions in polyethylene region and the two positions near the outer surface. Beacause the fission chamber was not co...

Tong-Hua, Zhu; Xin-Xin, Lu; Rong, Liu; Zi-Jie, Han; Li, Jiang; Mei, Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Lorenzetti, David M., Astrid H. Kristoffersen, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Indoor Air Pagination 7 Keywords recirculating ventilation, tracer decay rate Abstract Tracer gas measurements are used to estimate the flow rate of fresh air into a room or building. These methods commonly account for the decay of tracer gas concentration as the result of ventilation air supply and infiltration, using a well-mixed model of the space. Some researchers also have considered the effect of leakage in the ventilation ductwork. This paper considers the effect of recirculation through ventilation ducts on the calculated fresh air supply rate. Transport delay in the ducts can significantly alter the time evolution of tracer concentration, and hence alter the estimated air change rate.

132

A Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO 2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures Nicholas B. Janda (nbj2@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-2648) Philip W. Morrison, Jr. (pwm5@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-4238) Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7217 Beverly Z. Saylor (bzs@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3763) Gerald Matisoff (gxm4@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3677) Department of Geological Sciences Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep, porous, and permeable reservoir rocks is one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Although oil and gas reservoirs are a sensible first step for sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic

133

Measurement of absolute rates for multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present measurements of absolute rates for multiphoton ionization of the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser at a wavelength of 248 nm. The irradiance was varied from 31012 to 21014 W/cm2, and three above-threshold-ionization peaks were observed. The measured rate for total electron production was less than that predicted by Floquet theory [S.-I. Chu and J. Cooper, Phys. Rev. A 32, 2769 (1985)] and perturbation calculations [S. V. Khristenko and S. I. Vetchinkin, Opt. Specktrosk. 40, 417 (1976)], but significantly higher than calculated by the Reiss [Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980)] and Keldysh [Sov. Phys.JETP 20, 1307 (1965)] methods using Volkov final states.

George A. Kyrala and T. David Nichols

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Homogeneous nucleation rates of higher n -alcohols measured in a laminar flow diffusion chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nucleation rate isotherms of n-butanol n-pentanol n-hexanol n-heptanol and n-octanol were measured in a laminar flowdiffusion chamber using helium as carrier gas. The measurements were made at 250310 K corresponding to reduced temperatures of 0.430.50 and at atmospheric pressure. Experimental nucleation rate range was from 10 3 to 10 7 ? cm ?3 ? s ?1 . The expression and accuracy of thermodynamic parameters in particular equilibrium vapor pressure were found to have a significant effect on calculated nucleation rates. The results were compared to the classical nucleation theory (CNT) the self-consistency corrected classical theory (SCC) and the Hales scaled model of the CNT. The average ratio between the experimental and theoretical nucleation rates for all alcohols used was 1.510 3 when the CNT was used and 0.210 ?1 when the SCC was used and 0.710 ?1 when the Hales scaled theory was used. The average values represent all the alcohols used at the same reduced temperatures. The average ratio was about the same throughout the temperature range although J exp /J the calculated with the Hales scaled theory increased slightly with increasing temperature. The saturation ratio dependency was predicted closest to experiment with the classical nucleation theory. The nucleation rates were compared to those found in the literature. The measurements were in reasonable agreement with each other. The molecular content of critical alcohol clusters was between 35 and 80 molecules. At a fixed reduced temperature the number of molecules in a critical cluster decreased as a function of alcohol carbon chain length. The number of molecules in critical clusters was compared to those predicted by the Kelvin equation. The theory predicted the critical cluster sizes well.

Antti-Pekka Hyvrinen; Heikki Lihavainen; Yrj Viisanen; Markku Kulmala

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Comparative study of the thermal and power performances of a semi-transparent photovoltaic faade under different ventilation modes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper studied the thermal and power performances of a ventilated photovoltaic faade under different ventilation modes, and appropriate operation strategies for different weather conditions were proposed accordingly to maximize its energy conversion efficiency. This ventilated PV double-skin faade (PV-DSF) consists of an outside layer of semi-transparent amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV laminate, an inward-openable window and a 400mm airflow cavity. Before installation, the electrical characteristics under standard testing conditions (STC) and the temperature coefficients of the semi-transparent PV module were tested and determined in the laboratory. Field measurements were carried out to investigate the impact of different ventilation modes, namely, ventilated, buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated, on the thermal and power performances of this PV-DSF. The results show that the ventilated PV-DSF provides the lowest average solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and the non-ventilated PV-DSF provides the best thermal insulation performance. In terms of power performance, the energy output of the ventilated PV-DSF is greater than those of the buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated PV-DSFs by 1.9% and 3%, respectively, due to its much lower operating temperature. Based on the experimental results, a conclusion was drawn that the ventilation design can not only reduce the heat gain of PV-DSF but also improve the energy conversion efficiency of PV modules by bringing down their operating temperature. In addition, an optimum operation strategy is recommended for this kind of PV-DSF to maximize its overall energy efficiency under different weather conditions.

Jinqing Peng; Lin Lu; Hongxing Yang; Tao Ma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Method and means for dynamic measurement of rates of adsorption from solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are described for the dynamic measurement of rates of absorption from solutions. The method has the advantage of avoiding the use of solvent normally used to establish a baseline. The method involves pre-evacuating the adsorbent contained in an adsorbent cell and thereafter rapidly contacting the adsorbent with analytical solution, all without prior exposure of adsorbent to pure solvent. The result is a sharp characteristic adsorption line. 5 figs.

Slomka, B.J.; Buttermore, W.H.

1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

137

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Control Measures: Engineering: Ensure Ventilation is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

jewelry from wrists & hands before use (a spill/splash could freeze the jewelry to your skin) Wear from tempering metals so that they will be more durable to improving the tone of musical instruments

Jia, Songtao

140

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Building ventilation and acoustics for people who dont know much about building ventilation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The architectural composition required for building ventilation used both for low energy cooling and improved air quality can be anathema to acoustical goals of speech privacy and noise control. This paper presents a short tutorial on the basics of cross ventilation stack ventilation comfort ventilation and indoor air quality as it relates to climate building type and indoor pollutants. It is geared to those without significant prior knowledge and follows a similar tutorial on geothermal systems presented at the Miami ASA conference.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This page provides a brief overview of solar ventilation preheating (SVP) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SVP within the Federal sector.

143

Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements of 1-propanol in helium: The effect of carrier gas pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of homogeneous nucleation in supersaturated vapor of 1-propanol was studied using an upward thermal diffusion cloud chamber. Helium was used as a noncondensable carrier gas and the influence of its pressure on observed nucleation rates was investigated. The isothermal nucleation rates were determined by a photographic method that is independent on any nucleation theory. In this method the trajectories of growing droplets are recorded using a charge coupled device camera and the distribution of local nucleation rates is determined by image analysis. The nucleation rate measurements of 1-propanol were carried out at four isotherms 260 270 280 and 290 K . In addition the pressure dependence was investigated on the isotherms 290 K (50 120 and 180 kPa ) and 280 K (50 and 120 kPa ). The isotherm 270 K was measured at 25 kPa and the isotherm 260 K at 20 kPa . The experiments confirm the earlier observations from several thermal diffusion chamber investigations that the homogeneous nucleation rate of 1-propanol tends to increase with decreasing total pressure in the chamber. In order to reduce the possibility that the observed phenomenon is an experimental artifact connected with the generally used one-dimensional description of transfer processes in the chamber a recently developed two-dimensional model of coupled heat mass and momentum transfer inside the chamber was used and results of both models were compared. It can be concluded that the implementation of the two-dimensional model does not explain the observed effect. Furthermore the obtained results were compared both to the predictions of the classical theory and to the results of other investigators using different experimental devices. Plotting the experimental data on the so-called Hale plot shows that our data seem to be consistent both internally and also with the data of others. Using the nucleation theorem the critical cluster sizes were obtained from the slopes of the individual isotherms and compared with the Kelvin prediction. The influence of total pressure on the observed isothermal nucleation rate was studied in another experiment where not only temperature but also supersaturation was kept constant as the total pressure was changed. It was shown that the dependence of the nucleation rate on pressure gets stronger as pressure decreases.

David Brus; Vladimr dmal; Frank Stratmann

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools Title Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed LBNL Report Number LBNL-6259E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Mendell, Mark J., Ekaterina Eliseeva, Morris G. Davies, Michael Spears, Agnes B. Lobscheid, William J. Fisk, and Michael G. Apte Journal Indoor Air Keywords carbon dioxide, Illness absence, indoor environmental quality, schools, ventilation Abstract Limited evidence associates inadequate classroom ventilation rates (VRs) with increased illness absence (IA). We investigated relationships between VRs and IA in Californiaelementary schools over two school years in 162 3rd-5th grade classrooms in 28 schools in three school districts: South Coast (SC), Bay Area (BA), and Central Valley (CV). We estimated relationships between daily IA and VR (estimated from real-time carbon dioxide) in zero-inflated negative binomial models. We also compared IA benefits and energy costs of increased VRs. All school districts had median VRs below the 7.1 L/sec-person California standard. For each additional 1 L/sec-person of VR, IA was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in models for combined districts (-1.6%) and for SC (-1.2%), and non-significantly for districts providing less data: BA (-1.5%) and CV (-1.0%). Assuming associations were causal and generalizable, increasing classroom VRs from the California average (4 L/sec-person) to the State standard would decrease IA by 3.4%, increase attendance-linked funding to schools by $33 million annually, and increase costs only $4 million. Further increasing VRs would provide additional benefits. These findings, while requiring confirmation, suggest that increasing classroom VRs above the State

145

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall than in steel ducts. Trends that were observed in steel ducts were present, but weaker, in insulated ducts.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute Brazil, Radioactive Waste Management Department IPEN/GRR, Sao Paulo. SP. (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute Brazil, Radioactive Waste Management Department IPEN/GRR, Sao Paulo. SP. (Brazil)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Real-Time Measurement of Rates of Outdoor Airflow into HVACSystems: A Field Study of Three Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technologies for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems are now available commercially. Our prior papers reported on laboratory-based evaluations of these measurement technologies and this document describes the methods and results of a field study of the accuracy of three of these technologies. From the field study data, we determined that neither wind speed nor wind direction have an important adverse impact on measurement accuracy. The field study confirmed that these three measurement technologies can provide reasonably accurate measurements of outdoor air intake rates in field settings, if the pressure signals are measured with high accuracy. Some of the pressure transducers marketed for use with commercial HVAC systems were determined to be sufficiently accurate for this application. Given the significant impact of OA flow rates on both energy use and occupant health, more widespread use of technologies that provide for real time measurements of OA flow rates seems warranted.

Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

A thermal method for measuring the rate of water movement in plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L?BP A 8 V a L ?BPA8B8 op A THERMAL METHOD FOR MEASURING THE RATE OF WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Vao Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial... Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May, 1958 TLX Major Subject: Soil Physics p ^i???pP ??^i?? ??? ??p?????? ^i? ?p^? ?? WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Approved as to style...

Bloodworth, Morris Elkins

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Note: Emittance measurements of intense pulsed proton beam for different pulse length and repetition rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high intensity ion source (SILHI), in operation at CEA-Saclay, has been used to produce a 90 mA pulsed proton beam with pulse length and repetition rates suitable for the European Spallation Source (ESS) linac. Typical r-r{sup '} rms normalized emittance values smaller than 0.2{pi} mm mrad have been measured for operation in pulsed mode (0.01 < duty cycle < 0.15 and 1 ms < pulse duration < 10 ms) that are relevant for the design update of the Linac to be used at the ESS in Lund.

Miracoli, R. [ESS Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Mascali, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Castro, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gobin, R.; Delferriere, O.; Adroit, G.; Senee, F. [CEA-IRFU, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNAO, Str. Pr. Campeggi, Pavia (Italy)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. However,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 of 4 Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous frequency (HF) ratio with little change in mean heart rate. Results suggest that nicotine affects both components may yield erroneous results. Keywords--Autonomic regulation, heart rate variability, Lomb

151

:MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTRON CYCLOlRON HEATING RATES J. D. Barter, J. C. Sprott, K. L. Wong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

53706 ABSTRACT Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured for plasmas in a toroidal octupole Energy Corrrrnission. #12;2 Electron cyclotron heating has been a standard technique for producing hot:MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTRON CYCLOlRON HEATING RATES by J. D. Barter, J. C. Sprott, K. L. Wong Jillle

Sprott, Julien Clinton

152

Exclusive Measurements of the b to s gamma Transition Rate and Photon Energy Spectrum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use 429 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector to measure the radiative transition rate of b {yields} s{gamma} with a sum of 38 exclusive final states. The inclusive branching fraction with a minimum photon energy of 1.9 GeV is found to be {Beta}({bar B} {yields} Xs{gamma}) = (3.29 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.48) x 10{sup -4} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum and extract the best fit values for the heavy-quark parameters, m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}, in the kinetic and shape function models.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2005 Authors Apte, Michael G., Ian S. Buchanan, David Faulkner, William J. Fisk, Chi-Ming Lai, Michael Spears, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms

154

Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Ventilation Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products

155

Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation This drawing shows simple...

156

Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS and Zero Energy Ready Homes Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS and Zero Energy...

157

Smart Ventilation (RIVEC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

technology. Their mechanical ventilation systems dominate for energy use; as the foundation, wall, and roof work together. Smart ventilation is expected to save at least 40% on...

158

Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the...

159

Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated, commissioning, procedures, standards, ASHRAE 62.2 Please use the following citation for this report: Stratton, J.C. and C.P. Wray. 2013. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning

160

Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

An evaluation of technologies for real-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems; however, an evaluation of these measurement technologies has not previously been published. This document describes a test system and protocols developed for a controlled evaluation of these measurement technologies. The results of tests of four commercially available measurement technologies and one prototype based on a new design are also summarized. The test system and protocol were judged practical and very useful. The series of tests identified three commercially available measurement technologies that should provide reasonably accurate measurements of OA flow rates as long as air velocities are maintained high enough to produce accurately measurable pressure signals. In HVAC systems with economizer controls, to maintain the required air velocities the OA intake will need to be divided into two sections in parallel, each with a separate OA damper. The errors in OA flow rates measured with the fourth commercially available measurement technology were 20% to 30% with horizontal probes but much larger with vertical probes. The new prototype measurement technology was the only one that appears suitable for measuring OA flow rates over their full range from 20% OA to 100% OA without using two separate OA dampers. All of the measurement devices had pressure drops that are likely to be judged acceptable. The influence of wind on the accuracy of these measurement technologies still needs to be evaluated.

Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Real time cosmology - A direct measure of the expansion rate of the Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years cosmology has undergone a revolution, with precise measurements of the microwave background radiation, large galaxy redshift surveys, and the discovery of the recent accelerated expansion of the Universe using observations of distant supernovae. In this light, the SKA enables us to do an ultimate test in cosmology by measuring the expansion rate of the Universe in real time. This can be done by a rather simple experiment of observing the neutral hydrogen (HI) signal of galaxies at two different epochs. The signal will encounter a change in frequency imprinted as the Universe expands over time and thus monitoring the drift in frequencies will provide a real time measure of the cosmic acceleration. Over a period of 12 years one would expected a frequency shift of the order of 0.1 Hz assuming a standard Lambda-CDM cosmology. Based on the sensitivity estimates of the SKA and the number counts of the expected HI galaxies, it is shown that the number counts are sufficiently high to compensate for th...

Klckner, H -R; Martins, C; Raccanelli, A; Champion, D; Roy, A; Lobanov, A; Wagner, J; Keller, R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Iron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIG: E 263 09 ^TITLE: Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Iron ^SIGNUSE: Refer to Guide E 844 for guidance on the selection, irradiation, and quality control of neutron dosimeters. Refer to Practice E 261 for a general discussion of the determination of fast-neutron fluence rate with threshold detectors. Pure iron in the form of foil or wire is readily available and easily handled. Fig. 1 shows a plot of cross section as a function of neutron energy for the fast-neutron reaction 54Fe(n,p)54Mn (1). This figure is for illustrative purposes only to indicate the range of response of the 54Fe(n,p)54Mn reaction. Refer to Guide E 1018 for descriptions of recommended tabulated dosimetry cross sections. 54Mn has a half-life of 312.13 days (3) (2) and emits a gamma ray with an energy of 834.845 keV (5). (2) Interfering activities generated by neutron activation arising from thermal or fast neutron interactions are 2.57878 (46)-h 56Mn, 44.95-d (8) 59Fe, and 5.27...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Current Concepts: Weaning Patients from the Ventilator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...neurologic ICUs. Patients who require reintubation have an increased risk of death, a prolonged hospital stay, and a decreased likelihood of returning home, as compared with patients in whom discontinuation of mechanical ventilation is successful. Thus, it is essential that critical care physicians identify... In the United States, almost 800,000 patients who are hospitalized each year require mechanical ventilation.1 This estimate excludes neonates, and there is little doubt that mechanical ventilation will be increasingly used as the number of patients 65 ...

McConville J.F.; Kress J.P.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The webinar will focus on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

166

Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Voxel-based T2 relaxation rate measurements in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without mesial temporal sclerosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Voxel-based T2 Relaxation Rate Measurements in Temporal LobeD, Pike BG, Arnold DL. T2 relaxometry can lateralize mesialC, Grucker D. Contribution of T2 relaxation time mapping in

Mueller, S G; Laxer, K D; Schuff, N; Weiner, Michael W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction Rates at Elevated Temperatures  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction Rates at Elevated Temperatures presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

169

New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Study on solar chimney used for room natural ventilation in Nanjing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The study investigated the performance of solar chimney, which is integrated into a one-story building. A module was developed for and implemented in the Energy Plus program for the simulation and determination of the energy impact of thermal chimneys. The basic concepts, assumptions, and algorithms are implemented into the Energy Plus program to predict the performance of a solar chimney. The results showed that in Nanjing 45 is found to be optimum for obtaining maximum rate of ventilation and the rate of ventilation increases with increase of the ratio between height of absorber and gap between glass and absorber. This finding is in agreement with experimental results.

Xu Jianliu; Liu Weihua

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The effect of wind speed and direction and surrounding maize on hybrid ventilation in a dairy cow building in Denmark  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of wind speed and direction and surrounding maize field on the air exchange rate (ACH) and indoor air velocity in a dairy cow building with hybrid ventilation, which combined auto-controlled natural and partial mechanical pit ventilation. The standard k?? turbulence model and standard wall function were applied in CFD modeling with extension of capability to account for the aerodynamics effect of surrounding maize plant canopy in the wind domain by using user defined functions (UDF). This extended model was validated by on-site measured velocities and temperatures. A reasonably good agreement was found between simulated and measured results. The wind speed influenced ACH greatly while modeling the maize field had little effect on ACH with low wind speed. With wind speed of 3.86ms?1 in validation case, modeling the maize field reduced total ACH by 24%, ACH via bottom openings on the sidewall by 89.7% and air speed measured upwind by 71%. The results revealed that the plant canopy had the most significant effect on ACH through the opening on the sidewall. With the variation of wind direction from 0 to 90, the difference of ACH could be 60%.

L. Rong; D. Liu; E.F. Pedersen; G. Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

An assessment of the measurement equivalence of rating sources in a multisource feedback system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Tornow, 1993b; Funderburg & Levy, 1997). Supporters of 360-degree feedback systems believe that each rating source provides the ratee with unique information (e. g. , Hazucha, Hezlett, & Schneider, 1993), so high levels of agreement between rating... sources are not expected. However, 360-degree feedback systems have been criticized for the low levels of agreement between rating sources, as psychometric theory states that high levels of agreement between ratings 1'rom different raters are needed...

Sheehan, Mary Kathleen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Ventilation | Building Energy Codes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ventilation Ventilation The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on ventilation air; exhaust air; control strategies; carbon dioxide sensors; economizers. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_ventilation.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 Document type: AEDG Implementation Recommendations Target Audience: Architect/Designer Builder Contractor Engineer State: All States Contacts Web Site Policies

174

Chlorofluorocarbon Constraints on North Atlantic Ventilation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The North Atlantic Ocean vigorously ventilates the ocean interior. Thermocline and deep water masses are exposed to atmospheric contact there and are sequestered in two principal classes: Subtropical Mode Water (STMW: 26.5 ? ?? ? 26.8) and ...

Thomas W. N. Haine; Kelvin J. Richards; Yanli Jia

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Scale model studies of displacement ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

Okutan, Galip Mehmet

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Heat Transfer Modeling and Use of Distributed Temperature Measurements to Predict Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to demonstrate the application of the methodology of rate estimation proposed. Fluid flow rates for steady and transient cases were successfully estimated within engineering accuracy for all three cases. In all three cases, in addition to the traditional downhole...

Hashmi, Gibran Mushtaq

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

177

Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Minimum outdoor air ventilation rates (VRs) for buildings are specified in standards, including California?s Title 24 standards. The ASHRAE ventilation standard includes two options for mechanically-ventilated buildings ? a prescriptive ventilation rate procedure (VRP) that specifies minimum VRs that vary among occupancy classes, and a performance-based indoor air quality procedure (IAQP) that may result in lower VRs than the VRP, with associated energy savings, if IAQ meeting specified criteria can be demonstrated. The California Energy Commission has been considering the addition of an IAQP to the Title 24 standards. This paper, based on a review of prior data and new analyses of the IAQP, evaluates four future options for Title 24: no IAQP; adding an alternate VRP, adding an equivalent indoor air quality procedure (EIAQP), and adding an improved ASHRAE-like IAQP. Criteria were established for selecting among options, and feedback was obtained in a workshop of stakeholders. Based on this review, the addition of an alternate VRP is recommended. This procedure would allow lower minimum VRs if a specified set of actions were taken to maintain acceptable IAQ. An alternate VRP could also be a valuable supplement to ASHRAE?s ventilation standard.

Dutton, Spencer M.; Mendell, Mark J.; Chan, Wanyu R.

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

178

Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical VentilationQuality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical VentilationQuality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

Logue, J.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment. 7 figs.

Kohn, G.; Hicho, G.; Swartzendruber, L.

1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Application of the microwave technique for burning-rate measurement in high-energy composite materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A facility designed to determine the current burning rate of high-energy composite materials is described. Methodical aspects of processing the...

A. S. Zharkov; M. G. Potapov; V. P. Lushev

182

Evaluation Of Methods To Measure Hydrogen Generation Rate In A Shielded Cell Environment And A Method Recommendation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the art for determination of hydrogen generation rates of radioactive slurries and solutions to provide a basis for design, fabrication, testing, and implementation of a measurement method for Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) during qualification of waste feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The HGR measurement will be performed on samples of the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) staged waste feeds for the WTP as well as on samples from selected unit operations testing during the qualification program. SRNL has performed a review of techniques utilized to measure HGR of high level radioactive waste slurries, evaluated the Hanford 222-S Laboratory method for measurement of hydrogen, and reviewed the hydrogen generation rate models for Hanford waste.Based on the literature review, method evaluation, and SRNL experience with measuring hydrogen generation rate, SRNL recommends that a continuous flow system with online gas analysis be used as the HGR measurement method during waste qualification.

Stone, M. E.

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

183

Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes Melissa Lunden, David Faulkner, Elizabeth Heredia, Sebastian Cohn, Darryl Dickerhoff, Federico Noris, Jennifer Logue, Toshifumi Hotchi, Brett Singer and Max H. Sherman Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-5984E 2 Disclaimer: This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

184

Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

185

Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Jackson, Mark C [University of Texas at Austin; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Design Feature 7: Continuous Preclosure Ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This design feature (DF) is intended to evaluate the effects of continuous ventilation in the emplacement drifts during preclosure and how the effects, if any, compare to the Viability Assessment (VA) reference design for postclosure long term performance. This DF will be evaluated against a set of criteria provided by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) group. The VA reference design included a continuous ventilation airflow quantity of 0.1 m{sup 3}/s in the emplacement drifts in the design of the repository subsurface facilities. The effects of this continuous ventilation during the preclosure was considered to have a negligible effect on postclosure performance and therefore is not included during postclosure in the assessment of the long term performance. This DF discusses the effects of continuous ventilation on the emplacement drift environment and surrounding rock conditions during preclosure for three increased airflow quantities. The three cases of continuous ventilation systems are: System A, 1.0 m{sup 3}/s (Section 8), System B, 5.0 m{sup 3}/s (Section 9), and System C, 10.0 m{sup 3}/s (Section 10) in each emplacement drift split. An emplacement drift split is half total length of emplacement drift going from the east or west main to the exhaust main. The difference in each system is the quantity of airflow in the emplacement drifts.

A.T. Watkins

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

187

Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system.

Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

An evaluation of three commercially available technologies forreal-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems; however, an evaluation of these measurements technologies has not previously been published. This document describes a test system and protocols developed for a controlled evaluation of these measurement technologies. The results of tests of three commercially available measurement technologies are also summarized. The test system and protocol were judged practical and very useful. The three commercially available measurement technologies should provide reasonably, e.g., 20%, accurate measurements of OA flow rates as long as air velocities are maintained high enough to produce accurately measurable pressure signals. In HVAC systems with economizer controls, to maintain the required air velocities the OA intake will need to be divided into two sections in parallel, each with a separate OA damper. All of the measurement devices had pressure drops that are likely to be judged acceptable. The influence of wind on the accuracy of these measurement technologies still needs to be evaluated.

Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

189

Confinement Ventilation and Process Gas Treatment Functional Area Qualification Standard  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

. . NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1168-2013 October 2013 DOE STANDARD CONFINEMENT VENTILATION AND PROCESS GAS TREATMENT FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1168-2013 This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Website at http://energy.gov/hss/information-center/department-energy-technical-standards-program ii DOE-STD-1168-2013 INTENTIONALLY BLANK iv DOE-STD-1168-2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENT...................................................................................................................vii

190

MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

191

Comparison of measured and calculated dose rates for the castor HAW 20/28 CG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Scheib 2 A. Rimpler 2 Corresponding author: kuehl@wti.wse.de 1 WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH...10) dose rate from the Bonner sphere system. | WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH......

O. Ringleb; H. Khl; H. Scheib; A. Rimpler

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Measurement of Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dissipation Rate with a Lagrangian Float  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study tests the ability of a neutrally buoyant float to estimate the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy ? from its vertical acceleration spectrum using an inertial subrange method. A Lagrangian float was equipped with a SonTek ...

Ren-Chieh Lien; Eric A. D'Asaro

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

Low, Clarke Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Pressure Transient Analysis of Bottomhole Pressure and Rate Measurements Using System Identification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a zero rate obtained by a quick-closing down hole valve during "drillstem testing". More inaccurate "zero storage coefficient"). In conventional PTA, the step response in the bottom hole pressure resulting from

Van den Hof, Paul

195

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Speaker(s): Hwataik Han Date: July 10, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone Heat recovery ventilators are frequently used to save heating/cooling loads of buildings for ventilation. There are several types of HRV's, including a parallel plate type, a rotary type, a capillary type, and a heat pipe type. The breathing HRV is a heat recovery ventilator of a new kind using the concept of alternating-current ventilation. The AC ventilation is the ventilation with the airflow directions reversed periodically. It has an advantage of using a single duct system, for both supply and exhaust purposes. In order to develop a breathing HRV system, the thermal recovery performance should be investigated depending on many parameters, such as

197

Design of a Natural Ventilation System in the Dunhuang Museum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fresh air and good air quality can be obtained by a natural ventilation system, to fulfill the requirement of near natural conditions for the psychological health of mankind. A natural ventilation system is an ecological, energy saving system...

Zhang, Y.; Guan, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

X-ray Spectral Measurements of the Most Massive Stars: Stellar Wind Mass-Loss Rates and Shock Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Spectral Measurements of the Most Massive Stars: Stellar Wind Mass-Loss Rates and Shock/Themes: Significant technological advances in X-ray astronomy have driven discovery over the last few decades. New. The priorities at Swarthmore have allowed me to do careful work on the small number of X-ray spectral datasets

Cohen, David

200

A Quantitative Review and Analysis of the Constructs Underlying Assessment Center Ratings: What are we Measuring?.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The overarching goal of this study was to clarify what constructs are being measured by assessment centers (ACs). ACs have been used and studied for (more)

Meriac, John P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condensation in winter, reduced life and reliability of ventilation equipment, and high repair bills cooling and heating systems. VENTILATION SYSTEMS The operating efficiency of a ventilation fan can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling from evaporative cooling pads, high heating expenses, heavy

Watson, Craig A.

202

Effect of repository underground ventilation on emplacement drift temperature control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The repository advanced conceptual design (ACD) is being conducted by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Management & Operating Contractor. Underground ventilation analyses during ACD have resulted in preliminary ventilation concepts and design methodologies. This paper discusses one of the recent evaluations -- effects of ventilation on emplacement drift temperature management.

Yang, H.; Sun, Y.; McKenzie, D.G.; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Morrison Knudson Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of {+-}3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s ({+-}18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.997; for the bi-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.990 for positive flows (inspiration) and 0.988 for negative flows (expiration). Measurement uncertainty {delta}Q of air flow rate has been evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions and the percentage error in the arrangement of bi-directional sensor ranges from a minimum of about 0.5% at -18.0 l/min to a maximum of about 9% at -12.0 l/min.

Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A. [Department of Engineering, ROMA TRE University, via della Vasca Navale 79/81, Rome (Italy)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Experimental simulation of wind driven cross-ventilation in a naturally ventilated building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A device was designed and constructed to simulate cross-ventilation through a building due to natural wind. The wind driver device was designed for use with a one tenth scale model of an open floor plan office building in ...

Hult, Erin L. (Erin Luelle), 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential ventilation standard, ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Because meeting this standard can significantly change, Kansas City, Seattle, Minneapolis and Phoenix). In order to capture moisture related HVAC system.2, design strategies for moisture control, humidity and comfort. #12;INTRODUCTION ASHRAE standards 62

206

Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cross- breeze Kitchen Stove Ambient air Case study #3 #12;· Wind plays an integral role in low-energy remains a central challenge for the successful implementation of natural ventilation Case study - summary of population, urban energy consumption grows by 2.1% · Buildings consume 40% of world's energy

Flynn, Morris R.

207

Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-. gamma. and direct-. gamma. + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of inclusive direct-{gamma} production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between {radical}s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-{gamma} + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made.

Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

1992-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Measurement of low-energy Na^+ -- Na total collision rate in an ion--neutral hybrid trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present measurements of the total elastic and resonant charge-exchange ion-atom collision rate coefficient $k_\\mathrm{ia}$ of cold sodium (\\ce{Na}) with optically-dark low energy \\ce{Na+} ions in a hybrid ion-neutral trap. To determine $k_\\mathrm{ia}$, we measured the trap loading and loss from both a \\ce{Na} magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a linear radio frequency quadrupole Paul trap. We found the total rate coefficient to be $7.4 \\pm 1.9 \\times 10^{-8}$ cm$^3$/s for the type I \\ce{Na} MOT immersed within an $\\approx 140$ K ion cloud and $1.10 \\pm 0.25 \\times 10^{-7}$ cm$^3$/s for the type II \\ce{Na} MOT within an $\\approx 1070$ K ion cloud. Our measurements show excellent agreement with previously reported theoretical fully quantal \\textit{ab initio} calculations. In the process of determining the total rate coefficient, we demonstrate that a MOT can be used to probe an optically dark ion cloud's spatial distribution within a hybrid trap.

Goodman, D S; Kwolek, J M; Blmel, R; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Analysis of environmental influences in nuclear half-life measurements exhibiting time-dependent decay rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a recent series of papers evidence has been presented for correlations between solar activity and nuclear decay rates. This includes an apparent correlation between Earth-Sun distance and data taken at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Although these correlations could arise from a direct interaction between the decaying nuclei and some particles or fields emanating from the Sun, they could also represent an "environmental" effect arising from a seasonal variation of the sensitivities of the BNL and PTB detectors due to changes in temperature, relative humidity, background radiation, etc. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the responses of the detectors actually used in the BNL and PTB experiments, and show that sensitivities to seasonal variations in the respective detectors are likely too small to produce the observed fluctuations.

Jenkins, Jere H; Fischbach, Ephraim

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Health Relevant Outdoor Air Change Rates in Homes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Relevant Outdoor Air Change Rates in Homes Health Relevant Outdoor Air Change Rates in Homes Speaker(s): Jan Sundell Date: February 6, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The Damp Building and Health (DBH) study started as a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all 14000 children, 1-6 years of age in Värmland, Sweden. The response rate on the questionnaire (year 2001) was 79%, meaning that basic data exists on almost 12,000 children and their homes. In a second step a case-control study on 200 sick (wheezing, asthma, excema), and 200 healthy children, extensive measurements in the home, as well as clinical examinations of the children has been conducted during 2002. Ventilation has been measured with a passive tracer gas method during one week. The results will be presented in this seminar-- seemingly sick

211

Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements with the OMEGA laser system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results from a series of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five to six 351-nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5{times}10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. Experiments were performed with both 3-ns ramp and 3-ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4{percent}{endash}7{percent} over a 600-{mu}m-diam region defined by the 90{percent} intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using through-foil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets with and without a foam buffer. The growth of both 31-{mu}m and 60-{mu}m wavelength perturbations was found to be in good agreement with {ital ORCHID} simulations when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The addition of a 30-mg/cc, 100-{mu}m-thick polystyrene foam buffer layer resulted in reduced growth of the 31-{mu}m perturbation and essentially unchanged growth for the 60-{mu}m case when compared to targets without foam. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Knauer, J.P.; Verdon, C.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Ofer, D.; McKenty, P.W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester (United States); Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Watt, R.G.; Gobby, P.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Willi, O.; Taylor, R.J. [Imperial College (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements with the OMEGA laser system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results from a series of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five to six 351-nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Experiments were performed with both 3-ns ramp and 3-ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600-{mu}m-diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using through-foil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets with and without a foam buffer. The growth of both 31-{mu}m and 60-{mu}m wavelength perturbations was found to be in good agreement with ORCHID simulations when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The addition of a 30-mg/cc, 100-{mu}m-thick polystyrene foam buffer layer resulted in reduced growth of the 31-{mu}m perturbation and essentially unchanged growth for the 60-{mu}m case when compared to targets without foam.

Knauer, J. P.; Verdon, C. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Boehly, T. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Ofer, D.; McKenty, P. W.; Glendinning, S. G.; Kalantar, D. H.; Watt, R. G.; Gobby, P. L.; Willi, O.; Taylor, R. J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Imperial College (United Kingdom)

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control October 4, 2013 - 4:23pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for carbon dioxide (CO2) demand ventilation control within the Federal sector. Benefits Demand ventilation control systems modulate ventilation levels based on current building occupancy, saving energy while still maintaining proper indoor air quality (IAQ). CO2 sensors are commonly used, but a multiple-parameter approach using total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter (PM), formaldehyde, and relative humidity (RH) levels can also be used. CO2 sensors control the outside air damper to reduce the amount of outside air that needs to be conditioned and supplied to the building when

214

Measuring mass-loss rates and constraining shock physics using X-ray line profiles of O stars from the Chandra archive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Measuring mass-loss rates and constraining shock physics using X-ray line...sight lines that pass through the densest...wind mass-loss rate, we tabulated...low mass-loss rates: (1) the line...missing some crucial physics; (2) processes......

David H. Cohen; Emma E. Wollman; Maurice A. Leutenegger; Jon O. Sundqvist; Alex W. Fullerton; Janos Zsarg; Stanley P. Owocki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Kinematic measures and stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers in the four swimming techniques: Athens 2004 Olympic semi-finalists and French National  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kinematic measures and stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers in the four of this work was to study stroke rate variability in elite female swimmers (200-m events, all four techniques semi-finalists (group N, n=64). Since swimming speed (V) is the product of stroke rate (SR) and stroke

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality will be achieved. Our study aims to simulate airflow in the ventilated room with this new type of air conditioning. Radiation is taken into account by the energy conservation in the system. The following section presents algorithm, thermal..., the governing equations to be solved are the conservation equations for continuity, momentum, and energy as well as the equations for turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. The buoyancy effect is accounted for by Boussinesq approximation...

Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A process vessel ventilation system is being installed in a facility that houses two tanks that will process decontaminated salt solution at the Saltstone Production Facility. A...

218

Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

requirements must be met? * What is the scope of the renovation project? * What heating, air conditioning, and ventilation systems are currently in the home? * What type of...

219

Issue #9: What are the Best Ventilation Techniques?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

How do we address ventilation in all climates? What is the best compromise between occupant health and safety and energy efficiency?

220

Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

Blunt, B.

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Building America Technical Review Meeting April 29-30, 2013 A Research Institute of the University of Central...

222

Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Building America webinar, held on Sept. 24, 2014, focused on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

223

A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators Arnaud W. Thille,1 MD; Aissam Lyazidi,1 Biomed Eng MS; Jean-Christophe M

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

LBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation 1 Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Jennifer M. Logue, William J. N for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared

225

Results of the Evaluation Study DeAL Decentralized Facade Integrated Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most office buildings in Germany have either no mechanical ventilation system or a centralized ventilation system with fresh and exhaust air supply. Within the last 10 years some projects using decentralized ventilation systems (DVS) came up. Common...

Mahler, B.; Himmler, R.

226

Numerical Simulation of a Displacement Ventilation System with Multi-heat Sources and Analysis of Influential Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Displacement ventilation (DV) is a promising ventilation concept due to its high ventilation efficiency. In this paper, the application of the CFD method, the velocity and temperature fields of three-dimensional displacement ventilation systems...

Wu, X.; Gao, J.; Wu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Density measurements Viscosity measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density measurements Viscosity measurements Temperature measurements Pressure measurements Flow rate measurements Velocity measurements Sensors How to measure fluid flow properties ? Am´elie Danlos Ravelet Experimental methods for fluid flows: an introduction #12;Density measurements Viscosity

Ravelet, Florent

228

Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper explores the potential of using natural ventilation as a passive cooling system for new house windows in suburban houses can be opened. Passive cooling design elements are mostly ignored in modern1 Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia , Jelena Srebricb

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

229

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

231

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:49pm Addthis Renewable Energy Options for HVAC Renovations Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) Solar Water Heating (SWH) Biomass Passive Solar Heating Biomass Heating Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Federal building renovations that encompass the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in a facility provide a range of renewable energy opportunities. The primary technology option for HVAC renovations is geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Other options include leveraging a solar water heating (SWH) system to offset heating load or using passive solar heating or a biomass-capable furnace or boiler. Some facilities may also take

232

Opaque Ventilated Facades - Performance Simulation Method and Assessment of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Opaque Ventilated Facades - Performance Simulation Method and Assessment of Opaque Ventilated Facades - Performance Simulation Method and Assessment of Simulated Performance Speaker(s): Emanuele Naboni Date: May 29, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Opaque ventilated façade systems are increasingly used in buildings, even though their effects on the overall thermal performance of buildings have not yet been fully understood. The research reported in this presentation focuses on the modeling of such systems with EnergyPlus. Ventilated façade systems are modeled in EnergyPlus with module "Exterior Naturally Vented Cavity." Not all façade systems can be modeled with this module; this research defined the types of systems that can be modeled, and the limitations of such simulation. The performance of a ventilated façade

233

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Title Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Gregory Brunner, Jianshun(Jensen) Zhang, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 45 Start Page 3561 Issue 21 Pagination 3561-3568 Keywords commercial building ventilation & indoor environmental quality group, commercial building ventilation and indoor environmental quality group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, indoor environment department, indoor environment group

234

Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants Speaker(s): Alexander M. Zhivov Date: April 3, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Dr. Alexander Zhivov is currently the chairman of the International Task Force "Autovent International" focusing on environmental problems within the Automotive Industry. This Task Force was formed in 1997 to develop the "Ventilation Guide for Automotive Industry". The guide was to be seen as a building block within the EU sponsored "Industrial Ventilation Design Guide Book" project, covering both theory and applications. In his presentation, Dr. Zhivov will talk about his work with the automotive industry, describe major highlights from the "Ventilation Guide for Automotive Industry" and talk about building, process and HVAC

235

Use of a reciprocal transplant study to measure the rate of plant community change in a tidal marsh along a salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a tidal marsh on the Savannah River (Georgia, USA), rate of plant community change along a salinity gradient was measured using a reciprocal transplant study. ... the direction and level of displacement along ...

Paul R. Wetzel; Wiley M. Kitchens; Janell M. Brush; Marsha L. Dusek

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Estimation of the contribution of photon radiation for measurement of the exposure dose rate of neutron sources based on 252Cf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for the estimation of the contribution of photon radiation to the detector readings for measurement of the exposure dose rate and the equivalent activity of neutron ... screens and filters is considered....

N. F. Demchenko; R. N. Minvaliev; V. I. Shipilov

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A Method for Estimating the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dissipation Rate from a Vertically Pointing Doppler Lidar, and Independent Evaluation from Balloon-Borne In Situ Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method of estimating dissipation rates from a vertically pointing Doppler lidar with high temporal and spatial resolution has been evaluated by comparison with independent measurements derived from a balloon-borne sonic anemometer. This method ...

Ewan J. OConnor; Anthony J. Illingworth; Ian M. Brooks; Christopher D. Westbrook; Robin J. Hogan; Fay Davies; Barbara J. Brooks

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Rate constants for OH with selected large alkanes : shock-tube measurements and an improved group scheme.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature rate constant experiments on OH with the five large (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}) saturated hydrocarbons n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (2,2,3,3-TMB), n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2,3-dimethylbutane (2,3-DMB) were performed with the reflected-shock-tube technique using multipass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. Single-point determinations at {approx}1200 K on n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-TMB, n-hexane, and 2,3-DMB were previously reported by Cohen and co-workers; however, the present work substantially extends the database to both lower and higher temperature. The present experiments span a wide temperature range, 789-1308 K, and represent the first direct measurements of rate constants at T > 800 K for n-pentane. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length of {approx}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high OH concentration detection sensitivity permitted pseudo-first-order analyses for unambiguously measuring rate constants. The experimental results can be expressed in Arrhenius form in units of cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} as follows: K{sub OH+n-heptane} = (2.48 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1927 {+-} 69 K)/T] (838-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = (8.26 {+-} 0.89) x 10{sup -11} exp[(-1337 {+-} 94 K)/T] (789-1061 K); K{sub OH+n-pentane} = (1.60 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1903 {+-} 146 K)/T] (823-1308 K); K{sub OH+n-hexane} = (2.79 {+-} 0.39) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-2301 {+-} 134 K)/T] (798-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = (1.27 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1617 {+-} 118 K)/T] (843-1292 K). The available experimental data, along with lower-T determinations, were used to obtain evaluations of the experimental rate constants over the temperature range from {approx}230 to 1300 K for most of the title reactions. These extended-temperature-range evaluations, given as three-parameter fits, are as follows: k{sub OH+n-heptane} = 2.059 x 10{sup -5}T{sup 1.401} exp(33 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (241-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = 6.835 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.886} exp(-365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (290-1180 K); k{sub OH+n-pentane} = 2.495 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.649} exp(80 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (224-1308 K); k{sub OH+n-hexane} = 3.959 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.218} exp(443 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (292-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = 2.287 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.958} exp(365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (220-1292 K). The experimental data and the evaluations obtained for these five larger alkanes in the present work were used along with prior data/evaluations obtained in this laboratory for H abstractions by OH from a series of smaller alkanes (C{sub 3}?C{sub 5}) to devise rate rules for abstractions from various types of primary, secondary, and tertiary H atoms. Specifically, the current scheme was applied with good success to H abstractions by OH from a series of n-alkanes (n-octane through n-hexadecane). The total rate constants using this group scheme for reactions of OH with selected large alkanes are given as three-parameter fits in this article. The rate constants for the various abstraction channels in any large n-alkane can also be obtained using the groups listed in this article. The present group scheme serves to reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for OH + alkane reactions.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

Proceedings of the Intern. Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture (PLEA), Toulouse (2002) 577 Cost efficiency of ventilation systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the Intern. Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture (PLEA), Toulouse (2002 of a corresponding low-energy house have been per- formed for a full heating period. They reproduce measurements from, air quality, control of humidity) [1, 2]. In such houses, the ventilation and infiltration losses

Gieseler, Udo D. J.

240

FEMP-FS--Solar Ventilation Preheating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Installing a "solar wall" to heat air before it enters a Installing a "solar wall" to heat air before it enters a building, called solar ventilation preheating, is one of the most efficient ways of reducing energy costs using clean and renewable energy. The system works by heating outside air with a south-facing solar collector-a dark-colored wall made of sheet metal and perforated with tiny holes. Outdoor air is drawn through the holes and heated as it absorbs the wall's warmth. The warm air rises in the space between the solar wall and the building wall and is moved into the air-duct system, usually by means of a fan, to heat the building. Any additional heating needed at night or on cloudy days is supplied by the build- ing's conventional heating system. During summer months, intake air bypasses the solar collector,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

242

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2004 Authors Kristoffersen, Astrid H., Ashok J. Gadgil, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms - RoomVent 2004, Pagination pp 6 Date Published September 5-8, 2 Conference Location Coimbra, Portugal Abstract Tracer gas measurements are commonly used to estimate the fresh air exchange rate in a room or building. Published tracer decay methods account for fresh air supply, infiltration, and leaks in ductwork. However, the time delay associated with a ventilation system recirculating tracer back to the room also affects the decay rate. We present an analytical study of tracer gas decay in a well-mixed, mechanically-ventilated room with recirculation. The analysis shows that failing to account for delays can lead to under- or over-estimates of the fresh air supply, depending on whether the decay rate calculation includes the duct volume

243

Air Exchange Rates in New Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During the 1989-1990 heating season, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, for the Bonneville Power Administration, measured the ventilation characteristics of 139 newly constructed energy-efficient manufactured homes and a control sample of 35 newer...

Hadley, D. L.; Bailey, S. A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Energy Crossroads: Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality Suggest a Listing Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) The AIVC fulfills its objectives by providing a range of services and facilities which include: Information, Technical Analysis, Technical Interchange, and Coordination. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) The ACGIH offers high quality technical publications and learning opportunities. Americlean Services Corp. (ASC) ASC is a certified SBA 8(a) engineering/consulting firm specializing in HVAC contamination detection, abatement, and monitoring. In addition to highly professional ductwork cleaning and HVAC cleaning services, ASC offers a wide range of other engineering/ consulting/ management services

245

Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (Not Optional)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kitchen Ventilation Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (not Optional) Brett C. Singer Residential Building Systems & Indoor Environment Groups Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Building America Technical Update Denver, CO April 30, 2013 Acknowledgements PROGRAM SUPPORT *U.S. Department of Energy - Building America Program *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Indoor Environments Division *U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development - Office of Healthy Homes & Lead Hazard Control *California Energy Commission - Public Interest Energy Research Program TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTIONS *Woody Delp, Tosh Hotchi, Melissa Lunden, Nasim Mullen, Chris Stratton, Doug Sullivan, Iain Walker Kitchen Ventilation Simplified PROBLEM: * Cooking burners & cooking produce odors, moisture

246

Momentum rate probe for use with two-phase flows S. G. Bush,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of flows including nuclear reactor coolant streams, refrigerants in heating-ventilating air flow rates of these flows span a wide range of values, from those in nuclear power plant cooling systems, through supercritical diesel fuel injection, heating-ventilating and air-conditioning HVAC

Panchagnula, Mahesh

247

Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Transcript of Building America webinar, "Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements," held on Sept. 24, 2014.

248

Experimental and numerical VOC concentration field analysis from flooring material in a ventilated room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in "7th International Conference, Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore : Singapore (2003)" #12;Ventilation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the longest standing drivers for tighter homes are state weatherization programs that include air tightening was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH

250

Model of ventilation flows during large tunnel fires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to describe the reduction in the longitudinal airflow velocity due to the fire and hot gases resistances in a large tunnel fire, a theoretical model, taking into consideration the pressure losses over the fire source and obstructions, the thermal stack effects, and the hydraulic resistance induced by the tunnel walls, fire protection boards and a HGV trailer mock-up, is developed and validated using the large-scale tests data from the fire tests performed in the Runehamar tunnel with longitudinal ventilation in Norway 2003. Two large mobile fan units were used to create a longitudinal flow within the tunnel and prevent smoke backlayering upstream of the fire. One fan was located outside the entrance of the tunnel and the other inside the tunnel. The fire load consisted of a mock-up simulating a heavy goods vehicle (HGV) trailer creating a maximum heat release rates in the range of 66202MW. Two methods of calculating the mean temperature related to the thermal expansion and stack effect are proposed and compared.

Haukur Ingason; Anders Lnnermark; Ying Zhen Li

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Analyzing Ventilation Effects of Different Apartment Styles by CFD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-3-5 Analyzing Ventilation Effects of Different Apartment Styles by CFD Xiaodong Li Lina Wang Zhixing Ye Associate Professor School...

Li, X.; Wang, L.; Ye, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Key Factors in Displacement Ventilation Systems for Better IAQ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-7-2 Key Factors in Displacement Ventilation Systems for Better IAQ1 Xiaotong Wang Junjun Chen Yike Li Zhiwei Wang Associate Professor...

Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Comparison of Two Ventilation Systems in a Chinese Commercial Kitchen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A numerical simulation of an indoor thermal environment in a Chinese commercial kitchen has been carried out using indoor zero-equation turbulence model. Two different ventilation systems in a Chinese commercial kitchen have been simulated...

Wan, X.; Yu, L.; Hou, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Natural ventilation in buildings : modeling, control and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation in buildings has the potential to reduce the energy consumption usually associated with mechanical cooling while maintaining thermal comfort and air quality. It is important to know how building parameters, ...

Ip Kiun Chong, Karine

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

SURFACE CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION Lynne D. Talley(1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of autonomous subsurface profiling to include oxygen and turbulence profiling, and implementation of local of subsurface circulation in the wind-driven gyres (section 2), and (2) ventilation/upwelling processes

Talley, Lynne D.

256

Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin P.R.China, 150090 wzjw02@yahoo.com.cn Abstract: A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort... & Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin P.R.China, 150090 wzjw02@yahoo.com.cn Abstract: A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort...

Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Aerodynamic efficiency of smoke ventilators in light streets and shed-type roofs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-rise industrial buildings in continental Europe have usually no or very little window area in the sidewalls. To provide the necessary daylight, translucent surfaces are fitted in the roof. Well known examples are shed roofs or curved and shed-type light streets in flat roofs. For economic reasons smoke ventilators are then integrated into the light surfaces. This paper gives typical examples of smoke ventilators installed in shed roofs and in curved or shed-type light streets. The measurement of the aerodynamic free areas on full scale apparatus is not possible due to the large dimensions of the relevant roof surfaces. Therefore, tests have to be conducted in model scale. The relevant similarity considerations for such model tests are discussed and the applicability of model scale tests is demonstrated. Finally, the most important parameters influencing the aerodynamic efficiency of typical ventilator installations in shed-roofs and curved or shed-type light streets are described for the cases without and with side wind.

H.J. Gerhardt; C. Kramer

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Literature review supporting assessment of potential radionuclides in the 291-Z exhaust ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This literature review was prepared to support a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the potential deposition and resuspension of radionuclides in the 291-Z ventilation exhaust building located in the 200 West Area of the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Project near Richland, Washington. The filtered ventilation air from three of the facilities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex are combined together in the 291-Z building before discharge through a common stack. These three facilities contributing filtered exhaust air to the discharge stream are (1) the PFP, also known as the Z-Plant or 234-5Z, (2) the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF or 236-Z), and (3), the Waste Incinerator Building (WIB or 232-Z). The 291-Z building houses the exhaust fans that pull air from the 291-Z central collection plenum and exhausts the air to the stack. Section 2.0 of this report is a description of the physical characteristic of the ventilation system from the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to the exhaust stack. A description of the processes performed in the facilities that are vented through 291-Z is given in Section 3.0. The description focuses on the chemical and physical forms of potential aerosols given off from the unit operations. A timeline of the operations and events that may have affected the deposition of material in the ventilation system is shown. Aerosol and radiation measurements taken in previous studies are also discussed. Section 4.0 discusses the factors that influence particle deposition and adhesion. Mechanisms of attachment and resuspension are covered with specific attention to the PFP ducts. Conclusions and recommendations are given in Section 5.0.

Mahoney, L.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Thomas, L.M. Glissmeyer, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Davis, W.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A comparison between conventional hotothermal frequency scan and the lock-in rate window method in measuring thermal diffirsivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that for thick materials with long thermal transport times across the sample where low-frequency measurements to measure thermal conductivity of materials by steady-state heat flow methods and thermal diffusivity for thermal diffusivity measurements of materials, is presented. In this comparison, a completely noncontact

Mandelis, Andreas

260

Energy saving by integrated control of natural ventilation and HVAC systems using model guide for comparison  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Integrated control by controlling both natural ventilation and HVAC systems based on human thermal comfort requirement can result in significant energy savings. The concept of this paper differs from conventional methods of energy saving in HVAC systems by integrating the control of both these HVAC systems and the available natural ventilation that is based on the temperature difference between the indoor and the outdoor air. This difference affects the rate of change of indoor air enthalpy or indoor air potential energy storage. However, this is not efficient enough as there are other factors affecting the rate of change of indoor air enthalpy that should be considered to achieve maximum energy saving. One way of improvement can be through the use of model guide for comparison (MGFC) that uses physical-empirical hybrid modelling to predict the rate of change of indoor air potential energy storage considering building fabric and its fixture. Three methods (normal, conventional and proposed) are tested on an identical residential building model using predicted mean vote (PMV) sensor as a criterion test for thermal comfort standard. The results indicate that the proposed method achieved significant energy savings compared with the other methods while still achieving thermal comfort.

Raad Z. Homod; Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari; Haider A.F. Almurib

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Measuring the shock-heating rate in the winds of O stars using X-ray line spectra  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore...Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa...Technology, Department of Physics and Space Sciences...determine the shock-heating rate due to instabilities...plasma systematically passes through the temperature......

David H. Cohen; Zequn Li; Kenneth G. Gayley; Stanley P. Owocki; Jon O. Sundqvist; Vronique Petit; Maurice A. Leutenegger

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Spatially resolved measurements of kinematics and flow-induced birefringence in worm-like micellar solutions undergoing high rate deformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Worm-like micellar solutions are model non-Newtonian systems on account of their well understood linear viscoelastic behavior. Their high deformation rate, non-linear rheological response, however, remains inadequately ...

Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Experimental measurements of the O15(alpha,gamma)Ne19 reaction rate and the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron stars in close binary star systems often accrete matter from their companion stars. Thermonuclear ignition of the accreted material in the atmosphere of the neutron star leads to a thermonuclear explosion which is observed as an X-ray burst occurring periodically between hours and days depending on the accretion rate. The ignition conditions are characterized by a sensitive interplay between the accretion rate of the fuel supply and its depletion rate by nuclear burning in the hot CNO cycle and the rp-process. For accretion rates close to stable burning the burst ignition therefore depends critically on the hot CNO breakout reaction, O15(alpha,gamma)Ne19, that regulates the flow between the hot CNO cycle and the rapid proton capture process. Until recently, the O15(alpha,gamma)Ne19-reaction rate was not known experimentally and the theoretical estimates carried significant uncertainties. In this paper we perform a parameter study of the uncertainty of this reaction rate and determine the astrophysical consequences of the first measurement of this reaction rate. Our results corroborate earlier predictions and show that theoretically burning remains unstable up to accretion rates near the Eddington limit, in contrast to astronomical observations.

Jacob Lund Fisker; Wanpeng Tan; Joachim Goerres; Michael Wiescher; Randall L. Cooper

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

264

Diabatic Heating and Cooling Rates Derived from In Situ Microphysics Measurements: A Case Study of a Wintertime U.K. Cold Front  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ measurements associated with the passage of a kata cold front over the United Kingdom on 29 November 2011 are used to initialize a Lagrangian parcel model for the purpose of calculating rates of diabatic heating and cooling associated with ...

C. Dearden; P. J. Connolly; G. Lloyd; J. Crosier; K. N. Bower; T. W. Choularton; G. Vaughan

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Measurement of the Rates of Production and Dissipation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in an Energetic Tidal Flow: Red Wharf Bay Revisited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of the rates of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation (?) and production (P) have been made over a period of 24 h at a tidally energetic site in the northern Irish Sea in water of 25-m depth. Some ? profiles from ?5 ...

Tom P. Rippeth; John H. Simpson; Eirwen Williams; Mark E. Inall

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth Rates in Air at -5C and -10C K. G. Libbrecht and H. M. Arnold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth Rates in Air at -5C and -10C K. G. Libbrecht and H. M. Arnold to: kgl@caltech.edu Abstract. We present experiments investigating the growth of ice crystals from produce large morphological changes at all scales. One popular example of this phenomenon is the formation

Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

267

Microsoft Word - Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation_Final2.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation 1 Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Jennifer M. Logue, William J. N. Turner, Iain S. Walker, and Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division June 2012 LBNL-5796E LBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor

268

Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Prediction Speaker(s): Malcolm Cook Date: February 14, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter Malcolm's presentation will cover both his research and consultancy activities. This will cover the work he has undertaken during his time spent working with architects on low energy building design, with a particular focus on natural ventilation and passive cooling strategies, and the role computer simulation can play in this design process. Malcolm will talk about the simulation techniques employed, as well as the innovative passive design principles that have led to some of the UK's most energy efficient buildings. In addition to UK building projects, the talk will

270

Building Air Quality & Ventilation Models: Review - Evaluation - Proposals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Building Air Quality & Ventilation Models: Review - Evaluation - Proposals Building Air Quality & Ventilation Models: Review - Evaluation - Proposals Speaker(s): James Axley Date: March 12, 1999 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Developments in mathematical models for building air quality and ventilation analysis have changed the way we idealize buildings for purposes of analysis, the way we form system equations to effect the analysis, and the way we solve these equations to realize the analysis. While much has been achieved more is possible. This presentation will review the current state of the art - the building idealizations used, the system equations formed, and the solution methods applied - critically evaluate the completeness, complexity and utility of the most advanced models, and present proposals for future development

271

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation-Air Methane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capture and use of Coal Mine Capture and use of Coal Mine Ventilation - air Methane Background Methane emissions from coal mines represent about 10 percent of the U.S. anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Methane-the second most important non-water greenhouse gas-is 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in its global warming potential. Ventilation-air methane (VAM)-the exhaust air from underground coal mines-is the largest source of coal mine methane, accounting for about half of the methane emitted from coal mines in the United States. Unfortunately, because of the low methane concentration (0.3-1.5 percent) in ventilation air, its beneficial use is difficult. However, oxidizing the methane to CO 2 and water reduces its global warming potential by 87 percent. A thermal

272

Honda Smart Home to Include Berkeley Lab Ventilation Controller  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Honda Smart Home to Include Berkeley Lab Ventilation Controller Honda Smart Home to Include Berkeley Lab Ventilation Controller Honda smart home October 2013 October-November Special Focus: Energy Efficiency, Buildings, and the Electric Grid Honda Motor Company Inc is proceeding with plans to build a Smart Home in Davis, California, to demonstrate the latest in renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency. The home is expected to produce more energy than is consumed, demonstrating how the goal of "zero net energy" can be met in the near term future. A ventilation controller developed by researchers at Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD) will be included in the smart home. EETD is currently working with the developers of the home control system to integrate its control algorithms.

273

Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative humidity conditions Title Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative humidity conditions Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed Year of Publication 2013 Authors Sidheswaran, Meera A., Wenhao Chen, Agatha Chang, Robert Miller, Sebastian Cohn, Douglas P. Sullivan, William J. Fisk, Kazukiyo Kumagai, and Hugo Destaillats Journal Environmental Science and Technology Date Published 04/18/2013 Abstract A method combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and real options analyses is developed to predict project environmental and financial performance over time, under market uncertainties and decision-making flexibility. The method is applied to examine alternative uses for oil sands coke, a carbonaceous byproduct of processing the unconventional petroleum found in northern Alberta, Canada. Under uncertainties in natural gas price and the imposition of a carbon price, our method identifies that selling the coke to China for electricity generation by integrated gasification combined cycle is

274

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

275

Section 38 - HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The term HVAC is an acronym for Heating, Ventilation (and) Air Conditioning, the industry term for any of various efforts to control conditions in a building or other enclosed area to improve comfort and efficiency. A closely related section is Refrigeration, which follows this one. Some contemporary HVAC techniques have ancient roots. Early forms of central heating and solar home heating were in use in Rome in the first century A.D. The earliest use of glass in windows (as opposed to a covering of wood, cloth, or hide, or simply an opening) is also attributed to the Romans at this same time. The first known use of solar-oriented building design in North America dates back to about the year 1050; i.e., the cliff dwellings built by the Anasazi (Ancient Pueblo) people of the Colorado Plateau area. Geothermal district heating was employed as early as the 1300s, in the Auvergne region of southern France. The foundation for modern central heating was established in the 1700s, first in England and then in France. The 1800s saw significant advances in the use of water heaters, especially the first automatic storage water heater (Edwin Ruud, 1889) and the first commercial solar water heater (Clarence Kemp, 1891). In comparison with heating, cooling technology was late in developing. The first successful method of producing ice occurred in 1851, and it was not until 1902 that Willis Haviland Carrier designed the first industrial air-conditioning system. His Carrier Air Conditioning Corporation would go on to develop air-conditioning systems for stores and theaters (1924) and for residential buildings (1928). Carrier remains the global leader in air conditioner production. The first air-conditioned automobile was produced by Packard in 1939. Recent entries in this section emphasize the use of alternative energy sources in heating and cooling, such as solar, photovoltaic, geothermal, and fuel cells. These advances include the ground-source heat pump, the Trombe wall, the heat pipe, and the PV/thermal hybrid system.

Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher Morris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Measurement of neutron spectra for determining dose equivalent rates at the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Also, placement of the detector in a low flux neutron environment adjacent to the area to be characterized could be utilized. These recommendations are reasonable for measurements taken at commercial power plants in areas where personnel exposure... reactions in this region, He 3 10 proportional counters have been proposed by Brackenbush (Br84) to measure neutron spectra up to 1 MeV. The He detector is surrounded by a thermal neutron absorber to maximize the sensitivity at the low end...

Sanza, Bruce Jerome

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

277

Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-{gamma} and direct-{gamma} + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of inclusive direct-{gamma} production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between {radical}s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-{gamma} + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made.

Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

1992-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

CO 2 - Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Control Strategies for Multi-Zone HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO 2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems while providing the required ventilation. However, implementing CO 2-based DCV under ASHRAE 62.1.2004 through 2010...

Nassif, N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standard: Exegesis of Proposed Standard 62.2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In February 2000, ASHRAE's Standard Project Committee on "Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings", SPC 62.2P7 recommended ASHRAE's first complete standard on residential ventilation for public review...

Sherman, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator for use in mass casualty cases and resource-poor environments. The ventilator delivers breaths by compressing a conventional ...

Powelson, Stephen K. (Stephen Kirby)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A sweating model for the internal ventilation of a motorcycle Claudio Canutoa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sweating model for the internal ventilation of a motorcycle helmet Claudio Canutoa , Flavio and optimization of the internal ventilation of a motorcycle hel- met, with the purpose of enhancing the comfort

Ceragioli, Francesca

282

Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements- Sean Maxwell  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation is included in the Building America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements, on September 24, 2014.

283

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

each apartment were much higher than the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and...

284

Microsoft Word - Ventilation System Sampling Results 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are not broken down to identify isotopic make-up, i.e. how much is plutonium and americium. Both screening and laboratory values are shown as count rates, which provide a...

285

STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

HU TA

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

286

The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: measuring the cosmic growth rate with the two-point galaxy correlation function  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Article The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: measuring the cosmic growth...galaxy redshifts from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We divide the data into four...correlation function of the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey (hereafter WiggleZ; Drinkwater......

Carlos Contreras; Chris Blake; Gregory B. Poole; Felipe Marin; Sarah Brough; Matthew Colless; Warrick Couch; Scott Croom; Darren Croton; Tamara M. Davis; Michael J. Drinkwater; Karl Forster; David Gilbank; Mike Gladders; Karl Glazebrook; Ben Jelliffe; Russell J. Jurek; I-hui Li; Barry Madore; D. Christopher Martin; Kevin Pimbblet; Michael Pracy; Rob Sharp; Emily Wisnioski; David Woods; Ted K. Wyder; H. K. C. Yee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Magnetic dipole transition rates from measured lifetimes of levels of Be-like and B-like argon ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lifetimes of the 1s(2)2s2p P-3(2) level of Ar XV and 1s(2)2s(2)2p P-2(3/2) of Ar XIV have been measured using metastable Ar14+ and Ar13+ ions produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which were subsequently separately captured...

Moehs, D. P.; Church, David A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

289

Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom Sture Holmberg, Ph. For displacement ventilation systems, designers normally assume that all pollutants follow the buoyant air flow of the ventilation air flow are shown to play an important role in the control of air quality. Computer simulation

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

290

A new technique to analyze simultaneous sandface flow rate and pressure measurements of gas wells with turbulence and damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the problems associated with conventional gas well test are related to the nonlinearity of the equations describing real gas flow, the presence of the rate dependent (non-Darcy) skin, and the long shut-in time periods required to collect the data for the analysis in tight reservoirs in which the wellbore storage period can be excessively long. This paper presents a new pressure buildup technique that reduces the wellbore storage effects, eliminates the long shut-in periods experienced with conventional tests by using afterflow rate and pressure data, and most importantly provides a direct method to estimate non-Darcy skin. The proposed technique uses normalized pseudofunctions to avoid the nonlinearities of the governing equations and involves using two different plots. The formation permeability is obtained from the slope of the first plot. The mechanical and non-Darcy skin factors are obtained respectively from the slope and intercept of the second plot. A field example and two simulated cases are presented to illustrate the application of the new technique.

Nashawi, I.S. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Mehaideb, R.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Energy Saving Guidelines for Portland State University Heating and Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Saving Guidelines for Portland State University Heating and Ventilation Conditioned spaces when a space is not being occupied and be selected with energy efficiency and safety as top priorities scheduling team to consolidate activities into energy efficient buildings on campus. Purchasing When

Caughman, John

292

Hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hottest spot temperature allowance to be used for the different insulation system temperature classes is a major unknown facing IEEE Working Groups developing standards and loading guides for ventilated dry type transformers. In 1944, the hottest spot temperature allowance for ventilated dry type transformers was established as 30 C for 80 C average winding temperature rise. Since 1944, insulation temperature classes have increased to 220 C but IEEE standards continue to use a constant 30 C hottest spot temperature allowance. IEC standards use a variable hottest spot temperature allowance from 5 to 30 C. Six full size test windings were manufactured with imbedded thermocouples and 133 test runs performed to obtain temperature rise data. The test data indicated that the hottest spot temperature allowance used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA is too low. This is due to the large thermal gradient from the bottom to the top of the windings caused by natural convection air flow through the cooling ducts. A constant ratio of hottest spot winding temperature rise to average winding temperature rise should be used in product standards for all insulation temperature classes. A ratio of 1.5 is suggested for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA. This would increase the hottest spot temperature allowance from 30 C to 60 C and decrease the permissible average winding temperature rise from 150 C to 120 C for the 220 C insulation temperature class.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This standard does but about the environment in which they lived. Historically, people have ventilated buildings to provide

294

Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings Tom Rogg REU Student to assist HVAC has the potential to significantly reduce life cycle cost and energy consumption and electrical system that will tie thermostats to controlled valves in the actual HVAC system. Based on results

Mountziaris, T. J.

295

Control of airborne infectious diseases in ventilated spaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Badeau, A. , A. Afshari, T. Goldsmith...control of SARS virus aerosols in indoor environment-transmission routes and ward ventilation...transmission of infectious agents in the built environment-a multidisciplinary systematic review...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne VIB | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne VIB Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne VIB Jump to: navigation, search Name Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne (VIB) Place Ploudalmezeau, France Zip 29839 Sector Geothermal energy, Solar Product Ploudalmezeau-based company producing and marketing energy efficient and ventilation products including air source heat pumps, geothermal water source heat pumps, efficient air filtration systems and solar products. Coordinates 48.540325°, -4.657904° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.540325,"lon":-4.657904,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

297

The Ventilation, Heating, and Management of Churches and Public Buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THIS book is addressed chiefly to the architects, managers and caretakers of buildings, and its opening chapter deals with the physical principles bearing on ventilation. An interesting ... the writer makes the cryptic statement that "the friction caused by the wind passing over buildings is so great that it is scarcely possible to demonstrate it accurately,"and later ...

J. H. V.

1903-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

298

Measurement of electron-attachment line shapes, cross sections, and rate constants in HI and DI at ultralow electron energies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron-attachment cross sections are reported in the electron energy range 0150 meV, at an energy resolution of 6.5 meV (full width at half maximum) for the molecules HI and DI. Use is made of the Kr photoionization method to obtain cross sections for HI, and a signal intercomparison technique to obtain cross sections and the thermal-attachment rate constant for DI. Attachment properties of the two molecules are very similar. The ratio of attachment cross sections is discussed in terms of the reduced-mass dependence of the dissociation width and the survival probability, and in terms of spectroscopic thresholds and rotational populations for attachment at 300 K. Approximate potential-energy curves for the lowest states of the neutral molecule and negative ion are given.

S. H. Alajajian and A. Chutjian

1988-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III: Results for the 2002--2007 data-taking period  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in Dec. 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. We give here the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in Dec. 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through Dec. 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4 (+3.1)(-3.0) (stat) (+2.6)(-2.8) (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 +/- 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87 +/- 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63-66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be (6.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^(10)/(cm^2 s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

SAGE Collaboration; J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. V. Gorbachev; P. P. Gurkina; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; I. N. Mirmov; A. A. Shikhin; E. P. Veretenkin; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin; T. J. Bowles; S. R. Elliott; W. A. Teasdale; J. S. Nico; B. T. Cleveland; J. F. Wilkerson

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Reaerosolization of Fluidized Spores in Ventilation Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...investigators that resuspension increases to the power of wind speed or friction velocity where the power can range from 1.1 to 6.4. In Sehmels...the resuspension rate increased with wind speed to a power ranging from 3.4 to 13.8. In a more...

Paula Krauter; Arthur Biermann

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

detonation rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation rate, detonation velocity, velocity of detonation, V.O.D., detonating velocity, rate of detonation, detonating rate ? Detonationsgeschwindigkeit f

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A robust CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation control strategy for multi-zone HVAC systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There have been increasingly growing concerns over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV is one of the strategies that could offer a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems. However, implementing CO2-based DCV under ASHRAE Standard 62.1 20042010 is not simple as it was under previous versions due to the changes in breathing-zone ventilating rate calculations. Thus, this paper provides insight into the performance of a multi-zone VAV system under different operating and ventilation conditions, discusses the difficulties in the CO2-based DCV, and proposes a robust DCV strategy based on the supply air CO2 concentration. The proposed strategy offers great benefits in terms of better indoor air control and improved energy efficiency. To evaluate the proposed strategy, energy simulations were performed on various USA locations and for a typical two-story office building conditioned by a VAV system. The results show that a significant energy saving could be achieved by implementing the proposed strategy as compared to the design-occupancy ASHRAE Standard 62.1 2010 multi-zone procedure and the amount of saving that could be up to 23% depends mainly on locations and the actual occupancy profile.

Nabil Nassif

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings, New York, New York (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

Not Available

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

High-Resolution Neutron Capture and Total Cross-Section Measurements, and the Astrophysical 95Mo(n,gamma) Reaction Rate at s-process Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abundances of Mo isotopes predicted by stellar models of the s process are, except for 95Mo, in good agreement with data from single grains of mainstream presolar SiC. Because the meteorite data seemed sound and no reasonable modification to stellar theory resulted in good agreement for 95Mo, it has been suggested that the recommended neutron capture reaction rate for this nuclide is 30% too low. Therefore, we have made a new determination of the 95Mo(n,gamma) reaction rate via high-resolution measurements of the neutron-capture and total cross sections of 95Mo at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. These data were analyzed with the R-matrix code SAMMY to obtain parameters for resonances up to En = 10 keV. Also, a small change to our capture apparatus allowed us to employ a new technique to vastly improve resonance spin and parity assignments. These new resonance parameters, together with our data in the unresolved range, were used to calculate the 95Mo(n,gamma) reaction rate at s-process temperatures. We compare the currently recommended rate to our new results and discuss their astrophysical impact.

P. E. Koehler; J. A. Harvey; K. H. Guber; D. Wiarda

2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

Measurement of the decay rate and form factor parameter $\\alpha_{K}*$ in the decay $K_{L} \\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}\\gamma$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The decay rate of the neutral K meson $\\mathrm{K_{L} \\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}\\gamma}$ has been measured with the NA48 detector at the CERN SPS. A total of 6864 events has been observed with an estimated background of 10 events. The branching ratio is $\\mathrm{\\Gamma(K_{L} \\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}\\gamma)/\\Gamma(K_{L} rightarrow all) = (1.06 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.02_{sys.} \\pm 0.04_{calc.})\\times 10^{-5}}$. The parameter describing the relative strength of the two contributing amplitudes to this decay through $\\mathrm{\\alpha_{K^{*}}}$ intermediate seudoscalar or vector mesons, was measured to be $\\mathrm{\\alpha_{K^{*}} = -0.36 \\pm 0.06_{stat.} \\pm 0.02_{sys.}}$

Fanti, V; Musa, L; Marras, D; Nappi, A; Hay, B; Moore, R W; Moore, K N; Munday, D J; Needham, M D; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Barr, Giles David; Bocquet, G; Bremer, J; Ceccucci, Augusto; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, Niels T; Funk, W; Gatignon, L; Gianoli, A; Gonidec, A; Govi, G; Grafstrm, P; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Luitz, S; Kesseler, G; Matheys, J P; Norton, Alan Robert; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Schinzel, D; Taureg, Hans; Velasco, M; Vossnack, O; Wahl, H; Wirrer, G; Kekelidze, V D; Mestvirishvili, A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Tatishvili, G T; Tkachev, A L; Zinchenko, A I; Boyle, O; Martin, V J; Knowles, I G; Parsons, H; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Porcu, M; Savri, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Michetti, A; Becker, H G; Blmer, H; Buchholz, P; Coward, D H; Ebersberger, C; Fox, H; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Kpke, L; Renk, B; Scheidt, J; Schmidt, J; Schnharting, V; Schu, Yu; Wilhelm, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Crp, S; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Fayard, Louis; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Vattolo, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Lubrano, P; Pep, M; Gorini, B; Calafiura, P; Carosi, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Marzulli, V M; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Khristov, P Z; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Schanne, S; Turlay, Ren; Vallage, B; Augustin, I; Bender, M; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, Gnther; Pernicka, Manfred; Taurok, Anton

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening Process and Results Srinandini Parthasarathy, Thomas E. McKone, Michael G. Apte Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor Environment Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 April 29, 2111 Prepared for the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Energy Related Environmental Research Program Legal Notice The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a national laboratory of the DOE managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract Number DE-AC02- 05CH11231. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Sponsor and pursuant to an M&O Contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the

307

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values William J.N. Turner, Jennifer M. Logue, Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division July 2012 LBNL-5969E Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein

308

Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Good seal construction and ventilation controls improve airflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As workings become deeper and more distant from the ventilation inlet, better seal construction technology is needed. Tekseal, a specially formulated pumpable grout which allows a seal to be erected quickly and safety, is Minova's answer to the limitations of traditional block seals. Its use is explained in this article. An alternative product is the Carbonfill range which comprises a two-component phenolic resin based foam generating by a pump. 3 photos.

NONE

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Predicting hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformer windings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test data indicates that hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA are too low. A mathematical model to predict hottest spot temperature rises in ventilated dry type transformers was developed. Data from six layer type test windings and a 2500 kva prototype was used to refine the model. A correlation for the local heat transfer coefficient in the cooling ducts was developed. The model was used to study the effect of various parameters on the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The number of conductor layers, insulation thickness, and conductor strand size were found to have only a minor effect on the ratio. Winding height was found to be the main parameter influencing the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The study based on the mathematical model confirmed previous conclusions based on test data that the hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA should be revised.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Effect of H2/CO ratio and N2/CO2 dilution rate on laminar burning velocity of syngas investigated by direct measurement and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laminar burning velocities of syngas/air premixed flames, varying with H2/CO ratio (from 5/95 to 75/25) and N2 or CO2 dilution rate (from 0% to 60%), were accurately measured using a Teflon coated Heat Flux burner and OH-PLIF based Bunsen flame method. Experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, with fuel/air equivalence ratios ranging from fuel-lean to fuel-rich. Coupled with experimental data, three chemical kinetic mechanisms, namely GRI-Mech 3.0, USC Mech II and Davis H2CO mechanism, were validated. The Davis H2CO and USC Mech II mechanisms appear to provide a better prediction for the laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity variations with H2 and dilution gas contents were systematically investigated. For given dilution gas fraction, the laminar burning velocity reduction rate was enhanced as H2/CO ratio increasing. Effects of the syngas components and equivalence ratio variation on the concentrations of radical H and OH were also studied. It appears that there is a strong linear correlation between the laminar burning velocity and the maximum concentration of the H radical in the reaction zone for syngas. This characteristic is exclusively different from that in methane air premixed flame. These findings indicated that the high thermal diffusivity of the H radical played an important role in the laminar burning velocity enhancement and affected the laminar burning velocity reduction rate under dilution condition.

Z.H. Wang; W.B. Weng; Y. He; Z.S. Li; K.F. Cen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

localization that limits the present measurements. The knowledge thus gained will have input not only to fusion research, but to may ques- tions of basic plasma physics....

313

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of...

314

Ventilation for an enclosure of a gas turbine and related method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ventilation scheme for a rotary machine supported on pedestals within an enclosure having a roof, end walls and side walls with the machine arranged parallel to the side walls, includes ventilation air inlets located in a first end wall of the enclosure; a barrier wall located within the enclosure, proximate the first end wall to thereby create a plenum chamber. The barrier wall is constructed to provide a substantially annular gap between the barrier wall and a casing of the turbine to thereby direct ventilation air axially along the turbine; one or more ventilation air outlets located proximate a second, opposite end wall on the roof of the enclosure. In addition, one or more fans are provided for pulling ventilating air into said plenum chamber via the ventilation air inlets.

Schroeder, Troy Joseph (Mauldin, SC); Leach, David (Simpsonville, SC); O'Toole, Michael Anthony (Greenfield Center, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li[sub 17]Pb[sub 83]) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

Biney, P.O.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Heart Rate Artifact Suppression.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Motion artifact strongly corrupts heart rate measurements in current pulse oximetry systems. In many, almost any motion will greatly diminish the systems ability to extract (more)

Dickson, Christopher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing- Building America Top Innovation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America research on simple whole-house ventilation systems that cost less than $350 to install and meet code requirements.

318

Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements- Joe Lstiburek  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation will be delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements, on September 24, 2014. Joe...

319

THE IMPACT OF REDUCED VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide fron gas appliances;quality, infiltration, nitrogen dioxide, radon, ventilation.carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (N02) formaldehyde (

Berk, James V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - air quality ventilation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: air quality ventilation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Healthy Zero Energy Buildings ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH Summary: control strategy impacts on indoor air...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

Boggs, David Lee (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Baraszu, Daniel James (Plymouth, MI); Foulkes, David Mark (Erfstadt, DE); Gomes, Enio Goyannes (Ann Arbor, MI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Measurement of Desorption Rates from Octadecylsilyl Bonded-Phase HPLC Particles and Its Characterization in Terms of Pore, Surface, and Film Diffusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This correction was accomplished by also measuring the desorption rate curve for an impulse response function marker (IRF marker), which is a compound that is not sorbed by, and does not enter, the particles. ... The fit lines in Figure 7 are the result of nonlinear regression of eq 8 to the data points from runs 1?3, performed with the Solver macro in Microsoft Excel software, utilizing the Newton gradient search method with forward derivatives and tangent-based estimates. ... Intraparticle diffusion in Luna C-18 occurs by means of a combination of pore diffusion and surface diffusion, as expressed, respectively, by the first and second terms on the right-hand side of eq 7. Inserting the values of DM,DMNB, Hind, ?M, and RDMNB from above yields a value of (6 2) 10-8 cm2/s for the pore diffusion term. ...

Robert Bujalski; Frederick F. Cantwell

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

323

Measurement of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in fly ash samples from a thermal power plant and estimation of radiation doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by coal-burning in thermal power station has become a subject of world wide interest in recent years because of its diverse uses in construction activities and considerable economic and environmental importance. Fly ash is used in the production of bricks, sheets, cement and also in land filling etc. Indian coals used in thermal power plants are found to have high ash contents, resulting in the production of large amount of fly ash. Coal contains radionuclides including uranium (the source of inert gas radon), Th and K. Thus coal combustion results in enhanced concentration of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. Since these radionuclides concentration in fly ash plays an important role in health physics it is important to measure radionuclides concentration in fly ash. In the present work enhanced radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples collected from a thermal power plant of NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation), Dadri (U.P.) India, have been measured. A high resolution gamma ray spectroscopic system has been used for the measurement of natural radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K). Gamma spectrometric measurements were carried out at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi using a coaxial n-type \\{HPGe\\} detector (EG&G, ORTEC, Oak Ridge, USA). Activity concentration of 226Ra varies from 81.82.2 to 177.310.0Bqkg?1 with an average value of 118.67.4Bqkg?1 and of 232Th from 111.63.2 to 178.53.9Bqkg?1 with an average value of 147.03.4Bqkg?1. 40K activity was found to be below detection limit in some samples while other samples have shown potassium activity to vary from 365.94.8 to 495.96.2Bqkg?1 with an average value of 352.04.5Bqkg?1. Surface radon exhalation rates (EA) and Mass exhalation rates (EM) in these samples were measured by Sealed can technique using LR-115 type II track detectors. EA is found to vary from 80.19.3 to 242.716.3mBqm?2h?1 with an average value 155.512.8mBqm?2h?1, while EM varies from 3.10.4 to 9.30.6mBqkg?1h?1 with an average value of 6.00.5mBqkg?1h?1. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), related to the external gamma dose and internal dose due to radon and its daughters range from 283.2 to 422.4Bqkg?1 with an average value of 353.9Bqkg?1. The calculated values of external hazard index (Hex) vary from 0.77 to 1.87 with an average value of 1.03. Most of the samples show the value of Raeq close to the allowed upper limit of 370Bqkg?1 and Hex close to unity respectively except in two samples. Annual effective dose varies from 0.15 to 0.23mSvy?1 with an average value 0.19mSvy?1.

Mamta Gupta; Ajay Kumar Mahur; Rati Varshney; R.G. Sonkawade; K.D. Verma; Rajendra Prasad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

jn Ne~ Building Desig~, ASHRAE 90-75R (New York, 1975). 4.in 1975. This standard, ASHRAE 90-75R, Energy Conservation

Young, Rodger A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

standard, ASHRAE 90-75R, Energy Conservation in New Building Design, 3 has stipulated that the minimum

Young, Rodger A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Quantification of the relationship between pulmonary ventilation rate and vapor contaminant concentration in exposure profiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Human Factor's Laboratory located on the garage level of the Zachry Engineering Center was used as the exposure chamber facility. It has an approximate volume of 107, 000 liters. Through the use of an elaborate environmental monitoring... The Human Factor's Laboratory located on the garage level of the Zachry Engineering Center was used as the exposure chamber facility. It has an approximate volume of 107, 000 liters. Through the use of an elaborate environmental monitoring...

Horbal, Terrence Myron

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone andppm) 10 mg/m 3 (9 ppm) Nitrogen dioxide EPA 100 M91m 3 (50and except for nitrogen dioxide in one of the classrooms.

Young, Rodger A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effect of ventilation rates on indoor formaldehyde concentrations in Diana E. Hun1,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and outdoor air were sampled. Formaldehyde Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 695 #12;concentrations

Siegel, Jeffrey

329

Evaluation of pulmonary ventilation in horses during methoxyflurane anesthesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and venous pH, pCO2, p02, and HCO3 in evaluating pulmonary ventilation and the metabolic status of the horse. LITERATURE REVIEW 8oth methoxyflurane and halothane were first used in the early 1960's as inhalation anesthetics ' ' ' ' ' . These agents were... 7)12, 13, 15, 28&36 primarily responsible for the increase in popularity of gas anesthesia in veterinary medicine. Inhalation anesthesia with these agents pro- duced some long awaited advantages over intravenous long-acting bar- biturates...

McDonald, Don Reed

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

330

Economic Analysis and Optimization of Exterior Insulation Requirements for Ventilated Buildings at Power Generation Facilities with High Internal Heat Gain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial buildings require a large amount of heating and ventilation equipment to maintain the indoor environment within acceptable levels for personnel protection and equipment protection. The required heating and ventilation equipment...

Hughes, Douglas E.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effect of fluctuating wind direction on cross natural ventilation in buildings from large eddy simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wind direction, and the simulated results agree reasonably with the corresponding experimental data is the use of small-scale models in a wind tunnel to simulate natural ventilation. In general, the mean flow1 Effect of fluctuating wind direction on cross natural ventilation in buildings from large eddy

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

332

Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 Laboratory Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 ­ Laboratory Ventilation 3-1 Section 3 ...................................................................................3-5 #12;Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 ­ Laboratory Ventilation 3-2 A without compromising safety or system integrity. The following should be included unless alternate design

Queitsch, Christine

333

Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: Model Assessment Qingyan Chena,b,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: Model Assessment Qingyan Chena,b,* , Kisup Leeb building, but cannot provide detailed flow information in a room. The zonal model can be useful when a user ventilation systems for buildings requires a suitable model to assess system performance. The performance can

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

334

ENERGY ANALYSISF FOR WORKSHOPS WITH FLOOR-SUPPLY DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION UNDER THE U.S. CLIMATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

use more fan and boiler energy but less chiller energy than the mixing ventilation system. The total in order to handle the high cooling loads found in U.S. buildings. Thus, the displacement ventilation, the chiller efficiency is increased. Besides, the

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

335

The Improvement of Natural Ventilation in an Industrial Workshop by Solar Chimney  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a numerical simulation based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method on the enhancement of natural ventilation in an industrial workshop with heat source induced by solar chimney (SC). Four types of SC were designed to attach ... Keywords: natural ventilation, solar chimney, industrtial workshop, numerical simulation, thermal comfort

Yu-feng Xue; Ya-xin Su

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1 Philip Demokritou, and the operation strategy of the ventilation system are significant contributing factors to the indoor air quality contamination levels in the arenas. Keywords: Air distribution, health, skating rink, indoor air quality, space

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

337

A case study of boundary layer ventilation by convection and coastal processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the pollution in the atmosphere originates from emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer, the region; published 12 September 2007. [1] It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a nonfrontal day that occurred on 9 May

Dacre, Helen

338

Modeling Coupled Evaporation and Seepage in Ventilated Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavities excavated in unsaturated geological formations are important to activities such as nuclear waste disposal and mining. Such cavities provide a unique setting for simultaneous occurrence of seepage and evaporation. Previously, inverse numerical modeling of field liquid-release tests and associated seepage into cavities were used to provide seepage-related large-scale formation properties by ignoring the impact of evaporation. The applicability of such models was limited to the narrow range of ventilation conditions under which the models were calibrated. The objective of this study was to alleviate this limitation by incorporating evaporation into the seepage models. We modeled evaporation as an isothermal vapor diffusion process. The semi-physical model accounts for the relative humidity, temperature, and ventilation conditions of the cavities. The evaporation boundary layer thickness (BLT) over which diffusion occurs was estimated by calibration against free-water evaporation data collected inside the experimental cavities. The estimated values of BLT were 5 to 7 mm for the open underground drifts and 20 mm for niches closed off by bulkheads. Compared to previous models that neglected the effect of evaporation, this new approach showed significant improvement in capturing seepage fluctuations into open cavities of low relative humidity. At high relative-humidity values (greater than 85%), the effect of evaporation on seepage was very small.

T. Ghezzehei; R. Trautz; S. Finsterle; P. Cook; C. Ahlers

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Overall Ventilation System Flow Network Calculation for Site Recommendation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scope of this calculation is to determine ventilation system resistances, pressure drops, airflows, and operating cost estimates for the Site Recommendation (SR) design as detailed in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001a). The statutory limit for emplacement of waste in Yucca Mountain is 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) and is considered the base case for this report. The objective is to determine the overall repository system ventilation flow network for the monitoring phase during normal operations and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. Any values derived from this calculation will not be used to support construction, fabrication, or procurement. The work scope is identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001, pp. 6 and 13). In accordance with the technical work plan this calculation was prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' and other procedures invoked by AP-3.12Q. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI1.Q, ''Software Management''.

Jeff J. Steinhoff

2001-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

340

Rate Schedules  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Analysis of Above-Code (2009 IECC) Residential Energy Efficiency Measures in ONCOR Service Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

selected. These measures include Renewable Power Options, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Fenestration, Envelope, Lighting and Domestic Hot Water (DHW) options. Individual measures were then categorized into four groups: 0 to 5%, 5 to 10...

Verdict, Malcolm; Haberl, Jeff S.; Liu, Zi; Kim, Hyojin

342

An overview of the TA-55, Building PF-4 ventilation system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An overview of the TA-55, Building PF-4 ventilation system is provided in the following sections. Included are descriptions of the zone configurations, equipment-performance criteria, ventilation support systems, and the ventilation-system evaluation criteria. Section 4.2.1.1 provides a brief discussion of the ventilation system function. Section 4.2.1.2 provides details on the overall system configuration. Details of system interfaces and support systems are provided in Section 4.2.1.3. Section 4.2.1.4 describes instrumentation and control needed to operate the ventilation system. Finally, Sections 4.2.1.5 and 4.2.1.6 describe system surveillance/maintenance and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) Limitations, respectively. Note that the numerical parameters included in this description are considered nominal; set points and other specifications actually fall within operational bands.

NONE

1994-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

343

Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

Not Available

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

HU, T.A.

2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

345

STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

HU TA

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Impact of Above-Sheathing Ventilation on the Thermal and Moisture Performance of Steep-Slope Residential Roofs and Attics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

France of the Building Technologies Program. The IrBCP project team members are Andre? Desjarlais, William Miller, Tom Petrie, Jan Kosny and Achilles Karagiozis, all of ORNLs Buildings Envelope Program. The Metal Construction Association and its affiliate members.... Beal, D., and S. Chandra. 1995. The Measured Summer Performance of Tile Roof Systems and Attic Ventilation Strategies in Hot Humid Climates. In Proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VI. U.S. DOE/ORNL...

Miller, W.; Karagiozis, A.; Wilson, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Novel Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging Method for Measuring the Water Front Penetration Rate in Hydrophilic Polymer Matrix Capsule Plugs and Its Role in Drug Release  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An NMR imaging method was developed to estimate the rate of water movement in slow-release capsule ... transverse plane of each plug. The water penetration rate was determined by comparison of the cut ... the plu...

Muhammad Ashraf; Virginia L. luorno; David Coffin-Beach

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

349

Formadehyde in New Homes: Ventilation vs. Source Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at at Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 1, 2012 Austin, Texas Formaldehyde in New Homes --- Ventilation vs. Source Control Brett C. Singer and Henry Willem Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Acknowledgments * Funding - U.S. Department of Energy - Building America Program - U.S. EPA - Indoor Environments Division - U.S. HUD - Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control - Cal. Energy Commission Public Interest Environmental Research * Technical Contributions - Fraunhofer - Ibacos - IEE-SF * LBNL Team - Sherman, Hotchi, Russell, Stratton, and Others Background 1  Formaldehyde is an irritant and a carcinogen  Odor threshold: about 800 ppb  Widely varying health standards  US HUD (8-h): 400 ppb

350

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the UnitedStates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first and only national norm for residential ventilation in the United States is Standard 62.2-2004 published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This standard does not by itself have the force of regulation, but is being considered for adoption by various jurisdictions within the U.S. as well as by various voluntary programs. The adoption of 62.2 would require mechanical ventilation systems to be installed in virtually all new homes, but allows for a wide variety of design solutions. These solutions, however, may have a different energy costs and non-energy benefits. This report uses a detailed simulation model to evaluate the energy impacts of currently popular and proposed mechanical ventilation approaches that are 62.2 compliant for a variety of climates. These results separate the energy needed to ventilate from the energy needed to condition the ventilation air, from the energy needed to distribute and/or temper the ventilation air. The results show that exhaust systems are generally the most energy efficient method of meeting the proposed requirements. Balanced and supply systems have more ventilation resulting in greater energy and their associated distribution energy use can be significant.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Efficient Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Multifamily Individual Heating Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Retrofit Type: Multifamily, affordable Builder: Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) www.merrimackvalleyhabitat.org Size: 840 to 1,170 ft 2 units Price Range: $125,000-$130,000 Date completed: Slated for 2014 Climate Zone: Cold (5A) PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Range: 48 to 63 Projected annual energy cost savings: $1,797 Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $3,747 Incremental annual mortgage: $346 Annual cash flow: $1,451 Billing data: Not available The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley

352

Indoor and soil gas radon simultaneous measurements for the purpose of detail analysis of radon entry pathways into houses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......on the modification of the standard BD method described in detail...concentration is variable during the standard indoor measurement campaign...symmetric against each other and standard indoor radon measurement...householder activities, including HVAC (heating, ventilation and......

A. Fronka

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Tight homes require intentional mechanical ventilation to ensure healthy indoor air. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. There is currently not sufficient information available at a wide enough range of operating points to design dehumidification systems for high performance homes in hot-humid climates. The only industry information available on dehumidifier moisture removal and energy consumption are performance ratings conducted at a single test condition, which does not provide a full representation of dehumidifier operation under real-world conditions. Winkler et al. (2011) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, we tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.

Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

An experimental system for advanced heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While having the potential to significantly improve heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system performance, advanced (e.g., optimal, robust and various forms of adaptive) controllers have yet to be incorporated into commercial systems. Controllers consisting of distributed proportional-integral (PI) control loops continue to dominate commercial HVAC systems. Investigation into advanced HVAC controllers has largely been limited to proposals and simulations, with few controllers being tested on physical systems. While simulation can be insightful, the only true means for verifying the performance provided by HVAC controllers is by actually using them to control an HVAC system. The construction and modeling of an experimental system for testing advanced HVAC controllers, is the focus of this article. A simple HVAC system, intended for controlling the temperature and flow rate of the discharge air, was built using standard components. While only a portion of an overall HVAC system, it is representative of a typical hot water to air heating system. In this article, a single integrated environment is created that is used for data acquisition, controller design, simulation, and closed loop controller implementation and testing. This environment provides the power and flexibility needed for rapid prototyping of various controllers and control design methodologies.

Michael Anderson; Michael Buehner; Peter Young; Douglas Hittle; Charles Anderson; Jilin Tu; David Hodgson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A scaling investigation of the laminar convective flow in a solar chimney for natural ventilation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The flow behavior due to natural convection of air (with a Prandtl number less than 1) inside a solar chimney with an imposed heat flux on a vertical absorber wall is investigated by a scaling analysis and a corresponding numerical simulation. Three distinct flow regimes are identified, one with a distinct thermal boundary layer and the other two without a distinct thermal boundary layer, depending on the Rayleigh number. The two regimes without a distinct thermal boundary layer are further classified into low and medium Rayleigh number sub-regimes respectively. These sub-regimes are characterized by conduction dominance in which the thermal boundary layer grows to encompass the entire width of the channel before convection becomes important. Flow development in each of these flow regimes and sub-regimes is characterized through transient scaling, and scaling correlations are developed to describe the temperature, flow velocity and mass flow rate, which characterize the ventilation performance of the solar chimney. The scaling arguments are validated by the corresponding numerical data.

Rakesh Khanal; Chengwang Lei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Air temperature effect on thermal models for ventilated dry-type transformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temperature of the air surrounding the windings of ventilated dry-type transformers is an important factor in the cooling of the windings since they are cooled only by the air. In particular, inner windings are sensitive to the air temperature in vertical cooling ducts. This study presents air temperature effect on the temperatures in foil-type inner winding for the dry-type transformers. A transformer rated at 2000kVA was selected for the research and temperature distribution was calculated under constant and varying air temperatures inside vertical ducts at three different loads. The 2-D transient heat diffusion equation was solved using the finite element method by coupling it with the vector potential equation due to non-uniformly generated heat caused by eddy currents in the foil winding. The calculated temperatures at constant and varying air temperatures are presented together with experimental values. The numerical and experimental results of this study showed that the air temperature affects the accuracy of temperatures in foil-type inner winding greatly.

Moonhee Lee; Hussein A. Abdullah; Jan C. Jofriet; Dhiru Patel; Murat Fahrioglu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Rate schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

358

Are We Ready to Propose Guidelines for Health-Based Ventilation?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Are We Ready to Propose Guidelines for Health-Based Ventilation? Are We Ready to Propose Guidelines for Health-Based Ventilation? Speaker(s): Pawel Wargocki Date: October 14, 2013 - 12:00pm - 1:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Mark Mendell Guidelines for health-based ventilation in Europe are proposed. They follow the premise of controlling exposures to indoor air pollutants of both indoor and outdoor origin. Exposures are controlled through a two-step sequential approach, in which source control is the primary strategy, while ventilation is the secondary strategy once all options for source control have been fully implemented. World Health Organization (WHO) air quality (AQ) guidelines are used to set the exposure limits. A decision diagram is created for guidance through the process of source control and to aid in

359

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

simple, cost-effective techniques for providing fresh air throughout the home, including exhaust-only and central fan-integrated supply ventilation. Building America has refined simple whole-house ventilation systems that cost less than $350 to install. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.3 Assured Health, Safety, and Durability Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing As high-performance homes get more air-tight and better insulated, attention to good indoor air quality becomes essential. Building America has effectively guided the nation's home builders to embrace whole-house ventilation by developing low-cost options that adapt well to their production processes. When the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research teams began

360

Influence of ventilation arrangements on particle removal in industrial cleanrooms with various tool coverage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper aims to investigate the influence of comparative ventilation arrangements (wall-return, locally balanced ceiling-return, and four-way ceiling-return) on the airflow distribution and particle fates w...

Yun-Chun Tung; Shih-Cheng Hu; Tengfang Xu; Ren-Huei Wang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Behavior of a Nuclear Power Plant Ventilation Stack for Wind Loads  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes behavior of self supporting tall reinforced concrete (RC) ventilation stack of a nuclear power plant (NPP) for wind loads. Since the static and equivalent dynamic wind loads are inter-dependa...

V. Venkatachalapathy

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-4 Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation Yanli Ren1, Deying Li2, Yufeng Zhang1 1...

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Modeling Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings John Markley, University of California, Davis -Western Cooling Efficiency Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings John Markley, University of California, Davis outlines the results from energy models of several multifamily building configurations to improve airflow component of multifamily building design due to its effects on occupant health and comfort. Though

California at Davis, University of

364

Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

An employee at Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant uses a portable band saw to cut the last ventilation duct attached to glove boxes inside the facilitys former processing area.

365

HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF HOSPITAL AIR. FINAL REPORT.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBL-10475 EEB-Hosp 79-6 HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS ANDCHH1ICAL CONTAMINATION OF HOSPITAL AIR na 1 Report DavidMinnesota 55455 TWIN CITIES HOSPITAL VEtHILATION STANDARDS

Rainer, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Increasing ventilation in commercial cattle trailers to decrease shrink, morbidity, and mortality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

moving livestock trailers, an experimental treatment that increased cross-ventilation within commercial cattle trailers by installing aluminum scoops to punch-hole trailers was evaluated. Environmental factors including temperature, ammonia and carbon...

Giguere, Nicole Marie

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Integrated Demand Controlled Ventilation for Single Duct VAV System with Conference Rooms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This paper presents a new integrated demand controlled ventilation (IDCV) methodology which can ensure acceptable IAQ and energy savings with lower OA intake ratio. The requirement on hardware and software is simple and the implementation is easy. One office...

Yu, Y.; Liu, M.; Cho, Y.; Xu, K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The Potential for Wind Induced Ventilation to Meet Occupant Comfort Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes a simple graphic tool that enables a building designer to evaluate the potential for wind induced ventilation cooling in several climate zones. Long term weather data were analyzed to determine the conditions for which available...

Byrne, S. J.; Huang, Y. J.; Ritschard, R. L.; Foley, D. M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

A Method for Evaluating the Application of Variable Frequency Drives with Coal Mine Ventilation Fans.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The adjustable-pitch setting on an axial-flow fan is the most common method of controlling airflow for primary coal mine ventilation. With this method, the fan (more)

Murphy, Tyson M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Control of the microclimate around the head with opposing jet local ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ventilation application. Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore.21 (1996) 427-436. Healthy Buildings 2009, September 13-17,distance is 1.20m. Healthy Buildings 2009, September 13-17,

Liu, Chonghui; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui Ph.D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scaling the passive stack diameter with house size (floora single-story house ventilated by a passive stack with andTable 1: Passive stack diameters scaling with house size

Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

7, 29612989, 2007 Predicting arene rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

software or computing power. Measured gas-phase rate coefficients for the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons

Boyer, Edmond

373

Isotopic exchange measurements of the rates of adsorption/desorption and interconversion of CO and CO/sub 2/ over chromia-promoted magnetite: implications for water-gas shift  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopic exchange measurements were used to investigate the adsorption/desorption and interconversion of CO and CO/sub 2/ on chromia-promoted magnetite at 565 and 627 K. The interconversion between CO and CO/sub 2/ was shown to take place through surface adsorbed species. Furthermore, the rate of interconversion was limited by the rates of adsorption/desorption, indicating either that adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ are in equilibrium on the surface or that the adsorption of CO and CO/sub 2/ leads to the same surface species, e.g., a surface carbonate species. A kinetic model for the water-gas shift over magnetite is proposed, and the results of the isotopic exchange measurements and volumetric adsorption data are used to estimate the rate and equilibrium constants for this model.

Tinkle, M.; Dumesic, J.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Measurement of a Large Chemical Reaction Rate between Ultracold Closed-Shell Ca40 Atoms and Open-Shell Yb+174 Ions Held in a Hybrid Atom-Ion Trap  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultracold Yb+174 ions and Ca40 atoms are confined in a hybrid trap. The charge exchange chemical reaction rate constant between these two species is measured and found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than recent measurements in other heteronuclear systems. The structure of the CaYb+ molecule is determined and used in a calculation that explains the fast chemical reaction as a consequence of strong radiative charge transfer. A possible explanation is offered for the apparent contradiction between typical theoretical predictions and measurements of the radiative association process in this and other recent experiments.

Wade G. Rellergert; Scott T. Sullivan; Svetlana Kotochigova; Alexander Petrov; Kuang Chen; Steven J. Schowalter; Eric R. Hudson

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

375

Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

Shinohara, K., E-mail: shinohara.koji@jaea.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kitajima, S. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580 (Japan)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Interlaboratory study of the reproducibility of the single-pass flow-through test method : measuring the dissolution rate of LRM glass at 70 {sup {degree}}C and pH 10.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An international interlaboratory study (ILS) was conducted to evaluate the precision with which single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests can be conducted by following a method to be standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials - International. Tests for the ILS were conducted with the low-activity reference material (LRM) glass developed previously for use as a glass test standard. Tests were conducted at 70 {+-} 2 C using a LiCl/LiOH solution as the leachant to impose an initial pH of about 10 (at 70 C). Participants were provided with LRM glass that had been crushed and sieved to isolate the -100 +200 mesh size fraction, and then washed to remove fines. Participants were asked to conduct a series of tests using different solution flow rate-to-sample mass ratios to generate a range of steady-state Si concentrations. The glass dissolution rate under each test condition was calculated using the steady-state Si concentration and solution flow rate that were measured in the test. The glass surface area was estimated from the mass of glass used in the test and the Si content of LRM glass was known. A linear relationship between the rate and the steady-state Si concentration (at Si concentrations less than 10 mg/L) was used to estimate the forward dissolution rate, which is the rate in the absence of dissolved Si. Participants were asked to sample the effluent solution at least five times after reaction times of between 3 and 14 days to measure the Si concentration and flow rate, and to verify that steady-state was achieved. Results were provided by seven participants and the data sets provided by five participants were sufficient to determine the forward rates independently.

Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

377

Performance of unglazed solar ventilation air pre-heaters for broiler barns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar radiation is an interesting heat source for applications requiring a limited amount of energy, such as pre-heating cold fresh air used in venting livestock barns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy recovery efficiency of a solar air pre-heater consisting of an unglazed perforated black corrugated siding where the incoming fresh ventilation air picks up heat from its face and back. Installed on the southeast wall of two broiler barns located 40km east of Montreal, Canada, the performance of solar air pre-heaters was monitored over 2years. Sensors inside the barns monitored the temperature of the ambient air, that pre-heated by the solar collector and that exhausted by one of the three operating fans. An on-site weather station measured ambient air temperature, wind direction and velocity and radiation energy absorbed on a vertical plane parallel to the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. The measured vertical solar radiation value was used to evaluate the heat recovery efficiency of the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. Using data from the Varennes Environment Canada weather station located 30km northwest, the solar sensors were found to measure the absorbed solar radiation with a maximum error of 7%, including differences in exterior air moisture. Unglazed, the efficiency of the solar air pre-heaters reached 65% for wind velocities under 2m/s, but dropped below 25% for wind velocities exceeding 7m/s. Nevertheless, the unglazed solar air pre-heaters were able to reduce the heating load especially in March of both years. Over a period starting in November and ending in March, the solar air heaters recovered an energy value equivalent to an annual return on investment of 4.7%.

Sbastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Robust efficiency and actuator saturation explain healthy heart rate control and variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...treated as compliant vessels, modeled in the form...iv) the metabolic consumption M; (v...multitasking, alcohol consumption, fatigue, or poor...signals (e.g., fuel or air rates, braking...ventilation V ? E , oxygen consumption V ? O 2 and carbon...

Na Li; Jerry Cruz; Chenghao Simon Chien; Somayeh Sojoudi; Benjamin Recht; David Stone; Marie Csete; Daniel Bahmiller; John C. Doyle

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Background and muon counting rates in underground muon measurements with a plastic scintillator counter based on a wavelength shifting fibre and a multi-pixel avalanche photodiode readout  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this short note we present results of background measurements carried out with polystyrene based cast plastic 12.012.03.0 cm3 size scintillator counter with a wavelength shifting fibre and a multi-pixel Geig...

Vladimir I. Volchenko; Evgeniy V. Akhrameev

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS Webinar (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Below is the text version of the webinar, DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS, presented in August 2014.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Design of double skin (envelope) as a solar chimney: adapting natural ventilation in double envelope for mild or warm climates.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In United States, space heating, space cooling and ventilation of buildings consume 33% of the annual building energy consumption and 15% of the total annual (more)

Wang, Lutao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Direct measurements of methoxy removal rate constants for collisions with CH/sub 4/, Ar, N/sub 2/, Xe, and CF/sub 4/ in the temperature range 673--973K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal rate constants for CH/sub 3/O by CH/sub 4/, Ar, N/sub 2/, Xe, and CF/sub 4/ were measured over a 400K temperature range using a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Rapid methoxy removal rates are observed for the non-reactive collision partners (Ar, N/sub 2/, Xe, and CF/sub 4/) at elevated temperatures showing that the dissociation and isomerization channels for CH/sub 3/O are indeed important. The total removal rate constant (reaction /plus/ dissociation and/or isomerization) for CH/sub 4/ exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and has a removal rate constant, k/sub r/ /equals/ (1.2 +- 0.6) /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/exp((/minus/101070 +- 350)/T)cm/sup 3/molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. Assuming that the removal rate constant due to dissociation and/or isomerization are similar for CH/sub 4/ and CF/sub 4/, the reaction rate constant for CH/sub 3/O /plus/ CH/sub 4/ is equal to (1.7 +- 1.0) /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/exp((/minus/7480 +- 1100)/T)cm/sup 3/molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Wantuck, P.J.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Baugchum, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States)] [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States); CIZEL, Jean-Pierre [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France)] [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Blanchard, Samuel [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)] [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

SEU measurements using /sup 252/CF fission particles, on CMOS static RAMS, subjected to a continuous period of low dose rate /sup 60/CO irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SEU measurements have been made on a number of CMOS static RAMs over a period of eight months while they were being continuously irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The results are discussed and compared with those of other workers using different methods.

Sanderson, T.K.; Mapper, D.; Stephen, J.H.; Farren, J.; Adams, L.; Harboe-Sorensen, R.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Relationship Between Principal Ethnicity and Other Chosen Demographics and Student Achievement as Measured by the Texas Education Agency's Accountability Rating System in Predominantly Hispanic Public High Schools in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by CHRISTOPHER ADRIAN TRESSLAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Educational Administration THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN... PRINCIPAL ETHNICITY AND OTHER CHOSEN DEMOGRAPHICS AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AS MEASURED BY THE TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY?S ACCOUNTABILITY RATING SYSTEM IN PREDOMINANTLY HISPANIC PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS IN TEXAS A Dissertation by CHRISTOPHER ADRIAN TRESSLAR Submitted...

Tresslar, Christopher A.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

387

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews I. What are the substantive issues DOE seeks to address? Strategies for grouping various basic models for purposes of certification; Identification of non-efficiency attributes, which do not impact the measured consumption of the equipment as tested by DOE's test procedure; The information that is certified to the Department; The timing of when the certification should be made relative to distribution in commerce; and Alterations to a basic model that would impact the certification.

388

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Outside Air Ventilation Controller  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

partner Davis Energy partner Davis Energy Group worked with Monley Cronin Construction to build 100 energy-efficient homes in Woodland, CA, with night- cooling ventilation systems. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.3 Assured Health, Safety, and Durability Outside Air Ventilation Controller Building America researchers developed technologies to harness the natural day-night temperature swings in the U.S. Southwest to cut cooling energy peak demand with no compromise in comfort. Building America research has shown that, in dry climates, the use of ventilation cooling can significantly reduce, delay, or completely eliminate air conditioner operation resulting in both energy savings and reduction of peak demand

389

ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations are executed.

Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

390

Software Verification & Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent.

YEH, T.

2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

391

Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

Greenhouse Ventilation1 Dennis E . Buffington, Ray A. Bucklin, Richard W. Henley and Dennis B. McConnell2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high temperatures during the summer caused by the influx of solar radiation, to maintain relative VENTILATION A heating system with adequate capacity is needed in the winter to maintain environmental of the winter, when the heating system is running at full capacity, some ventilation is still required

Watson, Craig A.

393

Microsoft Word - Draft Pier Final Report DCV and Classroom ventilation 05-11-12  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation William J. Fisk, Mark J. Mendell, Molly Davies, Ekaterina Eliseeva, David Faulkner, Tienzen Hong, Douglas P. Sullivan Indoor Environment Group Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 May 2012 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02- 05CH11231. LBNL-6258E Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither

394

Consideration of air jet angle in open surface tank push-pull ventilation system design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONSIDERATION OF AIR JET ANGLE IN OPEN SURFACE TANK PUSH-PULL VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN A Thesis by WAI-HUNG DAVID CHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree o... MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subjeot: Industrial Hygiene CONSIDERATION OF AIR JET ANGLE IN OPEN SURFACE TANK PUSH-PULL VENTILATION STSTEM DESIGN A Thesis by WAI-HUNG DAVID CHAN Approved as to style and content by: (C an of mmittee) J. Suggs...

Chan, Wai-Hung David

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

measures included mastic sealing ducts, installing properly sized high-efficiency HVAC, thoroughly air sealing the building envelope, using water-resistant exterior finishes,...

396

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VENTILATION TEMPERATURES REGULATION BY ENERGY STORAGE IN PHASE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VENTILATION TEMPERATURES REGULATION BY ENERGY STORAGE IN PHASE CHANGE, the use of thermal energy storage (TES) systems receives increasing interest. To allow high or low temperature thermal energy to be stored for later use, a heat or cool storage with PCM could be designed; Zhu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Simulating Natural Ventilation in and Around Buildings by Fast Fluid Mingang Jin1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. It is preferred over mechanical ventilation for sustainable building design. However, the design of natural is a sustainable building technology that can provide a good indoor environment and save energy [1]. These factors should be thoroughly considered at the early stage of building design in order to achieve good

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

398

Building ventilation : a pressure airflow model computer generation and elements of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building ventilation : a pressure airflow model computer generation and elements of validation H - design #12;1- Introduction Regarding the number of airflow network models found in building publications Abstract : The calculation of airflows is of great importance for detailed building thermal simulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Radon Mitigation in Schools Utilising Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...Two case studies are presented where HVAC technology was implemented for controlling...system in a two-storey building. The HVAC system's controls were restored and modified......

G. Fisher; B. Ligman; T. Brennan; R. Shaughnessy; B.H. Turk; B. Snead

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME P. H or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

SURVEY OF THE EXISTING APPROACHES TO ASSESS AND DESIGN NATURAL VENTILATION AND NEED FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENTS Marcello Caciolo, Dominique Marchio, Pascal Stabat Ecole des Mines de Paris- Center for Energy their attention to natural ventilation, due to the potential benefits in terms of energy consumption related - Difference ° Incidence angle of the wind from normal kg / m3 Density Indexes B Buoyancy in Indoor out Outdoor

Boyer, Edmond

402

UC Berkeley Heat/Ventilation Curtailment Period DECEMBER 24, 2011 through JANUARY 1, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and January 1, 2012 in order to conserve energy, most campus buildings will be closed and heat and ventilation that a building be exempt from energy curtailment. If you would like to request that your building be exempt from. Technical questions or concerns about energy curtailment can be directed to Gilbert Escobar at 3

California at Irvine, University of

403

Particle transport in low-energy ventilation systems. Part 1: theory of steady states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the global population. According to the Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.doe.gov/) the US of this energy is spent on ventilation of buildings with summer time cooling account for almost 10% of the US total energy budget. To reduce energy consumption various low-energy systems such as displacement

Bolster, Diogo

404

Direct ventilation of the North Pacific did not reach the deep ocean during the last deglaciation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Lund et al. [2011] suggest that the waters at 2710 m were actually very poorly ventilated (i.e., 14 C-depleted reservoirs at this time. [4] Here we present new sedimentary uranium (U) con- centration data from 2393 m

Long, Bernard

405

Experimental evaluation of a naturally ventilated PV double-skin building envelope in real operating conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-4Mar2014 Author manuscript, published in "Solar Energy 103 (2014) 223-241" DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2014. Keywords: Building integrated photovoltaic system; Natural ventilation; Chimney effect; Monitoring 1 fallen by 50%. To these ends, significant investments are being made into solar energy, which is seen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Inventory and Ventilation Efficiency of Nonnative and Native Phragmites australis (Common Reed) in Tidal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOTE Inventory and Ventilation Efficiency of Nonnative and Native Phragmites australis (Common Reed: 3 July 2012 # Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2012 Abstract Nonnative Phragmites is among the most in- vasive plants in the U.S. Atlantic coast tidal wetlands, whereas the native Phragmites has

407

GUIDELINE FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION/LIFE SUPPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and then assess. 6. Discontinue any unnecessary infusions or any other therapies that do not directly contribute Or Start opiod infusion and anxiolytic if needed. Assess after 10 minutes using objective markers - Upward Adjustment needed? YES NO · Repeat bolus, increase infusing rate · Reassess after 10 minutes · If adjustment

Acton, Scott

408

Natural ventilation of the Paintings Room in the Altamira cave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Radon-222 is a noble gas of the radioactive series of 238U, an element that ... per 106). Because of its gaseous nature and its greater concentration within the Earth, radon escapes through the interstices of the soil to the atmosphere, with an exhalation rate ...

P. L. Fernndez; I. Gutierrez; L. S. Quinds; J. Soto; E. Villar

1986-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

409

Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

Wu, You-Lin, E-mail: ylwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Liao, Chun-Wei [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China); Ling, Jing-Jenn [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

410

Rates & Repayment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

411

THE EFFECTS OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AT AN OHIO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Buil~ Desi!! 1 ASHRAE 90-75R 5. J.V. Berk 1 C.D.recently 1 a new standard, ASHRAE 90~75R 3 Energy in New

Berk, J.V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

THE EFFECTS OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AT AN OHIO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indoor concentration of nitrogen dioxide was approximatelyof carbon monoxide~ nitrogen dioxide as well as on theL5 pg/m Lead (Pb) Nitrogen dioxide (N0 ) 11g/m year (50

Berk, J.V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Worker productivity and ventilation rate in a call center: Analyses of time-series data for a group of workers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

room. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2000, vol. 1. , pprenovation of schools. Proc. Healthy Buildings / IAQ 1997.1: 81-86. Healthy Buildings / IAQ 1997. Washington, DC.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Eco Design and the Optimization of Passive Cooling Ventilation for Energy Saving in the Buildings: A Framework for Prediction of Wind Environment and Natural Ventilation in Different Neighborhood Patterns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The idea of utilizing natural ventilation for passive cooling and hence reducing the energy for air conditioning systems of buildings has increasingly attracted the attention of researchers. In urban areas how...

Mohammad Reza Masnavi; Hasan-Ali Laghai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the authors of [1] note a possible impact of mode scattering effects to the power levels measured in test HVAC filtering effect. So far this hypothesis has yet to be explorered. Al- though the authors of [2] present to investigate the impact that mode filtering has on an actual wireless communication. Experimental Analysis

Stancil, Daniel D.

416

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction. Technical status progress report, October 1, 1991--March 15, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

Biney, P.O.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Energy and first costs analysis of displacement and mixing ventilation systems for U.S. buildings and climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the past two decades, displacement ventilation has been increasingly used in Scandinavia and Western Europe to improve indoor air quality and to save energy. By using a detailed computer simulation method, this study ...

Hu, ShiPing, 1970-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

The Role of North Atlantic Deep Water Formation in an OGCMs Ventilation and Thermohaline Circulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two coarse-resolution model experiments are carried out on an OGCM to examine the effects of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation on the thermohaline circulation (THC) and ventilation timescales of the abyssal ocean. An idealized age tracer ...

Paul J. Goodman

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

H.N. Knudsen, P. Wargocki and J. Vondruskova (2006) "Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality of air polluted by building materials ­ a summary of reported data", Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2006, Vol. 1, 57-62. #12;#12;Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted

420

Wind- Chimney (Integrating the Principles of a Wind-Catcher and a Solar-Chimney to Provide Natural Ventilation).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? WIND-CHIMNEY Integrating the principles of a wind-catcher and a solar chimney to provide natural ventilation Fereshteh Tavakolinia Abstract This paper suggests using a wind-catcher (more)

Tavakolinia, Fereshteh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Transition dynamics between the multiple steady states in natural ventilation systems : from theories to applications in optimal controls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, we investigated the multiple steady state behavior, an important observation in numerical and experimental studies in natural ventilation systems. The-oretical models are developed and their applications in ...

Yuan, Jinchao

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the use of weighted linguistic fuzzy rules in combination with a rule selection process to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the intelligent control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems concerning ... Keywords: BEMS, building energy management system, FLC, fuzzy logic controller, Fuzzy logic controllers, GA, genetic algorithm, Genetic algorithms, HVAC systems, HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, KB, knowledge base, PMV, predicted mean vote index for thermal comfort, Rule selection, Weighted fuzzy rules

Rafael Alcal; Jorge Casillas; Oscar Cordn; Antonio Gonzlez; Francisco Herrera

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Evaluation of cracking in the 241-AZ tank farm ventilation line at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the period from April to October of 1988, a series of welding operations on the outside of the AZ Tank Farm ventilation line piping at the Hanford Site produced unexpected and repeated cracking of the austenitic stainless steel base metal and of a seam weld in the pipe. The ventilation line is fabricated from type 304L stainless steel pipe of 24 inch diameter and 0.25 inch wall thickness. The pipe was wrapped in polyethylene bubble wrap and buried approximately 12 feet below grade. Except for the time period between 1980 and 1987, impressed current cathodic protection has been applied to the pipe since its installation in 1974. The paper describes the history of the cracking of the pipe, the probable cracking mechanisms, and the recommended future action for repair/replacement of the pipe.

ANANTATMULA, R.P.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

Analysis of D0 -> K+ pi- pi0 Decays: Search for D0-D0bar Mixing, and Measurements of the Doubly Cabibbo-Suppressed Decay Rate and Resonance Contributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analyzing D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decays, herein are presented the methods and results of a search for D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing, a measurement of the branching ratio R {equivalent_to} {Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0})/{Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}), and measurements of the contributions from D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{rho}{sup -}, K*{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}; 230.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected from the BABAR detector at the PEP-II collider during 2000-2004 (Runs 1-4) are analyzed. An event-level tagging technique is developed, which facilitates the accurate determination of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed resonance contributions by suppressing background from Cabibbo-favored decays. The branching ratio is measured as R = (0.214 {+-} 0.008 (stat) {+-} 0.008 (syst))%, with (46.1 {+-} 3.3 (stat) {+-} 2.9 (syst))% of D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decays proceeding through the channel D{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The data are consistent with the null-D-mixing hypothesis at a confidence level of 10%, and the expected value of {+-} {radical}(x{sup 2} + y{sup 2}) is measured as -0.013 {+-} 0.010 (stat), indicating negative interference between mixing and doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay. The expected value of the integrated mixing rate is (x{sup 2} + y{sup 2})/2 = (0.013 {+-} 0.013 (stat))%.

Wilson, Michael Galante

2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

425

Helical Tomotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer Based on Ventilation Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the feasibility of lung ventilation-based treatment planning, computed tomography and hyperpolarized (HP) helium-3 (He-3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventilation images of 6 subjects were coregistered for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning in Tomotherapy. Highly-functional lungs (HFL) and less-functional lungs (LFL) were contoured based on their ventilation image intensities, and a cylindrical planning-target-volume was simulated at locations adjacent to both HFL and LFL. Annals of an anatomy-based plan (Plan 1) and a ventilation-based plan (Plan 2) were generated. The following dosimetric parameters were determined and compared between the 2 plans: percentage of total/HFL volume receiving {>=}20 Gy, 15 Gy, 10 Gy, and 5 Gy (TLV{sub 20}, HFLV{sub 20}, TLV{sub 15}, HFLV{sub 15}, TLV{sub 10}, HFLV{sub 10}, TLV{sub 5}, HFLV{sub 5}), mean total/HFL dose (MTLD/HFLD), maximum doses to all organs at risk (OARs), and target dose conformality. Compared with Plan 1, Plan 2 reduced mean HFLD (mean reduction, 0.8 Gy), MTLD (mean reduction, 0.6 Gy), HFLV{sub 20} (mean reduction, 1.9%), TLV{sub 20} (mean reduction, 1.5%), TLV{sub 15} (mean reduction, 1.7%), and TLV{sub 10} (mean reduction, 2.1%). P-values of the above comparisons are less than 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. For HFLV{sub 15}, HFLV{sub 10}, TLV{sub 5}, and HTLV{sub 5}, Plan 2 resulted in lower values than plan 1 but the differences are not significant (P-value range, 0.063-0.219). Plan 2 did not significantly change maximum doses to OARs (P-value range, 0.063-0.563) and target conformality (P = 1.000). HP He-3 MRI of patients with lung disease shows a highly heterogeneous ventilation capacity that can be utilized for functional treatment planning. Moderate but statistically significant improvements in sparing functional lungs were achieved using helical tomotherapy plans.

Cai Jing; McLawhorn, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Altes, Tallisa A.; Lange, Eduard de [Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Read, Paul W.; Larner, James M.; Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Sheng Ke, E-mail: ks2mc@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thunderhead Radiation Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX Chuck Long Jay Mace Intent * Provide downwelling broadband radiation measurements at Thunderhead * Physically small footprint portable system * Designed to provide inputs necessary for Radiative Flux Analysis Basic RFA System COPS Hornisgrinde Deployment 1200m elevation System Components * Eppley ventilated PSP * Eppley ventilated PIR * Delta-T SPN-1 * Vaisala HMP-50 T/RH probe * Campbell CR23X datalogger SPN-1 Radiometer * Uses 7 thermopile detectors and a patented shading pattern * Measures Total and Diffuse SW with no moving parts * Includes internal heaters Relative accuracy StDev = 13.6 Winter Mountain Deployment Frost/Snow Mitigation * NSA Heated Ventilator Evaluation IOP - Testing various configurations and

427

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Energy conservation measures in an institutional building by dynamic simulation using designbuilder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, various energy conservation measures (ECMs) on heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems for a 4-storied building in subtropical (hot and humid climate) Central Queensland, Australia are evaluated using the ... Keywords: designbuilder, energy conservation measures, energy efficient lighting and day light control, energy simulation, hot-humid climate, variable air volume system

M. M. Rahman; M. G. Rasul; M. M. K. Khan

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

432

Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. Blockade of ?- as well as ?-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Positron annihilation rates in materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study of positron annihilation rate is one subject of a relatively new method of material structure analysis ?? positron annihilation spectroscopy. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) films have been studied by positron annihilation rate measurement. The correlation between annihilation rates and the PET film thickness was established. Similar studies were carried out for aluminium foils and water. The results give information on the probability of positron annihilation per unit of time and per unit of material thickness that is described by an explicit function of the energy transfer model.

Tran Dai Nghiep; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Ngo Danh Du

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A. Buonomano, M. Sherman, USA: Analysis of residential hybrid ventilation performance in U.S. climates 1 Intern. Symposium on Building and Ductwork Air tightness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Buonomano, M. Sherman, USA: Analysis of residential hybrid ventilation performance in U Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley 94720, CA, USA. (phone:+1 510 486 4022, fax: +1 510 486 6658, email on analysis methods for hybrid ventilation system is limited. #12;2 A. Buonomano, M. Sherman, USA: Analysis

435

Evaluation of a Ventilation Strategy to Prevent Barotrauma in Patients at High Risk for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...site classified the primary cause of deaths in the intensive care units as respiratory failure (due to profound hypoxemia), multiple-organ failure (three or more organs), sepsis, cardiac arrhythmia, or withdrawal of life support from a patient because of an irreversible chronic condition. Secondary outcomes... A strategy of mechanical ventilation that places limits on airway pressure and tidal volume has been recommended for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome.14 This recommendation is based on the observation that mechanical ventilation, ...

Stewart T.E.; Meade M.O.; Cook D.J.

1998-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

436

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

03E 03E Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms Michael G. Apte, Bourassa Norman*, David Faulkner, Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshfumi Hotchi, Michael Spears, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Duo Wang 4 April 2008 Indoor Environment Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory *Now with the California Energy Commission PIER Program, Sacramento CA. This research was sponsored by the California Energy Commission through the Public Interest Energy Research program as the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy research project, CEC Contract Number 500-03-041.

437

Exergyeconomic evaluation of heat recovery device in mechanical ventilation system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper presents new approach in evaluation of heat recovery devices in mechanical ventilation system. The evaluation is based on exergy balance equation and economic analysis, what requires application of one of multicriteria decision aid methodsweighted sum method. The proposed set of evaluation criteria consists of: driving exergy, simple payback time and investment cost. The proposed method is applied to compare the four variants of heat recovery device in inlet-exhaust mechanical ventilation system of the capacity of 10,000m3/h installed in residential part of hotel. The analysis is performed for four preference models. The results of the multicriteria evaluation indicate that counter flow plate heat exchanger and the rotating heat/mass regenerator are better solutions comparing with water loop heat exchanger and heat pipe heat exchanger. Counter flow plate heat exchanger is the most compromise solution for the two preference models PREF_00 (based on statistic approach) and PREF_03 (investment cost priority preference model). Rotating heat/mass regenerator is the most compromise solution for the preference model 01 (driving exergy priority preference model). The proposed method can be helpful in the choice of the most compromise solution of the heat recovery device in pre-design phase.

Tomasz M. Mrz; Anna Dutka

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Phase-change wallboard and mechanical night ventilation in commercial buildings: Potential for HVAC system downsizing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As thermal storage media, phase-change materials (PCMs) such as paraffin, eutectic salts, etc. offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. By embedding PCMs in dypsum board, plaster, or other wall-covering materials, the building structure acquires latent storage properties. Structural elements containing PCMs can store large amounts of energy while maintaining the indoor temperature within a relatively narrow range. As heat storage takes place inside the building where the loads occur, rather than at a central exterior location, the internal loads are removed without the need for additional transport energy. Distributed latent storage can thus be used to reduce the peak power demand of a building, downsize the cooling system, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. The authors used RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, to numerically evaluate the thermal performance of PCM wallboard coupled with mechanical night ventilation in office buildings offers the opportunity for system downsizing in climates where the outside air temperature drops below 18 C at night. In climates where the outside air temperature remains above 19 C at night, the use of PCM wallboard should be coupled with discharge mechanisms other than mechanical night ventilation with outside air.

Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Model for quantitative risk assessment on naturally ventilated metering-regulation stations for natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper presents a model for quantitative risk assessment on metering stations and metering-regulation stations for natural gas with natural ventilation. The model enables the assessment of risk for people who live in the vicinity of these stations and complements the existing models for risk assessment on natural gas pipelines. It is based on risk assessment methods suggested in relevant guides, recommendations and standards. Explosion and jet fire are considered as major hazardous events and are modelled according to analytical models and empirical data. Local or other accessible databases are used for modelling of event frequencies and ignition probabilities. A case study on a sample station is carried out. For each hazardous event, fault tree and event tree analysis is performed. Results show influence of each hazardous event on the whole risk relative to the distance from the hazardous source. Ventilation is found to be a significant factor in determination of risk magnitude; its influence on individual risk is presented in a quantitative way. The model should be of use for pipeline operators as well as for environmental- and urban planners.

Tom Bajcar; Franc Cimerman; Brane irok

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

An experimental investigation of an inclined passive wall solar chimney for natural ventilation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ongoing investigations into solar chimney development have resulted in constantly evolving new designs. In this study, experiments are carried out with an inclined passive wall solar chimney (IPWSC) model with a uniform heat flux on the active (absorptive) wall. The effectiveness of this design has been examined for the heat flux range of 100W/m2500W/m2 with a fixed base air gap width of 0.1m and inclination angles of the passive wall in the range of 06 degrees. The experimental results show that the inclination angle of the passive wall has no significant effect on the temperature distribution across the air gap width and along the chimney height. On the other hand, the averaged air flow velocity across the air gap width is strongly affected by the inclination angle. The experimental results also show that the IPWSC with 0.7m absorber height and 0.1m air gap width at an inclination angle of 6 and input heat flux of 500W/m2 can produce sufficient ventilation for a 27m3 room based on ASHREA standards. Further, the present experimental results show that the IPWSC design can significantly improve the ventilation performance of a solar chimney in comparison to the conventional chimney design with vertical passive wall configuration. The experimental results are supported by flow visualization experiments and are consistent with scaling predictions.

Rakesh Khanal; Chengwang Lei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Removal of submicron particles using a carbon fiber ionizer-assisted medium air filter in a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory tests of particle removal were performed with a pair of carbon fiber ionizers installed upstream of a glass fiber air filter. For air flow face velocities of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8m/s, the overall particle removal efficiencies of the filter for all submicron particles were 17%, 16%, and 14%, respectively, when the ionizers were not turned on. These values increased to 27%, 23%, and 19%, respectively, when the ionizers were used to generate ions of 6.0נ109ions/cm3 in concentration. The carbon fiber ionizers were then installed in front of a glass fiber air filter located in a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Field tests were performed in a test office room with a total indoor particle concentration of 2.2נ104particles/cm3. When the flow rate was 75 cubic meters per hour (CMH), the steady-state values of the total indoor particle concentrations using the glass fiber air filter with and without ionizers decreased to 0.87נ104particles/cm3 and 1.15נ104particles/cm3, respectively, resulting in a 25% decrease of the ionizer effect. When the operation flow rate was increased to 115 and 150CMH, the effect of the ionizer decreased to 19% and 17%, respectively. These experimental data match the results calculated using a mass-balance model whose parameters were determined from laboratory tests.

Jae Hong Park; Ki Young Yoon; Jungho Hwang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Independent Oversight Review of Hanford Tank Farms Safety Basis Amendment for Double-Shell Tank Ventilation System Upgrades, November 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hanford Tank Farms Safety Basis Amendment for Double-Shell Tank Ventilation System Upgrades November 2011 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope and Approach .............................................................................................................................. 2

443

Techno-economic evaluation of a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery, electrical heater and solar energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energy consumed to condition fresh air is considerable, particularly for the buildings such as cinema, theatre or gymnasium saloons. The aim of the present study is to design a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery unit, electrical heater and stored solar energy, then to make an economical analysis based on life cycle cost (LCC) to find out its payback period. The system is able to recover thermal energy of exhaust air, store solar energy during the sunlight period and utilize it in the period between 17:00 and 24:00h. The transient behaviour of the system is simulated by the TRNSYS 16 software for winter period from 1st of November to 31st of March for Izmir city of Turkey. The obtained results show that the suggested ventilation system reduces energy consumption by 86% compared to the conventional ventilation system in which an electrical heater is used. The payback period of the suggested system is found to be 5 years and 8 months which is a promising result in favour of the solar energy usage in building ventilation systems.

Gamze Ozyogurtcu; Moghtada Mobedi; Baris Ozerdem

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

HOW THE LEED VENTILATION CREDIT IMPACTS ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF GSHP SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study on the impacts of increased outdoor air (OA) ventilation on the performance of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems that heat and cool typical primary schools. Four locations Phoenix, Miami, Seattle, and Chicago are selected in this study to represent different climate zones in the United States. eQUEST, an integrated building and HVAC system energy analysis program, is used to simulate a typical primary school and the GSHP system at the four locations with minimum and 30% more than minimum OA ventilation. The simulation results show that, without an energy recovery ventilator, the 30% more OA ventilation results in an 8.0 13.3% increase in total GSHP system energy consumption at the four locations. The peak heating and cooling loads increase by 20.2 30% and 14.9 18.4%, respectively, at the four locations. The load imbalance of the ground heat exchanger is increased in hot climates but reduced in mild and cold climates.

Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Quantitative Cultures of Bronchoscopically Obtained Specimens Should Be Performed for Optimal Management of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Performed for Optimal Management of Ventilator-Associated...Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis...semiquantitative approach. We have asked...using invasive approaches supports the general...performed for optimal management in patients with...improved using this approach. At the same time...

Vickie Baselski; J. Stacey Klutts

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

For natural ventilation to work, solar gains through the facade needed to be reduced by approximately 80% from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For natural ventilation to work, solar gains through the facade needed to be reduced area of the facade by 41%. The team undertook studies of options to reduce glazing area, while%. project overview and sustainability approach The new Molecular Engineering Building is centrally located

Hochberg, Michael

447

Organic-rich sediments in ventilated deep-sea environments: Relationship to climate, sea level, and trophic changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic-rich sediments in ventilated deep-sea environments: Relationship to climate, sea level. [1] Sediments on the Namibian Margin in the SE Atlantic between water depths of $1000 and $3600 m are highly enriched in hydrocarbon-prone organic matter. Such sedimentation has occurred for more than 2

Boyer, Edmond

448

Optimization of a Solar Chimney Design to Enhance Natural Ventilation in a Multi-Storey Office Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation of buildings can be achieved with solar-driven , buoyancy-induced airflow through a solar chimney channel. Research on solar chimneys has covered a wide range of topics, yet study of the integration in multi-storey buildings has...

Gontikaki, M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.; Hoes, P. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications for and modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications of Mg/ Ca (and Sr/Ca) and Sr isotopes is key in delineating whether Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations seasonal variations in dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, whereas the other drip sites do not. In contrast

Banner, Jay L.

450

Rate allocation in a remote control structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measuzes. The quantized control problem, in general, has vector sources with weighted distortion measures. The rate allocation scheme of Goodman, must therefore be modified to allow for vector sources. Chapter 3 will specifically address the problem... of rate allocation given vector sources and weighted distortion measures' Equations will be derived for the case when the measurements and controls are assumed independent and when they are dependent. k + k P k (a) k/k-1 (b) Fig. 2. DPCM (a...

Meadow, Charles Joe

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Size structuring of planktonic communities : biological rates and ecosystem dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bight and central equatorial Pacific show increasing growth rates with size, while those cells measured in the Somali Basin,

Taniguchi, Darcy Anne Akiko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

rates rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

453

Historical Interest Rates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Current and Historical Interest Rates Current and Historical Interest Rates The table lists interest rates, from the project's inception through the present, for all projects with repayment supervised by the CRSP MC. The latest available interest rate is used for all future interest rate calculations. The Amistad-Falcon, Collbran, Provo River, and Rio Grande Projects are all assigned the average daily "Yield Rate" calculated by the U.S. Treasury, on an annual basis, for Treasury bonds having terms of 15 years or more remaining to maturity. The calculated yield rate is rounded to the nearest one-eighth of one percent. The yield rate is based upon the bond's interest rate, as well as its market value. The Colorado River Storage Project and its participating projects, Dolores and Seedskadee, are assigned the average daily "Coupon Rate," annualized for the same U.S. Treasury bonds used in "Yield Rate" calculations. The coupon rate is the interest rate that the bond carries upon its face.

454

Cost Analysis Rate Settin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost Analysis and Rate Settin for Animal Research Facilities #12;#12;Cost Analysis and Rate ... .. . ...................... . . . ................................. . .... 7 Chapter 2 Preparation for Cost Analysis ......................................................... 9 Chapter 3 Assignment of Costs to Animal Research Facility Cost Centers

Baker, Chris I.

455

Measuring Airflows at Registers in Residential Buildings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measuring Airflows at Registers in Residential Buildings Measuring Airflows at Registers in Residential Buildings Speaker(s): Cyril Guillot Date: August 29, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Measuring airflows at registers is a central issue in all HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) studies. It is a basic measurement that is required in many Cooling/Heating systems tests and in air conditioner performance diagnostics. These measurements can, for instance, be used to determine if individual rooms receive adequate airflow in terms of comfort, to estimate total air handler flow and supply/return imbalances, and to assess duct air leakage. First, I calibrated the Minneapolis Duct Blasters, useful in the most accurate flow hood we have, then I worked on an existing project: measuring airflows with laundry baskets. Finally, I

456

STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

HU, T.A.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sound and vibration fundamentals and measurement. Concludesfan noise and vibration principle and measurement; and fan

Stratton, J. Chris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL] [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document provides Public Information for Convening Interviews for US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment

460

Definition: Penetration Rate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Penetration Rate Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Penetration Rate The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. Also known as penetration rate or drill rate. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

8, 67936824, 2008 dispersion rates in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

patterns, it is shown that initial buoyancy fluxes at ship stack have minor effect on plume dilution rate modeling and measurement (remote or "in-situ") studies of ship exhaust25 effects must dealACPD 8, 6793­6824, 2008 Ship plume dispersion rates in convective BL F. Chosson et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

Natural Ventilation Applications in Hot-humid Climate: A Preliminary Design for the College of Design at NTUST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to create a comfortable architectural environment, especially in a hot, humid climate such as that of Taiwan. However, the air currents of urban wind fields are unpredictable and whimsical. The conventional architectural design process does not employ... awkward. In addition, with increased awareness of the impact of climate change and greenhouse emissions, the effective usage of natural ventilation will likely become a crucial element in reducing the energy consumption of buildings. In improving...

Lin, M. T.; Wei, H. Y.; Lin, Y. J.; Wu, H. F.; Liu, P. H.

463

About the Ratings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2008 Ratings Changes 2008 Ratings Changes EPA's "New" Fuel Economy Ratings Video about EPA's New Fuel Economy Ratings Windows Media Video (6.8 MB) Quicktime Video (7.8 MB) Text Version EPA changed the way it estimates fuel economy starting with the 2008 model year. This "new" way of estimating fuel economy supplements the previous method by incorporating the effects of Faster speeds and acceleration Air conditioner use Colder outside temperatures What else do I need to know about the "new" ratings? The tests lower MPG estimates for most vehicles. View old/new MPG ratings for a specific vehicle The actual mileage you get will still vary based on your driving habits, traffic conditions, and other factors. All MPG estimates in Find-a-Car have been converted to the new

464

Measurement-Measurement-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

465

Effective Rate Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fiscal Year 2014 Fiscal Year 2014 Effective Rate Period As of Beginning of the FY 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement $73,441,557 CV-F13 Base Resource Revenue Requirement $69,585,875 First Preference Revenue Requirement $3,855,682

466

Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

LCC Guidance Rates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

468

Draft Tiered Rate Methodology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

year's weather and other specific factors are removed from the loads of irrigated agriculture. ( ) "Irrigation Rate Mitigation" means the form of a discount by BPA to...

469

Residential Solar Valuation Rates  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

470

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... ACS MEMBER RATES "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical held designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2000-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

471

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... ACS MEMBER RATES "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

1997-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

472

Utility Rate Discounts | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Discounts Discounts Jump to: navigation, search A few electric utilities offer rate discounts to encourage residential energy efficiency. For homes that meet certain energy efficiency criteria, such as those established by the federal Energy Star program, the owner or tenant is awarded a percentage discount on each month’s electric bill. [1] Contents 1 Utility Rate Discount Incentives 2 References Utility Rate Discount Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 14) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Cleco Power - Power Miser New Home Program (Louisiana) Utility Rate Discount Louisiana Residential Building Insulation Central Air conditioners Clothes Washers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Doors Duct/Air sealing Furnaces Heat pumps

473

Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate Measure your pulse in each of the following conditions (in in the class. You may use Table 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this, if you wish. Once you have all of the class averages for each measurement. You may use Graph 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this

Loughry, Jim

475

Interviewer's ratings of personality: can these ratings predict job performance?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Goldberg, 1993a; Guastello, 1993; McCrae k Costa, 1985; McCrae & John, 1992) has been about the validity of the five-factor model as a measure of personality; in other words, does the model truly capture all traits of personality? The five-factor model...; Goldberg, 1981; McCrae & Costa, 1987; McCrae & John, 1992; Peabody & Goldberg, 1989). Tupes and Christal (1958, 1992) were the first to look at peer ratings of personality in a variety of samples. Although these samples varied in length and kind...

Archuleta, Kathryn Diane

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

476

BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat rate estimated by the Edison Electric Institue for 1975). In addition, 9% electrical transmission-distribution losses

Cairns, Elton J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

478

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

OpenEI - rates  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. Electric Utility U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up by Zipcode (Feb 2011) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/899 This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011.

480

Water Rate Escalations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies need accurate water cost escalation rates to perform life cycle cost analyses for water efficiency projects to meet Executive Order 13514 and Energy Independence and Security Act...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measure ventilation rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.