National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for means proof sufficient

  1. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  2. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  3. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to...

  4. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS

  5. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  6. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  7. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  8. HUD Self-Sufficiency Training Sessions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Housing and Urban Development is hosting a two-day course designed to explore how Tribally Designated Housing Entities (TDHEs) can leverage Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act (NAHASDA) funds to support residents' efforts to become self-sufficient.

  9. Use of the Necessary and Sufficient Process

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-01-25

    Authorizes use of the Necessary and Sufficient Process which addresses how the Department will select its standards to protect workers, the public, and the environment and form the basis for the Department's move to integrating standards activities into a consistent, coordinated system of standards-based safety management. Does not cancel other directives.

  10. A new proof of tractability for ORD-horn relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ligozat, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper gives an elementary proof of the tractability of a sub-class of temporal relations in Allen`s algebra and related temporal calculi, the class of pre-convex relations. In Allen`s case, this subclass coincides with the class of ORD-Horn relations. Nebel and Burckert defined ORD-Horn relations and proved that path-consistency is a sufficient condition for consistency of a network for this sub-class. We prove a stronger result: for each path-consistent network in the sub-class, we give an effective method for constructing a feasible scenario without backtrack.

  11. Identity Proofing Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Identity Proofing Process Identity Proofing Process Identity Proofing Process Prior to being issued a Digital Identity, applicants must be identity proofed during an in-person meeting with a DOE Trusted Agent. To locate a Trusted Agent, contact the EITS Service Desk: EITSServiceDesk@hq.doe.gov. You must bring the following to your in-person meeting: a copy of the Subscriber Agreement form (SAF), with the blue box portion completed. your Federal ID Badge. If you do not have a Federal ID Badge you

  12. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  13. Energy and EPA Webinar Series Promotes Tribal Energy Sufficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Promotes Tribal Energy Sufficiency and Economic Development Energy and EPA Webinar Series Promotes Tribal Energy Sufficiency and Economic Development January 20, 2012 - 11:40am ...

  14. Capacity Adequacy and Revenue Sufficiency in Electricity Markets...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Adequacy and Revenue Sufficiency in Electricity Markets with Wind Power Title Capacity Adequacy and Revenue Sufficiency in Electricity Markets with Wind Power Publication...

  15. Electricity market design for generator revenue sufficiency with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity market design for generator revenue sufficiency with increased variable generation Title Electricity market design for generator revenue sufficiency with increased...

  16. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  17. Nevada Proof of Completion of Work (Water Right) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Proof of Completion of Work (Water Right) Abstract Required notice of completion of diversion works for establishing a water right. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Proof...

  18. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, William T.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Bauer, Scott G.

    2012-02-28

    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  19. Energy Department Announces Technical Assistance for Self-Sufficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Self-Sufficiency and Lower Energy Costs for Rural Alaska Communities, and Releases "Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska" Report Energy Department Announces Technical ...

  20. ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.

  1. One-Piece Leak-Proof Battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR)

    1999-03-23

    The casing of a leak-proof one-piece battery is made of a material comprising a mixture of at least a matrix based on polypropylene and an alloy of a polyamide and a polypropylene. The ratio of the matrix to the alloy is in the range 0.5 to 6 by weight. The alloy forms elongate arborescent inclusions in the matrix such that, on average, the largest dimension of a segment of the arborescence is at least twenty times the smallest dimension of the segment.

  2. Recommendation 227: Recommendation to EM on Request for Sufficient Funding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Meet Cleanup Needs | Department of Energy 7: Recommendation to EM on Request for Sufficient Funding to Meet Cleanup Needs Recommendation 227: Recommendation to EM on Request for Sufficient Funding to Meet Cleanup Needs The EM SSAB Chairs believe the EM budget request is insufficient to meet cleanup obligations and DOE needs to honor agreements and established milestones between the federal government, the states, Tribes, and affected stakeholders in a more timely fashion. Recommendation

  3. Utah Full Proof of Beneficial Use of Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utah Full Proof of Beneficial Use of Water Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Utah Full Proof of Beneficial Use of Water Abstract Proof of...

  4. Upper limits to surface-force disturbances on LISA proof masses and the possibility of observing galactic binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, Ludovico; Ciani, Giacomo; Dolesi, Rita; Hueller, Mauro; Tombolato, David; Vitale, Stefano; Weber, William Joseph; Cavalleri, Antonella

    2007-02-15

    We have measured surface-force noise on a hollow replica of a LISA proof mass surrounded by its capacitive motion sensor. Forces are detected through the torque exerted on the proof mass by means of a torsion pendulum in the 0.1-30 mHz range. The sensor and electronics have the same design as for the flight hardware, including 4 mm gaps around the proof mass. The measured upper limit for forces would allow detection of a number of galactic binaries signals with signal-to-noise ratio up to {approx_equal}40 for 1 yr integration. We also discuss how LISA Pathfinder will substantially improve this limit, approaching the LISA performance.

  5. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  6. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  7. A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser Experiment at SLAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Proof-of-Principle...

  8. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuramochi, Yui

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  9. ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.

  10. Coherent electron cooling proof of principle instrumentation design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gassner D. M.; Litvinenko, V.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T.; Minty, M.; Pinayev, I.

    2012-04-15

    The goal of the Coherent Electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment being designed at RHIC is to demonstrate longitudinal (energy spread) cooling before the expected CD-2 for eRHIC. The scope of the experiment is to longitudinally cool a single bunch of 40 GeV/u gold ions in RHIC. This paper will describe the instrumentation systems proposed to meet the diagnostics challenges. These include measurements of beam intensity, emittance, energy spread, bunch length, position, orbit stability, and transverse and temporal alignment of electron and ion beams.

  11. Pi-CO? aqueous post-combustion CO? capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; ONeil, K.; Kervvan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO?) capture system (Pi-CO?) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO? has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO? from local industrial sources.

  12. Pi-CO₂ aqueous post-combustion CO₂ capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; O’Neil, K.; Kervévan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO₂) capture system (Pi-CO₂) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO₂ has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO₂ from local industrial sources.

  13. Mobile Data Collection Applications: A Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J

    2006-09-20

    This project's goal is to provide a proof of concept for mobile data collection applications, and identify the best ways such applications could be implemented and used. Such an application should decrease the time and resources users now need to devote to redundant data processes, and provide an easy of locating and retrieving data at a later time. The two types of available mobile devices, Personal Digital Assistants and Tablet Personal Computers, each have their particular strengths that suggest themselves for certain types of applications. As such, parallel data collection applications have been developed, with a common web application for uploading information to the database. While these aspects have been developed and proven, it still remains to refine these applications, develop the tables to hold their data, and field-test with users for their feedback.

  14. The effect of fumigation of different ethalnol proofs on a turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, T.K.; Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Sorenson, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Lower proof ethanol is shown to be a viable alternate fuel for diesel engines. This type of ethanol can be manufactured economically in small distillation plants from renewable grain supplies. The effect of fumigation of ethanol proofs with a multipoint injection system on a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine at 2,400 rpm and three loads was studied. The addition of the water in the lower proofs reduced the maximum rate of pressure rise and peak pressure from pure ethanol levels. Both of these values were significantly higher than those for diesel operation. HC and CO emissions increased several times over diesel levels at all loads and also with increased ethanol fumigation. NO emissions were reduced below diesel levels for lower proof ethanol at all loads. The tests at this rpm and load with a a multipoint ethanol injection system indicate that lower (100 or 125) proof provides optimum performance.

  15. Proof-of-Concept Demonstration Results for Robotic Visual Servo Controllers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chawda, P.V.

    2004-09-22

    There is significant motivation to provide robotic systems with improved autonomy as a means to significantly accelerate deactivation and decommissioning operations while also reducing the associated costs, removing human operators from hazardous environments, and reducing the required burden and skill of human operators. To achieve improved autonomy, fundamental research is focused on the challenges of developing visual servo controllers. The challenge in developing these controllers is that a camera provides 2-dimensional image information about the 3-dimensional Euclidean-space through a perspective (range dependent) projection that can be corrupted by uncertainty in the camera calibration matrix. Disturbances in this relationship (i.e., corruption in the sensor information) propagate erroneous information to the feedback controller of the robot, leading to potentially unpredictable task execution. This technical manual describes 3 proof-of-concept demonstrations of visual servo controllers developed from fundamental research aimed at these challenges. Specifically, one section describes the implementation of a cooperative visual servo control scheme with a camera-in-hand and a fixed camera to track a moving target despite uncertainty in the camera calibration and the unknown constant distance from the camera to a target where the camera is mounted on the end-effector of a 6 degrees-of-freedom hydraulic robot manipulator. The next section describes the implementation of 2 homography-based visual servo tracking and regulation controllers for a mobile robot with a calibrated camera despite an unknown time-varying distance from the camera to a target.

  16. Proof-of-Concept Manufacturing and Testing of Composite Wind Generator Blades Made by HCBMP (High Compression Bladder Molded Prepreg)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William C. Leighty; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-10-04

    Proof-of-Concept Manufacturing and Testing of Composite Wind Generator Blades Made by HCBMP (High Compression Bladder Molded Prepreg)

  17. Wireless Roadside Inspection Proof of Concept Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar; Knee, Helmut E; Plate, Randall S; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) FMCSA commissioned the Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program to validate technologies and methodologies that can improve safety through inspections using wireless technologies that convey real-time identification of commercial vehicles, drivers, and carriers, as well as information about the condition of the vehicles and their drivers. It is hypothesized that these inspections will: -- Increase safety -- Decrease the number of unsafe commercial vehicles on the road; -- Increase efficiency -- Speed up the inspection process, enabling more inspections to occur, at least on par with the number of weight inspections; -- Improve effectiveness -- Reduce the probability of drivers bypassing CMV inspection stations and increase the likelihood that fleets will attempt to meet the safety regulations; and -- Benefit industry -- Reduce fleet costs, provide good return-on-investment, minimize wait times, and level the playing field. The WRI Program is defined in three phases which are: Phase 1: Proof of Concept Test (POC) Testing of commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) or near-COTS technology to validate the wireless inspection concept. Phase 2: Pilot Test Safety technology maturation and back office system integration Phase 3: Field Operational Test Multi-vehicle testing over a multi-state instrumented corridor This report focuses on Phase 1 efforts that were initiated in March, 2006. Technical efforts dealt with the ability of a Universal Wireless Inspection System (UWIS) to collect driver, vehicle, and carrier information; format a Safety Data Message Set from this information; and wirelessly transmit a Safety Data Message Set to a roadside receiver unit or mobile enforcement vehicle.

  18. Proton-minibeam radiation therapy: A proof of concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prezado, Y.; Fois, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This Monte Carlo simulation work aims at studying a new radiotherapy approach called proton-minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT). The main objective of this proof of concept was the evaluation of the possible gain in tissue sparing, thanks to the spatial fractionation of the dose, which could be used to deposit higher and potentially curative doses in clinical cases where tissue tolerances are a limit for conventional methods. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations (GATE v.6) have been used as a method to calculate the ratio of the peak-to-valley doses (PVDR) for arrays of proton minibeams of 0.7 mm width and several center-to-center distances, at different depths in a water phantom. The beam penumbras were also evaluated as an important parameter for tissue sparing, for example, in the treatment of non-cancer diseases like epilepsy. Two proton energies were considered in this study: a clinically relevant energy (105 MeV) and a very high energy (1 GeV), to benefit from a reduced lateral scattering. For the latter case, an interlaced geometry was also evaluated. Results: Higher or similar PVDR than the ones obtained in x-rays minibeam radiation therapy were achieved in several pMBRT configurations. In addition, for the two energies studied, the beam penumbras are smaller than in the case of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Conclusions: The high PVDR obtained for some configurations and the small penumbras in comparison with existing radiosurgery techniques, suggest a potential gain in healthy tissue sparing in this new technique. Biological studies are warranted to assess the effects of pMBRT on both normal and tumoral tissues.

  19. How a weird Mars rock may be solid proof of an ancient oxygen atmosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weird Mars rock may be solid proof of ancient oxygen atmosphere How a weird Mars rock may be solid proof of an ancient oxygen atmosphere When researchers found a compound that shouldn't have been there, it revealed a missing piece of Mars' history. August 1, 2016 How a weird Mars rock may be solid proof of an ancient oxygen atmosphere The Gale Crater captured by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter. CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Arizona State University How a

  20. A class of group covariant signal sets and its necessary and sufficient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usuda, Tsuyoshi Sasaki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Shiromoto, Keisuke

    2014-12-04

    (G,χ-hat)-covariant quantum state signals, which is a generalization of the narrow sense group covariant signals, are defined. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for (G,χ-hat)-covariant signals is given and examples of the signals are shown.

  1. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  2. Idaho Request for Extension of Time to Submit Proof of Beneficial...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Request for Extension of Time to Submit Proof of Beneficial Use (DWR Form 204) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Idaho Request for Extension...

  3. I.C. 42-217 - Proof of Application (of Water) to Beneficial Use...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: I.C. 42-217 - Proof of Application (of Water) to Beneficial UseLegal Abstract This statute...

  4. Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incident Commanders | Department of Energy Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support to Incident Commanders Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support to Incident Commanders Daniel Blumenthal*, U.S. Department of Energy ; John Crapo, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Gerard Vavrina, U.S. Department of Energy; Katharine McLellan McLellan, U.S. Department of Energy; Michael J. Gresalfi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Abstract: In

  5. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  6. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency Bethany Frew, Giulia Gallo, Gregory Brinkman, Michael Milligan, Kara Clark, and Aaron Bloom National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-66076 June 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable

  7. REACTOR UNLOADING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, C.M.

    1957-08-20

    A means for remotely unloading irradiated fuel slugs from a neutronic reactor core and conveying them to a remote storage tank is reported. The means shown is specifically adapted for use with a reactor core wherein the fuel slugs are slidably held in end to end abutting relationship in the horizontal coolant flow tubes, the slugs being spaced from tae internal walls of the tubes to permit continuous circulation of coolant water therethrough. A remotely operated plunger at the charging ends of the tubes is used to push the slugs through the tubes and out the discharge ends into a special slug valve which transfers the slug to a conveying tube leading into a storage tank. Water under pressure is forced through the conveying tube to circulate around the slug to cool it and also to force the slug through the conveving tube into the storage tank. The slug valve and conveying tube are shielded to prevent amy harmful effects caused by the radioactive slug in its travel from the reactor to the storage tank. With the disclosed apparatus, all the slugs in the reactor core can be conveyed to the storage tank shortly after shutdown by remotely located operating personnel.

  8. Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Law, Kody J. H.; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul

    2016-05-03

    The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. In this paper, a density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence κ between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d

  9. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  10. Wholesale electricity market design with increasing levels of renewable generation: Revenue sufficiency and long-term reliability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany A.; Bloom, Aaron; Ela, Erik; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd

    2016-03-22

    This paper discusses challenges that relate to assessing and properly incentivizing the resources necessary to ensure a reliable electricity system with growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). The output of VG (primarily wind and solar generation) varies over time and cannot be predicted precisely. Therefore, the energy from VG is not always guaranteed to be available at times when it is most needed. This means that its contribution towards resource adequacy can be significantly less than the contribution from traditional resources. Variable renewable resources also have near-zero variable costs, and with production-based subsidies they may even have negative offer costs.more » Because variable costs drive the spot price of energy, this can lead to reduced prices, sales, and therefore revenue for all resources within the energy market. The characteristics of VG can also result in increased price volatility as well as the need for more flexibility in the resource fleet in order to maintain system reliability. Furthermore, we explore both traditional and evolving electricity market designs in the United States that aim to ensure resource adequacy and sufficient revenues to recover costs when those resources are needed for long-term reliability. We also investigate how reliability needs may be evolving and discuss how VG may affect future electricity market designs.« less

  11. SU-E-T-215: Interactive Dose Shaping: Proof of Concept Study for Six Prostate Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamerling, CP [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Ziegenhein, P; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Sterzing, F [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide a proof of concept study for IMRT treatment planning through interactive dose shaping (IDS) by utilising the respective tools to create IMRT treatment plans for six prostate patients. Methods: The IDS planning paradigm aims to perform interactive local dose adaptations of an IMRT plan without compromising already established valuable dose features in real-time. Various IDS tools are available in our in-house treatment planning software Dynaplan and were utilised to create IMRT treatment plans for six patients with an adeno-carcinoma of the prostate. The sequenced IDS treatment plans were compared to conventionally optimised clinically approved plans (9 beams, co-planar). The starting point consisted of open fields. The IDS tools were utilised to sculpt dose out of the rectum and bladder. For each patient, several IDS plans were created, with different trade-offs between organ sparing and target coverage. The reference dose distributions were imported into Dynaplan. For each patient, the IDS treatment plan with a similar or better trade-off between target coverage and OAR sparing was selected for plan evaluation, guided by a physician. Pencil beam dose calculation was performed on a grid with a voxel size of 1.951.952.0 mm{sup 3}. D98%, D2%, mean dose and dose-volume indicators as specified by Quantec were calculated for plan evaluation. Results: It was possible to utilise the software prototype to generate treatment plans for prostate patient geometries in 1545 minutes. Individual local dose adaptations could be performed in less than one second. The average differences compared to the reference plans were for the mean dose: 0.0 Gy (boost) and 1.2 Gy (CTV), for D98%: ?1.1 Gy and for D2%: 1.1 Gy (both target volumes). The dose-volume quality indicators were well below the Quantec constraints. Conclusion: Real-time treatment planning utilising IDS is feasible and has the potential to be implemented clinically. Research at The Institute of

  12. Consent Versus Consensus - Stakehold Involvement in the Identification of Necessary and Sufficient Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

    2003-03-01

    Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide for the protection of the public and the environment; historically these regulations have proven quite sufficient. Even so, when the Department of Energy (DOE) makes radioactive materials shipments, that are deemed to be a major federal activity, regulations under the National Environmental Policy Act require that public input on safety issues be sought. This requirement leads to interactions with State, Tribal and local stakeholders that often result in the imposition of extra-regulatory requirements requirements beyond those prescribed by DOT and NRC regulations. Unfortunately, these additional requirements virtually always increase costs and delay schedules, and usually do so without significantly increasing, and possibly even decreasing overall transportation safety. We believe that this problem arises because of efforts to achieve stakeholder consensus rather than stakeholder consent, where consensus connotes universal agreement with all aspects of the program, while consent, as used here, is simple agreement with the overall course of action. Gaining consensus entails extensive negotiations because all aspects and requirements of the project must be agreed to by each stakeholder. Gaining consent, on the other hand, requires only that stakeholders be satisfied that the project, as planned, provides adequately for their safety needs. This article addresses the issue of consent versus consensus and proposes a systematic, decision science process for reaching consent. Key steps in this proposed process are early identification and involvement of stakeholders, compilation of their concerns, perceptions, needs, causes, and translation of that information into an appropriate set of derived requirements. These derived requirements, along with already-established DOT and NRC regulatory requirements, form the necessary and sufficient conditions for safe transportation and for obtaining

  13. IS COMPTON COOLING SUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN EVOLUTION OF OBSERVED QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN OUTBURST SOURCES?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak E-mail: chakraba@bose.res.in

    2015-01-01

    In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up until a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, the Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, the exact opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter that increases the Keplerian disk rate also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling timescale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the two-component advective flow configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force-induced shock represents the boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H 1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of the α parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from 0.0001 to 0.02, well within the range suggested by magnetorotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters per second, which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

  14. Status of Proof-of-principle Experiment for Coherent Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinayev, I; Ben-Zvi, I; Bengtsson, J; Elizarov, A; Fedotov, A V; Gassner, D M; Hao, Y; Kayran, D; Litvinenko, V; Mahler, G J; Meng, W; Roser, T; Sheehy, B; Than, R; Tuozzolo, J E; Wang, G; Webb, S D; Yakimenko, V; Bell, G I; Bruhwiler, D L; Ranjbar, V H; Schwartz, B T; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Poelker, M; Rimmer, R A; Kholopov, M A; Vobly, P

    2012-07-01

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron colliders. To verify the concept we conduct proof-of-the-principle experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we describe the current experimental setup to be installed into 2 o'clock RHIC interaction regions. We present current design, status of equipment acquisition and estimates for the expected beam parameters.

  15. 2010-03 "Sufficient Funding of LANL EM Projects and the Consent Order" |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 "Sufficient Funding of LANL EM Projects and the Consent Order" 2010-03 "Sufficient Funding of LANL EM Projects and the Consent Order" Additional funding will demonstrate the intent of the Headquarters/DOE to live up to its agreement made in the 2005 Order on Consent. It also should mitigate the need for NMED to fine LANL for not meeting specific deadlines, thus using mission critical funding in ways that will meet the schedule and saving the

  16. Electron mean free path from angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldmann, Maximilian; Miguel-Sánchez, Javier; West, Adam H. C.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-06-14

    We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. First, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Second, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.

  17. Manufacturing means jobs ? Mike Arms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturing Means Jobs - Mike Arms Mike Arms and I usually meet and say hello at the East Tennessee Economic Council meetings each Friday morning at 7:30 a.m. This unique meeting...

  18. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AND SHAFT SEALING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A description is given of sealing means between a hollow rotatable shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft which defines therewith a sealing space of annular cross-section, comprising a plurality of axially spaced rings held against seats by ring springs which serve to subdivide the sealing space- into a plurality of zones. Process gas introduced into the hollow shaft through a port communicating with a centrally located zone which iu turn communicates with a bore in the sleeve, is removed from the shaft through a second port communicating with an adjacent central zone and discharged through a second bore. A sealant gas is supplied to an end zone under a pressure sufficient to cause it to flow axially into adjacent zones and then maintained at a lower pressure than either the sealant gas source or the process gas inlet zone, preventing the sealant gas from entering the shaft and allowing gases leaking into the sealant gas to be withdrawn and led to a separator.

  19. Isotope separation by laser means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1982-06-15

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  20. Supply Chain Based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion: Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capps, Gary J; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Earl, Dennis Duncan; West, David L; McIntyre, Timothy J; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Connatser, Raynella M; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Moore, Sheila A

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a proof-of-concept (POC) system for preventing non-taxable (non-highway diesel use) or low-taxable (jet fuel) petrochemical products from being blended with taxable fuel products and preventing taxable fuel products from cross-jurisdiction evasion. The research worked to fill the need to validate the legitimacy of individual loads, offloads, and movements by integrating and validating, on a near-real-time basis, information from global positioning system (GPS), valve sensors, level sensors, and fuel-marker sensors.

  1. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Environmental Technologies Proof-of-Concepts. Final report FY-96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrie, S.L.; Carpenter, G.S.; Crockett, A.B.

    1997-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Environmental Technologies Proof-of-Concept Project was initiated for the expedited development of new or conceptual technologies in support of groundwater fate, transport, and remediation; buried waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment; waste minimization/pollution prevention; and spent fuel handling and storage. In Fiscal Year 1996, The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory proposed 40 development projects and the Department of Energy funded 15. The projects proved the concepts of the various technologies, and all the technologies contribute to successful environmental management.

  2. Noninvasive referencing of intraocular tumors for external beam radiation therapy using optical coherence tomography: A proof of concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rüegsegger, Michael B.; Steiner, Patrick; Kowal, Jens H.; Geiser, Dominik; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy is currently considered the most common treatment modality for intraocular tumors. Localization of the tumor and efficient compensation of tumor misalignment with respect to the radiation beam are crucial. According to the state of the art procedure, localization of the target volume is indirectly performed by the invasive surgical implantation of radiopaque clips or is limited to positioning the head using stereoscopic radiographies. This work represents a proof-of-concept for direct and noninvasive tumor referencing based on anterior eye topography acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A prototype of a head-mounted device has been developed for automatic monitoring of tumor position and orientation in the isocentric reference frame for LINAC based treatment of intraocular tumors. Noninvasive tumor referencing is performed with six degrees of freedom based on anterior eye topography acquired using OCT and registration of a statistical eye model. The proposed prototype was tested based on enucleated pig eyes and registration accuracy was measured by comparison of the resulting transformation with tilt and torsion angles manually induced using a custom-made test bench. Results: Validation based on 12 enucleated pig eyes revealed an overall average registration error of 0.26 ± 0.08° in 87 ± 0.7 ms for tilting and 0.52 ± 0.03° in 94 ± 1.4 ms for torsion. Furthermore, dependency of sampling density on mean registration error was quantitatively assessed. Conclusions: The tumor referencing method presented in combination with the statistical eye model introduced in the past has the potential to enable noninvasive treatment and may improve quality, efficacy, and flexibility of external beam radiotherapy of intraocular tumors.

  3. Proof-of-principle test for thermoelectric generator for diesel engines; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-07-26

    In September of 1987, the principals of what is now Hi-Z TECHNOLOGY, INC. applied to the National Bureau of Standards (now National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST) under the Energy Related Inventions Program. The invention was entitled ``Thermoelectric Generator for Diesel Engines.`` The National Institute of Standards and Technology evaluated the invention and on January 12, 1989 forwarded Recommendation Number 455 to the Department of Energy (DOE). This recommendation informed the DOE that the invention had been selected for recommendation by the NIST for possible funding by the DOE. Following the recommendation of the NIST, the DOE contacted Hi-Z to work out a development program for the generator. A contract for a grant to design, fabricate, and test a Proof-of-Principle exhaust powered thermoelectric generator for Diesel engines was signed October 19, 1989. Hi-Z provided the thermoelectric modules used in the generator as their contribution to the project. The purpose of this Grant Program was to design, build, and test a small-scale, Proof-of-Principle thermoelectric generator for a Diesel engine. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. CONTROL MEANS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonks, L.

    1962-08-01

    A control device surrounding the active portion of a nuclear reactor is described. The control device consists of a plurality of contiguous cylinders partly filled with a neutron absorbing material and partly filled with a neutron reflecting material, each cylinder having a longitudinal reentrant surface into which a portion of an adjacent cylinder extends, one of the cylinders having two re-entrant surfaces, and means for rotating the cylinders one at a time. (AEC)

  5. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baehr, Donald G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means.

  6. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baehr, D.G.

    1990-11-13

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means. 9 figs.

  7. Development and testing of the Perseus proof-of-concept aircraft. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langford, J.S.

    1993-02-26

    Many areas of global climate change research could benefit from a flexible, affordable, and near-term platform that could provide in situ measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. To provide such a capability, the Perseus unmanned science research aircraft was proposed in 1989. As a first step toward the development of Perseus, a proof-of-concept (POC) demonstrator was constructed and tested during 1990 and 1991. The POC was a full scale Perseus airframe intended to validate the structural, aerodynamic, and flight control technologies for the Perseus within a total budget of about $1.5 million. Advanced propulsion systems needed for the operational Perseus were not covered in the POC program due to funding limitations. This report documents the design, development, and testing of the Perseus POC.

  8. Fibers and fabrics with insulating, water-proofing, and flame-resistant properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    2004-04-20

    Fibers, and fabrics produced from the fibers, are made water repellent, fire-retardant and/or thermally insulating by filling void spaces in the fibers and/or fabrics with a powdered material. When the powder is sufficiently finely divided, it clings tenaciously to the fabric's fibers and to itself, resisting the tendency to be removed from the fabric.

  9. INSPECTION MEANS FOR INDUCTION MOTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, A.W.

    1959-03-10

    an appartus is descripbe for inspcting electric motors and more expecially an appartus for detecting falty end rings inn suqirrel cage inductio motors while the motor is running. In its broua aspects, the mer would around ce of reference tedtor means also itons in the phase ition of the An electronic circuit for conversion of excess-3 binary coded serial decimal numbers to straight binary coded serial decimal numbers is reported. The converter of the invention in its basic form generally coded pulse words of a type having an algebraic sign digit followed serially by a plurality of decimal digits in order of decreasing significance preceding a y algebraic sign digit followed serially by a plurality of decimal digits in order of decreasing significance. A switching martix is coupled to said input circuit and is internally connected to produce serial straight binary coded pulse groups indicative of the excess-3 coded input. A stepping circuit is coupled to the switching matrix and to a synchronous counter having a plurality of x decimal digit and plurality of y decimal digit indicator terminals. The stepping circuit steps the counter in synchornism with the serial binary pulse group output from the switching matrix to successively produce pulses at corresponding ones of the x and y decimal digit indicator terminals. The combinations of straight binary coded pulse groups and corresponding decimal digit indicator signals so produced comprise a basic output suitable for application to a variety of output apparatus.

  10. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Methods: A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Results: Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Conclusion: Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the

  11. Integrated surface/subsurface permafrost thermal hydrology: Model formulation and proof-of-concept simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Painter, Scott L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Atchley, Adam L.; Berndt, Markus; Garimella, Rao; Moulton, J. David; Svyatskiy, Daniil; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-08-11

    The need to understand potential climate impacts and feedbacks in Arctic regions has prompted recent interest in modeling of permafrost dynamics in a warming climate. A new fine-scale integrated surface/subsurface thermal hydrology modeling capability is described and demonstrated in proof-of-concept simulations. The new modeling capability combines a surface energy balance model with recently developed three-dimensional subsurface thermal hydrology models and new models for nonisothermal surface water flows and snow distribution in the microtopography. Surface water flows are modeled using the diffusion wave equation extended to include energy transport and phase change of ponded water. Variation of snow depth in themore » microtopography, physically the result of wind scour, is also modeled heuristically with a diffusion wave equation. The multiple surface and subsurface processes are implemented by leveraging highly parallel community software. Fully integrated thermal hydrology simulations on the tilted open book catchment, an important test case for integrated surface/subsurface flow modeling, are presented. Fine-scale 100-year projections of the integrated permafrost thermal hydrological system on an ice wedge polygon at Barrow Alaska in a warming climate are also presented. Finally, these simulations demonstrate the feasibility of microtopography-resolving, process-rich simulations as a tool to help understand possible future evolution of the carbon-rich Arctic tundra in a warming climate.« less

  12. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-10-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. Work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology. To supply some perspective on the ability of the new centrifuges to successfully dry a variety of coals from various coal fields, it was decided that coals ranging from very fine to course size consists and with both low and high inherent moistures would be tested. Coals tested include: Pittsburgh no. 8 seam (Pennsylvania), Pittsburgh no. 8 seam (West Virginia), and Blue Creek Seam (Alabama). 6 figs.

  13. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1991-04-23

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type of centrifuge, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the environment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept of a high gravity batch centrifuge for drying coal fines in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective is to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-07-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type centrifuges, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the evironment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology.

  15. Status of proof-of-principle experiment for coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinayev I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Bengtsson, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Elizarov, A. et al

    2012-05-20

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron colliders. To verify the concept we conduct proof-of-the-principle experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we describe the current experimental setup to be installed into 2 o'clock RHIC interaction regions. We present current design, status of equipment acquisition and estimates for the expected beam parameters. We use a dogleg to merge the electron and ion beams. The ions 'imprint' their distribution into the electron beam via a space charge density modulation. The modulation is amplified in an FEL comprised of a 7-m long helical wiggler. The ions are co-propagating with electron beam through the FEL. The ion's average velocity is matched to the group velocity of the wave-packet of e-beam density modulation in the FEL. A three-pole wiggler at the exit of the FEL tune the phase of the wave-packet so the ion with the central energy experience the maximum of the e-beam density modulation, where electric field is zero. The time-of-flight dependence on ion's provides for the electrical field caused by the density modulation to reduce energy spread of the ion beam. The used electron beam is bent off the ion path and damped.

  16. Cryogenic systems for proof of the principle experiment of coherent electron cooling at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yuenian; Belomestnykh, Sergey; Brutus, Jean Clifford; Lederle, Dewey; Orfin, Paul; Skaritka, John; Soria, Victor; Tallerico, Thomas; Than, Roberto

    2014-01-29

    The Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) Proof of Principle (PoP) experiment is proposed to be installed in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to demonstrate proton and ion beam cooling with this new technique that may increase the beam luminosity in certain cases, by as much as tenfold. Within the scope of this project, a 112 MHz, 2MeV Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) electron gun and a 704 MHz 20MeV 5-cell SRF cavity will be installed at IP2 in the RHIC ring. The superconducting RF electron gun will be cooled in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity will be cooled in a super-fluid helium bath at 2.0 K. This paper discusses the cryogenic systems designed for both cavities. For the 112 MHz cavity cryogenic system, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger is used to isolate the cavity helium bath from pressure pulses and microphonics noise sources. For the 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity, a heat exchanger is also used to isolate the SRF cavity helium bath from noise sources in the sub-atmospheric pumping system operating at room temperature. Detailed designs, thermal analyses and discussions for both systems will be presented in this paper.

  17. Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2004-09-01

    The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

  18. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  19. Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J

    2011-11-01

    This proof-of-concept research was performed to explore the feasibility of using real-world braking data from commercial motor vehicles to make a diagnosis of brake condition similar to that of the performance-based brake tester (PBBT). This was done by determining the relationship between pressure and brake force (P-BF), compensating for the gross vehicle weight (GVW). The nature of this P-BF relationship (e.g., low braking force for a given brake application pressure) may indicate brake system problems. In order to determine the relationship between brake force and brake application pressure, a few key parameters of duty cycle information were collected. Because braking events are often brief, spanning only a few seconds, a sample rate of 10 Hz was needed. The algorithm under development required brake application pressure and speed (from which deceleration was calculated). Accurate weight estimation was also needed to properly derive the braking force from the deceleration. In order to ensure that braking force was the predominant factor in deceleration for the segments of data used in analysis, the data was screened for grade as well. Also, the analysis needed to be based on pressures above the crack pressure. The crack pressure is the pressure below which the individual brakes are not applied due the nature of the mechanical system. This value, which may vary somewhat from one wheel end to another, is approximately 10 psi. Therefore, only pressures 15 psi and above were used in the analysis. The Department of Energy s Medium Truck Duty Cycle research has indicated that under the real-world circumstances of the test vehicle brake pressures of up to approximately 30 psi can be expected. Several different types of data were collected during the testing task of this project. Constant-pressure stopping tests were conducted at several combinations of brake application pressure (15, 20, 25, and 30 psi), load conditions (moderately and fully laden), and speeds (20 and

  20. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments—A proof of concept

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael H. L. S. Wang; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

    2016-06-25

    Here, we explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  1. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments. A proof of concept

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael H. L. S. Wang; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

    2016-06-25

    Here, we explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  2. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: Bench Run 05 (227-97). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results Bench Run PB-05, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept - Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-05 was the fifth of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and included the evaluation of the effect of using dispersed slurry catalyst in direct liquefaction of a high volatile bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and in combined coprocessing of coal with organic wastes, such as heavy petroleum resid, MSW plastics, and auto-shredder residue. PB-05 employed a two-stage, back-mixed, slurry reactor system with an interstage V/L separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. Coprocessing of waste plastics with Illinois No. 6 coal did not result in the improvement observed earlier with a subbituminous coal. In particular, decreases in light gas yield and hydrogen consumption were not observed with Illinois No. 6 coal as they were with Black Thunder Mine coal. The higher thermal severity during PB-05 is a possible reason for this discrepancy, plastics being more sensitive to temperatures (cracking) than either coal or heavy resid. The ASR material was poorer than MSW plastics in terms of increasing conversions and yields. HTI`s new dispersed catalyst formulation, containing phosphorus-promoted iron gel, was highly effective for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal under the reaction conditions employed; over 95% coal conversion was obtained, along with over 85% residuum conversion and over 73% distillate yields.

  3. Proof-of-principle experiment for FEL-based coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Poelker, M.; Hutton, A.; Kraft, G.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.T.; Vobly, P.; Kholopov, M.; Shevchenko, O.; Mcintosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-08-21

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  4. Final report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor proof-of-breeding analytical support project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Hoh, J.C.; Martino, F.J.; Nelson, R.E.; Osudar, J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1987-05-01

    The technology of breeding /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements. Most operations were carried out remotely in shielded cells. Automated equipment and procedures, controlled by a computer system, provided error-free data acquisition and processing, as well as full replication of operations with each rod. Despite difficulties that arose during processing of a few rod segments, the ANL destructive-assay results satisfied the demanding needs of the parent LWBR-POB program.

  5. Study of relaxation and transport processes by means of AFM based dielectric spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A.

    2014-05-15

    Since its birth a few years ago, dielectric spectroscopy studies based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have gained a growing interest. Not only the frequency and temperature ranges have become broader since then but also the kind of processes that can be studied by means of this approach. In this work we analyze the most adequate experimental setup for the study of several dielectric processes with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers by using force mode AFM based dielectric spectroscopy. Proof of concept experiments were performed on PS/PVAc blends and PMMA homopolymer films, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 K. Charge transport processes were also studied by this approach. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of cantilever stray contribution, film thickness and relaxation strength. We found that the method sensitivity is strongly coupled with the film thickness and the relaxation strength, and that it is possible to control it by using an adequate experimental setup.

  6. Scalable k-means statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents both the serial and parallel k-means statistics engines. It is a sequel to [PT08], [BPRT09], and [PT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, and contingency engines. The ease of use of the new parallel k-means engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets and algorithm verification is provided. This report justifies the design of the statistics engines with parallel scalability in mind, and provides scalability and speed-up analysis results for the k-means engine.

  7. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In

  8. MEANS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A VACUUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otavka, M.A.

    1960-08-01

    A new method is given for starting the operation of evapor-ion vacuum pumps. Ordinarily this type of pump is started by inducing an electric field with the vacuum chamber; however, by placing such an electric field in the chamber at the outset, a glow discharge may be initiated which is harmful to the pump. The procedure consists of using a negative electric field during which time only gettering action takes place; subsequently when the field reverses after a sufficient reduction of the number of gaseous particles in the chamber both gettering and ionizing takes place.

  9. Means for counteracting charged particle beam divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, Jr., Edwin B.

    1978-01-01

    To counteract charge particle beam divergence, magnetic field-generating means are positioned along the edges of a charged particle beam to be controlled, such as to deflect and redirect particles tending to diverge from a desired beam direction. By selective arrangement of the magnetic field-generating means, the entire beam may be deflected and guided into different directions.

  10. MEANS FOR CONTROLLING A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, V.C.; Overbeck, W.P.; Slotin, L.; Froman, D.K.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type using a solid neutron absorbing material as a means for controlling the reproduction ratio of the system and thereby the power output. Elongated rods of neutron absorbing material, such as boron steel for example, are adapted to be inserted and removed from the core of tae reactor by electronic motors and suitable drive means. The motors and drive means are controlled by means responsive to the neutron density, such as ionization chambers. The control system is designed to be responsive also to the rate of change in neutron density to automatically maintain the total power output at a substantially constant predetermined value. A safety rod means responsive to neutron density is also provided for keeping the power output below a predetermined maximum value at all times.

  11. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-10-01

    Weiss Associates is conducting a three phase program investigating the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I - Laboratory Scale Parametric Investigation; Phase II - Technology Scaling Study; and Phase III - Large Scale Field Tests. Phase I, the subject of this paper, consisted primarily of a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology was also examined. Phase II is a technology scaling study addressing the scale up between laboratory size samples on the order of inches, and the data required for field scale testing, on the order of hundreds of feet. Phase III will consist of field scale testing at an non-industrialized, non-contaminated site and at a contaminated site to validate the technology. Summarized herein are the results of the Phase I {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} investigation, and recommendations for Phase H. A general overview of AER technology along with the plan for the Phase I investigation was presented.

  12. Proof of concept of a magnetically coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Chen, Gong; McEntee, J.

    1992-08-01

    A prototype magnetically-coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump module has been designed and fabricated by Sunpower, Inc. under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary testing indicates that the magnetic coupling is an effective means for transmitting power from a free-piston Stirling engine to a refrigerant compressor. Compared with other power transmission concepts, the magnetic coupling has relatively low cost, and will help make commercial development of Stirling-driven heat pumps more likely in the future.

  13. Proof of concept of a magnetically coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A. ); Chen, Gong; McEntee, J. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype magnetically-coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump module has been designed and fabricated by Sunpower, Inc. under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary testing indicates that the magnetic coupling is an effective means for transmitting power from a free-piston Stirling engine to a refrigerant compressor. Compared with other power transmission concepts, the magnetic coupling has relatively low cost, and will help make commercial development of Stirling-driven heat pumps more likely in the future.

  14. Reinventing Superfund means de-inventing'' superfund

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, C.J. )

    1994-03-01

    The White House claims there are some things the federal government does that it could do better and other things it should not do at all. It is in this light that the federal government should delegate responsibility for Superfund to the states. Various factors that drove the federalization of many environmental programs in the 1970s and 1980s no longer apply for Superfund. Air and water pollution programs were federalized partly because states feared businesses would relocate to friendlier'', less environmentally stringent areas. States would not impose sufficiently stringent environmental controls, because pursuing tougher standards meant committing economic suicide. Thus, uniform air and water pollution standards were implemented on a federal level to eliminate business flight. Superfund, by contrast, imposes costs based wholly on past activities. One state's determination to rededicate its waste sites quickly and more stringently than another state has little effect on a business's location decisions. Relocating a plant does not change where the waste previously was disposed.

  15. A dynamic collimation system for penumbra reduction in spot-scanning proton therapy: Proof of concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyer, Daniel E. Hill, Patrick M.; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: In the absence of a collimation system the lateral penumbra of spot scanning (SS) dose distributions delivered by low energy proton beams is highly dependent on the spot size. For current commercial equipment, spot size increases with decreasing proton energy thereby reducing the benefit of the SS technique. This paper presents a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for sharpening the lateral penumbra of proton therapy dose distributions delivered by SS. Methods: The collimation system presented here exploits the property that a proton pencil beam used for SS requires collimation only when it is near the target edge, enabling the use of trimmers that are in motion at times when the pencil beam is away from the target edge. The device consists of two pairs of parallel nickel trimmer blades of 2 cm thickness and dimensions of 2 cm × 18 cm in the beam's eye view. The two pairs of trimmer blades are rotated 90° relative to each other to form a rectangular shape. Each trimmer blade is capable of rapid motion in the direction perpendicular to the central beam axis by means of a linear motor, with maximum velocity and acceleration of 2.5 m/s and 19.6 m/s{sup 2}, respectively. The blades travel on curved tracks to match the divergence of the proton source. An algorithm for selecting blade positions is developed to minimize the dose delivered outside of the target, and treatment plans are created both with and without the DCS. Results: The snout of the DCS has outer dimensions of 22.6 × 22.6 cm{sup 2} and is capable of delivering a minimum treatment field size of 15 × 15 cm{sup 2}. Using currently available components, the constructed system would weigh less than 20 kg. For irregularly shaped fields, the use of the DCS reduces the mean dose outside of a 2D target of 46.6 cm{sup 2} by approximately 40% as compared to an identical plan without collimation. The use of the DCS increased treatment time by 1–3 s per energy layer. Conclusions: The spread of the

  16. CONTROL MEANS FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teitel, R.J.

    1961-09-01

    A control means is described for a reactor which employs a liquid fuel consisting of a fissile isotope in a liquid bismuth solvent. The liquid fuel is contained in a plurality of tubular vessels. Control is effected by inserting plungers in the vessels to displace the liquid fuel and provide a critical or non- critical fuel configuration as desired.

  17. Testing and inspecting lens by holographic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1976-01-01

    Processes for the accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of oncave and convex lens surfaces through holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and said convex surfaces to be so tested.

  18. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  19. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid - starting as feedwater heating where no vapors are present, progressing to nucleate heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with film heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10 to 30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  20. Spectroscopic measurements of Rosseland mean opacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, P.T.; Fields, D.F.; Wilson, B.G.

    1992-11-01

    The first quantitative measurement of photoabsorption in the region determining Rosseland and Planck mean opacity, is obtained for an x-ray heated iron plasma, using novel techniques and instrumentation. The plasma density of 0.0113 {plus_minus} 0.0013 g/cc and temperature of 59 {plus_minus} 3 eV are accurately constrained experimentally by imaging plasma expansion and observing and modeling absorption in sodium dopant ions. The measured iron absorption spectrum is compared with several newly developed opacity models. The data constrains Rosseland and Planck group means with of order 15 percent precision. This is the first quantitative experimental certification of opacity models germane to radiative transfer in LTE plasmas.

  1. MEANS FOR VISUALIZING FLUID FLOW PATTERNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lynch, F.E.; Palmer, L.D.; Poppendick, H.F.; Winn, G.M.

    1961-05-16

    An apparatus is given for determining both the absolute and relative velocities of a phosphorescent fluid flowing through a transparent conduit. The apparatus includes a source for exciting a narrow trsnsverse band of the fluid to phosphorescence, detecting means such as a camera located downstream from the exciting source to record the shape of the phosphorescent band as it passes, and a timer to measure the time elapsed between operation of the exciting source and operation of the camera.

  2. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  3. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  4. More Recycling Means Less Waste for Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recycling Means Less Waste for Complex What do batteries, lead bricks, and mineral oil have in common? They are all on the list of recently recycled materials at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of these recycling efforts is to minimize waste volumes at the site and encourage the repurposing of materials across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. In September 2011, a total of 33,000 pounds of lead was shipped from the NNSS to the recycling company, Toxco Inc. A portion

  5. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes-proof-of-concept stage - Phase IV. Topical report, February 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This report details the research performed on Phase IV of the extended Cooperative Agreement. This Phase, entitled C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} Research, provides the research support which accompanies the C{sub 4} Proof-of-Concept Phase (Phase V) as the two major activities of the Cooperative Agreement during calendar 1993. It is the objective of this phase to understand the nature of the catalysts and catalytic activity of perhaloporphyrin complexes uncovered during Phases I-III in order that superior catalytic materials can be made and tested which meet commercial criteria for the oxidation of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} light alkane gases found in natural gas and other available hydrocarbon streams. During Phase IV, we have examined the physical and electronic structures of the very active perhaloporphyrin catalysts which we have developed, and have gained an understanding of the properties which make them active. This has led us to design and synthesize materials which are cheaper, more active, more robust and, in general superior for carrying out practical catalysis. Our early generation perhaloporphyrin catalysts, while exhibiting unprecedented catalytic activity, were far too expensive for use in converting natural gas or its C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} components.

  6. Proof-of-Concept Assessment of a Photofission-Based Interrogation System for the Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Harker, Y. D.; Hoggan, J. M.; Haskell, K. J.; VanAusdeln, L. A.

    2000-11-01

    A photonuclear interrogation method was experimentally assessed for the detection of shielded nuclear materials. Proof-of-Concept assessment was performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-18 facility and used the INEEL VARITRON electron accelerator. Experiments were performed to assess and characterize the delayed neutron emission responses for different nuclear materials with various shield configurations using three ''nominal'' electron beam energies; 8-, 10-, and 11-MeV. With the exception of highly enriched uranium (HEU), the nuclear materials assessed represent material types commonly encountered in commerce. The specific nuclear materials studied include a solid 4.8-kg HEU sphere, a 5-kg multiple-object, depleted uranium (DU) [uranium with about 0.2% enrichment with U-235] target, and two 11-kg thorium disks. The shield materials selected include polyethylene, borated-polyethylene, and lead. Experimental results, supported with numerical predictions, have shown that the photonuclear interrogation technique is quite capable of detecting shielded nuclear material via the direct measurement of the photofission-induced delayed neutron emissions. To identify or discriminate between nuclear material types (i.e., depleted uranium, HEU, and thorium), a ratio of delayed neutron counts at two different beam energies is utilized. This latter method, referred to as the dual-beam energy ratio Figure-of-Merit, allows one to differentiate among the three nuclear material types.

  7. Confidential balls minimizing in mean convex functional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminsky, V.

    1994-12-31

    Let H be a Hilbert space, H{sub 0} {contained_in} H be a subspace in it; {Sigma}i{sigma}-algebra of Borel subsets from H{sub 0}, s = s(x, r) is the bal of radius r with the center at the point x {element_of} H and t = t(x, r) is its boundary, a sphere. Let measure {mu} defined on {Sigma} be finite nonnegative and satisfy the following condition: {mu}(H{sub 0}) = 1. By fixing two nonnegative numbers {mu}{sub 0}, where 0 < {mu}{sub 0} < 1, and R > 0, we indicate from {sigma}-algebra {Sigma} the class S = {l_brace}s,(x, r) {element_of} {Sigma}: {mu}(s) {>=} {mu}{sub o}, r {<=} R{r_brace}. Let {var_phi}(x) be a convex eigen functional on H such that it is bounded on each ball s {element_of} S{sub 0}. It is possible to introduce an averaging functional for each ball s {element_of} S {Phi}(s) = {sub {mu}(s)}{sup 1} {integral}{sub s(x, r)} {var_phi}(y){mu}(dy) = {sub {mu}(s(x, r))}{sup 1} {integral}{sub s({theta}, r)} {var_phi}(x + {xi}){mu}(d{xi}) = F(x, r) and to consider the following extremal problem {Phi}(s) {yields} inf{sub s{epsilon}S}. We can interpret such a formulation of the problem as an extremal problem with confidential condition ({mu}s) {>=} {mu}{sub 0}. It is possible to consider the formulations of problem of such type in order to generalize the classical problems in mathematical programming in which now we find an extremal subset of an extremal element. The following results are obtained: theorems about existence of an extremal ball, necessary condition for a ball to be extremal in problems of such types, sufficient conditions of extremality of the ball by stronger restrictions on functional and measure in the problem.

  8. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, D.L.; Maran, L.R.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (a) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (b) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process known as activation and inhibition; (c) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (d) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (e) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (f) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (g) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  9. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  10. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  11. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  12. Passive heat transfer means for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, James P.

    1984-01-01

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. Means such as shrouding normally isolated the secondary condensing section from effective heat transfer with the heat sink, but a sensor responds to overheat conditions of the reactor to open the shrouding, which thereby increases the cooling capacity of the heat pipe. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  13. High-speed tapping-mode atomic force microscopy using a Q-controlled regular cantilever acting as the actuator: Proof-of-principle experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balantekin, M.; Sat?r, S.; Torello, D.; De?ertekin, F. L.

    2014-12-15

    We present the proof-of-principle experiments of a high-speed actuation method to be used in tapping-mode atomic force microscopes (AFM). In this method, we do not employ a piezotube actuator to move the tip or the sample as in conventional AFM systems, but, we utilize a Q-controlled eigenmode of a cantilever to perform the fast actuation. We show that the actuation speed can be increased even with a regular cantilever.

  14. Estimating contact rates at a mass gathering by using video analysis: a proof-of-concept project

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rainey, Jeanette J.; Cheriyadat, Anil; Radke, Richard J.; Crumly, Julie; Koch, Daniel B.

    2014-10-24

    Current approaches for estimating social mixing patterns and infectious disease transmission at mass gatherings have been limited by various constraints, including low participation rates for volunteer-based research projects and challenges in quantifying spatially and temporally accurate person-to-person interactions. We developed a proof-of-concept project to assess the use of automated video analysis for estimating contact rates of attendees of the GameFest 2013 event at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York. Video tracking and analysis algorithms were used to estimate the number and duration of contacts for 5 attendees during a 3-minute clip from the RPI video. Attendees were consideredmore » to have a contact event if the distance between them and another person was ≤1 meter. Contact duration was estimated in seconds. We also simulated 50 attendees assuming random mixing using a geospatially accurate representation of the same GameFest location. The 5 attendees had an overall median of 2 contact events during the 3-minute video clip (range: 0 6). Contact events varied from less than 5 seconds to the full duration of the 3- minute clip. The random mixing simulation was visualized and presented as a contrasting example. We were able to estimate the number and duration of contacts for five GameFest attendees from a 3-minute video clip that can be compared to a random mixing simulation model at the same location. In conclusion, the next phase will involve scaling the system for simultaneous analysis of mixing patterns from hours-long videos and comparing our results with other approaches for collecting contact data from mass gathering attendees.« less

  15. A "Proof-of-Concept" Demonstration of RF-Based Technologies for UF6 Cylinder Tracking at Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Kovacic, Donald N; Dixon, E. T.; Martinez, B.

    2007-01-01

    This effort describes how radio-frequency (RF) technology can be integrated into a uranium enrichment facility's nuclear materials accounting and control program to enhance uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinder tracking and thus provide benefits to both domestic and international safeguards. Approved industry-standard cylinders are used to handle and store UF6 feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. In the international arena, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming manual cylinder inventory and tracking techniques to verify operator declarations and to detect potential diversion of UF6. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant process for tracking and monitoring UF6 cylinders would greatly reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a "proof-of concept" system that was designed show the feasibility of using RF based technologies to track individual UF6 cylinders throughout their entire life cycle, and thus ensure both increased domestic accountability of materials and a more effective and efficient method for application of IAEA international safeguards at the site level. The proposed system incorporates RF-based identification devices, which provide a mechanism for a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant tracking network. We explore how securely attached RF tags can be integrated with other safeguards technologies to better detect diversion of cylinders. The tracking system could also provide a foundation for integration of other types of safeguards that would further enhance detection of undeclared activities.

  16. MEANS FOR SHIELDING AND COOLING REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-10

    Reactors of the water-cooled type and a means for shielding such a rcactor to protect operating personnel from harmful radiation are discussed. In this reactor coolant tubes which contain the fissionable material extend vertically through a mass of moderator. Liquid coolant enters through the bottom of the coolant tubes and passes upwardly over the fissionable material. A shield tank is disposed over the top of the reactor and communicates through its bottom with the upper end of the coolant tubes. A hydrocarbon shielding fluid floats on the coolant within the shield tank. With this arrangements the upper face of the reactor can be opened to the atmosphere through the two superimposed liquid layers. A principal feature of the invention is that in the event radioactive fission products enter thc coolant stream. imposed layer of hydrocarbon reduces the intense radioactivity introduced into the layer over the reactors and permits removal of the offending fuel material by personnel shielded by the uncontaminated hydrocarbon layer.

  17. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RECOGNIZING COMPLEX PATTERNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, P.V.C.

    1962-12-18

    This patent relates to a method and means for recognizing a complex pattern in a picture. The picture is divided into framelets, each framelet being sized so that any segment of the complex pattern therewithin is essentially a straight line. Each framelet is scanned to produce an electrical pulse for each point scanned on the segment therewithin. Each of the electrical pulses of each segment is then transformed into a separate strnight line to form a plane transform in a pictorial display. Each line in the plane transform of a segment is positioned laterally so that a point on the line midway between the top and the bottom of the pictorial display occurs at a distance from the left edge of the pictorial display equal to the distance of the generating point in the segment from the left edge of the framelet. Each line in the plane transform of a segment is inclined in the pictorial display at an angle to the vertical whose tangent is proportional to the vertical displacement of the generating point in the segment from the center of the framelet. The coordinate position of the point of intersection of the lines in the pictorial display for each segment is determined and recorded. The sum total of said recorded coordinate positions being representative of the complex pattern. (AEC)

  18. What it means to you | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A fact sheet detailling what Congress's first comprehensive energy legislation means to the people. What it means to you (26.63 KB) More Documents & Publications What It Means to ...

  19. Mean curl formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Mean curl formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit magnetics diffusion equations in Alegra 2D. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mean ...

  20. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  1. Communication: Electronic and transport properties of molecular junctions under a finite bias: A dual mean field approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Feng, Yuan Ping; Zhang, Chun; Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543

    2013-11-21

    We show that when a molecular junction is under an external bias, its properties cannot be uniquely determined by the total electron density in the same manner as the density functional theory for ground state properties. In order to correctly incorporate bias-induced nonequilibrium effects, we present a dual mean field (DMF) approach. The key idea is that the total electron density together with the density of current-carrying electrons are sufficient to determine the properties of the system. Two mean fields, one for current-carrying electrons and the other one for equilibrium electrons can then be derived. Calculations for a graphene nanoribbon junction show that compared with the commonly used ab initio transport theory, the DMF approach could significantly reduce the electric current at low biases due to the non-equilibrium corrections to the mean field potential in the scattering region.

  2. Challenging the Mean Time to Failure: Measuring Dependability as a Mean Failure Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2009-01-01

    many fronts: it ignores the variance in stakes among stakeholders; it fails to recognize the structure of complex specifications as the aggregate of overlapping requirements; it fails to recognize that different components of the specification carry different stakes, even for the same stakeholder; it fails to recognize that V&V actions have different impacts with respect to the different components of the specification. Similar metrics of security, such as MTTD (Mean Time to Detection) and MTTE (Mean Time to Exploitation) suffer from the same shortcomings. In this paper we advocate a measure of dependability that acknowledges the aggregate structureof complex system specifications, and takes into account variations by stakeholder, by specification components, and by V&V impact.

  3. Property:Building/MeanAnnualTempCalculationPeriod | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingMeanAnnualTempCalculationPeriod Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Mean annual temperature during the...

  4. Neutrinos' Instant Identity Changes Could Mean Big Things for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neutrinos' Instant Identity Changes Could Mean Big Things for the Big Bang Neutrinos' Instant Identity Changes Could Mean Big Things for the Big Bang July 11, 2011 - 12:23pm ...

  5. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary ...

  6. Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables May 29, 2013 - 1:35pm Addthis In a new video ...

  7. TRANSFORMER FOR JOINING UNBALANCED TO BALANCED TRANSMISSION MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bittner, B.J.; Opperman, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    An improved transformer is invented for joining an unbalanced transmission means to a balanced transmission means and is useful, for example, in transmitting an electromagnetic signal from a coaxial cable to a balanced dipole antenna.

  8. Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, ... Introduction Generally, radiation codes for general circulation models (GCMs) include, ...

  9. Mean curl formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit magnetics diffusion equations in Alegra 2D. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mean curl formulation on ...

  10. Combined local-density and dynamical mean field theory calculations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Combined local-density and dynamical mean ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combined ... This paper reports calculations for compressed Ce (4fsup ...

  11. Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chaos and cluster states Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators: Extensive chaos and ...

  12. METHODS AND MEANS FOR OBTAINING HYDROMAGNETICALLY ACCELERATED PLASMA JET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, J. Jr.

    1960-11-22

    A hydromagnetic plasma accelerator is described comprising in combination a center electrode, an outer electrode coaxial with the center electrode and defining an annular vacuum chamber therebetween, insulating closure means between the electrodes at one end, means for iniroducing an ionizable gas into the annular vacuum chamber near one end thereof, and means including a power supply for applying a voltage between the electrodes at the end having the closure means, the open ends of the electrodes being adapted for connection to a vacuumed atilization chamber.

  13. Development of a Single-Pass Amplifier for an Optical Stochastic Cooling Proof-of-Principle Experiment at Fermilab's IOTA Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andorf, M. B.; Lebedev, V. A.; Piot, P.

    2015-06-01

    Optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is a method of beam cooling which is expected to provide cooling rates orders of magnitude larger than ordinary stochastic cooling. Light from an undulator (the pickup) is amplified and fed back onto the particle beam via another undulator (the kicker). Fermilab is currently exploring a possible proof-of-principle experiment of the OSC at the integrable-optics test accelerator (IOTA) ring. To implement effective OSC a good correction of phase distortions in the entire band of the optical amplifier is required. In this contribution we present progress in experimental characterization of phase distortions associated to a Titanium Sapphire crystal laser-gain medium (a possible candidate gain medium for the OSC experiment to be performed at IOTA). We also discuss a possible option for a mid-IR amplifier

  14. Cs-doped Mo as surface converter for H{sup −}/D{sup −} generation in negative ion sources: First steps and proof of principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiesko, L. Hopf, C.; Höschen, T.; Meisl, G.; Encke, O.; Franzen, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hopf, C.; Fantz, U.; Cartry, G.; Achkasov, K.

    2015-04-08

    In a proof-of-principle study, molybdenum samples were implanted with a very small dose of Cs in order to test the properties of the compound as a surface converter for negative hydrogen ion production. First results on the properties of Cs doped Mo compounds show a reduction of the work function and a stable H{sup −} yield up to four hours in low density hydrogen plasma. The implanted Cs atoms were stable in the Mo lattice over one year for samples stored in vacuum and not exposed to the plasma. The surface H{sup −} generation mechanisms were identified and a comparison of the negative ion yield with pure Mo showed that the Cs doped Mo sample’s yield was much larger.

  15. Technology Assessment for Proof-of-Concept UF6 Cylinder Unique Identification Task 3.1.2 Report – Survey and Assessment of Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wylie, Joann; Hockert, John

    2014-04-24

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s (NA-24) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the nuclear industry have begun to develop approaches to identify and monitor uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The NA-24 interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to its interest in supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in deterring and detecting diversion of UF6 (e.g., loss of cylinder in transit) and undeclared excess production at conversion and enrichment facilities. The industry interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to the improvements in operational efficiencies that such a system would provide. This task is part of an effort to survey and assess technologies for a UF6 cylinder to identify candidate technologies for a proof-of-concept demonstration and evaluation for the Cylinder Identification System (CIS).

  16. Fuel cell generator containing a gas sealing means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makiel, J.M.

    1987-02-03

    A high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical generator is made, operating with flowing fuel gas and oxidant gas, the generator having a thermal insulation layer, and a sealing means contacting or contained within the insulation, where the sealing means is effective to control the contact of the various gases utilized in the generator. 5 figs.

  17. Fuel cell generator containing a gas sealing means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makiel, Joseph M. (Monroeville, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical generator is made, operating with flowing fuel gas and oxidant gas, the generator having a thermal insulation layer, and a sealing means contacting or contained within the insulation, where the sealing means is effective to control the contact of the various gases utilized in the generator.

  18. NERSC is moving!! And what it means for you.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is moving!! And what it means for you. NERSC is moving!! And what it means for you. August 4, 2015 by Katie Antypas NERSC Users, As a reminder, NERSC is moving this fall to a new home back on the main Berkeley Lab campus! We are incredibly excited to be moving into our beautiful new facility that can accommodate future systems and is closer to colleagues from other Berkeley Lab divisions. What the NERSC move means for users is that there will be system outages and downtimes towards the end of

  19. NERSC is moving!! And what it means for you.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other Berkeley Lab divisions. What the NERSC move means for users is that there will be system outages and downtimes towards the end of the year. We are doing everything possible...

  20. What It Means to You | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What It Means to You On July 29, 2005, Congress passed the first comprehensive energy legislation in over a decade. This historic bill follows many of the principles outlined by ...

  1. A GCM Parameterization of Ice Particle Mean Effective Sizes for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We considered three schemes, which relate the particle mass to the projected area (Cunningham 1978), to the maximum length (Mitchell et al. 1990), and to the mean of the maximum...

  2. Means for supporting fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, Harry N.; Keller, Herbert W.

    1980-01-01

    A grid structure for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a plurality of connecting members forming at least one longitudinally extending opening peripheral and inner fuel element openings through each of which openings at least one nuclear fuel element extends, said connecting members forming wall means surrounding said each peripheral and inner fuel element opening, a pair of rigid projections longitudinally spaced from one another extending from a portion of said wall means into said each peripheral and inner opening for rigidly engaging said each fuel element, respectively, yet permit individual longitudinal slippage thereof, and resilient means formed integrally on and from said wall means and positioned in said each peripheral and inner opening in opposed relationship with said projections and located to engage said fuel element to bias the latter into engagement with said rigid projections, respectively

  3. Volunteer Program means financial boost for local nonprofits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volunteer Program means financial boost for local nonprofits Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Volunteer Program means financial boost for local nonprofits LANS matches volunteer hours with money. June 2, 2016 Using VAF funds, Taos Mesa Brewing will collaborate with state agricultural agencies to develop local barley for use in brewing, build a malting facility, and

  4. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency | Department of Energy Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash

  5. Distributor means for charging particulate material into receptacles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greaves, Melvin J.

    1977-06-14

    Disclosed are receptacles, such as shaft furnaces illustrated by a blast furnace and an upright oil shale retort, embodying rotatable charge distributor means for distributing particulate charge material in the furnace, which charge distributor means can provide a high uniformity of distribution of various sizes of particles and also can provide and maintain a stock line of desired contour and heighth in the receptacle. The distributor means includes a hopper having rigidly fixed to it a plurality of downwardly extending chutes with lower discharge portions that discharge in concentric circular zones at the stock line. The distributor means includes a segmented portion at the juncture of the hopper and the chutes that divides the charge material discharged into the hopper in proportion to the area of the circular zone at the stock line that is fed by the chute. The distributor means embodies means for providing mass flow of the particulate charge material through the chutes to the stock line and for avoiding segregation between larger and smaller particles of charge material deposited at the stock line.

  6. Support means for a particle beam position monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanZwienen, W.H.

    1991-01-29

    A support means is disclosed for a plurality of thermally deformable component parts that are concentrically mounted within a thermally expandable housing. The support means includes a plurality of pins that are mounted in relatively fixed or sliding relationship to either one of the concentrically positioned components or to the housing, and the pins are positioned to extend through aligned apertures in the remaining components or the housing in a manner such that the pins are free to slide in a snug relationship relative to the sides of the holes through those components or the housing. The support means enables the concentrically mounted components and the housing to undergo expansion and contraction movement, radially and longitudinally relative to one another, while maintaining concentricity of the components and the housing relative to one another. 3 figures.

  7. Proof-of-Concept Testing of the Passive Cooling System (T-CLIP™) for Solar Thermal Applications at an Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Quintana, Donald L.; Vigil, Gabrielle M.; Perraglio, Martin Juan; Farley, Cory Wayne; Tafoya, Jose I.; Martinez, Adam L.

    2015-11-30

    The Applied Engineering and Technology-1 group (AET-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted the proof-of-concept tests of SolarSPOT LLC’s solar thermal Temperature- Clipper, or T-CLIP™ under controlled thermal conditions using a thermal conditioning unit (TCU) and a custom made environmental chamber. The passive T-CLIP™ is a plumbing apparatus that attaches to a solar thermal collector to limit working fluid temperature and to prevent overheating, since overheating may lead to various accident scenarios. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the ability of the T-CLIP™ to control the working fluid temperature by using its passive cooling mechanism (i.e. thermosiphon, or natural circulation) in a small-scale solar thermal system. The assembled environmental chamber that is thermally controlled with the TCU allows one to simulate the various possible weather conditions, which the solar system will encounter. The performance of the T-CLIP™ was tested at two different target temperatures: 1) room temperature (70 °F) and 2) an elevated temperature (130 °F). The current test campaign demonstrated that the T-CLIP™ was able to prevent overheating by thermosiphon induced cooling in a small-scale solar thermal system. This is an important safety feature in situations where the pump is turned off due to malfunction or power outages.

  8. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope.

  9. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  10. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil and Less CO2 Emissions | Department of Energy Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions November 15, 2005 - 2:45pm Addthis "Weyburn Project" Breaks New Ground in Enhanced Oil Recovery Efforts WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded "Weyburn

  11. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  12. Novel interpretation of the mean structure of feroxyhyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sestu, Matteo; Carta, Daniela; Casula, Maria F.; Corrias, Anna; Navarra, Gabriele

    2015-05-15

    The structure of the iron oxyhydroxide called feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH), which shows an elusive X-ray powder diffraction pattern, has been represented so far using models describing a mean structure based on the crystalline network of the iron(III) oxide hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In this paper, a novel description of the mean structure of feroxyhyte is presented, which is based on the structure of the thermodynamically stable iron oxyhydroxide goethite. Starting from different local arrangements present in the goethite network, a mean structural model is determined which shows an X-ray powder diffraction pattern almost coincident with previous studies. This outcome enables to integrate the structure of feroxyhyte among those of other well characterized iron oxyhydroxides. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the iron oxy-hydroxide feroxyhyte can be described by local arrangements present in the goethite network. - Highlights: • The structure of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) proposed in literature is discussed. • The structure of goethite (α-FeOOH) is analyzed. • A structural relationship between feroxyhyte and goethite is found. • New interpretation of the mean structure of δ-FeOOH is given.

  13. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, Philip E.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

  14. Systematics of the mean energy and the mean multiplicity of prompt neutrons originating from {sup 232}Th fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svirin, M. I.

    2012-12-15

    The cross section for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th target nuclei, {sigma}{sub f} (E{sub n}), was described within statistical theory. The spectra of the mean multiplicity, v-bar (E{sub n}), and the mean energy, E-bar(E{sub n}), of secondary neutrons accompanying {sup 232}Th fission induced by neutrons of energy extending up to E{sub n} = 20 MeV were analyzed on the basis of the chance structure of the cross section.

  15. Means and method of detection in chemical separation procedures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Koutny, Lance B.; Hogan, Barry L.; Cheung, Chan K.; Ma, Yinfa

    1993-03-09

    A means and method for indirect detection of constituent components of a mixture separated in a chemical separation process. Fluorescing ions are distributed across the area in which separation of the mixture will occur to provide a generally uniform background fluorescence intensity. For example, the mixture is comprised of one or more charged analytes which displace fluorescing ions where its constituent components separate to. Fluorescing ions of the same charge as the charged analyte components cause a displacement. The displacement results in the location of the separated components having a reduced fluorescence intensity to the remainder of the background. Detection of the lower fluorescence intensity areas can be visually, by photographic means and methods, or by automated laser scanning.

  16. Means and method of detection in chemical separation procedures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Koutny, L.B.; Hogan, B.L.; Cheung, C.K.; Yinfa Ma.

    1993-03-09

    A means and method are described for indirect detection of constituent components of a mixture separated in a chemical separation process. Fluorescing ions are distributed across the area in which separation of the mixture will occur to provide a generally uniform background fluorescence intensity. For example, the mixture is comprised of one or more charged analytes which displace fluorescing ions where its constituent components separate to. Fluorescing ions of the same charge as the charged analyte components cause a displacement. The displacement results in the location of the separated components having a reduced fluorescence intensity to the remainder of the background. Detection of the lower fluorescence intensity areas can be visually, by photographic means and methods, or by automated laser scanning.

  17. Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  18. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q{sub 0} applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posen, S. Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-23

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb{sub 3}Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb{sub 3}Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q{sub 0} out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q{sub 0} at quench of 8 × 10{sup 9}. In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above H{sub c1}, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q{sub 0} values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb{sub 3}Sn cavities in future applications.

  19. Autogenic pressure reactors provide simple, rapid means of producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery materials - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Autogenic pressure reactors provide simple, rapid means of producing battery materials Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Spherical carbon particles prepared in an autogenic reaction Spherical carbon particles prepared in an autogenic reaction Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have become

  20. WHAT A SMART GRID MEANS TO OUR NATION'S FUTURE.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WHAT A SMART GRID MEANS TO OUR NATION'S FUTURE. regulators consumer advocates environmental groups technology providers ONE of SIX SMART GRID STAKEHOLDER BOOKS A smarter electric grid works to strengthen our nation's economy, environment, security and independence. policymakers utilities 2 DISCLAIMER PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency

  1. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In fact, many different materials show ferromagnetic ... of modern x-ray science and instruments in basic research. ... T. Tyliszczak (Advanced Light Source); and R. Hhne, D. ...

  2. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The eighth bench scale test of POC program, Run PB-08, was successfully completed from August 8 to August 26, 1997. A total of five operating conditions were tested aiming at evaluating the reactivity of different pyrolysis oils in liquefaction of a Wyoming sub-bituminous coal (Black Thunder coal). For the first time, water soluble promoters were incorporated into the iron-based GelCat to improve the dispersion of the promoter metals in the feed blend. The concentration of the active metals, Mo and Fe, was 100 and 1000 ppm of moisture-free coal, respectively. Black Thunder coal used in this run was the same batch as tested in HTI?s Run POC-02. Similar to Runs PB-01 through 7, this run employed two back mixed slurry reactors, an interstage gas/slurry separator and a direct-coupled hydrotreater. In addition to the hot vapor from the second stage separator, the first stage separator overhead liquid was also fed to the hydrotreater, which was packed with Criterion C-411 hydrotreating catalyst. Pyrolysis oil was produced off-line from a pyrolysis unit acquired from University of Wyoming. Solids rejection was achieved by purging out pressure filter solid. The recycle solvents consisted of O-6 separator bottoms and pressure filter liquid (PFL). The Run PB-08 proceeded very smoothly without any interruptions. Coal conversion consistently above 90W% was achieved. High resid conversion and distillate yield have been obtained from co-processing of coal and 343C+ (650F+) pyrolysis oil. Light gas (C1-C3 ) yield was minimized and hydrogen consumption was reduced due to the introduction of pyrolysis oil, compared with conventional coal-derived solvent. Catalytic activity was improved by incorporating a promoter metal into the iron-based GelCat. It seemed that lowering the first stage temperature to 435C might increase the hydrogenation function of the promoter metal. In comparison with previous coal-waste coprocessing run (PB-06), significant improvements in the process performance were achieved due to catalyst modification and integration of pyrolysis technique into liquefaction.

  3. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon. Carbon's Magnetic Personality Attracts Attention Most materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism-diamagnetism,...

  4. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and not the others. The detected magnetic signal was very small, so only the use of a modern scanning transmission x-ray microscope at a state-of-the-art x-ray source providing...

  5. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light ... which repels an external magnetic field, or paramagnetism, which attracts it. ...

  6. Acceptable Documents for Identity Proofing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is a requirement that the identity of a DOE Digital Identity Subscriber be verified against acceptable identity source documents. A Subscriber must appear in person and present their Federal...

  7. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light ... or possible impurities, researchers used x-ray microscopy at the ALS to determine if the ...

  8. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWAmore » framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.« less

  9. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWA framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.

  10. Method for chemically analyzing a solution by acoustic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, L.S.

    1997-04-22

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining a type of solution and the concentration of that solution by acoustic means. Generally stated, the method consists of: immersing a sound focusing transducer within a first liquid filled container; locating a separately contained specimen solution at a sound focal point within the first container; locating a sound probe adjacent to the specimen, generating a variable intensity sound signal from the transducer; measuring fundamental and multiple harmonic sound signal amplitudes; and then comparing a plot of a specimen sound response with a known solution sound response, thereby determining the solution type and concentration. 10 figs.

  11. Method for chemically analyzing a solution by acoustic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining a type of solution and the concention of that solution by acoustic means. Generally stated, the method consists of: immersing a sound focusing transducer within a first liquid filled container; locating a separately contained specimen solution at a sound focal point within the first container; locating a sound probe adjacent to the specimen, generating a variable intensity sound signal from the transducer; measuring fundamental and multiple harmonic sound signal amplitudes; and then comparing a plot of a specimen sound response with a known solution sound response, thereby determining the solution type and concentration.

  12. Thermal entanglement of spins in mean-field clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asoudeh, M.; Karimipour, V.

    2006-06-15

    We determine thermal entanglement in mean-field clusters of N spin one-half particles interacting via the anisotropic Heisenberg interaction, with and without external magnetic field. For the xxx cluster in the absence of magnetic field we prove that only the N=2 ferromagnetic cluster shows entanglement. An external magnetic field B can only entangle xxx antiferromagnetic clusters in certain regions of the B-T plane. On the other hand, the xxz clusters of size N>2 are entangled only when the interaction is ferromagnetic. Detailed dependence of the entanglement on various parameters is investigated in each case.

  13. BAYONET TYPE COUPLING WITH PIVOTED SEGMENT RELEASE MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Work, R.O.

    1963-08-13

    A remotely actuated quick-disconnect electrical connector that comprises a pair of mating connector halves releasably retained together by an interlocking pin and groove arrangement is described. Pivotal latch means disposed in one of the connector halves adjacent the ends of the coupling grooves are normally held in an abutting relationship with the coupling pins by a slidable, lanyard actuated sleeve. The latch retains the pins in the grooves until the lanyard moves the sleeve and enables the latch to pivot out of the path of the pins for effecting disengagement of the coupling. (AEC)

  14. Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata- 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.

  15. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in {sup 14}NH{sub 3}: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietiker, P.; Miloglyadov, E.; Quack, M. Schneider, A.; Seyfang, G.

    2015-12-28

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon—absorption and stimulated emission—process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference Δ{sub pv}E between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 3} fundamentals as well as the 2ν{sub 4} overtone of {sup 14}NH{sub 3}, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν{sub 1}, ν{sub 3}, and 2ν{sub 4} levels in the context of previously known data for ν{sub 2} and its overtone, as well as ν{sub 4}, and the ground state. Thus, now, {sup 14}N quadrupole coupling constants for all

  16. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y.

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  17. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  18. Predicting Pneumonitis Risk: A Dosimetric Alternative to Mean Lung Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Mohan, Radhe; Liengsawangwong, Raweewan; Martel, Mary K.; Liao Zhongxing

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the association between mean lung dose (MLD) and risk of severe (grade {>=}3) radiation pneumonitis (RP) depends on the dose distribution pattern to normal lung among patients receiving 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Three cohorts treated with different beam arrangements were identified. One cohort (2-field boost [2FB]) received 2 parallel-opposed (anteroposterior-posteroanterior) fields per fraction initially, followed by a sequential boost delivered using 2 oblique beams. The other 2 cohorts received 3 or 4 straight fields (3FS and 4FS, respectively), ie, all fields were irradiated every day. The incidence of severe RP was plotted against MLD in each cohort, and data were analyzed using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: The incidence of grade {>=}3 RP rose more steeply as a function of MLD in the 2FB cohort (N=120) than in the 4FS cohort (N=138), with an intermediate slope for the 3FS group (N=99). The estimated volume parameter from the LKB model was n=0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-1.0) and led to a significant improvement in fit (P=.05) compared to a fit with volume parameter fixed at n=1 (the MLD model). Unlike the MLD model, the LKB model with n=0.41 provided a consistent description of the risk of severe RP in all three cohorts (2FB, 3FS, 4FS) simultaneously. Conclusions: When predicting risk of grade {>=}3 RP, the mean lung dose does not adequately take into account the effects of high doses. Instead, the effective dose, computed from the LKB model using volume parameter n=0.41, may provide a better dosimetric parameter for predicting RP risk. If confirmed, these findings support the conclusion that for the same MLD, high doses to small lung volumes ('a lot to a little') are worse than low doses to large volumes ('a little to a lot').

  19. HELICITY CONSERVATION IN NONLINEAR MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pipin, V. V.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Zhang, H.; Kuzanyan, K. M.

    2013-05-01

    It is believed that magnetic helicity conservation is an important constraint on large-scale astrophysical dynamos. In this paper, we study a mean-field solar dynamo model that employs two different formulations of the magnetic helicity conservation. In the first approach, the evolution of the averaged small-scale magnetic helicity is largely determined by the local induction effects due to the large-scale magnetic field, turbulent motions, and the turbulent diffusive loss of helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that the typical strength of the large-scale magnetic field generated by the dynamo is much smaller than the equipartition value for the magnetic Reynolds number 10{sup 6}. This is the so-called catastrophic quenching (CQ) phenomenon. In the literature, this is considered to be typical for various kinds of solar dynamo models, including the distributed-type and the Babcock-Leighton-type dynamos. The problem can be resolved by the second formulation, which is derived from the integral conservation of the total magnetic helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that magnetic helicity propagates with the dynamo wave from the bottom of the convection zone to the surface. This prevents CQ because of the local balance between the large-scale and small-scale magnetic helicities. Thus, the solar dynamo can operate in a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers up to 10{sup 6}.

  20. What do we mean by the word “Shock”?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runnels, Scott Robert

    2015-08-24

    From one vantage point, a shock is a continuous but drastic change in state variables that occurs over very small time and length scales. These scales and associated changes in state variables can be measured experimentally. From another vantage point, a shock is a mathematical singularity consisting of instantaneous changes in state variables. This more mathematical view gives rise to analytical solutions to idealized problems. And from a third vantage point, a shock is a structure in a hydrocode prediction. Its width depends on the simulation’s grid resolution and artificial viscosity. These three vantage points can be in conflict when ideas from the associated fields are combined, and yet combining them is an important goal of an integrated modeling program. This presentation explores an example of how models for real materials in the presence of real shocks react to a hydrocode’s numerical shocks of finite width. The presentation will include an introduction to plasticity for the novice, an historical view of plasticity algorithms, a demonstration of how pursuing the meaning of “shock” has resulted in hydrocode improvements, and will conclude by answering some of the questions that arise from that pursuit. After the technical part of the presentation, a few slides advertising LANL’s Computational Physics Student Summer Workshop will be shown.

  1. Can-out hatch assembly with magnetic retention means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Robert C.; Hoh, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    A can-out hatch assembly may be positioned in sealed engagement about an aperture within a chamber and is adapted to engage a cover on a container positioned over the aperture to allow the transfer of a contaminant from the chamber to the container while maintaining the contaminant as well as internal portions of the chamber and container isolated from the surrounding environment. With the container's cover engaged by the can-out hatch assembly, the hatch assembly as well as the cover may be pivotally displaced from the aperture with the cover maintaining the exterior portion of the hatch assembly isolated from the contaminant. After the contaminant is transferred from the chamber to the container, the hatch assembly and cover are again positioned in sealed engagement about the aperture. The hatch assembly then positions the cover upon the open end of the container in a sealed manner allowing the container to be removed while maintaining the chamber sealed relative to the surrounding environment. The can-out hatch assembly is particularly adapted for operation by remote control means within the sealed chamber.

  2. Can-out hatch assembly with magnetic retention means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, R.C.; Hoh, J.C.

    1985-07-03

    A can-out hatch assembly may be positioned in sealed engagement about aperture within a chamber and is adapted to engage a cover on a container positioned over the aperture to allow the transfer of a contaminant from the chamber to the container while maintaining the contaminant as well as internal portions of the chamber and container isolated from the surrounding environment. With the container's cover engaged by the can-out hatch assembly, the hatch assembly as well as the cover may be pivotally displaced from the aperture with the cover maintaining the exterior portion of the hatch assembly isolated from the contaminant. After the contaminant is transferred from the chamber to the container, the hatch assembly and cover are again positioned in sealed engagement about the aperture. The hatch assembly then positions the cover upon the open end of the container in a sealed manner allowing the container to be removed while maintaining the chamber sealed relative to the surrounding environment. The can-out hatch assembly is particularly adapted for operation by remote control means within the sealed chamber.

  3. METHOD AND MEANS FOR SUPPORTING REACTOR FUEL CONTAINERS IN AN ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.; Coombs, C.A.

    1962-12-11

    This patent relates to means for supporting fuelcontaining tubes in an assembly which include grid means at either end of the fuel element assembly antl improved grid means intermediate of the ends to provide support against lateral displacement. (AEC)

  4. Effects of potassium or potassium/magnesium supplementation on potassium content of body tissues and fluids in furosemide-treated rats on magnesium-deficient or magnesium-sufficient diet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coram, W.M.; Kapeghian, J.C.; Plocinski, A.F.; Toledo, L.M.; Douglas, F.L.; Weiss, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Persistent Mg{sup 2+} deficiency may interfere with restoration of normal tissue K{sup +} levels. This study examined: (a) the effects of chronic furosemide treatment of K{sup +} of sartorius, aorta and ventricle of rats fed Mg{sup 2+}-deficient or Mg{sup 2+} sufficient diet and deionized water; (b) whether normal tissue K{sup +} is restored by oral K{sup +} or K{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} supplementation with continued furosemide therapy. Levels of Mg{sup 2+} were also measured. Furosemide decreased K{sup +} in sartorius, aorta and ventricle by 5.5, 4.3 and 19.9 {mu}Eq/gm, respectively, in rats fed 100 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. Furosemide did not alter K{sup +} levels in rats fed 400 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. K{sup +} supplementation restored K{sup +} to normal in sartorius but the addition of Mg{sup 2+} supplementation was necessary to restore K+ levels to normal in ventricle and aorta. These data indicate that furosemide can decrease tissue K{sup +} in rats on a Mg{sup 2+}- deficient diet. This decrease can be reversed during diuretic administration by K{sup +} supplementation in sartorius, or K{sup +} plus Mg{sup 2+} supplementation in ventricle and aorta.

  5. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  6. Property:Building/MeanAnnualTempAtSite | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of type Number. Mean annual temperature at the site1 Pages using the property "BuildingMeanAnnualTempAtSite" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S...

  7. Table B1. Summary Table: Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ....",2786,53395,71290,19.2,749,68 "Energy Management and" " Control System (EMCS) ... Building","RSEs for Mean Square Feet per Worker","RSEs for Mean Hours per Week" "All ...

  8. Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery could mean ingredients for life are abundant on icy space bodies. March 5, 2012 Curiosity rover bears three LANL technologies Inside Titan: This artist's concept shows a possible scenario for the internal structure of Titan, as suggested by data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Scientists have been trying to determine what is under Titan's

  9. Solution to plasma-etching puzzle could mean more powerful microchips...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solution to plasma-etching puzzle could mean more powerful microchips By John Greenwald ... unprecedented control of a recent plasma-based technique for etching transistors ...

  10. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water ...

  11. Method and means for continuous precipitation of easy-dry, granular uranium peroxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahill, Allen E.; Burkhart, deceased, Lawrence E.

    1992-02-28

    A method and means for continuous precipitation of granular uranium peroxide. The reaction vessel and agitation method practiced in it avoid filter plugging and caking problems.

  12. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, March 20, 1990--June 20, 1990, Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-07-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type centrifuges, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the evironment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology.

  13. Electric coheating as a means to test duct efficiency: A review and analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Recent published literature on electric coheating was reviewed in order to assess its suitability for use in a method of test for the efficiency of residential duct systems. Electric coheating is the research use of electric heaters within the heated space to assess the thermal integrity of the building envelope. Information was sought in two primary areas: (1) experimental methodology and (2) accuracy of the coheating method. A variety of experimental variations was found, and the method was judged, on the basis of published data, to be capable of sufficient accuracy for use in duct testing.

  14. Physical meaning of gauge and super-gauge in general-relativistic field theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treder, H.

    1985-05-01

    The physical meaning of gauge groups in bimetrical, Riemannian, and Hermitian theories of gravitation is discussed. In Hermitian relativity, Einstein's A-invariance means a super-gauge group which characterizes the Einstein-Schroedinger equations as the only nondegenerate general-relativistic field theory.

  15. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1991-09-10

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch. 11 figures.

  16. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1991-01-01

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch.

  17. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Donald O.; Hsu, David K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses.

  18. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, D.O.; Hsu, D.K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses. 25 figures.

  19. Means and method for the destruction of particles entrained in a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the destruction of particles entrained in a gas stream are disclosed. Destruction in the context of the subject invention means the fragmentation and/or vaporization of particles above a certain size limit. The subject invention contemplates destroying such particles by exposing them to intense bursts of laser light, such light having a frequency approximately equal to or less than the mean size of such particles. This invention is particularly adopted to the protection of turbine blades in open cycle coal-fired turbine systems. Means for introducing various chemical species and activating them by exposure to laser light are also disclosed.

  20. Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry Monday, August 1, 2011 - 2:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137 Conference Room ...

  1. GX-Means: A model-based divide and merge algorithm for geospatial image clustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju; Symons, Christopher T; Chandola, Varun; Jun, Goo

    2011-01-01

    One of the practical issues in clustering is the specification of the appropriate number of clusters, which is not obvious when analyzing geospatial datasets, partly because they are huge (both in size and spatial extent) and high dimensional. In this paper we present a computationally efficient model-based split and merge clustering algorithm that incrementally finds model parameters and the number of clusters. Additionally, we attempt to provide insights into this problem and other data mining challenges that are encountered when clustering geospatial data. The basic algorithm we present is similar to the G-means and X-means algorithms; however, our proposed approach avoids certain limitations of these well-known clustering algorithms that are pertinent when dealing with geospatial data. We compare the performance of our approach with the G-means and X-means algorithms. Experimental evaluation on simulated data and on multispectral and hyperspectral remotely sensed image data demonstrates the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  2. f-electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce studied by means of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    f-electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce studied by means of spin-resolved resonant photoemission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: f-electron correlations in nonmagnetic ...

  3. BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological Macromolecules Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 10:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov,...

  4. Twenty years after '95: What climate change means for heat waves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Twenty years after '95: What climate change means for heat waves, cities and forecasting ... "In the last few years, there's been a big push to get instruments into urban areas." ...

  5. Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports U.S. crude oil production topped 7 million barrels per day in November and December for the first time in 20 ...

  6. Transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous and autonomous compartmental systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Hastings, Alan; Smith, Matthew J.; Agusto, Folashade B.; Chen-Charpentier, Benito M.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Jiang, Jiang; Todd-Brown, Katherine E. O.; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying -Ping; et al

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a theory for transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous compartmental systems. Using the McKendrick–von Förster equation, we show that the mean ages of mass in a compartmental system satisfy a linear nonautonomous ordinary differential equation that is exponentially stable. We then define a nonautonomous version of transit time as the mean age of mass leaving the compartmental system at a particular time and show that our nonautonomous theory generalises the autonomous case. We apply these results to study a nine-dimensional nonautonomous compartmental system modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle, which is a modification of themore » Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model, and we demonstrate that the nonautonomous versions of transit time and mean age differ significantly from the autonomous quantities when calculated for that model.« less

  7. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25.degree. C.

  8. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  9. What Do Clean Energy Tax Credits Mean for Minnesota (and America)? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Do Clean Energy Tax Credits Mean for Minnesota (and America)? What Do Clean Energy Tax Credits Mean for Minnesota (and America)? July 18, 2012 - 5:34pm Addthis Earlier this week Deputy Secretary Poneman also visited Environment Minnesota, where he spoke with members about their efforts to educate their community on the importance of clean energy tax credits. | Energy Department photo. Earlier this week Deputy Secretary Poneman also visited Environment Minnesota, where he

  10. What Would the President's Proposed 2013 Budget Mean to the Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department? | Department of Energy Would the President's Proposed 2013 Budget Mean to the Energy Department? What Would the President's Proposed 2013 Budget Mean to the Energy Department? February 14, 2012 - 12:56pm Addthis Secretary Chu details President Barack Obama's $27.2 billion fiscal year 2013 budget request for the Department of Energy. Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu detailed President Barack

  11. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  12. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  13. Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source is revealing the unique structure of incredible, adaptable fish armor.

  14. Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Enlarge Photo Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing fresh water fish in the Amazon Basin that ... Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing fresh water fish in the Amazon Basin that swims with ...

  15. STEM Students Aim to Increase Tribal Self-Sufficiency | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... The 350-kilowatt community-scale PV project mentioned above is one that targets many goals, including: To ensure water security for our community when a power outage occurs To ...

  16. Recommendation 227: Recommendation to EM on Request for Sufficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    believe the EM budget request is insufficient to meet cleanup obligations and DOE needs to honor agreements and established milestones between the federal government, the states, ...

  17. Agua Caliente Band's Pursuit of Energy Self-Sufficiency Gains...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians in the Palm Springs area of California is a ... Caliente Resort and Casino in Rancho Mirage, California. View the workshop presentations. ...

  18. Experts say Iran nuclear agreement is sufficiently verifiable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2015-12-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency will use the latest surveillance technologies to ensure compliance.

  19. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 22479542 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Mathematical Physics; Journal Volume: 56; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: ...

  20. Transcriptional bursting explains the noise–versus–mean relationship in mRNA and protein levels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dar, Roy; Shaffer, Sydney M.; Singh, Abhyudai; Razooky, Brandon S.; Simpson, Michael L.; Raj, Arjun; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2016-07-28

    Recent analysis demonstrates that the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (HIV LTR) promoter exhibits a range of possible transcriptional burst sizes and frequencies for any mean-expression level. However, these results have also been interpreted as demonstrating that cell-tocell expression variability (noise) and mean are uncorrelated, a significant deviation from previous results. Here, we re-examine the available mRNA and protein abundance data for the HIV LTR and find that noise in mRNA and protein expression scales inversely with the mean along analytically predicted transcriptional burst-size manifolds. We then experimentally perturb transcriptional activity to test a prediction of the multiple burst-size model: thatmore » increasing burst frequency will cause mRNA noise to decrease along given burst-size lines as mRNA levels increase. In conclusion, the data show that mRNA and protein noise decrease as mean expression increases, supporting the canonical inverse correlation between noise and mean.« less

  1. Measuring phonon mean free path distributions by probing quasiballistic phonon transport in grating nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang

    2015-11-27

    Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.

  2. Measuring phonon mean free path distributions by probing quasiballistic phonon transport in grating nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; et al

    2015-11-27

    Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domainmore » thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.« less

  3. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development.

  4. WHAT THE SMART GRID MEANS TO YOU AND THE PEOPLE YOU REPRESENT. | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy THE SMART GRID MEANS TO YOU AND THE PEOPLE YOU REPRESENT. WHAT THE SMART GRID MEANS TO YOU AND THE PEOPLE YOU REPRESENT. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is charged under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) with modernizing the nation's electricity grid to improve its reliability and efficiency. As part of this effort, DOE is also responsible for increasing awareness of our nation's Smart Grid. Building upon The Smart Grid: An Introduction, a

  5. Weakly interacting two-dimensional system of dipoles: Limitations of the mean-field theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2007-06-15

    We consider a homogeneous two-dimensional Bose gas with repulsive dipole-dipole interactions. The ground-state equation of state, calculated using the diffusion Monte Carlo method, shows quantitative differences from the predictions of the commonly used Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field theory. The static structure factor, pair distribution function, and condensate fraction are calculated in a wide range of the gas parameter. Differences from mean-field theory are reflected in the frequency of the lowest ''breathing'' mode for harmonically trapped systems.

  6. R&D 100: Smart Sensors Mean Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Sensors Mean Energy Savings R&D 100: Smart Sensors Mean Energy Savings July 23, 2013 - 3:04pm Addthis Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently developed a new smart occupancy sensor that adds optics to what had only been a motion detection before. The new sensor combines an inexpensive camera with a high-speed microprocessor and algorithms to detect movement and human presence in a room with an accuracy of more than 90 percent -- an

  7. VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth in solar means growth in Ohio VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 10:57am Addthis DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy

  8. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  9. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edwards; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  10. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Sperling

    2009-04-15

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  11. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Daniel Sperling

    2010-01-08

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  12. Towards a nonequilibrium Green's function description of nuclear reactions: One-dimensional mean-field dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rios, Arnau; Barker, Brent; Buchler, Mark; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Dynamics of central nuclear reactions. > Nonequilibrium Green's functions and Kadanoff-Baym formalism. > Adiabatic switching on of interactions. > Mean-field time evolution of nuclear slabs. > Off-diagonal spatial structure of a collision density matrix. - Abstract: Nonequilibrium Green's function methods allow for an intrinsically consistent description of the evolution of quantal many-body body systems, with inclusion of different types of correlations. In this paper, we focus on the practical developments needed to build a Green's function methodology for nuclear reactions. We start out by considering symmetric collisions of slabs in one dimension within the mean-field approximation. We concentrate on two issues of importance for actual reaction simulations. First, the preparation of the initial state within the same methodology as for the reaction dynamics is demonstrated by an adiabatic switching on of the mean-field interaction, which leads to the mean-field ground state. Second, the importance of the Green's function matrix-elements far away from the spatial diagonal is analyzed by a suitable suppression process that does not significantly affect the evolution of the elements close to the diagonal. The relative lack of importance of the far-away elements is tied to system expansion. We also examine the evolution of the Wigner function and verify quantitatively that erasing of the off-diagonal elements corresponds to averaging out of the momentum-space details in the Wigner function.

  13. The many meanings of gross photosynthesis and their implication for photosynthesis research from leaf to globe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gu, Lianhong

    2015-06-25

    different meanings by different communities. We review the history of this term and associated concepts to clarify the terminology and make recommendations about a consistent use of terms in accordance with photosynthetic theory. We show that a widely used eddy covariance CO2 flux partitioning approach yields estimates which are quantitatively closer to the definition of true photosynthesis despite aiming at estimating apparent photosynthesis.

  14. Mean-field analysis of quantum phase transitions in a periodic optical superlattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhar, Arya; Singh, Manpreet; Pai, Ramesh V.; Das, B. P.

    2011-09-15

    We analyze the various phases exhibited by a system of ultracold bosons in a periodic optical superlattice using the mean-field decoupling approximation. We investigate for a wide range of commensurate and incommensurate densities. We find the gapless superfluid phase, the gapped Mott insulator phase, and gapped insulator phases with distinct density wave orders.

  15. Projected Changes in Mean and Interannual Variability of Surface Water over Continental China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Hong, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-05-01

    Five General Circulation Model (GCM) climate projections under the RCP8.5 emission scenario were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to investigate the impacts of climate change on hydrologic cycle over continental China in the 21st century. The bias-corrected climatic variables were generated for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Results showed much larger fractional changes of annual mean Evaportranspiration (ET) per unit warming than the corresponding fractional changes of Precipitation (P) per unit warming across the country especially for South China, which led to notable decrease of surface water variability (P-E). Specifically, negative trends for annual mean runoff up to -0.33%/decade and soil moisture trends varying between -0.02 to -0.13%/decade were found for most river basins across China. Coincidentally, interannual variability for both runoff and soil moisture exhibited significant positive trends for almost all river basins across China, implying an increase in extremes relative to the mean conditions. Noticeably, the largest positive trends for runoff variability and soil moisture variability, which were up to 38 0.41%/decade and 0.90%/decade, both occurred in Southwest China. In addition to the regional contrast, intra-seasonal variation was also large for the runoff mean and runoff variability changes, but small for the soil moisture mean and variability changes. Our results suggest that future climate change could further exacerbate existing water-related risks (e.g. floods and droughts) across China as indicated by the marked decrease of surface water amounts combined with steady increase of interannual variability throughout the 21st century. This study highlights the regional contrast and intra-seasonal variations for the projected hydrologic changes and could provide muti

  16. SU-E-J-267: Change in Mean CT Intensity of Lung Tumors During Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, R; Tennyson, N; Weiss, E; Hugo, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate CT intensity change of lung tumors during radiation therapy. Methods: Repeated 4D CT images were acquired on a CT simulator during the course of therapy for 27 lung cancer patients on IRB approved protocols. All subjects received definitive radiation treatment ± chemotherapy. CT scans were completed prior to treatment, and 2–7 times during the treatment course. Primary tumor was delineated by an experienced Radiation Oncologist. Contours were thresholded between −100 HU and 200 HU to remove airways and bone. Correlations between the change in the mean tumor intensity and initial tumor intensity, SUVmax, and tumor volume change rate were investigated. Reproducibility was assessed by evaluating the variation in mean intensity over all phases in 4DCT, for a subgroup of 19 subjects. Results: Reproducibility of tumor intensity between phases as characterized by the root mean square of standard deviation across 19 subjects was 1.8 HU. Subjects had a mean initial tumor intensity of 16.5 ± 11.6 HU and an overall reduction in HU by 10.3 ± 8.5 HU. Evaluation of the changes in tumor intensity during treatment showed a decrease of 0.3 ± 0.3 HU/day for all subjects, except three. No significant correlation was found between change in HU/day and initial HU intensity (p=0.53), initial PET SUVmax (p=0.69), or initial tumor volume (p=0.70). The rate of tumor volume change was weakly correlated (R{sup 2}=0.05) with HU change (p=0.01). Conclusion: Most lung cancer subjects showed a marked trend of decreasing mean tumor CT intensity throughout radiotherapy, including early in the treatment course. Change in HU/day is not correlated with other potential early predictors for response, such as SUV and tumor volume change. This Result supports future studies to evaluate change in tumor intensity on CT as an early predictor of response.

  17. An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Makoto Obata, Masao; Morishita, Tetsuya; Oda, Tatsuki; Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192

    2014-05-14

    We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields.

  18. Spin Chain in Magnetic Field: Limitations of the Large-N Mean-Field Theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfeld, K.; Chen, Cheng-Chien; van Veenendaal, M.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by the recent success in describing the spin and orbital spectrum of a spin-orbital chain using a large-N mean-field approximation [Phys. Rev. B 91, 165102 (2015)], we apply the same formalism to the case of a spin chain in the external magnetic field. It occurs that in this case, which corresponds to N=2 in the approximation, the large-N mean-field theory cannot qualitatively reproduce the spin excitation spectra at high magnetic fields, which polarize more than 50% of the spins in the magnetic ground state. This, rather counterintuitively, shows that the physics of a spin chain can under some circumstancesmore » be regarded as more complex than the physics of a spin-orbital chain.« less

  19. A mean-field monomer-dimer model with attractive interaction: Exact solution and rigorous results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alberici, D. Contucci, P. Mingione, E.

    2014-06-15

    A mean-field monomer-dimer model which includes an attractive interaction among both monomers and dimers is introduced and its exact solution rigorously derived. The Heilmann-Lieb method for the pure hard-core interacting case is used to compute upper and lower bounds for the pressure. The bounds are shown to coincide in the thermodynamic limit for a suitable choice of the monomer density m. The computation of the monomer density is achieved by solving a consistency equation in the phase space (h, J), where h tunes the monomer potential and J the attractive potential. The critical point and exponents are computed and show that the model is in the mean-field ferromagnetic universality class.

  20. A mean field theory for the cold quark gluon plasma applied to stellar structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Franzon, B.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    An equation of state based on a mean-field approximation of QCD is used to describe the cold quark gluon plasma and also to study the structure of compact stars. We obtain stellar masses compatible with the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 that was determined to have a mass of (1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }), and the corresponding radius around 10-11 km.

  1. Global phenomenology of mean field structure and phase transitional behavior in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamfir, N.V. ||; Casten, R.F.; Brenner, D.S.

    1994-03-01

    Correlation schemes of nuclear properties provide a powerful organizing principle for nuclear phenomenology. Mean field observables can be systematized in the framework of Valence Correlation Schemes. Direct Correlations Schemes provide new signatures to identify particular structure. The correlations of yrast energies give a new tripartite global characterization of the evolution of nuclear structure. The linking regions where the major structural changes occur can be interpreted in terms of critical phase transitions.

  2. Solution to plasma-etching puzzle could mean more powerful microchips |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Solution to plasma-etching puzzle could mean more powerful microchips By John Greenwald February 11, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook An integrated-circuit microchip with 456 million transistors (Photo by John Greenwald/PPPL Office of Communications) An integrated-circuit microchip with 456 million transistors Research conducted by PPPL in collaboration with the University of Alberta provides a key step toward the development of ever-more

  3. Solution to plasma-etching puzzle could mean more powerful microchips |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Solution to plasma-etching puzzle could mean more powerful microchips By John Greenwald February 11, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook An integrated-circuit microchip with 456 million transistors (Photo by John Greenwald/PPPL Office of Communications) An integrated-circuit microchip with 456 million transistors Research conducted by PPPL in collaboration with the University of Alberta provides a key step toward the development of ever-more

  4. BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Macromolecules | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological Macromolecules Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 10:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov, Biological Small Angle Scattering Group, EMBL Hamburg Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is universal low-resolution method to study native particles in solution and analyze structural changes in response to variations of external conditions. SAXS is

  5. Entangling optical and microwave cavity modes by means of a nanomechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzanjeh, Sh.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.; Milburn, G. J.

    2011-10-15

    We propose a scheme that is able to generate stationary continuous-variable entanglement between an optical and a microwave cavity mode by means of their common interaction with a nanomechanical resonator. We show that when both cavities are intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair of the tripartite system, and that, due to entanglement sharing, optical-microwave entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of microwave-mechanical and optomechanical entanglement.

  6. Chemical cartography with apogee: Large-scale mean metallicity maps of the Milky Way disk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayden, Michael R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Lee, Young Sun; Bovy, Jo; Majewski, Steven R.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Cunha, Katia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Girardi, Léo; Hearty, Fred R.; Nidever, David; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu E-mail: feuilldk@nmsu.edu; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present Galactic mean metallicity maps derived from the first year of the SDSS-III APOGEE experiment. Mean abundances in different zones of projected Galactocentric radius (0 < R < 15 kpc) at a range of heights above the plane (0 < |z| < 3 kpc), are derived from a sample of nearly 20,000 giant stars with unprecedented coverage, including stars in the Galactic mid-plane at large distances. We also split the sample into subsamples of stars with low- and high-[α/M] abundance ratios. We assess possible biases in deriving the mean abundances, and find that they are likely to be small except in the inner regions of the Galaxy. A negative radial metallicity gradient exists over much of the Galaxy; however, the gradient appears to flatten for R < 6 kpc, in particular near the Galactic mid-plane and for low-[α/M] stars. At R > 6 kpc, the gradient flattens as one moves off the plane, and is flatter at all heights for high-[α/M] stars than for low-[α/M] stars. Alternatively, these gradients can be described as vertical gradients that flatten at larger Galactocentric radius; these vertical gradients are similar for both low- and high-[α/M] populations. Stars with higher [α/M] appear to have a flatter radial gradient than stars with lower [α/M]. This could suggest that the metallicity gradient has grown steeper with time or, alternatively, that gradients are washed out over time by migration of stars.

  7. Delayed charging. A means to improve two-stroke engine characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochelle, P.H.C.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed and patented a new simple device which reduces the amount of short-circuited fresh charge in two-stroke cycle engines and produces stratified charging and combustion. The principle consists in scavenging the burnt gases with fresh air and delaying the introduction of the fresh charge in the cylinder. A numerical simulation showed a good promise of consumption and pollution improvement for this configuration. Then, preliminary bench tests have been carried out with a 50 cc production engine and the same modified engine including a delay-circuit. Due to delayed charging, brake specific fuel consumption shows a mean 20% reduction, down to a maximum of 25% comparing to production engine figures; unburnt hydrocarbons show a mean 35% reduction, down to more than 50%; carbon-monoxide production decreases to a mean 1% concentration; and torque increases at low r.p.m., but lowers at higher speeds of revolution due to the diminished permeability of this first prototype engine. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2015-10-29

    In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate themore » evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.« less

  9. Modeling of stagnation-line nonequilibrium flows by means of quantum based collisional models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munafò, A. Magin, T. E.

    2014-09-15

    The stagnation-line flow over re-entry bodies is analyzed by means of a quantum based collisional model which accounts for dissociation and energy transfer in N{sub 2}-N interactions. The physical model is based on a kinetic database developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The reduction of the kinetic mechanism is achieved by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N{sub 2} molecule in energy bins. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The governing equations are discretized in space by means of the Finite Volume method. A fully implicit time-integration is used to obtain steady-state solutions. The results show that the population of the energy bins strongly deviate from a Boltzmann distribution close to the shock wave and across the boundary layer. The sensitivity analysis to the number of energy bins reveals that accurate estimation of flow quantities (such as chemical composition and wall heat flux) can be obtained by using only 10 energy bins. A comparison with the predictions obtained by means of conventional multi-temperature models indicates that the former can lead to an overestimation of the wall heat flux, due to an inaccurate modeling of recombination in the boundary layer.

  10. Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2015-10-29

    In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate the evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.

  11. Production of internal transport barriers via self-generated mean flows in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, C. L.; Ernst, D. R.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Howard, N. T.; Lee, Jungpyo; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Ma, Y.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rowan, W. L.; Bespamyatnov, I.

    2012-05-15

    New results suggest that changes observed in the intrinsic toroidal rotation influence the internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [E. S. Marmar and Alcator C-Mod group, Fusion Sci. Technol. 51, 261 (2007)]. These arise when the resonance for ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) minority heating is positioned off-axis at or outside of the plasma half-radius. These ITBs form in a reactor relevant regime, without particle or momentum injection, with Ti Almost-Equal-To Te, and with monotonic q profiles (q{sub min} < 1). C-Mod H-mode plasmas exhibit strong intrinsic co-current rotation that increases with increasing stored energy without external drive. When the resonance position is moved off-axis, the rotation decreases in the center of the plasma resulting in a radial toroidal rotation profile with a central well which deepens and moves farther off-axis when the ICRF resonance location reaches the plasma half-radius. This profile results in strong E Multiplication-Sign B shear (>1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} rad/s) in the region where the ITB foot is observed. Gyrokinetic analyses indicate that this spontaneous shearing rate is comparable to the linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) growth rate at the ITB location and is sufficient to reduce the turbulent particle and energy transport. New and detailed measurement of the ion temperature demonstrates that the radial profile flattens as the ICRF resonance position moves off axis, decreasing the drive for the ITG the instability as well. These results are the first evidence that intrinsic rotation can affect confinement in ITB plasmas.

  12. Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preventing a solar receiver (12) utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver (12) by a plurality of reflectors (16) which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver (12) as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank (30) for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank (30) includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank (34) for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank (34) having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver (12). The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank (30) through the solar receiver (12) and into the second storage tank (34). Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors (16) stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver (12) below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors (16) become defocused with respect to the solar receiver (12) due to the earth's rotation.

  13. Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glasgow, L.E.

    1980-11-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for preventing a solar receiver utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver by a plurality of reflectors which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver. The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank through the solar receiver and into the second storage tank. Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors become defocused with respect to the solar receiver due to the earth's rotation.

  14. WHAT THE SMART GRID MEANS TO YOU AND THE PEOPLE YOU SERVE | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy SERVE WHAT THE SMART GRID MEANS TO YOU AND THE PEOPLE YOU SERVE The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is charged under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) with modernizing the nation's electricity grid to improve its reliability and efficiency. As part of this effort, DOE is also responsible for increasing awareness of our nation's Smart Grid. Building upon The Smart Grid: An Introduction, a DOE-sponsored publication released in 2008 and available online at

  15. Method and means of passive detection of leaks in buried pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, T.

    1979-10-30

    A method and means for passive detection of a leak in a buried pipe containing fluid under pressure includes a plurality of acoustic detectors that are placed in contact with the pipe. Noise produced by the leak is detected by the detectors, and the detected signals are correlated to locate the leak. In one embodiment of the invention two detectors are placed at different locations to locate a leak between them. In an alternate embodiment two detectors of different waves are placed at substantially the same location to determine the distance of the leak from the location.

  16. Study of shape transitions in N{approx}90 isotopes with beyond mean field calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Tomas R.; Egido, J. L.

    2009-01-28

    We study the spherical to prolate-deformed shape transition in {sup 144-158}Sm and {sup 146-160}Gd isotopes with modern calculations beyond the mean field with the Gogny D1S force. We compare the results with the shape-phase transition predicted by the collective Hamiltonian model and with the experimental data. Our calculations do not support the existence of a first order phase transition in these isotopic chains in the viewpoint of the Bohr Hamiltonian neither the interpretation of the nuclei N = 90 as critical points.

  17. RADIATION MONITOR CONTAINING TWO CONCENTRIC IONIZATION CHAMBERS AND MEANS FOR INSULATING THE SEPARATE CHAMBERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braestrup, C.B.; Mooney, R.T.

    1964-01-21

    This invention relates to a portable radiation monitor containing two concentric ionization chambers which permit the use of standard charging and reading devices. It is particularly adapted as a personnel x-ray dosimeter and to this end comprises a small thin walled, cylindrical conductor forming an inner energy dependent chamber, a small thin walled, cylindrical conductor forming an outer energy independent chamber, and polymeric insulation means which insulates said chambers from each other and holds the chambers together with exposed connections in a simple, trouble-free, and compact assembly substantially without variation in directional response. (AEC)

  18. Study of the plastic phases of norbornene and bicyclooctene by means of muonic radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricco, M.; Bucci, C.; De Renzi, R.; Guidi, G.; Podini, P.; Tedeschi, R.; Scott, C.A.

    1987-04-01

    We have observed the formation of muonium adduct radicals in norbornene and bicyclooctene. The behavior of the hyperfine constants and of the ..mu..SR linewidths have been investigated as a function of temperature; they have been correlated with the reorientational dynamics of the molecules, which have already been partially determined by means of Raman, NMR, and neutron scattering data. Our measurements have also been interpreted in terms of the electronic configuration of the radicals. In the case of norbornene at the plastic--brittle transition, an abrupt change of tau/sub c/ of 13 orders of magnitude was determined.

  19. Antikaons in the extended relativistic mean-field models for neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Neha; Arumugam, P.

    2012-10-20

    We review the role of antikaons in recent versions of relativistic mean field models and focus on the interactions in which all parameters are obtained by fitting finite nuclear data and successfully applied to reproduce a variety of nuclear and neutron star (NS) properties. We show that the recently observed 1.97 solar mass NS can be explained in three ways: (i) A stiffer EoS with both antikaons (K{sup -}, K-bar {sup 0}), (ii) a relatively softer EoS with K{sup -} and (iii) a softer EoS with nucleon phase only.

  20. Method and means of passive detection of leaks in buried pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, Thomas N.

    1981-01-01

    A method and means for passive detection of a leak in a buried pipe containing fluid under pressure includes a plurality of acoustic detectors that are placed in contact with the pipe. Noise produced by the leak is detected by the detectors, and the detected signals are correlated to locate the leak. In one embodiment of the invention two detectors are placed at different locations to locate a leak between them. In an alternate embodiment two detectors of different waves are placed at substantially the same location to determine the distance of the leak from the location.

  1. Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O surface studied by means of scanning tunnelling microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witek, A.; Dabkowski, A.; Rauluszkiewicz, J.

    1989-03-10

    Surface topography of the high-T/sub c/ superconductor BiSrCaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ has been investigated by means of scanning tunnelling microscope. The measurements were performed on the natural surface of ceramics material in air at room temperature. It can be deduced from the surface images, that bulk orthorhombic crystal structure extends to the surface. The surface seems to be uniform metallic in character and not drastically contaminated. Regular steps observed on the surface correspond to the dimension of the unit cell in z direction or its multiples.

  2. Risk assessment for Industrial Control Systems quantifying availability using mean failure cost (MFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qian; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-09-23

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are commonly used in industries such as oil and natural gas, transportation, electric, water and wastewater, chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, as well as discrete manufacturing (e.g., automotive, aerospace, and durable goods.) SCADA systems are generally used to control dispersed assets using centralized data acquisition and supervisory control. Originally, ICS implementations were susceptible primarily to local threats because most of their components were located in physically secure areas (i.e., ICS components were not connected to IT networks or systems). The trend toward integrating ICS systems with IT networks (e.g., efficiency and the Internet of Things) provides significantly less isolation for ICS from the outside world thus creating greater risk due to external threats. Albeit, the availability of ICS/SCADA systems is critical to assuring safety, security and profitability. Such systems form the backbone of our national cyber-physical infrastructure. We extend the concept of mean failure cost (MFC) to address quantifying availability to harmonize well with ICS security risk assessment. This new measure is based on the classic formulation of Availability combined with Mean Failure Cost (MFC). The metric offers a computational basis to estimate the availability of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security violations or breakdowns (e.g., deliberate malicious failures).

  3. Risk assessment for Industrial Control Systems quantifying availability using mean failure cost (MFC)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Qian; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-09-23

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are commonly used in industries such as oil and natural gas, transportation, electric, water and wastewater, chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, as well as discrete manufacturing (e.g., automotive, aerospace, and durable goods.) SCADA systems are generally used to control dispersed assets using centralized data acquisition and supervisory control. Originally, ICS implementations were susceptible primarily to local threats because most of their components were located in physically secure areas (i.e., ICS components were not connected to IT networks or systems). The trend toward integrating ICS systems with IT networks (e.g., efficiency and the Internetmore » of Things) provides significantly less isolation for ICS from the outside world thus creating greater risk due to external threats. Albeit, the availability of ICS/SCADA systems is critical to assuring safety, security and profitability. Such systems form the backbone of our national cyber-physical infrastructure. We extend the concept of mean failure cost (MFC) to address quantifying availability to harmonize well with ICS security risk assessment. This new measure is based on the classic formulation of Availability combined with Mean Failure Cost (MFC). The metric offers a computational basis to estimate the availability of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security violations or breakdowns (e.g., deliberate malicious failures).« less

  4. Orthogonal control of expression mean and variance by epigenetic features at different genomic loci

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Siddharth S.; Foley, Jonathan E.; Limsirichai, Prajit; Schaffer, David V.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-05-05

    While gene expression noise has been shown to drive dramatic phenotypic variations, the molecular basis for this variability in mammalian systems is not well understood. Gene expression has been shown to be regulated by promoter architecture and the associated chromatin environment. However, the exact contribution of these two factors in regulating expression noise has not been explored. Using a dual-reporter lentiviral model system, we deconvolved the influence of the promoter sequence to systematically study the contribution of the chromatin environment at different genomic locations in regulating expression noise. By integrating a large-scale analysis to quantify mRNA levels by smFISH and protein levels by flow cytometry in single cells, we found that mean expression and noise are uncorrelated across genomic locations. Furthermore, we showed that this independence could be explained by the orthogonal control of mean expression by the transcript burst size and noise by the burst frequency. Finally, we showed that genomic locations displaying higher expression noise are associated with more repressed chromatin, thereby indicating the contribution of the chromatin environment in regulating expression noise.

  5. Orthogonal control of expression mean and variance by epigenetic features at different genomic loci

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dey, Siddharth S.; Foley, Jonathan E.; Limsirichai, Prajit; Schaffer, David V.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-05-05

    While gene expression noise has been shown to drive dramatic phenotypic variations, the molecular basis for this variability in mammalian systems is not well understood. Gene expression has been shown to be regulated by promoter architecture and the associated chromatin environment. However, the exact contribution of these two factors in regulating expression noise has not been explored. Using a dual-reporter lentiviral model system, we deconvolved the influence of the promoter sequence to systematically study the contribution of the chromatin environment at different genomic locations in regulating expression noise. By integrating a large-scale analysis to quantify mRNA levels by smFISH andmore » protein levels by flow cytometry in single cells, we found that mean expression and noise are uncorrelated across genomic locations. Furthermore, we showed that this independence could be explained by the orthogonal control of mean expression by the transcript burst size and noise by the burst frequency. Finally, we showed that genomic locations displaying higher expression noise are associated with more repressed chromatin, thereby indicating the contribution of the chromatin environment in regulating expression noise.« less

  6. Optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molley, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    An optical architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm, MSE=.SIGMA.[I-R].sup.2 for discriminating the presence of a reference image R in an input image scene I by computing the mean-square-error between a time-varying reference image signal s.sub.1 (t) and a time-varying input image signal s.sub.2 (t) includes a laser diode light source which is temporally modulated by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier source modulation signal I.sub.1 (t) having the form I.sub.1 (t)=A.sub.1 [1+.sqroot.2m.sub.1 s.sub.1 (t)cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t)] and the modulated light output from the laser diode source is diffracted by an acousto-optic deflector. The resultant intensity of the +1 diffracted order from the acousto-optic device is given by: I.sub.2 (t)=A.sub.2 [+2m.sub.2.sup.2 s.sub.2.sup.2 (t)-2.sqroot.2m.sub.2 (t) cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t] The time integration of the two signals I.sub.1 (t) and I.sub.2 (t) on the CCD deflector plane produces the result R(.tau.) of the mean-square error having the form: R(.tau.)=A.sub.1 A.sub.2 {[T]+[2m.sub.2.sup.2.multidot..intg.s.sub.2.sup.2 (t-.tau.)dt]-[2m.sub.1 m.sub.2 cos (2.tau.f.sub.o .tau.).multidot..intg.s.sub.1 (t)s.sub.2 (t-.tau.)dt]} where: s.sub.1 (t) is the signal input to the diode modulation source: s.sub.2 (t) is the signal input to the AOD modulation source; A.sub.1 is the light intensity; A.sub.2 is the diffraction efficiency; m.sub.1 and m.sub.2 are constants that determine the signal-to-bias ratio; f.sub.o is the frequency offset between the oscillator at f.sub.c and the modulation at f.sub.c +f.sub.o ; and a.sub.o and a.sub.1 are constant chosen to bias the diode source and the acousto-optic deflector into their respective linear operating regions so that the diode source exhibits a linear intensity characteristic and the AOD exhibits a linear amplitude characteristic.

  7. Fair share on high performance computing systems : what does fair really mean?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clearwater, Scott Harvey; Kleban, Stephen David

    2003-03-01

    We report on a performance evaluation of a Fair Share system at the ASCI Blue Mountain supercomputer cluster. We study the impacts of share allocation under Fair Share on wait times and expansion factor. We also measure the Service Ratio, a typical figure of merit for Fair Share systems, with respect to a number of job parameters. We conclude that Fair Share does little to alter important performance metrics such as expansion factor. This leads to the question of what Fair Share means on cluster machines. The essential difference between Fair Share on a uni-processor and a cluster is that the workload on a cluster is not fungible in space or time. We find that cluster machines must be highly utilized and support checkpointing in order for Fair Share to function more closely to the spirit in which it was originally developed.

  8. Isospin-symmetry-breaking effects in A∼70 nuclei within beyond-mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrovici, A.; Andrei, O.

    2015-02-24

    Particular isospin-symmetry-breaking probes including Coulomb energy differences (CED), mirror energy differences (MED), and triplet energy differences (TED) manifest anomalies in the A∼70 isovector triplets of nuclei. The structure of proton-rich nuclei in the A∼70 mass region suggests shape coexistence and competition between pairing correlations in different channels. Recent results concerning the interplay between isospin-mixing and shape-coexistence effects on exotic phenomena in A∼70 nuclei obtained within the beyond-mean-field complex Excited Vampir variational model with symmetry projection before variation using a realistic effective interaction in a relatively large model space are presented. Excited Vampir predictions concerning the Gamow-Teller β decay to the odd-odd N=Z {sup 66}As and {sup 70}Br nuclei correlated with the pair structure analysis in the T=1 and T=0 channel of the involved wave functions are discussed.

  9. Relativistic mean-field model with energy dependent self-energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antic, S.; Typel, S.

    2015-02-24

    Conventional relativistic mean-field theory is extended with the introduction of higher-order derivative couplings of nucleons with the meson fields. The Euler-Lagrange equations follow from the principle of stationary action. From invariance principles of the Lagrangian density the most general expressions for the conserved current and energy-momentum tensor are derived. The nucleon self-energies show the explicit dependence on the meson fields. They contain additional regulator functions which describe the energy dependence. The density dependence of meson-nucleon couplings causes the apperance of additional rearrangement contributions in the self-energies. The equation of state of infinite nuclear matter is obtained and the thermodynamical consistency of the model is demonstrated. This model is applied to the description of spherical, non-rotating stars in β-equilibrium. Stellar structure is calculated by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations. The results for neutron stars are shown in terms of mass-radius relations.

  10. Shell structure in neutron rich nuclei by means of binary reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelis, G. de

    2014-08-14

    Nuclear structure studies far from stability rely mainly on the availability of radioactive nuclear beams but can complementary be addressed by means of high intensity beams of stable ions. In such contest, deep-inelastic and multinucleon transfer reactions are a powerful tool to populate yrast and non yrast states in neutron-rich nuclei. Particularly successful is here the combination of large acceptance spectrometers with highly segmented gamma-detector arrays. Such devices can provide the necessary channel selectivity to identify very rare signals. The AGATA gamma-ray detector array coupled to the PRISMA spectrometer at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) in Italy is one example. Large data sets have been collected at LNL for nuclei close to the N=20, 28, 40, 50 and 82 shell closures.

  11. Phonon mean free path of graphite along the c-axis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Weiyu; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro/Nano Biomedical Instruments and School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, Deyu, E-mail: deyu.li@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235-1592 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Phonon transport in the c-axis direction of graphite thin films has been studied using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results show that the c-axis thermal conductivities for films of thickness ranging from 20 to 500 atomic layers are significantly lower than the bulk value. Based on the MD data, a method is developed to construct the c-axis thermal conductivity as an accumulation function of phonon mean free path (MFP), from which we show that phonons with MFPs from 2 to 2000?nm contribute ?80% of the graphite c-axis thermal conductivity at room temperature, and phonons with MFPs larger than 100?nm contribute over 40% to the c-axis thermal conductivity. These findings indicate that the commonly believed value of just a few nanometers from the simple kinetic theory drastically underestimates the c-axis phonon MFP of graphite.

  12. Self-Consistent Multiscale Theory of Internal Wave, Mean-Flow Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, D.D.; Aceves, A.; Allen, J.S.; Alber, M.; Camassa, R.; Cendra, H.; Chen, S.; Duan, J.; Fabijonas, B.; Foias, C.; Fringer, O.; Gent, P.R.; Jordan, R.; Kouranbaeva, S.; Kovacic, G.; Levermore, C.D.; Lythe, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Marsden, J.E.; Margolin, L.; Newberger, P.; Olson, E.; Ratiu, T.; Shkoller, S.; Timofeyev, I.; Titi, E.S.; Wynn, S.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The research reported here produced new effective ways to solve multiscale problems in nonlinear fluid dynamics, such as turbulent flow and global ocean circulation. This was accomplished by first developing new methods for averaging over random or rapidly varying phases in nonlinear systems at multiple scales. We then used these methods to derive new equations for analyzing the mean behavior of fluctuation processes coupled self consistently to nonlinear fluid dynamics. This project extends a technology base relevant to a variety of multiscale problems in fluid dynamics of interest to the Laboratory and applies this technology to those problems. The project's theoretical and mathematical developments also help advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of complex behavior in fluid dynamical systems with strong spatial and temporal internal variability.

  13. Modeling of coherent ultrafast magneto-optical experiments: Light-induced molecular mean-field model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinschberger, Y.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2015-12-28

    We present calculations which aim to describe coherent ultrafast magneto-optical effects observed in time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Our approach is based on a nonlinear semi-classical Drude-Voigt model and is used to interpret experiments performed on nickel ferromagnetic thin film. Within this framework, a phenomenological light-induced coherent molecular mean-field depending on the polarizations of the pump and probe pulses is proposed whose microscopic origin is related to a spin-orbit coupling involving the electron spins of the material sample and the electric field of the laser pulses. Theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data. The model successfully reproduces the observed experimental trends and gives meaningful insight into the understanding of magneto-optical rotation behavior in the ultrafast regime. Theoretical predictions for further experimental studies are also proposed.

  14. Numerical simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation by means of fractal theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle G., R. del

    1994-12-31

    A numerical approach was developed for the dynamic simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation. Based on some ideas of percolation theory and fractal growth, a network of particles and strings represent the rock model. To simulate an inhomogeneous medium, the particles and springs have random distributed elastic parameters and are implemented in the dynamic Navier equation. Some of the springs snap with criteria based on the confined stress applied, therefore creating a fractured rock consistent with the physical environment. The basic purpose of this research was to provide a method to construct a fractured rock with confined stress conditions as well as the wave propagation imposed in the model. Such models provide a better understanding of the behavior of wave propagation in fractured media. The synthetic seismic data obtained henceforth, can be used as a tool to develop methods for characterizing fractured rocks by means of geophysical inference.

  15. Hugoniot and mean ionization of laser-shocked Ge-doped plastic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Salin, G.; Galmiche, D.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Photons Pioneers Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 ; Sano, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Miyanishi, K.; Asaumi, Y.; Kita, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakatsuka, K.; Uranishi, H.; Yang, T.; Yokoyama, N.

    2013-12-15

    Pressure, density, temperature, and reflectivity measurements along the principal Hugoniot of Ge-doped plastics used in Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules surrogates were obtained to pressures reaching up to 7 Mbar and compared to Quotidian Equation of State models. The experiment was performed using the GEKKO XII laser at the Institute of Laser Engineering at Osaka University in Japan. High precision measurements of pressure and density were obtained using a quartz standard and found to be in good agreement with theoretical Hugoniot curves. Modeling of reflectivity measurements show that shocked samples can be described as poor metals and that mean ionization calculated within the frame of QEOS is overestimated. Similarly, shock temperatures were found to be below theoretical Hugoniot curves.

  16. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, J.A.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes a mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine. It comprises: at least one high pressure tank; at least one low pressure tank; the high pressure tank and the low pressure tank each including a check valve to prevent backflow of gas from one tank to the other during operation; at least one inlet regulator for each the low pressure tank adapted to open when the engine has a maximum pressure level lower than that of the next higher pressure tank; at least one outlet regulator for each the high pressure tank adapted to open when next lower pressure tank has a minimum pressure level higher than that of the engine; a maximum pressure supply line including a first valve connecting the engine to the high pressure tank and to the inlet regulator; and a minimum pressure supply line.

  17. Mine roof expansion anchor with improved bore hole engagement means and method of installation thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, R.L.

    1993-06-15

    An expansion anchor assembly is described for insertion in a bore hole of predetermined diameter in a rock formation to anchor firmly within said bore hole the threaded, upper end of a bolt having a lower end positioned outside said bore hole, said assembly comprising, in combination: (a) an expansion shell having a plurality of leaves generally symmetrical about a central axis and radially expansible into gripping engagement with the wall of said bore hole; (b) a tapered plug having a larger diameter upper end and a smaller diameter lower end and a through, axial bore for threaded engagement with said bolt upper end for axial movement of said plug in response to rotation of odd bolt from a first to a second position to effect radially outward movement of odd leaves, said lower end of said plug being axially spaced from said bolt upper end by first and second distances when said plug is in its first and second positions, respectively; (c) an element axially supporting said shell with respect to said plug and bolt in a position wherein said central axis is substantially with said bolt; (d) means rotationally securing said element to said shell; and (e) resilient bore wall engagement means including a portion of said element extending away from said central axis at a position spaced axially from said upper end of said bolt by a distance at least as great as said second distance, said portion extending radially outwardly from said central axis by a third distance greater than one-half of said predetermined diameter, whereby said portion engages and is deflected inwardly by said bore hole wall and inhibits rotation of said assembly upon insertion of said bolt and anchor into said bore hole and rotation of said bolt.

  18. Models for mean bonding length, melting point and lattice thermal expansion of nanoparticle materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M.S.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Three models are derived to explain the nanoparticles size dependence of mean bonding length, melting temperature and lattice thermal expansion applied on Sn, Si and Au. The following figures are shown as an example for Sn nanoparticles indicates hilly applicable models for nanoparticles radius larger than 3 nm. Highlights: ► A model for a size dependent mean bonding length is derived. ► The size dependent melting point of nanoparticles is modified. ► The bulk model for lattice thermal expansion is successfully used on nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A model, based on the ratio number of surface atoms to that of its internal, is derived to calculate the size dependence of lattice volume of nanoscaled materials. The model is applied to Si, Sn and Au nanoparticles. For Si, that the lattice volume is increases from 20 Å{sup 3} for bulk to 57 Å{sup 3} for a 2 nm size nanocrystals. A model, for calculating melting point of nanoscaled materials, is modified by considering the effect of lattice volume. A good approach of calculating size-dependent melting point begins from the bulk state down to about 2 nm diameter nanoparticle. Both values of lattice volume and melting point obtained for nanosized materials are used to calculate lattice thermal expansion by using a formula applicable for tetrahedral semiconductors. Results for Si, change from 3.7 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} for a bulk crystal down to a minimum value of 0.1 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} for a 6 nm diameter nanoparticle.

  19. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  20. Compression induced phase transition of nematic brush: A mean-field theory study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Xinghua; Yan, Dadong

    2015-11-28

    Responsive behavior of polymer brush to the external compression is one of the most important characters for its application. For the flexible polymer brush, in the case of low grafting density, which is widely studied by the Gaussian chain model based theory, the compression leads to a uniform deformation of the chain. However, in the case of high grafting density, the brush becomes anisotropic and the nematic phase will be formed. The normal compression tends to destroy the nematic order, which leads to a complex responsive behaviors. Under weak compression, chains in the nematic brush are buckled, and the bending energy and Onsager interaction give rise to the elasticity. Under deep compression, the responsive behaviors of the nematic polymer brush depend on the chain rigidity. For the compressed rigid polymer brush, the chains incline to re-orientate randomly to maximize the orientational entropy and its nematic order is destroyed. For the compressed flexible polymer brush, the chains incline to fold back to keep the nematic order. A buckling-folding transition takes place during the compressing process. For the compressed semiflexible brush, the chains are collectively tilted to a certain direction, which leads to the breaking of the rotational symmetry in the lateral plane. These responsive behaviors of nematic brush relate to the properties of highly frustrated worm-like chain, which is hard to be studied by the traditional self-consistent field theory due to the difficulty to solve the modified diffusion equation. To overcome this difficulty, a single chain in mean-field theory incorporating Monte Carlo simulation and mean-field theory for the worm-like chain model is developed in present work. This method shows high performance for entire region of chain rigidity in the confined condition.

  1. Method and means of directing an ion beam onto an insulating surface for ion implantation or sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Siskind, Barry

    1981-01-01

    A beam of ions is directed under control onto an insulating surface by supplying simultaneously a stream of electrons directed at the same surface in a quantity sufficient to neutralize the overall electric charge of the ion beam and result in a net zero current flow to the insulating surface. The ion beam is adapted particularly both to the implantation of ions in a uniform areal disposition over the insulating surface and to the sputtering of atoms or molecules of the insulator onto a substrate.

  2. Overstable librations can account for the paucity of mean motion resonances among exoplanet pairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldreich, Peter; Schlichting, Hilke E. E-mail: hilke@mit.edu

    2014-02-01

    We assess the multi-planet systems discovered by the Kepler satellite in terms of current ideas about orbital migration and eccentricity damping due to planet-disk interactions. Our primary focus is on first order mean motion resonances, which we investigate analytically to lowest order in eccentricity. Only a few percent of planet pairs are in close proximity to a resonance. However, predicted migration rates (parameterized by ?{sub n}=n/| n-dot |) imply that during convergent migration most planets would have been captured into first order resonances. Eccentricity damping (parameterized by ?{sub e}=e/| e-dot |) offers a plausible resolution. Estimates suggest ? {sub e}/? {sub n} ? (h/a){sup 2} ? 10{sup 2}, where h/a is the ratio of disk thickness to radius. Together, eccentricity damping and orbital migration give rise to an equilibrium eccentricity, e {sub eq} ? (? {sub e}/? {sub n}){sup 1/2}. Capture is permanent provided e {sub eq} ? ?{sup 1/3}, where ? denotes the planet to star mass ratio. But for e {sub eq} ? ?{sup 1/3}, capture is only temporary because librations around equilibrium are overstable and lead to passage through resonance on timescale ? {sub e}. Most Kepler planet pairs have e {sub eq} > ?{sup 1/3}. Since ? {sub n} >> ? {sub e} is the timescale for migration between neighboring resonances, only a modest percentage of pairs end up trapped in resonances after the disk disappears. Thus the paucity of resonances among Kepler pairs should not be taken as evidence for in situ planet formation or the disruptive effects of disk turbulence. Planet pairs close to a mean motion resonance typically exhibit period ratios 1%-2% larger than those for exact resonance. The direction of this shift undoubtedly reflects the same asymmetry that requires convergent migration for resonance capture. Permanent resonance capture at these separations from exact resonance would demand ?(? {sub n}/? {sub e}){sup 1/2} ? 0.01, a value that estimates of ? from transit data

  3. Means for reclaiming galvanizing quality zinc alloy from continuous galvanizing line top dross

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, A.F.; Hogan, J.C.

    1981-05-26

    Means and a method are described for reclaiming galvanizing quality zinc alloy from the top dross of a continuous galvanizing line. A dross furnace is provided having front, rear and side walls and a hearth sloping from the rear wall toward the front wall. The front wall is provided with one or more tap holes or a full width slot so sized as to permit the passage of molten zinc alloy therethrough while retaining the resulting sponge or slag. The dross furnace is located with its front wall overhanging the coating pot of the continuous galvanizing line. The dross furnace is maintained at a temperature of from about 460/sup 0/C to about 850/sup 0/C and is charged with the top dross from the coating P the top dross has a residence time in the dross furnace of up to about two hours. The reclaimed galvanizing quality zinc alloy, at yields from about 50% to about 70% based upon the top dross treated, flows directly back into the coating pot. The resulting slag or sponge is removed from the dross furnace which is recharged with top dross.

  4. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  5. Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2007-06-21

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

  6. Method and apparatus for simultaneous determination of fluid mass flow rate, mean velocity and density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamel, William R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flowrate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flowrate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flowrate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flowrate and density are determined from the required change in power input. The invention provides stable, rapid, and accurate measurements. It does not require bending of the fluid flow.

  7. Segmental shell for a coal crusher roll including specialized removal means

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundlach, T.F.

    1986-10-21

    The patent describes a coal crusher having a cylindrical back-up roll having two ends, an outside face, a longitudinal axis, and a hub mounted in each end of the back-up roll. The coal crusher includes a combination of removable toothed segments mounted to the outside face of the roll and hook means including a tang for removing the segments from the roll. The coal crusher comprises metal segments, each of the segments in the form of a sector of a tube. The segment has an inside face and an outside face and an outside peripheral edge. The edge includes upper and lower axially extending edges, and two circumferential edges. The inside face of the segment has a radius of curvature substantially equal to the radius of curvature of the outside face of the back-up roll and has counterbored holes therein for receiving headed bolts which are threaded into tapped holes in the back-up roll to secure the segments to the back-up roll. Each of the counterbored holes has a seat to receive the heads of the bolts.

  8. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  9. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martirena, Fernando . E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

  10. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  11. Fingerprints of anthropogenic and natural variability in global-mean surface temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.M.; Zhang, Yuan

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis designed to detect greenhouse warming by distinguishing between temperature rises induced by increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and those induced by background variability that are present without changes in atmospheric composition. The strategy is based on the surface temperature field. At each observation time, the projection of the anomalous temperature field on the presumed anthropogenic fingerprint is removed in order to obtain a temperature deviation field; i.e., the temperature anomalies in the phase space orthogonal to the anthropogenic fingerprint, which are presumed to be entirely natural. The time series of the expansion coefficients of the fingerprint a(t) is then regressed on this temperature deviation field to identify the axis in the orthogonal phase space along which the variations are most strongly correlated, and an index n(t) of the temporal variations along that axis is generated. The index a(t) is then regressed upon n(t) and the resulting least squares fit is regarded as the component of a(t) that can be ascribed to natural causes. The analysis was performed for monthly global surface temperature anomaly fields for the period 1900-95. Results indicate that two well defined patterns of natural variability contribute to variations in global mean temperature: the synthetic cold ocean-warm land (COWL) pattern and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In domains that include surface air temperature over Eurasia and North America, the COWL pattern tends to be dominant. The ENSO signature emerges as the pattern most strongly linearly correlated with global sea surface temperature and with tropospheric layer-averaged temperatures. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  12. MAGNETIC FIELD LINE RANDOM WALK IN ISOTROPIC TURBULENCE WITH ZERO MEAN FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonsrettee, W.; Ruffolo, D.; Snodin, A. P.; Wongpan, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Subedi, P.; Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Chuychai, P., E-mail: bturbulence@gmail.com, E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th, E-mail: andrew.snodin@gmail.com, E-mail: pat.wongpan@postgrad.otago.ac.nz, E-mail: piyanate@gmail.com, E-mail: prasub@udel.edu, E-mail: whm@udel.edu [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-01-01

    In astrophysical plasmas, magnetic field lines often guide the motions of thermal and non-thermal particles. The field line random walk (FLRW) is typically considered to depend on the Kubo number R = (b/B {sub 0})(?{sub ?}/? ) for rms magnetic fluctuation b, large-scale mean field B {sub 0}, and parallel and perpendicular coherence scales ?{sub ?} and ? , respectively. Here we examine the FLRW when R ? ? by taking B {sub 0} ? 0 for finite b{sub z} (fluctuation component along B {sub 0}), which differs from the well-studied route with b{sub z} = 0 or b{sub z} << B {sub 0} as the turbulence becomes quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D). Fluctuations with B {sub 0} = 0 are typically isotropic, which serves as a reasonable model of interstellar turbulence. We use a non-perturbative analytic framework based on Corrsin's hypothesis to determine closed-form solutions for the asymptotic field line diffusion coefficient for three versions of the theory, which are directly related to the k {sup 1} or k {sup 2} moment of the power spectrum. We test these theories by performing computer simulations of the FLRW, obtaining the ratio of diffusion coefficients for two different parameterizations of a field line. Comparing this with theoretical ratios, the random ballistic decorrelation version of the theory agrees well with the simulations. All results exhibit an analog to Bohm diffusion. In the quasi-2D limit, previous works have shown that Corrsin-based theories deviate substantially from simulation results, but here we find that as B {sub 0} ? 0, they remain in reasonable agreement. We conclude that their applicability is limited not by large R, but rather by quasi-two-dimensionality.

  13. Preconceptual Feasibility Study to Evaluate Alternative Means to Produce Plutonium-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Matthew S. Everson

    2013-02-01

    There is currently no large-scale production of 238Pu in the United States. Feasibility studies were performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the capability of developing alternative 238Pu production strategies. Initial investigations indicate potential capability to provision radioisotope-powered systems for future space exploration endeavors. For the short term production of 238Pu, sealed canisters of dilute 237Np solution in nitric acid could be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Targets in the large and medium “I” positions of the ATR were irradiated over a simulated period of 306 days and analyzed using MCNP5 and ORIGEN2.2. Approximately 0.5 kg of 238Pu could be produced annually in the ATR with purity greater than 92%. Optimization of the irradiation cycles could further increase the purity to greater than 98%. Whereas the typical purity of space batteries is between 80 to 85%, the higher purity 238Pu produced in the ATR could be blended with existing lower-purity inventory to produce useable material. Development of irradiation methods in the ATR provides the fastest alterative to restart United States 238Pu production. The analysis of 238Pu production in the ATR provides the technical basis for production using TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) nuclear reactors. Preliminary analyses envisage a production rate of approximately 0.7 kg annually using a single dedicated 5-MW TRIGA reactor with continuous flow loops to achieve high purity product. Two TRIGA reactors represent a robust means of providing at over 1 kg/yr of 238Pu annually using dilute solution targets of 237Np in nitric acid. Further collaboration and optimization of reactor design, radiochemical methods, and systems analyses would further increase annual 238Pu throughput, while reducing the currently evaluated reactor requirements.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of mechanical properties of rock using an automated triaxial compression test with a constant mean stress criterion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1999-07-01

    A computerized, servohydraulic test system has been used in the laboratory to perform axisymmetric, triaxial compression tests on natural rock salt using a load path that maintains constant mean stress. The constant mean stress test protocol illustrates that modern test systems allow a nonstandard load path which can focus on a particular aspect of rock characterization; namely, the onset of dilation. Included are discussions of how the constant mean stress test could be used to investigate material anisotropy and determine elastic moduli. The results from the constant mean stress tests are compared to test results from a traditional test method. The paper also addresses system calibration concerns and the effects of pressure changes on the direct-contact extensometers used to measure strain.

  15. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

    1985-01-18

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  16. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steve A.; Shannon, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  17. I A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER I EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO Southern Research Institute Birmingham, Alabama January 30, 1963 Proposal No. 2152 Copy of original document Iccated in FEMP Archives. .L TABLEOFCONTENTS

  18. Vulnerability of Karangkates dams area by means of zero crossing analysis of data magnetic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunaryo, E-mail: sunaryo.geofis.ub@gmail.com; Susilo, Adi

    2015-04-24

    Study with entitled Vulnerability Karangkates Dam Area By Means of Zero Crossing Analysis of Data Magnetic has been done. The study was aimed to obtain information on the vulnerability of two parts area of Karangkates dams, i.e. Lahor dam which was inaugurated in 1977 and Sutami dam inaugurated in 1981. Three important things reasons for this study are: 1). The dam age was 36 years old for Lahor dam and 32 years old for Sutami dam, 2). Geologically, the location of the dams are closed together to the Pohgajih local shear fault, Selorejo local fault, and Selorejo limestone-andesite rocks contact plane, and 3). Karangkates dams is one of the important Hydro Power Plant PLTA with the generating power of about 400 million KWH per year from a total of about 29.373MW installed in Indonesia. Geographically, the magnetic data acquisition was conducted at coordinates (112.4149oE;-8.2028oS) to (112.4839oE;-8.0989oS) by using Proton Precession Magnetometer G-856. Magnetic Data acquisition was conducted in the radial direction from the dams with diameter of about 10 km and the distance between the measurements about 500m. The magnetic data acquisition obtained the distribution of total magnetic field value in the range of 45800 nT to 44450 nT. Residual anomalies obtained by doing some corrections, including diurnal correction, International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction, and reductions so carried out the distribution of the total magnetic field value in the range of -650 nT to 700 nT. Based on the residual anomalies, indicate the presence of 2 zones of closed closures dipole pairs at located in the west of the Sutami dam and the northwest of the Lahor dam from 5 total zones. Overlapping on the local geological map indicated the lineament of zero crossing patterns in the contour of residual anomaly contour with the Pohgajih shear fault where located at about 4 km to the west of the Sutami dam approximately and andesite-limestone rocks contact where located

  19. Adaptive nonlocal means filtering based on local noise level for CT denoising

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhoubo; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Lake, David S.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Manduca, Armando; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate an image-domain noise reduction method based on a modified nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that is adaptive to local noise level of CT images and to implement this method in a time frame consistent with clinical workflow. Methods: A computationally efficient technique for local noise estimation directly from CT images was developed. A forward projection, based on a 2D fan-beam approximation, was used to generate the projection data, with a noise model incorporating the effects of the bowtie filter and automatic exposure control. The noise propagation from projection data to images was analytically derived. The analytical noise map was validated using repeated scans of a phantom. A 3D NLM denoising algorithm was modified to adapt its denoising strength locally based on this noise map. The performance of this adaptive NLM filter was evaluated in phantom studies in terms of in-plane and cross-plane high-contrast spatial resolution, noise power spectrum (NPS), subjective low-contrast spatial resolution using the American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom, and objective low-contrast spatial resolution using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO). Graphical processing units (GPU) implementation of this noise map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering were developed to meet demands of clinical workflow. Adaptive NLM was piloted on lower dose scans in clinical practice. Results: The local noise level estimation matches the noise distribution determined from multiple repetitive scans of a phantom, demonstrated by small variations in the ratio map between the analytical noise map and the one calculated from repeated scans. The phantom studies demonstrated that the adaptive NLM filter can reduce noise substantially without degrading the high-contrast spatial resolution, as illustrated by modulation transfer function and slice sensitivity profile results. The NPS results show that adaptive NLM denoising preserves the

  20. Chain architecture and micellization: A mean-field coarse-grained model for poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl ether surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García Daza, Fabián A.; Mackie, Allan D.; Colville, Alexander J.

    2015-03-21

    Microscopic modeling of surfactant systems is expected to be an important tool to describe, understand, and take full advantage of the micellization process for different molecular architectures. Here, we implement a single chain mean field theory to study the relevant equilibrium properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and aggregation number for three sets of surfactants with different geometries maintaining constant the number of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The results demonstrate the direct effect of the block organization for the surfactants under study by means of an analysis of the excess energy and entropy which can be accurately determined from the mean-field scheme. Our analysis reveals that the CMC values are sensitive to branching in the hydrophilic head part of the surfactant and can be observed in the entropy-enthalpy balance, while aggregation numbers are also affected by splitting the hydrophobic tail of the surfactant and are manifested by slight changes in the packing entropy.

  1. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  2. Accurate nonadiabatic quantum dynamics on the cheap: Making the most of mean field theory with master equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Aaron; Markland, Thomas E.; Brackbill, Nora

    2015-03-07

    In this article, we show how Ehrenfest mean field theory can be made both a more accurate and efficient method to treat nonadiabatic quantum dynamics by combining it with the generalized quantum master equation framework. The resulting mean field generalized quantum master equation (MF-GQME) approach is a non-perturbative and non-Markovian theory to treat open quantum systems without any restrictions on the form of the Hamiltonian that it can be applied to. By studying relaxation dynamics in a wide range of dynamical regimes, typical of charge and energy transfer, we show that MF-GQME provides a much higher accuracy than a direct application of mean field theory. In addition, these increases in accuracy are accompanied by computational speed-ups of between one and two orders of magnitude that become larger as the system becomes more nonadiabatic. This combination of quantum-classical theory and master equation techniques thus makes it possible to obtain the accuracy of much more computationally expensive approaches at a cost lower than even mean field dynamics, providing the ability to treat the quantum dynamics of atomistic condensed phase systems for long times.

  3. Investigating the Influence of Anthropogenic Forcing on Observed Mean and Extreme Sea Level Pressure Trends over the Mediterranean Region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barkhordarian, Armineh

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether the observed mean sea level pressure (SLP) trends over the Mediterranean region in the period from 1975 to 2004 are significantly consistent with what 17 models projected as response of SLP to anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, GS). Obtained results indicate that the observed trends in mean SLP cannot be explained by natural (internal) variability. Externally forced changes are detectable in all seasons, except spring. The large-scale component (spatial mean) of the GS signal is detectable in all the 17 models in winter and in 12 of the 17 models in summer. However, the small-scalemore » component (spatial anomalies about the spatial mean) of GS signal is only detectable in winter within 11 of the 17 models. We also show that GS signal has a detectable influence on observed decreasing (increasing) tendency in the frequencies of extremely low (high) SLP days in winter and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability. While the detection of GS forcing is robust in winter and summer, there are striking inconsistencies in autumn, where analysis points to the presence of an external forcing, which is not GS forcing.« less

  4. A New Technique for Studying the Fano Factor And the Mean Energy Per Ion Pair in Counting Gases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Panksky, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.

    1996-04-01

    A new method is presented for deriving the Fano factor and the mean energy per ion pair in the ultrasoft x-ray energy range. It is based on counting electrons deposited by a photon in a low-pressure gas, and is applicable for all counting gases. The energy dependence of these parameters for several hydrocarbons and gas mixtures is presented.

  5. Simple Method to Estimate Mean Heart Dose From Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy According to Simulation X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimwegen, Frederika A. van; Cutter, David J.; Schaapveld, Michael; Rutten, Annemarieke; Kooijman, Karen; Krol, Augustinus D.G.; Janus, Cécile P.M.; Darby, Sarah C.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Aleman, Berthe M.P.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Methods and Materials: Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case–control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. Results: According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Conclusion: Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor

  6. MEAN-FIELD MODELING OF AN α{sup 2} DYNAMO COUPLED WITH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF RIGIDLY ROTATING CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masada, Youhei; Sano, Takayoshi E-mail: sano@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-10

    The mechanism of large-scale dynamos in rigidly rotating stratified convection is explored by direct numerical simulations (DNS) in Cartesian geometry. A mean-field dynamo model is also constructed using turbulent velocity profiles consistently extracted from the corresponding DNS results. By quantitative comparison between the DNS and our mean-field model, it is demonstrated that the oscillatory α{sup 2} dynamo wave, excited and sustained in the convection zone, is responsible for large-scale magnetic activities such as cyclic polarity reversal and spatiotemporal migration. The results provide strong evidence that a nonuniformity of the α-effect, which is a natural outcome of rotating stratified convection, can be an important prerequisite for large-scale stellar dynamos, even without the Ω-effect.

  7. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  8. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chen, Guoying

    1990-05-01

    A method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived.

  9. Vibrational coherence and energy transfer in two-dimensional spectra with the optimized mean-trajectory approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.

    2015-06-07

    The optimized mean-trajectory (OMT) approximation is a semiclassical method for computing vibrational response functions from action-quantized classical trajectories connected by discrete transitions that represent radiation-matter interactions. Here, we extend the OMT to include additional vibrational coherence and energy transfer processes. This generalized approximation is applied to a pair of anharmonic chromophores coupled to a bath. The resulting 2D spectra are shown to reflect coherence transfer between normal modes.

  10. Measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suntrup, Donald J.; Gupta, Geetak; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2014-12-29

    We present a method for measuring the mean free path and extracting the momentum relaxation time of hot electrons in GaN using the hot electron transistor (HET). In this device, electrons are injected over a high energy emitter barrier into the base where they experience quasi-ballistic transport well above the conduction band edge. After traversing the base, high energy electrons either surmount the base-collector barrier and become collector current or reflect off the barrier and become base current. We fabricate HETs with various base thicknesses and measure the common emitter transfer ratio (α) for each device. The mean free path is extracted by fitting α to a decaying exponential as a function of base width and the relaxation time is computed using a suitable injection velocity. For devices with an injection energy of ∼1 eV, we measure a hot electron mean free path of 14 nm and calculate a momentum relaxation time of 16 fs. These values are in agreement with theoretical calculations where longitudinal optical phonon scattering is the dominant momentum relaxation mechanism.

  11. Changes to Saturn's zonal-mean tropospheric thermal structure after the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achterberg, R. K.; Hesman, B. E.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-05-10

    We use far-infrared (20-200 μm) data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft to determine the zonal-mean temperature and hydrogen para-fraction in Saturn's upper troposphere from observations taken before and after the large northern hemisphere storm in 2010-2011. During the storm, zonal mean temperatures in the latitude band between approximately 25°N and 45°N (planetographic latitude) increased by about 3 K, while the zonal mean hydrogen para-fraction decreased by about 0.04 over the same latitudes, at pressures greater than about 300 mbar. These changes occurred over the same latitude range as the disturbed cloud band seen in visible images. The observations are consistent with low para-fraction gas being brought up from the level of the water cloud by the strong convective plume associated with the storm, while being heated by condensation of water vapor, and then advected zonally by the winds near the plume tops in the upper troposphere.

  12. Modification of the parallel scattering mean free path of cosmic rays in the presence of adiabatic focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, H.-Q.; Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2014-09-10

    The cosmic ray mean free path in a large-scale nonuniform guide magnetic field with superposed magnetostatic turbulence is calculated to clarify some conflicting results in the literature. A new, exact integro-differential equation for the cosmic-ray anisotropy is derived from the Fokker-Planck transport equation. A perturbation analysis of this integro-differential equation leads to an analytical expression for the cosmic ray anisotropy and the focused transport equation for the isotropic part of the cosmic ray distribution function. The derived parallel spatial diffusion coefficient and the associated cosmic ray mean free path include the effect of adiabatic focusing and reduce to the standard forms in the limit of a uniform guide magnetic field. For the illustrative case of isotropic pitch angle scattering, the derived mean free path agrees with the earlier expressions of Beeck and Wibberenz, Bieber and Burger, Kota, and Litvinenko, but disagrees with the result of Shalchi. The disagreement with the expression of Shalchi is particularly strong in the limit of strong adiabatic focusing.

  13. Stratigraphy and organic petrography of Mississippian and Devonian oil shale at the Means Project, East-Central Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, B.J.; Hutton, A.C.; Henstridge, D.A.; Ivanac, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    The Means Oil Shale Project is under consideration for financial assistance by the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation. The project site is located in southern Montgomery County, about 45 miles east of Lexington, Kentucky. In the site area the Devonian Ohio Shale and the Mississippian Sunbury Shale are under study; these oil shales were deposited in the Appalachian Basin. The objective of the Means Project is to mine, using open pit methods, an ore zone which includes the Sunbury and upper Cleveland and which excludes the Bedford interburden. The thick lower grade oil shale below this ore zone renders the higher grade shale at the base of the Huron commercially unattractive. The oil shale at Means has been classified as a marinite, an oil shale containing abundant alginite of marine origin. Lamalginite is the dominant liptinite and comprises small, unicellular alginite with weak to moderate fluorescence at low rank and a distinctive lamellar form. Telalginite, derived from large colonial or thick-walled, unicellular algae, is common in several stratigraphic intervals.

  14. Investigation Of Adhesion Formation In New Stainless Steel Trim Spring Operated Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Robert E.; Bukowski, Julia V.; Goble, William M.

    2013-04-16

    Examination of proof test data for new (not previously installed) stainless steel (SS) trim spring operated pressure relief valves (SOPRV) reveals that adhesions form between the seat and disc in about 46% of all such SOPRV. The forces needed to overcome these adhesions can be sufficiently large to cause the SOPRV to fail its proof test (FPT) prior to installation. Furthermore, a significant percentage of SOPRV which are found to FPT are also found to ''fail to open'' (FTO) meaning they would not relief excess pressure in the event of an overpressure event. The cases where adhesions result in FTO or FPT appear to be confined to SOPRV with diameters < 1 in and set pressures < 150 psig and the FTO are estimated to occur in 0.31% to 2.00% of this subpopulation of SS trim SOPRV. The reliability and safety implications of these finding for end-users who do not perform pre-installation testing of SOPRV are discussed.

  15. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  16. FLUID CONTROLLING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pouliot, H.N.

    1960-11-01

    A device is described for releasing fluid from a container and delivering it to an outlet conduit. An explosive squib moves a piston so as to cut a wall section from the conduit and to punch a hole in the container, whereby a fluid may pass from the container into the conduit. A deformable sleeve retains the piston in its final position.

  17. ACCELERATION INTEGRATING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, D.F.

    1961-08-29

    An acceleration responsive device is described. A housing has at one end normally open electrical contacts and contains a piston system with a first part of non-magnetic material having metering orifices in the side walls for forming an air bearing between it and the walls of the housing; this first piston part is normally held against the other end of the housing from the noted contacts by a second piston or reset part. The reset part is of partly magnetic material, is separable from the flrst piston part, and is positioned within the housing intermediate the contacts and the first piston part. A magnet carried by the housing imposes a retaining force upon the reset part, along with a helical compression spring that is between the reset part and the end with the contacts. When a predetermined acceleration level is attained, the reset part overcomes the bias or retaining force provided by the magnet and the spring'' snaps'' into a depression in the housing adjacent the contacts. The first piston part is then free to move toward the contacts with its movement responsive tc acceleration forces and the metering orifices. (AEC)

  18. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  19. Splineless coupling means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heitmann, Arnold M.; Lord, Jr., Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    In the first embodiment, the invention comprises an imperforate turbine wheel having a hub of polygonal cross-section engageable with a hollow shaft of polygonal conformation, and a thrust collar and bolt for fastening the shaft and wheel together.

  20. Flowline connection means

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, C.G.

    1986-11-04

    A method is described for connecting a flowline to a subsea structure comprising: deploying a riser and flowline connection tool downwardly to the subsea structure; landing and securing the connection tool onto the subsea structure; pulling a flowline terminal head, the terminal head being connected to the flowline, to the flowline connection; bending the flowline terminal head into a curve having two connected legs, one leg extending upwardly alongside the subsea structure and the other leg extending laterally away from the subsea structure; securing the flowline terminal head to the subsea structure; and recovering the flowline connection tool to the surface.

  1. Control Means for Reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  2. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  3. MEANS FOR SHIELDING REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrison, W.M.; McClinton, L.T.; Burton, M.

    1959-03-10

    A reactor of the heterageneous, heavy water moderated type is described. The reactor is comprised of a plurality of vertically disposed fuel element tubes extending through a tank of heavy water moderator and adapted to accommodate a flow of coolant water in contact with the fuel elements. A tank containing outgoing coolant water is disposed above the core to function is a radiation shield. Unsaturated liquid hydrocarbon is floated on top of the water in the shield tank to reduce to a minimum the possibility of the occurrence of explosive gaseous mixtures resulting from the neutron bombardment of the water in the shield tank.

  4. Splineless coupling means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heitmann, A.M.; Lord, R.E. Jr.

    1982-07-20

    In the first embodiment, the invention comprises an imperforate turbine wheel having a hub of polygonal cross-section engageable with a hollow shaft of polygonal conformation, and a thrust collar and bolt for fastening the shaft and wheel together. 4 figs.

  5. Climate-Proofing Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CPES1 Overview "This report explains why a metric for the vulnerability and resilience of energy systems is needed and proposes a methodology. It summarises anticipated...

  6. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  7. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  8. Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are presently referred to as "Radiological Operations Support Specialists (ROSS). The role of the ROSS cadre is envisioned to be an on-scene RN subject matter expert to Incident ...

  9. Jam proof closure assembly for lidded pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cioletti, Olisse C.

    1992-01-01

    An expendable closure assembly is provided for use (in multiple units) with a lockable pressure vessel cover along its rim, such as of an autoclave. This assembly is suited to variable compressive contact and locking with the vessel lid sealing gasket. The closure assembly consists of a thick walled sleeve insert for retention in the under bores fabricated in the cover periphery and the sleeve is provided with internal threading only. A snap serves as a retainer on the underside of the sleeve, locking it into an under bore retention channel. Finally, a standard elongate externally threaded bolt is sized for mating cooperation with the so positioned sleeve, whereby the location of the bolt shaft in the cover bore hole determines its compressive contact on the underlying gasket.

  10. Two-Factor Identify Proofing Process | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UAA form. You should complete the portion of the UAA form that is surrounded by the blue box. Your Federal ID Badge. This will be used to positively identify you. If you do not...

  11. Proof of feasibility of the through casing resistivity technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vail, Dr. W. Banning; Momii, Steven T.

    2000-06-21

    This project is to definitely prove that the resistivity of geological formations can be measured from within cased wells and to license the relevant patents and technology to major wireline service companies.

  12. The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... To learn more about Appliance Standards and how they save consumers money go to the Building Technologies Program website. Addthis Related Articles FACT: Consumers are saving more ...

  13. Modeling MHD accretion-ejection: episodic ejections of jets triggered by a mean-field disk dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepanovs, Deniss; Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2014-11-20

    We present MHD simulations exploring the launching, acceleration, and collimation of jets and disk winds. The evolution of the disk structure is consistently taken into account. Extending our earlier studies, we now consider the self-generation of the magnetic field by an ?{sup 2}? mean-field dynamo. The disk magnetization remains on a rather low level, which helps to evolve the simulations for T > 10, 000 dynamical time steps on a domain extending 1500 inner disk radii. We find the magnetic field of the inner disk to be similar to the commonly found open field structure, favoring magneto-centrifugal launching. The outer disk field is highly inclined and predominantly radial. Here, differential rotation induces a strong toroidal component, which plays a key role in outflow launching. These outflows from the outer disk are slower, denser, and less collimated. If the dynamo action is not quenched, magnetic flux is continuously generated, diffuses outward through the disk, and fills the entire disk. We have invented a toy model triggering a time-dependent mean-field dynamo. The duty cycles of this dynamo lead to episodic ejections on similar timescales. When the dynamo is suppressed as the magnetization falls below a critical value, the generation of the outflows and also accretion is inhibited. The general result is that we can steer episodic ejection and large-scale jet knots by a disk-intrinsic dynamo that is time-dependent and regenerates the jet-launching magnetic field.

  14. Microstructure for ferroelastic transitions from strain pseudo-spin clock models in two and three dimensions: a mean field analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lookman, Turab; Vasseur, Romain

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the microstructure of ferroelastic transitions in two and three dimensions from the solution of their corresponding discrete pseudo-spin models. In two dimensions we consider two transitions each from the high symmetry square and triangle symmetries: square-to-rectangle (SR), square-to-oblique (SO), triangle-to-centered rectangle (TR) and triangle-to-oblique (TO). In three dimensions we study the corresponding spin model for the cubic to tetragonal transition. The Landau free energies for these transitions result in N+ I states clock models (Z{sub N}) with long range interactions and we derive mean-field self-consistency equations for the clock model Hamiltonians. The microstructures from the mean-field solutions of the models are very similar to those obtained from the original continuum models or Monte Carlo simulations on the spin models (in the SR case), illustrating that these discrete models capture the salient physics. The models, in the presence of disorder, provide the basis for the study of the strain glass phase observed in martensitic alloys.

  15. Microstructure from ferroelastic transitions using strain pseudospin clock models in two and three dimensions: A local mean-field analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasseur, Romain; Lookman, Turab; Shenoy, Subodh R.

    2010-09-01

    We show how microstructure can arise in first-order ferroelastic structural transitions, in two and three spatial dimensions, through a local mean-field approximation of their pseudospin Hamiltonians, that include anisotropic elastic interactions. Such transitions have symmetry-selected physical strains as their N{sub OP}-component order parameters, with Landau free energies that have a single zero-strain 'austenite' minimum at high temperatures, and spontaneous-strain 'martensite' minima of N{sub V} structural variants at low temperatures. The total free energy also has gradient terms, and power-law anisotropic effective interactions, induced by 'no-dislocation' St Venant compatibility constraints. In a reduced description, the strains at Landau minima induce temperature dependent, clocklike Z{sub N{sub V+1}} Hamiltonians, with N{sub OP}-component strain-pseudospin vectors S-vector pointing to N{sub V}+1 discrete values (including zero). We study elastic texturing in five such first-order structural transitions through a local mean-field approximation of their pseudospin Hamiltonians, that include the power-law interactions. As a prototype, we consider the two-variant square/rectangle transition, with a one-component pseudospin taking N{sub V}+1=3 values of S=0,{+-}1, as in a generalized Blume-Capel model. We then consider transitions with two-component (N{sub OP}=2) pseudospins: the equilateral to centered rectangle (N{sub V}=3); the square to oblique polygon (N{sub V}=4); the triangle to oblique (N{sub V}=6) transitions; and finally the three-dimensional (3D) cubic to tetragonal transition (N{sub V}=3). The local mean-field solutions in two-dimensional and 3D yield oriented domain-wall patterns as from continuous-variable strain dynamics, showing the discrete-variable models capture the essential ferroelastic texturings. Other related Hamiltonians illustrate that structural transitions in materials science can be the source of interesting spin models in

  16. SU-E-T-367: Optimization of DLG Using TG-119 Test Cases and a Weighted Mean Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sintay, B; Vanderstraeten, C; Terrell, J; Maurer, J; Pursley, J; Wiant, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Optimization of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) is an important step in commissioning the Eclipse treatment planning system for sliding window intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SW-IMRT) and RapidArc. Often the values needed for optimal dose delivery differ markedly from those measured at commissioning. We present a method to optimize this value using the AAPM TG-119 test cases. Methods: For SW-IMRT and RapidArc, TG-119 based test plans were created using a water-equivalent phantom. Dose distributions measured on film and ion chamber (IC) readings taken in low-gradient regions within the targets were analyzed separately. Since DLG is a single value per energy, SW-IMRT and RapidArc must be considered simultaneously. Plans were recalculated using a linear sweep from 0.02cm (the minimum DLG) to 0.3 cm. The calculated point doses were compared to the measured doses for each plan, and based on these comparisons an optimal DLG value was computed for each plan. TG-119 cases are designed to push the system in various ways, thus, a weighted mean of the DLG was computed where the relative importance of each type of plan was given a score from 0.0 to 1.0. Finally, SW-IMRT and RapidArc are assigned an overall weight based on clinical utilization. Our routine patient-QA (PQA) process was performed as independent validation. Results: For a Varian TrueBeam, the optimized DLG varied with ? = 0.044cm for SW-IMRT and ? = 0.035cm for RapidArc. The difference between the weighted mean SW-IMRT and RapidArc value was 0.038cm. We predicted utilization of 25% SW-IMRT and 75% RapidArc. The resulting DLG was ~1mm different than that found by commissioning and produced an average error of <1% for SW-IMRT and RapidArc PQA test cases separately. Conclusion: The weighted mean method presented is a useful tool for determining an optimal DLG value for commissioning Eclipse.

  17. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-14

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  18. Relative contributions of mean-state shifts and ENSO-driven variability to precipitation changes in a warming climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bonfils, Celine J. W.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Marvel, Kate; Leung, L. Ruby; Doutriaux, Charles; Capotondi, Antonietta

    2015-12-18

    The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of regional hydroclimate variability through far-reaching teleconnections. This study uses simulations performed with coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) to investigate how regional precipitation in the twenty-first century may be affected by changes in both ENSO-driven precipitation variability and slowly evolving mean rainfall. First, a dominant, time-invariant pattern of canonical ENSO variability (cENSO) is identified in observed SST data. Next, the fidelity with which 33 state-of-the-art CGCMs represent the spatial structure and temporal variability of this pattern (as well as its associated precipitation responses) is evaluated in simulations of twentieth-century climate change.more » Possible changes in both the temporal variability of this pattern and its associated precipitation teleconnections are investigated in twenty-first-century climate projections. Models with better representation of the observed structure of the cENSO pattern produce winter rainfall teleconnection patterns that are in better accord with twentieth-century observations and more stationary during the twenty-first century. Finally, the model-predicted twenty-first-century rainfall response to cENSO is decomposed into the sum of three terms: 1) the twenty-first-century change in the mean state of precipitation, 2) the historical precipitation response to the cENSO pattern, and 3) a future enhancement in the rainfall response to cENSO, which amplifies rainfall extremes. Lastly, by examining the three terms jointly, this conceptual framework allows the identification of regions likely to experience future rainfall anomalies that are without precedent in the current climate.« less

  19. Method of and apparatus for measuring the mean concentration of thoron and/or radon in a gas mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Henry

    1990-01-01

    A method of and an apparatus for detecting and accurately measuring the mean concentrations of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in a gas mixture, such as the ambient atmosphere in a mine, is provided. The apparatus includes an alpha target member which defines at least one operative target surface and which is preferably fabricated from a single piece of an alpha particle sensitive material. At least one portion of the operative target surface is covered with an alpha particle filter. The uncovered and filter covered operative surface is exposed to the gas mixture containing the .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn. In the radioactive decay series of these isotopes the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of .sup.222 Rn is about 1.1 MeV less than the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of a .sup.220 Tn. The alpha particle filter has a predetermined mass per unit area of the covered portion of the operative target surface that prevents penetration of alpha particles which originate from .sup.222 Rn decay, but which allows passage therethrough of the maximum kinetic energy alpha particles from .sup.220 Tn decay. Thus, a count of the alpha particle tracks in the uncovered portion of the target member is proportional to the mean concentration of sum of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture, while the count of alpha tracks in the target member under the filter is proportional to the concentration of only the .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture.

  20. Relative Contributions of Mean-State Shifts and ENSO-Driven Variability to Precipitation Changes in a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonfils, Celine; Santer, Benjamin D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Marvel, Kate; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Doutriaux, Charles; Capotondi, Antonietta

    2015-12-15

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of regional hydroclimate variability through far-reaching teleconnections. Most climate models project an increase in the frequency of extreme El Niño events under increased greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing. However, it is unclear how other aspects of ENSO and ENSO-driven teleconnections will evolve in the future. Here, we identify in 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) observations a time-invariant ENSO-like (ENSOL) pattern that is largely uncontaminated by GHG forcing. We use this pattern to investigate the future precipitation (P) response to ENSO-like SST anomalies. Models that better capture observed ENSOL characteristics produce P teleconnection patterns that are in better accord with observations and more stationary in the 21st century. We decompose the future P response to ENSOL into the sum of three terms: (1) the change in P mean state, (2) the historical P response to ENSOL, and (3) a future enhancement in the P response to ENSOL. In many regions, this last term can aggravate the P extremes associated with ENSO variability. This simple decomposition allows us to identify regions likely to experience ENSOL-induced P changes that are without precedent in the current climate.

  1. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  2. Mechanical characterization of thin TiO{sub 2} films by means of microelectromechanical systems-based cantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adami, A.; Decarli, M.; Bartali, R.; Micheli, V.; Laidani, N.; Lorenzelli, L. [FBK-CMM: Fondazione Bruno Kessler-Center for Materials and MicroSystems, via Sommarive 18, Trento 38123 (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The measurement of mechanical parameters by means of microcantilever structures offers a reliable and accurate alternative to traditional methods, especially when dealing with thin films, which are extensively used in microfabrication technology and nanotechnology. In this work, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based piezoresistive cantilevers were realized and used for the determination of Young's modulus and residual stress of thin titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) deposited by sputtering from a TiO{sub 2} target using a rf plasma discharge. Films were deposited at different thicknesses, ranging from a few to a hundred nanometers. Dedicated silicon microcantilevers were designed through an optimization of geometrical parameters with the development of analytical as well as numerical models. Young's modulus and residual stress of sputtered TiO{sub 2} films were assessed by using both mechanical characterization based on scanning profilometers and piezoresistive sensing elements integrated in the silicon cantilevers. Results of MEMS-based characterization were combined with the tribological and morphological properties measured by microscratch test and x-ray diffraction analysis.

  3. The Role of Subtropical Irreversible PV Mixing in the Zonal Mean Circulation Response to Global Warming-like Thermal Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian; Sun, Lantao; Wu, Yutian; Chen, Gang

    2013-11-21

    The atmospheric circulation response to the global warming-like tropical upper tropospheric heating is revisited using a dry atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) in light of a new diagnostics based on the concept of finite-amplitude wave activity (FAWA) on equivalent latitude. For a given tropical heating profile, the linear Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) wave refraction analysis sometimes gives a very different and even opposite prediction of the eddy momentum flux response to that of the actual full model simulation, exposing the limitation of the traditional linear approach in understanding the full dynamics of the atmospheric response under global warming. The implementation of the FAWA diagnostics reveals that in response to the upper tropospheric heating, effective diffusivity, a measure of the mixing efficiency, increases and advances upward and poleward in the subtropics and the resultant enhancement and the poleward encroachment of eddy potential vorticity mixing leads to a poleward displaced potential vorticity (PV) gradient peak in the upper troposphere. The anomalous eddy PV flux, in balance with the PV dissipation, gives rise to a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet and eddy-driven mean meridional circulation. Sensitivity experiments show that these irreversible dissipation processes in the upper troposphere are robust, regardless of the width of the tropical heating.

  4. A multiscale variational approach to the kinetics of viscous classical liquids: The coarse-grained mean field approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-04-07

    A closed kinetic equation for the single-particle density of a viscous simple liquid is derived using a variational method for the Liouville equation and a coarse-grained mean-field (CGMF) ansatz. The CGMF ansatz is based on the notion that during the characteristic time of deformation a given particle interacts with many others so that it experiences an average interaction. A trial function for the N-particle probability density is constructed using a multiscale perturbation method and the CGMF ansatz is applied to it. The multiscale perturbation scheme is based on the ratio of the average nearest-neighbor atom distance to the total size of the assembly. A constraint on the initial condition is discovered which guarantees that the kinetic equation is mass-conserving and closed in the single-particle density. The kinetic equation has much of the character of the Vlasov equation except that true viscous, and not Landau, damping is accounted for. The theory captures condensation kinetics and takes much of the character of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the weak-gradient short-range force limit.

  5. Energy and EPA Webinar Series Promotes Tribal Energy Sufficiency and Economic Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Tribal Energy Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA's) Green Power Partnership Program, and Western Area...

  6. Agua Caliente Band's Pursuit of Energy Self-Sufficiency Gains Momentum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians in the Palm Springs area of California is a shining example of the type of leadership tribes can provide on the clean energy development front.

  7. Energy self-sufficiency for the County of Kauai. Volume 2. General energy plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kai, K.; Browne, S.; Hahn, Y.; Seki, A.

    1980-06-01

    Volume 1 of this study presented background information concerning the environment, the economy, past trends in the use of energy, and potentially available natural energy resources of Kauai. In Section II of this volume, Vol. 2, present energy-use patterns are described, updating the data of Volume 1 through 1978. Based upon past trends, three plausible scenarios of future economic growth and the corresponding projections of future energy demand are developed in Section III. Potential sources of energy to meet projected demands are discussed in Section IV, including conservation and indigenous energy resources. The present state of energy technology and its implications for Kauai are reviewed, economic factors and environmental impact issues that will influence selection of sources are discussed, and current and planned RD and D programs are described. Section V presents an energy-supply projection to be used in subsequent analysis. It represents a reasonable growth pattern in which sources available immediately and in the near future, conservation, biomass, solar water heating, and wind, are utilized in earlier years, augmented by solar power generation and ocean energy conversion, as they might be expected to become available. The results of analysis of the impact of this supply projection on each projected demand are discussed, including some economic impacts and alternatives that might increase future supply when projected supplies fall short of demand. Some general conclusions are drawn in Section VI.

  8. Combined local-density and dynamical mean field theory calculations for the compressed lanthanides Ce, Pr, and Nd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahan, A K

    2005-03-30

    This paper reports calculations for compressed Ce (4f{sup 1}), Pr (4f{sup 2}), and Nd (4f{sup 3}) using a combination of the local-density approximation (LDA) and dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), or LDA+DMFT. The 4f moment, spectra, and the total energy among other properties are examined as functions of volume and atomic number for an assumed face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. These materials are seen to be strongly localized at ambient pressure and for compressions up through the experimentally observed fcc phases ({gamma} phase for Ce), in the sense of having fully formed Hund's rules moments and little 4f spectral weight at the Fermi level. Subsequent compression for all three lanthanides brings about significant deviation of the moments from their Hund's rules values, a growing Kondo resonance at the fermi level, an associated softening in the total energy, and quenching of the spin orbit since the Kondo resonance is of mixed spin-orbit character while the lower Hubbard band is predominantly j = 5/2. while the most dramatic changes for Ce occur within the two-phase region of the {gamma}-{alpha} volume collapse transition, as found in earlier work, those for Pr and Nd occur within the volume range of the experimentally observed distorted fcc (dfcc) phase, which is therefore seen here as transitional and not part of the localized trivalent lanthanide sequence. The experimentally observed collapse to the {alpha}-U structure in Pr occurs only on further compression, and no such collapse is found in Nd. These lanthanides start closer to the localized limit for increasing atomic number, and so the theoretical signatures noted above are also offset to smaller volume as well, which is possibly related to the measured systematics of the size of the volume collapse being 15%, 9%, and none for Ce, Pr, and Nd, respectively.

  9. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    semantics. By developing such theory, we can improve the quality of the next generation analytical tools. Far from being a mere intellectual curiosity, a new theory can provide the means for us to take into account information that has been to date ignored by the algorithms and technologies we develop. This paper will begin with an examination of Shannon's theory of communication, discussing the contributions and the limitations of the theory and how that theory gets expanded into today's statistical text analysis algorithms. Next, we will expand Shannon's model. We'll suggest a transactional definition of semantics that focuses on the intended and actual change that messages are intended to have on the recipient. Finally, we will examine implications of the model for algorithm development.

  10. Validation of heat transfer, thermal decomposition, and container pressurization of polyurethane foam using mean value and Latin hypercube sampling approaches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scott, Sarah N.; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; Suo-Anttila, Jill M.; Erickson, Ken L.

    2014-12-09

    In this study, polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container in order to protect them from hostile environments or from accidents such as fire. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI)-polyether-polyol based polyurethane foam is presented and compared to experimental results to assess the validity of a 3-D finite element model of themore » heat transfer and degradation processes. In this series of experiments, 320 kg/m3 PMDI foam in a 0.2 L sealed steel container is heated to 1,073 K at a rate of 150 K/min. The experiment ends when the can breaches due to the buildup of pressure. The temperature at key location is monitored as well as the internal pressure of the can. Both experimental uncertainty and computational uncertainty are examined and compared. The mean value method (MV) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. The results of the both the MV method and the LHS approach show that while the model generally can predict the temperature at given locations in the system, it is less successful at predicting the pressure response. Also, these two approaches for propagating uncertainty agree with each other, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation results is also investigated, showing that for the temperature response the conductivity of the steel container and the effective conductivity of the foam, are the most important parameters. For the pressure response, the activation energy, effective conductivity, and specific heat are most important. The comparison to experiments and the identification of the drivers of uncertainty allow for

  11. Measurement of mean inner potential and inelastic mean free path...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Gan, Zhaofeng ; Ahn, Seungho ; Yu, Hongbin ; Smith, David J. ; McCartney, Martha R. Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1238990 GrantContract Number: ...

  12. Collision-induced Raman scattering by rare-gas atoms: The isotropic spectrum of Ne–Ne and its mean polarizability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael; Dixneuf, Sophie

    2015-05-07

    We report the room-temperature isotropic collision-induced light scattering spectrum of Ne–Ne over a wide interval of Raman shifts, and we compare it with the only available experimental spectrum for that system as well as with spectra calculated quantum-mechanically with the employ of advanced ab initio-computed data for the incremental mean polarizability. The spectral range previously limited to 170 cm{sup −1} is now extended to 485 cm{sup −1} allowing us to successfully solve the inverse-scattering problem toward an analytic model for the mean polarizability that perfectly matches our measurements. We also report the depolarization ratio of the scattering process, lingering over the usefulness of this property for more stringent checks between the various polarizability models.

  13. Urban stormwater quality, event-mean concentrations, and estimates of stormwater pollutant loads, Dallas-Fort Worth area, Texas, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldys, S.; Raines, T.H.; Mansfield, B.L.; Sandlin, J.T.

    1998-12-31

    The quality of urban stormwater is characterized with respect of 188 properties and constituents. Event-mean concentrations and loads for three land uses (residential, industrial, commercial), and annual loads for 12 selected properties and constituents for 26 gaged basins in the Dallas-Forth Worth study area are presented. Event-mean concentrations (EMCs) were computed for each land use for biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; suspended and dissolved solids; total nitrogen and ammonia plus organic nitrogen; total and dissolved phosphorus; total recoverable copper, lead, and zinc; and total diazinon. The EMCs of chemical oxygen demand; total nitrogen and ammonia plus organic nitrogen; total and dissolved phosphorus; and total diazinon were greatest in samples from residential land-use basins. The EMCs of biochemical oxygen demand; suspended and dissolved solids; and total copper, lead, and zinc were greatest in samples from industrial land-use basins.

  14. Equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2009-05-15

    The equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas is studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. Going down to as low densities as na{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -100} permits us to obtain agreement on beyond mean-field level between predictions of perturbative methods and direct many-body numerical simulation, thus providing an answer to the fundamental question of the equation of state of a two-dimensional dilute Bose gas in the universal regime (i.e., entirely described by the gas parameter na{sup 2}). We also show that the measure of the frequency of a breathing collective oscillation in a trap at very low densities can be used to test the universal equation of state of a two-dimensional Bose gas.

  15. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  16. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  17. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg ; Olsson, Caroline; Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg ; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm ; Tucker, Susan; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar; Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  18. SUPPORTING AND HEAT INSULATING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birmingham, B.W.; Brown, H.; Scott, R.B.; Vander-arend, P.C.

    1959-01-27

    A method is described for simultaneously supporting inner and outer members spaced from each other and heat insulating them from each other comprising an inner and outer member together defining an annular cavity. Each member carries a shoulder projecting towards the other member. A stack of annular metal plates in the cavity is held between the shoulder of the outer member and the shoulder of the inner member. The edges of the metal plate forming the stack are exposed to the cavity and to evacuation conditions which may exist within thc cavity. The stack of metal plates acts to both support one of the members with respect to the other and as a heat insulator.

  19. MEANS FOR TERMINATING NUCLEAR REACTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, C.M.

    1959-02-17

    An apparatus is presented for use in a reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled type for the purpose of quickly terminating the reaction, the coolant being circulated through coolant tubes extending through the reactor core. Several of the tubes in the critical region are connected through valves to a tank containing a poisoning fluid having a high neutron capture crosssection and to a reservoir. When it is desired to quickly terminate the reaction, the valves are operated to permit the flow of the poisoning fluid through these particular tubes and into the reservoir while normal coolant is being circulated through the remaining tubes. The apparatus is designed to prevent contamination of the primary coolant by the poisoning fluid.

  20. Means of manufacturing annular arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, R.A.

    1985-10-10

    A method is described for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90/sup 0/. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.

  1. Means of determining extrusion temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Robert E.; Canonico, Domenic A.

    1977-01-01

    In an extrusion process comprising the steps of fabricating a metal billet, heating said billet for a predetermined time and at a selected temperature to increase its plasticity and then forcing said heated billet through a small orifice to produce a desired extruded object, the improvement comprising the steps of randomly inserting a plurality of small metallic thermal tabs at different cross sectional depths in said billet as a part of said fabricating step, and examining said extruded object at each thermal tab location for determining the crystal structure at each extruded thermal tab thus revealing the maximum temperature reached during extrusion in each respective tab location section of the extruded object, whereby the thermal profile of said extruded object during extrusion may be determined.

  2. Acoustic transducer with damping means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard W.; Adamson, Gerald E.

    1976-11-02

    An ultrasonic transducer specifically suited to high temperature sodium applications is described. A piezoelectric active element is joined to the transducer faceplate by coating the faceplate and juxtaposed active element face with wetting agents specifically compatible with the bonding procedure employed to achieve the joint. The opposite face of the active element is fitted with a backing member designed to assure continued electrical continuity during adverse operating conditions which can result in the fracturing of the active element. The fit is achieved employing a spring-loaded electrode operably arranged to electrically couple the internal transducer components, enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing, to accessory components normally employed in transducer applications. Two alternative backing members are taught for assuring electrical continuity. The first employs a resilient, discrete multipoint contact electrode in electrical communication with the active element face. The second employs a resilient, elastomeric, electrically conductive, damped member in electrical communication with the active element face in a manner to effect ring-down of the transducer. Each embodiment provides continued electrical continuity within the transducer in the event the active element fractures, while the second provides the added benefit of damping.

  3. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, Donald O.; Burger, Arnold

    1994-01-01

    An optically transparent furnace (10) having a detection apparatus (29) with a pedestal (12) enclosed in an evacuated ampule (16) for growing a crystal (14) thereon. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater (20), a base heater (24) and a cold finger (26) such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material (18) to grow the crystal (14). A quartz halogen lamp (32) projects a collimated beam (30) onto the crystal (14) and a reflected beam (34) is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer (40) and the detected peak position (48) in the reflected energy spectrum (44) of the reflected beam (34) is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal (14).

  4. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  5. CALUTRON ASSEMBLING AND DISASSEMBLING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, R.E.; Thornton, J.

    1959-01-27

    This patent relates to the assembling and disassembling of a calutron and, more specifically describes a calutron having the ion separating mechanism carried by a fuce plate removably secured to the tank. When it is desired to withdraw the ion separating mechanism from the tank, a motor is energized and a carriage attached through a bracket to the fuce plate is driven along a track. The face plate moves out from the tank in substantially a linear direction, preventing injury to the ion separating mechanism.

  6. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  7. mu-Scale Variations Of Elemental Composition In Individual Atmospheric Particles By Means Of Synchrotron Radiation Based mu-XRF Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schleicher, N.; Kramar, U.; Norra, S.; Dietze, V.; Kaminski, U.; Cen, K.; Yu, Y.

    2010-04-06

    Atmospheric pollution poses a huge challenge especially for densely populated urban areas. Although a tremendous knowledge already exists on atmospheric particulate pollution, only very limited knowledge is available on mineral and chemical composition of single atmospheric particles because most studies on air pollution focus on total mass concentrations or bulk elemental analysis. However, it is of particular importance to investigate the properties of single particles since according to their individually composition they differ in their specific impact on climate change, negative environment and health effects, as well as accelerating the weathering of stone buildings in urban areas. Particles with sulfate and nitrate coatings together with sufficient moisture increase metal solubility and possibly catalyze further surface reactions on stone facades of buildings. From the viewpoint of health effects of aerosols it is important to consider agglomerations processes of fine anthropogenic and highly toxic particles with coarse geogenic and less toxic particles. With respect to fundamental research in mineralogy, processes forming composed coarse particles consisting of geogenic and anthropogenic substances are valuable to study since a new type of particle is produced. In this context, the important and still in detail unknown role of geogenic particles as catchers for anthropogenic aerosols can be investigated more closely. Coarse particles can provide a possible sink for fine particles. Moreover, the intermixture of particles from geogenic and anthropogenic sources and the spatial and temporal variations of contributions from different sources, which plays a decisive role in the study area of Beijing, can be clarified with this approach. For this study, particles were collected with the passive sampling device Sigma-2 and analyzed for particles from 3 to 96 {mu}m. The analyzed particles showed a very inhomogeneous distribution in their elemental composition. For

  8. Measuring galaxy clustering and the evolution of [C II] mean intensity with far-IR line intensity mapping during 0.5 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzgil, B. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Lidz, A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Infrared fine-structure emission lines from trace metals are powerful diagnostics of the interstellar medium in galaxies. We explore the possibility of studying the redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission using the three-dimensional (3D) power spectra obtained with an imaging spectrometer. The intensity mapping approach measures the spatio-spectral fluctuations due to line emission from all galaxies, including those below the individual detection threshold. The technique provides 3D measurements of galaxy clustering and moments of the galaxy luminosity function. Furthermore, the linear portion of the power spectrum can be used to measure the total line emission intensity including all sources through cosmic time with redshift information naturally encoded. Total line emission, when compared to the total star formation activity and/or other line intensities, reveals evolution of the interstellar conditions of galaxies in aggregate. As a case study, we consider measurement of [C II] autocorrelation in the 0.5 < z < 1.5 epoch, where interloper lines are minimized, using far-IR/submillimeter balloon-borne and future space-borne instruments with moderate and high sensitivity, respectively. In this context, we compare the intensity mapping approach to blind galaxy surveys based on individual detections. We find that intensity mapping is nearly always the best way to obtain the total line emission because blind, wide-field galaxy surveys lack sufficient depth and deep pencil beams do not observe enough galaxies in the requisite luminosity and redshift bins. Also, intensity mapping is often the most efficient way to measure the power spectrum shape, depending on the details of the luminosity function and the telescope aperture.

  9. Isotoxic Dose Escalation in the Treatment of Lung Cancer by Means of Heterogeneous Dose Distributions in the Presence of Respiratory Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Mariwan; Nielsen, Morten [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Hansen, Olfred [Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Jahn, Jonas Westberg [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Korreman, Stine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Brink, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.brink@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To test, in the presence of intrafractional respiration movement, a margin recipe valid for a homogeneous and conformal dose distribution and to test whether the use of smaller margins combined with heterogeneous dose distributions allows an isotoxic dose escalation when respiratory motion is considered. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography scanning. The gross tumor volume and clinical target volume (CTV) were outlined in the mid-ventilation phase. The CTV-to-planning target volume (PTV) margin was calculated by use of a standard margin recipe and the patient-specific respiration pattern. Standard three-dimensional treatment plans were generated and recalculated on the remaining respiration phases. The planning was repeated for a CTV-to-PTV margin decreased by 2.5 and 5 mm relative to the initial margin in all directions. Time-averaged dose-volume histograms (four-dimensional dose-volume histograms) were calculated to evaluate the CTV-to-PTV margin. Finally, the dose was escalated in the plans with decreased PTV such that the mean lung dose (predictor of radiation-induced pneumonitis) was equal to mean lung dose in the plan by use of the initially calculated margin. Results: A reduction of the standard margin by 2.5 mm compared with the recipe resulted in too low of a minimum dose for some patients. A combination of dose escalation and use of heterogeneous dose distribution was able to increase the minimum dose to the target by approximately 10% and 20% for a CTV-to-PTV margin reduction of 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The margin recipe is valid for intrafractional respiration-induced tumor motions. It is possible to increase the dose to the target without increased mean lung dose with an inhomogeneous dose distribution.

  10. Role of low-energy phonons with mean-free-paths >0.8 μm in heat conduction in silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Puqing; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-06-30

    Despite recent progress in the first-principles calculations and measurements of phonon mean-free-paths (ℓ), contribution of low-energy phonons to heat conduction in silicon is still inconclusive, as exemplified by the discrepancies as large as 30% between different first-principles calculations. In this study, we investigate the contribution of low-energy phonons with ℓ>0.8 μm by accurately measuring the cross-plane thermal conductivity (Λcross) of crystalline silicon films by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), over a wide range of film thicknesses 1≤ hf ≤ 10 μm and temperatures 100 ≤ T ≤ 300 K. We employ a dual-frequency TDTR approach to improve the accuracy of our Λcrossmore » measurements. We find from our Λcross measurements that phonons with ℓ>0.8 μm contribute 53 W m-1 K-1 (37%) to heat conduction in natural Si at 300 K while phonons with ℓ>3 μm contribute 523 W m-1 K-1 (61%) at 100 K, >20% lower than first-principles predictions of 68 W m-1 K-1 (47%) and 717 W m-1 K-1 (76%), respectively. Using a relaxation time approximation (RTA) model, we demonstrate that macroscopic damping (e.g., Akhieser s damping) eliminates the contribution of phonons with mean-free-paths >20 μm at 300 K, which contributes 15 W m-1 K-1 (10%) to calculated heat conduction in Si. Thus, we propose that omission of the macroscopic damping for low-energy phonons in the first-principles calculations could be one of the possible explanations for the observed differences between our measurements and calculations. Finally, our work provides an important benchmark for future measurements and calculations of the distribution of phonon mean-free-paths in crystalline silicon.« less

  11. Comparison of the order of magnetic phase transitions in several magnetocaloric materials using the rescaled universal curve, Banerjee and mean field theory criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrola-Gándara, L. A. Santillan-Rodriguez, C. R.; Rivera-Gomez, F. J.; Saenz-Hernandez, R. J.; Botello-Zubiate, M. E.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetocaloric materials with second order phase transition near the Curie temperature can be described by critical phenomena theory. In this theory, scaling, universality, and renormalization are key concepts from which several phase transition order criteria are derived. In this work, the rescaled universal curve, Banerjee and mean field theory criteria were used to make a comparison for several magnetocaloric materials including pure Gd, SmCo{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 0.2}, MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54}, and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3}. Pure Gd, SmCo{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 0.2}, and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} present a collapse of the rescaled magnetic entropy change curves into a universal curve, which indicates a second order phase transition; applying Banerjee criterion to H/σ vs σ{sup 2} Arrot plots and the mean field theory relation |ΔS{sub M}| ∝ (μ{sub 0}H/T{sub c}){sup 2/3} for the same materials also determines a second order phase transition. However, in the MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54} sample, the Banerjee criterion applied to the H/σ vs σ{sup 2} Arrot plot indicates a first order magnetic phase transition, while the mean field theory prediction for a second order phase transition, |ΔS{sub M}| ∝ (μ{sub 0}H/T{sub c}){sup 2/3}, describes a second order behavior. Also, a mixture of first and second order behavior was indicated by the rescaled universal curve criterion. The diverse results obtained for each criterion in MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54} are apparently related to the magnetoelastic effect and to the simultaneous presence of weak and strong magnetism in Fe (3f) and Mn (3g) alternate atomic layers, respectively. The simultaneous application of the universal curve, the Banerjee and the mean field theory criteria has allowed a better understanding about the nature of the order of the phase transitions in different magnetocaloric materials.

  12. Method for measuring dose-equivalent in a neutron flux with an unknown energy spectra and means for carrying out that method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Distenfeld, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for measuring the dose-equivalent for exposure to an unknown and/or time varing neutron flux which comprises simultaneously exposing a plurality of neutron detecting elements of different types to a neutron flux and combining the measured responses of the various detecting elements by means of a function, whose value is an approximate measure of the dose-equivalent, which is substantially independent of the energy spectra of the flux. Also, a personnel neutron dosimeter, which is useful in carrying out the above method, comprising a plurality of various neutron detecting elements in a single housing suitable for personnel to wear while working in a radiation area.

  13. Preliminary carburizing of medium-carbon steel as a factor increasing corrosion resistance of diffusion layers produced by means of vacuum chromizing process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasprzycka, E.; Tacikowski, J.; Liliental, W.

    1995-12-31

    Diffusion layers produced on a steel surface by means of the vacuum chromizing process has been studied. The effect of preliminary carburizing of medium-carbon steel on a chromized layer structure and its corrosion resistance has been investigated. Studies of layer thickness, its morphology, the phase composition, and Cr and Fe depth profiles in the diffusion zone of chromized steel specimens in the aggressive media of the food industry has been determined. For corrosion resistance tests chromized layers of different structure have been used: two-phase layers (consisting of a carbide layer and a solution zone) produced on the medium-carbon steel, monophase carbide layers produced on the surface of preliminary carburized medium-carbon steel and monophase solution layers produced on Armco iron. It has been proved that the corrosion resistance of monophase hard carbide layers, as well as of monophase solution layers is higher than that for two-phase layers. The results obtained by the described method indicate that the preliminary carburizing of medium-carbon steel significantly increases corrosion resistance of diffusion layers produced by means of the vacuum chromizing process.

  14. Transition Helmholtz free energy, entropy, and heat capacity of free-standing smectic films in water: A mean-field treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Śliwa, Izabela; Zakharov, A. V.

    2014-11-21

    Using the extended McMillan's mean field approach with anisotropic forces a study of both the structural and thermodynamic properties of free-standing smectic film (FSSF) in water on heating to the isotropic temperature is carried out numerically. By solving the self-consistent nonlinear equations for the order parameters, we obtained that the smectic-A-isotropic (AI) transition occurs through the series of layer-thinning transitions causing the films to thin in the stepwise manner as the temperature is increased above the bulk smectic-A-isotropic temperature T{sub AI}(bulk). With enhanced pair interactions in the bounding layers, the smectic-isotropic transition corresponds to smectic melting of the central layers. The effects of surface “enhanced” pair interactions in the bounding layers and of film thickness on the orientational and translational order parameters, the Helmholtz free energy and entropy, as well as the temperature dependence of the heat capacity of FSSFs, have also been investigated. Reasonable agreement between the theoretically predicted and the experimentally obtained – by means of optical microscopy and ellipsometry techniques – data of the temperature when the thin decylcyanobiphenyl smectic film immersing in water ruptures has been obtained.

  15. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region of NGC 7023. II. Traditional PAH analysis using k-means as a visualization tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2014-11-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed using the 'traditional' approach in which the PAH bands and plateaus between 5.2-19.5 μm are isolated by subtracting the underlying continuum and removing H{sub 2} emission lines. The spectra are organized into seven spectroscopic bins by using k-means clustering. Each cluster corresponds to, and reveals, a morphological zone within NGC 7023. The zones self-organize parallel to the well-defined PDR front that coincides with an increase in intensity of the H{sub 2} emission lines. PAH band profiles and integrated strengths are measured, classified, and mapped. The morphological zones revealed by the k-means clustering provides deeper insight into the conditions that drive variations in band strength ratios and evolution of the PAH population that otherwise would be lost. For example, certain band-band relations are bifurcated, revealing two limiting cases; one associated with the PDR, the other with the diffuse medium. Traditionally, PAH band strength ratios are used to gain insight into the properties of the emitting PAH population, i.e., charge, size, structure, and composition. Insights inferred from this work are compared and contrasted to those from Boersma et al. (first paper in this series), where the PAH emission in NGC 7023 is decomposed exclusively using the PAH spectra and tools made available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database.

  16. A stochastically forced time delay solar dynamo model: Self-consistent recovery from a maunder-like grand minimum necessitates a mean-field alpha effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu; Passos, Dário E-mail: dariopassos@ist.utl.pt

    2014-07-01

    Fluctuations in the Sun's magnetic activity, including episodes of grand minima such as the Maunder minimum have important consequences for space and planetary environments. However, the underlying dynamics of such extreme fluctuations remain ill-understood. Here, we use a novel mathematical model based on stochastically forced, non-linear delay differential equations to study solar cycle fluctuations in which time delays capture the physics of magnetic flux transport between spatially segregated dynamo source regions in the solar interior. Using this model, we explicitly demonstrate that the Babcock-Leighton poloidal field source based on dispersal of tilted bipolar sunspot flux, alone, cannot recover the sunspot cycle from a grand minimum. We find that an additional poloidal field source effective on weak fields—e.g., the mean-field α effect driven by helical turbulence—is necessary for self-consistent recovery of the sunspot cycle from grand minima episodes.

  17. Laser based analysis using a passively Q-switched laser employing analysis electronics and a means for detecting atomic optical emission of the laser media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.

    2016-03-29

    A device for Laser based Analysis using a Passively Q-Switched Laser comprising an optical pumping source optically connected to a laser media. The laser media and a Q-switch are positioned between and optically connected to a high reflectivity mirror (HR) and an output coupler (OC) along an optical axis. The output coupler (OC) is optically connected to the output lens along the optical axis. A means for detecting atomic optical emission comprises a filter and a light detector. The optical filter is optically connected to the laser media and the optical detector. A control system is connected to the optical detector and the analysis electronics. The analysis electronics are optically connected to the output lens. The detection of the large scale laser output production triggers the control system to initiate the precise timing and data collection from the detector and analysis.

  18. Tunable resonant sensing means to sense a particular frequency in a high energy charged particle beam and generate a frequency-domain signal in response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Michiyuki; Nolan, Marvin L.

    1988-01-01

    A frequency domain sensing system is disclosed for sensing the position of a high energy beam of charged particles traveling within a housing which comprises a plurality of sensors positioned in the wall of the housing radially around the axis of the beam. Each of the sensors further comprises a first electrode of predetermined shape received in a bore in the housing to define a fixed capacitance and an inductance structure attached to the electrode to provide an inductance for the sensing means which will provide an LC circuit which will resonate at a predetermined frequency known to exist in the beam of charged particles. The sensors are further provided with tuning apparatus associated with the inductance structure to vary the amount of the inductance to thereby tune the sensors to the predetermined frequency prior to transmission of the signal to signal detection circuitry.

  19. Application of electron stimulated desorption techniques to measure the isotherm and the mean residence time of hydrogen physisorbed on a metal surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arakawa, Ichiro Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kawarabuki, Taku; Yamakawa, Koichiro; Miura, Takashi

    2015-03-15

    Electron stimulated desorption techniques were applied to probe the density of H{sub 2} physisorbed on a cold surface. The adsorption isotherm of H{sub 2} on a copper surface was measured in the equilibrium pressure range between 10{sup ?9} and 10{sup ?4} Pa at surface temperatures of 6.5 and 4.2?K. The mean residence times of H{sub 2} on copper were obtained from the observation of the time development of the surface density in a transitional state approaching equilibrium, and are 50500?s for the coverage between 1 and 0.18 at 4.2?K of the substrate temperature. The adsorption energies of 1.181.27?kJ/mol, and the condensation coefficient of 0.0740.018 were also deduced.

  20. MAGNETIC HELICITY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS AS A FUNCTION OF THE ANGLE WITH RESPECT TO THE LOCAL MEAN MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podesta, J. J.; Gary, S. P., E-mail: jpodesta@solar.stanford.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Magnetic field data acquired by the Ulysses spacecraft in high-speed streams over the poles of the Sun are used to investigate the normalized magnetic helicity spectrum {sigma}{sub m} as a function of the angle {theta} between the local mean magnetic field and the flow direction of the solar wind. This spectrum provides important information about the constituent modes at the transition to kinetic scales that occurs near the spectral break separating the inertial range from the dissipation range. The energetically dominant signal at scales near the thermal proton gyroradius k{sub perpendicular{rho}i} {approx} 1 often covers a wide band of propagation angles centered about the perpendicular direction, {theta} {approx_equal} 90{sup 0} {+-} 30{sup 0}. This signal is consistent with a spectrum of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves with k{sub perpendicular} >> k{sub ||} in which there is more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun and along the direction of the local mean magnetic field than toward the Sun. Moreover, this signal is principally responsible for the reduced magnetic helicity spectrum measured using Fourier transform techniques. The observations also reveal a subdominant population of nearly parallel propagating electromagnetic waves near the proton inertial scale k{sub ||} c/{omega}{sub pi} {approx} 1 that often exhibit high magnetic helicity |{sigma}{sub m}| {approx_equal} 1. These waves are believed to be caused by proton pressure anisotropy instabilities that regulate distribution functions in the collisionless solar wind. Because of the existence of a drift of alpha particles with respect to the protons, the proton temperature anisotropy instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} > 1 preferentially generates outward propagating ion-cyclotron waves and the fire-hose instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} < 1 preferentially generates inward propagating whistler waves. These kinetic processes

  1. The breakdown of de Gennes Scaling in TbxEr1-xNi2B2C and its mean field theory explanation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Chunwang

    2005-05-01

    The Neel temperatures, T{sub N}, of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C samples have been determined from the temperature dependence of magnetization measurements. A breakdown of the de Gennes scaling of T{sub N} with a clear turning point around x = 0.45 has been observed. The T{sub N} values of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C do not change much within the range of O < x < 0.45 and then, for larger x they increase almost linearly with concentration until T{sub N} = 14.9K is reached for x = 1, TbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. The clear change in the x-dependence of T{sub N} around x = 0.45 can be linked to a change in the local moment ordering direction from transverse to longitudinal, a change which is consistent with recent resonant X-ray scattering data. These features in T{sub N}(x) can be explained using a mean field model.

  2. Mean flows and blob velocities in scrape-off layer (SOLT) simulations of an L-mode discharge on Alcator C-Mod

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Russell, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; LaBombard, B.; Hughes, J. W.; Terry, J. L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2016-06-10

    Two-dimensional scrape-off layer turbulence (SOLT) code simulations are compared with an L-mode discharge on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [M. Greenwald, et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 110501 (2014)]. Density and temperature profiles for the simulations were obtained by smoothly fitting Thomson scattering and mirror Langmuir probe (MLP) data from the shot. Simulations differing in turbulence intensity were obtained by varying a dissipation parameter. Mean flow profiles and density fluctuation amplitudes are consistent with those measured by MLP in the experiment and with a Fourier space diagnostic designed to measure poloidal phase velocity. Blob velocities in the simulations were determined from themore » correlation function for density fluctuations, as in the analysis of gas-puff-imaging (GPI) blobs in the experiment. In the simulations, it was found that larger blobs moved poloidally with the ExB flow velocity, vE , in the near-SOL, while smaller fluctuations moved with the group velocity of the dominant linear (interchange) mode, vE + 1/2 vdi, where vdi is the ion diamagnetic drift velocity. Comparisons are made with the measured GPI correlation velocity for the discharge. The saturation mechanisms operative in the simulation of the discharge are also discussed. In conclusion, it is found that neither sheared flow nor pressure gradient modification can be excluded as saturation mechanisms.« less

  3. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  4. Ab initio implementation of quantum trajectory mean-field approach and dynamical simulation of the N{sub 2}CO photodissociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Binbin; Liu, Lihong; Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Wei-Hai; Cao, Jun; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-qi

    2015-11-21

    In this work, the recently introduced quantum trajectory mean-field (QTMF) approach is implemented and employed to explore photodissociation dynamics of diazirinone (N{sub 2}CO), which are based on the high-level ab initio calculation. For comparison, the photodissociation process has been simulated as well with the fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) and the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) methods. Overall, the dynamical behavior predicted by the three methods is consistent. The N{sub 2}CO photodissociation at λ > 335 nm is an ultrafast process and the two C—N bonds are broken in a stepwise way, giving birth to CO and N{sub 2} as the final products in the ground state. Meanwhile, some noticeable differences were found in the QTMF, FSSH, and AIMS simulated time constants for fission of the C—N bonds, excited-state lifetime, and nonadiabatic transition ratios in different intersection regions. These have been discussed in detail. The present study provides a clear evidence that direct ab initio QTMF approach is one of the reliable tools for simulating nonadiabatic dynamics processes.

  5. Maximum Diameter Measurements of Aortic Aneurysms on Axial CT Images After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Sufficient for Follow-up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumueller, Stephan Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh Goetti, Robert Paul; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum diameter measurements of aortic aneurysms after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) on axial computed tomographic (CT) images in comparison to maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the intravascular centerline for follow-up by using three-dimensional (3D) volume measurements as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients (73 {+-} 7.5 years, range 51-88 years), who underwent EVAR of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively included. Two blinded readers twice independently measured the maximum aneurysm diameter on axial CT images performed at discharge, and at 1 and 2 years after intervention. The maximum diameter perpendicular to the centerline was automatically measured. Volumes of the aortic aneurysms were calculated by dedicated semiautomated 3D segmentation software (3surgery, 3mensio, the Netherlands). Changes in diameter of 0.5 cm and in volume of 10% were considered clinically significant. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated by intraclass correlations (ICC) in a random effects analysis of variance. The two unidimensional measurement methods were correlated to the reference standard. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreements for maximum aneurysm diameter measurements were excellent (ICC = 0.98 and ICC = 0.96, respectively). There was an excellent correlation between maximum aneurysm diameters measured on axial CT images and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) as well as between maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the centerline and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurements of maximum aneurysm diameters on axial CT images are an accurate, reliable, and robust method for follow-up after EVAR and can be used in daily routine.

  6. DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy-c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and at the end of the 2-week therapy. The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. A DCE matrix that is constructed from the aligned DCE curves of all voxels of the 45 lesions obtained prior to WBRT is processed by principal component analysis to generate the principal components (PCs). Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy-c-means clustering, is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients. The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes. Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.86 ± 0.06 were achieved for the PC-defined and physiological-defined tumor subvolume in response assessment. Conclusions: The PC

  7. DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy-c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue; Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Med Inn Building C478, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and at the end of the 2-week therapy. The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. A DCE matrix that is constructed from the aligned DCE curves of all voxels of the 45 lesions obtained prior to WBRT is processed by principal component analysis to generate the principal components (PCs). Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy-c-means clustering, is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients. The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes. Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0.88 0.05 and 0.86 0.06 were achieved for the PC-defined and physiological-defined tumor subvolume in response assessment. Conclusions: The PC

  8. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation ofr = 0.92 for

  9. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then

  10. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River

  11. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish

  12. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of

  13. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A.

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No

  14. EIS-0284: Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) Proof-of-Concept System, Elkhart, Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal by Babcock Borsig Power to design, construct, and operate an advanced pulverized coal-fired power facility using a low emission...

  15. A coupled RELAPS-3D/CFD methodology with a proof-of-principle calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumiller, D.L.; Tomlinson, E.T.; Bauer, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer code was modified to make the explicit coupling capability in the code fully functional. As a test of the modified code, a coupled RELAP5/RELAP5 analysis of the Edwards-O'Brien blowdown problem was performed which showed no significant deviations from the standard RELAP5-3D predictions. In addition, a multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was modified to permit explicit coupling to RELAP5-3D. Several calculations were performed with this code. The first analysis used the experimental pressure history from a point just upstream of the break as a boundary condition. This analysis showed that a multiphase CFD code could calculate the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions during a rapid blowdown transient. Finally, a coupled RELAP5/CFD analysis was performed. The results are presented in this paper.

  16. Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Ge, Yongshuai; Garrett, John; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 ?m pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of 30, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3 increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS were found to be different due to the difference in the tomosynthesis image reconstruction algorithms. Conclusions: It is feasible to simultaneously generate x-ray differential phase contrast, phase contrast, and absorption contrast tomosynthesis images using a grating-based data acquisition setup. The method shows promise in improving the visibility of several low-density materials and therefore merits further investigation.

  17. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  18. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  19. PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR A HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS METHOD FOR HEURISTIC USABILITY EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julie L. Marble

    2005-09-01

    An ongoing issue within human-computer interaction (HCI) is the need for simplified or discount methods. The current economic slowdown has necessitated innovative methods that are results driven and cost effective. The myriad methods of design and usability are currently being cost-justified, and new techniques are actively being explored that meet current budgets and needs. Recent efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) are highlighted by the ten-year development of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk HRA (SPAR-H) method. The SPAR-H method has been used primarily for determining humancentered risk at nuclear power plants. The SPAR-H method, however, shares task analysis underpinnings with HCI. Despite this methodological overlap, there is currently no HRA approach deployed in heuristic usability evaluation. This paper presents an extension of the existing SPAR-H method to be used as part of heuristic usability evaluation in HCI.

  20. Proof-of-principle of high-fidelity coupled CRUD deposition and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Annals of Nuclear Energy (Oxford); Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-4549 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring ...

  1. Closed Crawl Space Performance: Proof of Concept in the Production Builder Marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkin-Weber, Melissa; Dastur, Cyrus; Mauceri, Maria; Hannas, Benjamin

    2008-10-30

    This overview is intended to be a very concise, limited summary of the key project activities discussed in the detailed report that follows. Due to the large scope of this project, the detailed report is broken into three individually titled sections. Each section repeats key background information, with the goal that the sections will eventually stand alone as complete reports on the major activities of the project. The information presented herein comes from ongoing research, so please note that all observations, findings and recommendations presented are preliminary and subject to change in the future. We invite and welcome your comments and suggestions for improving the project. Advanced Energy completed its first jointly-funded crawl space research project with the Department of Energy in 2005. That project, funded under award number DE-FC26-00NT40995 and titled 'A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South' demonstrated the substantial energy efficiency and moisture management benefits that result from using properly closed crawl space foundations for residential construction instead of traditional wall vented crawl space foundations. Two activities of this first project included (1) an assessment of ten existing homes to document commonly observed energy and moisture failures associated with wall-vented crawl space foundations and (2) a detailed literature review that documented both the history of closed crawl space research and the historical lack of scientific justification for building code requirements for crawl space ventilation. The most valuable activity of the 2005 project proved to be the field demonstration of various closed crawl space techniques, which were implemented in a set of twelve small (1040 square feet), simply designed homes in eastern North Carolina. These homes had matched envelope, mechanical and architectural designs, and comparable performance characteristics with regard to infiltration and duct leakage. Researchers settled on two closed crawl space designs, one with insulation located in the framed floor structure above the crawl space and one with insulation on the crawl space perimeter wall, as the designs with the most widespread potential for application. Researchers based this assessment not only on the field performance, but also on input from residential builders, pest control professionals, code officials, installers, and building scientists active in the region. The key findings from the field demonstration were that (1) closed crawl spaces stay substantially drier than traditional wall-vented crawl spaces during humid climate conditions, and (2) the houses built on the closed crawl space foundations saved, on average, 15% or more on annual energy used for space heating and cooling. A comparison of the actual energy performance of the homes versus the performance predicted by a popular HERS software application showed that the software was unable to predict the demonstrated savings, in some cases predicting an energy penalty. Findings from the 2005 project were summarized in a publication titled Closed Crawl Spaces: An Introduction to Design, Construction and Performance. Since its release, the publication has received widespread use by builders, homeowners, installers and code officials concerned about crawl space construction. The findings were also used to create major revisions to the NC Residential Code, which were adopted in 2004 and immediately began to reduce the regulatory barriers to widespread commercialization of the technology in NC, particularly in new residential construction. Full project details are located at www.crawlspaces.org.

  2. A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser Experiment at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pernet, Pierre-Louis

    2010-06-24

    With the advent of X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs), new methods have been developed to extend capabilities at short wavelengths beyond Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). In particular, seeding of a FEL allows for temporal control of the radiation pulse and increases the peak brightness by orders of magnitude. Most recently, Gennady Stupakov and colleagues at SLAC proposed a new technique: Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG). Here a laser microbunches the beam in an undulator and the beam is sheared in a chicane. This process is repeated with a second laser, undulator and chicane. The interplay between these allows a seeding of the X-ray laser up to the 100th harmonic of the first laser. After introducing the physics of FELs and the EEHG seeding technique, we describe contributions to the experimental effort. We will present detailed studies of the experiment including the choice of parameters and their optimization, the emittance effect, spontaneous emission in the undulators, the second laser phase effect, and measurements of the jitter between RF stations. Finally, the status and preliminary results of the Echo-7 experiment will be outlined.

  3. A Proof of Concept: Grizzly, the LWRS Program Materials Aging and Degradation Pathway Main Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Spencer; Jeremey Busby; Richard Martineau; Brian Wirth

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear power currently provides a significant fraction of the United States’ non-carbon emitting power generation. In future years, nuclear power must continue to generate a significant portion of the nation’s electricity to meet the growing electricity demand, clean energy goals, and ensure energy independence. New reactors will be an essential part of the expansion of nuclear power. However, given limits on new builds imposed by economics and industrial capacity, the extended service of the existing fleet will also be required.

  4. Poison-proof Your Home: One Room at a Time: Pesticide Poison Prevention Checklist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You've heard it before, "Better to be safe than sorry." There are always some chances in life we can afford to take, but risks that can affect your child's health should always be prevented. By performing just a few common sense practices in a home, parents can ensure the well-being of their child's health and future. Play it safe, and no one has to worry. Most poisonings happen in a child's home, but some take place outside of it, such as while visiting the home of a friend, family

  5. Final report on HGP-a wellhead generator proof-of-feasibility project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.

    1982-10-01

    The construction of the 3 MW geothermal power plant at HGP-A well was completed in June, 1981. The HGP-A started production on June 12, 1981. Numerous problems developed during the plant startup and shakedown periods. However, the plant was formally turned over to Hawaii Electric Light Company (HELCO), the local utility company on March 1, 1982. Currently, all systems are functioning well and all major objectives have been met. The plan is to operate the power plant through 1990 where long term equipment and material information and reservoir characteristics can be obtained.

  6. Geothermal Resources Development - HGP-A Wellhead Generator Proof of Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    Project: A 3 MW plant with single flash steam system. Totally enclosed plant building integrated with a visitors' center, within a fully developed site. Location: Puna District, Island of Hawaii. Construction Cost: US $8,000,000. Completed: Schedule completion August 1980. (This plant was officially dedicated, July 17, 1981 and is currently delivering energy to HELCO Power System in Hawaii. HELCO is operating this plant for the University of Hawaii). Services: Concept studies, preliminary design, final design, procurement and construction management.

  7. A Proof of Concept: Grizzly, the LWRS Program Materials Aging and Degradation Pathway Main Simulation Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nuclear power currently provides a significant fraction of the United States’ non- carbon emitting power generation. In future years, nuclear power must continue to generate a significant portion...

  8. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to a method and device for determining quantities of gamma radiation and x radiation by exposing to such radiation a mature of a purified halogenated hydrocarbon chosen from the class consisting of chloroform, bromoform, tetrachloroethane and 1,1,2trichloroethane, and a minor quantity of a sensitizer chosen from the class consisting of oxygen, benzoyl peroxide, sodium peroxide, and nitrobenzene, the proportion of the sensitizer being at least about 10/sup -5/ moles per cubic centimeter of halogenated hydrocarbon, the total amount of sensitizer depending upon the range of radiation to be measured, and chemically measuring the amount of decomposition generated by the irradiation of the sensitized halogenated hydrocarbon.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTORS AND CONTROL MEANS THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kesselring, K.A.

    1962-08-14

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical active portion, a fixed reflector around the active portion having equally spaced apertures therein parallel to the longitudinal axis of the active portion, and rotatable cylindrical bodies in each of these apertures including parallel neutron reflector portions and parallel neutron absorber portions are described. (AEC)

  10. Mode suppression means for gyrotron cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chodorow, Marvin; Symons, Robert S.

    1983-08-09

    In a gyrotron electron tube of the gyro-klystron or gyro-monotron type, having a cavity supporting an electromagnetic mode with circular electric field, spurious resonances can occur in modes having noncircular electric field. These spurious resonances are damped and their frequencies shifted by a circular groove in the cavity parallel to the electric field.

  11. Means and methods for cytometric therapies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillies, George T.; Fillmore, Helen; Broaddus, William C.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Allison, Stephen W.

    2013-03-26

    A functionalized tip is incorporated into catheters for the cytometric delivery of cells into the brain and other body parts. For use in the brain, the tip forms part of a neurosurgical probe having a proximal end and a distal end. In addition to the functionalized tip, the probe has at least one cell slurry delivery lumen and a plurality of optical fibers configured along the probe, terminating in the tip to provide the photo-optical capability needed to monitor the viability and physiological behavior of the grafted cells as well as certain characteristics of the cellular environment. Details are also presented of the use of a neurocatheter having a cytometric tip of the type disclosed in the invention, as employed within the context of a feedback and control system for regulating the number of cells delivered to the brain of a patient.

  12. ION BEAM FOCUSING MEANS FOR CALUTRON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Backus, J.G.

    1959-06-01

    An ion beam focusing arrangement for calutrons is described. It provides a virtual focus of origin for the ion beam so that the ions may be withdrawn from an arc plasma of considerable width providing greater beam current and accuracy. (T.R.H.)

  13. HVAC Efficiency Controls Could Mean Significant Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to a new report from Pacific Northwest National Lab, commercial building owners could save an average 38 percent on their heating and cooling bills just by installing a few new controls onto their HVAC systems.

  14. Less platinum means lower prices for autos

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How technology developed by researchers at 3M is reducing the amount of platinum necessary for a fuel cell system, helping to make the technology more practical for consumer vehicles.

  15. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

    1960-10-11

    A precise dosimeter for and x radiations is designed in which a reproducible response to radiation is achieved by controlling the amount of sensitizer. The sensitizer is present in a halogenated hydrocarbon system and is a leuco base of certain dyestuffs. This patent is related to U. S. Patent No. 2,824,234. (D.L.C.)

  16. Method and means for radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shulte, J. W.; Suttle, J. F.

    1960-10-18

    A precise dosimeter for and x radiations is designed in which a reproducible response to radiation is achieved by controlling the amount of sensitizer. The sensitizer is present in a halogenated hydrocarbon system and is a leuco base of certain dyestuffs. This patent is related to U. S. Patent No. 2,824,234. (D.L.C.)

  17. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  18. Time Dispersive Spectrometer Using Digital Switching Means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarver, III, Edward E.; Siems, William F.

    2004-09-07

    Methods and apparatus are described for time dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, a modulated flow of ionized molecules of a sample are introduced into a drift region of an ion spectrometer. The ions are subsequently detected by an ion detector to produce an ion detection signal. The ion detection signal can be modulated to obtain a signal useful in assaying the chemical constituents of the sample.

  19. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  20. Optical pressure/density measuring means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-05-09

    An apparatus and method for rapidly and accurately determining the pressure of a fluid medium in either a static or dynamic state. The pressure is determined by making a measurement of the velocity of a light beam that is directed through the fluid medium along a pathway that enables an integrated pressure measurement to be made along the pathway, rather than making such a measurement only at a single point in the medium. A HeNe laser is configured to emit a beam of two frequencies separated by about 2 MHz. One of these beam frequencies is directed through the fluid medium and is reflected back through the medium to a non-linear diode detector. The other beam frequency is passed directly to a diode detector without traversing said medium. The diode detector is operated to determine the frequency shift or beat frequency between the two beam frequencies. Any variation in the frequency of said reflected beam that is caused by a change in its velocity as it is passed through the fluid medium causes a change in the beat frequency. This beat frequency change is then converted to an output signal value corresponding to the pressure of the medium. The measurement instrument apparatus is remotely positioned relative to the medium being measured, thus the apparatus is immune from electro-magnetic interference and can operate in conditions of high radiation, corrosion and extraordinarily high temperature.

  1. Secure distance ranging by electronic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritton, Dale G.

    1992-01-01

    A system for secure distance ranging between a reader 11 and a tag 12 wherein the distance between the two is determined by the time it takes to propagate a signal from the reader to the tag and for a responsive signal to return, and in which such time is random and unpredictable, except to the reader, even though the distance between the reader and tag remains the same. A random number (19) is sent from the reader and encrypted (26) by the tag into a number having 16 segments of 4 bits each (28). A first tag signal (31) is sent after such encryption. In response, a random width start pulse (13) is generated by the reader. When received in the tag, the width of the start pulse is measured (41) in the tag and a segment of the encrypted number is selected (42) in accordance with such width. A second tag pulse is generated at a time T after the start pulse arrives at the tag, the time T being dependent on the length of a variable time delay t.sub.v which is determined by the value of the bits in the selected segment of the encrypted number. At the reader, the total time from the beginning of the start pulse to the receipt of the second tag signal is measured (36, 37). The value of t.sub.v (21, 22, 23, 34) is known at the reader and the time T is subtracted (46) from the total time to find the actual propagation t.sub.p for signals to travel between the reader 11 and tag 12. The propagation time is then converted into distance (46).

  2. Laminated insulators having heat dissipation means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1980-04-24

    A laminated body is provided with heat dissipation capabilities. The insulator body is formed by dielectric layers interleaved with heat conductive layers, and bonded by an adhesive to form a composite structure. The heat conductive layers include provision for connection to an external thermal circuit.

  3. ULTRASONIC FLAW DETECTION METHOD AND MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worlton, D.C.

    1961-08-15

    A method of detecting subsurface flaws in an object using ultrasonic waves is described. An ultnasonic wave of predetermined velocity and frequency is transmitted to engage the surface of the object at a predetermined angle of inci dence thereto. The incident angle of the wave to the surface is determined with respect to phase velocity, incident wave velocity, incident wave frequency, and the estimated depth of the flaw so that Lamb waves of a particular type and mode are induced only in the portion of the object between the flaw and the surface. These Lamb waves are then detected as they leave the object at an angle of exit equal to the angle of incidence. No waves wlll be generated in the object and hence received if no flaw exists beneath the surface. (AEC)

  4. MEMS inertial sensors with integral rotation means.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Stewart M.

    2003-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of inertial micro-sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) has advanced to the point where they are displacing the more traditional sensors in many size, power, and/or cost-sensitive applications. A factor limiting the range of application of inertial micro-sensors has been their relatively poor bias stability. The incorporation of an integral sensitive axis rotation capability would enable bias mitigation through proven techniques such as indexing, and foster the use of inertial micro-sensors in more accuracy-sensitive applications. Fabricating the integral rotation mechanism in MEMS technology would minimize the penalties associated with incorporation of this capability, and preserve the inherent advantages of inertial micro-sensors.

  5. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  6. Property:MeanCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area + 132 MW132,000 kW 132,000,000 W 132,000,000,000 mW 0.132 GW 1.32e-4 TW + B Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + 150 MW150,000 kW 150,000,000 W 150,000,000,000 mW 0.15 GW...

  7. Method and means for measuring acoustic emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, Jr., Claus J.

    1976-01-06

    The detection of acoustic emissions emanating from an object is achieved with a capacitive transducer coupled to the object. The capacitive transducer is charged and then allowed to discharge with the rate of discharge being monitored. Oscillations in the rate of discharge about the normally exponential discharge curve for the capacitive transducer indicate the presence of acoustic emissions.

  8. Optical pressure/density measuring means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-05-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for rapidly and accurately determining the pressure of a fluid medium in either a static or dynamic state. The pressure is determined by making a measurement of the velocity of a light beam that is directed through the fluid medium along a pathway that enables an integrated pressure measurement to be made along the pathway, rather than making such a measurement only at a single point in the medium. A HeNe laser is configured to emit a beam of two frequencies separated by about 2 MHz. One of these beam frequencies is directed through the fluid medium and is reflected back through the medium to a non-linear diode detector. The other beam frequency is passed directly to a diode detector without traversing said medium. The diode detector is operated to determine the frequency shift or beat frequency between the two beam frequencies. Any variation in the frequency of said reflected beam that is caused by a change in its velocity as it is passed through the fluid medium causes a change in the beat frequency. This beat frequency change is then converted to an output signal value corresponding to the pressure of the medium. The measurement instrument apparatus is remotely positioned relative to the medium being measured, thus the apparatus is immune from electro-magnetic interference and can operate in conditions of high radiation, corrosion and extraordinarily high temperature. 4 figs.

  9. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  10. Oscillation damping means for magnetically levitated systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2009-01-20

    The present invention presents a novel system and method of damping rolling, pitching, or yawing motions, or longitudinal oscillations superposed on their normal forward or backward velocity of a moving levitated system.

  11. Relativistic effects for the reaction Sg + 6 CO → Sg(CO){sub 6}: Prediction of the mean bond energy, atomization energy, and existence of the first organometallic transactinide superheavy hexacarbonyl Sg(CO){sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malli, Gulzari L.

    2015-02-14

    Our ab initio all-electron fully relativistic Dirac–Fock (DF) and nonrelativistic (NR) Hartree-Fock calculations predict the DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction: Sg + 6 CO → Sg(CO){sub 6} as −7.39 and −6.96 eV, respectively, i.e., our calculated ground state total DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction product Sg(CO){sub 6} are lower by 7.39 and 6.96 eV than the total DF and NR ground state energies of the reactants, viz., one Sg atom plus six CO molecules, respectively. Our calculated DF relativistic and NR atomization energies (Ae) are 65.23 and 64.82 eV, respectively, and so the contribution of relativistic effects to the Ae of ∼0.40 eV is marginal. The Sg–C and C–O optimized bond distances for the octahedral geometry as calculated in our DF (NR) calculations are 2.151 (2.318 Å) and 1.119 (1.114 Å), respectively. The BSSE correction calculated using the DIRAC code ∼14 kcal/mol. The relativistic DF and NR mean energies predicted by us are 118.8 and 111.9 kJ/mol, respectively, and the contribution of ∼7 kJ/mol due to relativistic effects to the mean energy of Sg(CO){sub 6} is negligible. Ours are the first calculations of the relativistic effects for the atomization energy, mean bond energy, and energy of the reaction for possible formation of Sg(CO){sub 6}, and both our relativistic DF and the NR treatments clearly predict for the first time the existence of hexacarbonyl of the transactinide superheavy element seaborgium Sg. In conclusion, relativistic effects are not significant for Sg(CO){sub 6}.

  12. The N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 is essential and sufficient for its caveolae-association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Zhuang; Zou, Xinle; Wang, Hongzhong; Lei, Jigang; Wu, Yuan; Liao, Kan

    2015-01-16

    Highlight: • The N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 determines caveolar association. • Different cellular localization of PTRF/cavin-1 influences its serine 389 and 391 phosphorylation state. • PTRF/cavin-1 regulates cell motility via its caveolar association. - Abstract: PTRF/cavin-1 is a protein of two lives. Its reported functions in ribosomal RNA synthesis and in caveolae formation happen in two different cellular locations: nucleus vs. plasma membrane. Here, we identified that the N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 was essential for the protein to be associated with caveolae in plasma membrane. It could counteract the effect of nuclear localization sequence in the molecule (AA 235–251). Deletion of this leucine-zipper motif from PTRF/cavin-1 caused the mutant to be exclusively localized in nuclei. The fusion of this leucine-zipper motif with histone 2A, which is a nuclear protein, could induce the fusion protein to be exported from nucleus. Cell migration was greatly inhibited in PTRF/cavin-1{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The inhibited cell motility could only be rescued by exogenous cavin-1 but not the leucine-zipper motif deleted cavin-1 mutant. Plasma membrane dynamics is an important factor in cell motility control. Our results suggested that the membrane dynamics in cell migration is affected by caveolae associated PTRF/cavin-1.

  13. SU-F-BRD-09: Is It Sufficient to Use Only Low Density Tissue-Margin to Compensate Inter-Fractionation Setup Uncertainties in Lung Treatment?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, K; Yue, N; Chen, T; Millevoi, R; Qin, S; Guo, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In lung radiation treatment, PTV is formed with a margin around GTV (or CTV/ITV). Although GTV is most likely of water equivalent density, the PTV margin may be formed with the surrounding low-density tissues, which may lead to unreal dosimetric plan. This study is to evaluate whether the concern of dose calculation inside the PTV with only low density margin could be justified in lung treatment. Methods: Three SBRT cases were analyzed. The PTV from the original plan (Plan-O) was created with a 510 mm margin outside the ITV to incorporate setup errors and all mobility from 10 respiratory phases. Test plans were generated with the GTV shifted to the PTV edge to simulate the extreme situations with maximum setup uncertainties. Two representative positions as the very posterior-superior (Plan-PS) and anterior-inferior (Plan-AI) edge were considered. The virtual GTV was assigned a density of 1.0 g.cm?3 and surrounding lung, including the PTV margin, was defined as 0.25 g.cm?3. Also, additional plan with a 1mm tissue-margin instead of full lung-margin was created to evaluate whether a composite-margin (Plan-Comp) has a better approximation for dose calculation. All plans were generated on the average CT using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm with heterogeneity correction on and all planning parameters/monitor unites remained unchanged. DVH analyses were performed for comparisons. Results: Despite the non-static dose distribution, the high-dose region synchronized with tumor positions. This might due to scatter conditions as greater doses were absorbed in the solid-tumor than in the surrounding low-density lungtissue. However, it still showed missing target coverage in general. Certain level of composite-margin might give better approximation for the dosecalculation. Conclusion: Our exploratory results suggest that with the lungmargin only, the planning dose of PTV might overestimate the coverage of the target during treatment. The significance of this overestimation might warrant further investigation.

  14. Energy Department Announces Technical Assistance for Self-Sufficiency and Lower Energy Costs for Rural Alaska Communities, and Releases “Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska” Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department has announced 13 recipients of Remote Alaska Communities Energy Efficiency (RACEE) technical assistance, and released its “Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska” report.

  15. First big U.S. reactor dismantled: Project may point the way to a huge market, if sufficient waste disposal sites become available

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soast, A.,

    1994-07-18

    This article is a review of the Ft. St. Vrain decommissioning efforts. The chain of events leading to actual dismantlement is covered. The projected storage of its fuel at INEL is noted, pending the resolution of legal problems, and the disposal of low-level wastes at Hanford is also noted.

  16. Peculiarities of Environment Pollution as a Special Type of Radioactive Waste: Field Means for Comprehensive Characterization of Soil and Bottom Sediments and their Application in the Survey at the Flood plain of Techa River - 13172

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Potapov, Victor; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Volkovich, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of natural objects - zone alarm fallout, zones and flood plains near production sites (the result of technological accidents and resource extraction) occupy large areas. Large area and volume of contaminated matter, moderate specific activity (as low - medium-level wastes) make such objects specific types of radioactive waste. These objects exist for a long time, now they are characterized by a bound state of nuclides with the matrix. There is no cost-effective ways to remove these waste, the only solution for the rehabilitation of such areas is their isolation and regular monitoring through direct and indirect measurements. The complex of instruments was developed to field mapping of contamination. It consists of a portable spectrometric collimated detector, collimated spectrometric borehole detector, underwater spectrometer detector, spectrometer for field measurements of the specific activity of Sr-90, connected to a portable MCA 'Colibry (Hummingbird)'. The complex was used in settlements of Bryansk region, rivers Techa and Yenisei. The effectiveness of the developed complex considered by the example of characterization of the reservoir 10 (artificial lake) in Techinsky cascade containing a huge amount of radioactive waste. The developed field means for comprehensive characterization of soil and bottom sediments contamination are very effective for mapping and monitoring of environment contamination after accidents. Especially in case of high non-uniformity of fallout and may be very actual in Fukushima area. (authors)

  17. Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.J.

    1992-12-31

    An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or {beta} angle of the inner liner.

  18. Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.J.

    1993-10-12

    An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or [beta] angle of the inner liner. 12 figures.

  19. Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or .beta. angle of the inner liner.

  20. Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-06-06

    Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

  1. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  2. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer's systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  3. A proof-of-principle experiment of the ferroelectric tuner for the 1.3 GHz gun cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.; Shchelkunov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J.; Kazakov, S.; Shschelkunov, S.

    2009-05-04

    A novel ferroelectric frequency tuner was developed by the Ornega-P company and was tested at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on a 1.3 GHz RF cavity at room temperature. The tuner is based on the ferroelectric property of having a permittivity variable with an applied electric field. The achievable frequency tuning range can be estimated from the reactive impedance change due to an applied voltage via a S{sub 11} measurement at the tuner port. The frequency shift can be measured directly with a S{sub 21} measurement across the gun cavity with the tuner connected and activated. The frequency change due to an applied 5 kV obtained from the two methods is in reasonable agreement. The reactive impedance measurement yields a value in the range between 3.2 kHz and 14 kHz, while 9 kHz is the result from the direct measurement. The detail description of the experiment and the analysis will be discussed in the paper.

  4. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume V. Vacuum-pumping system. Preliminary design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-26

    This report summarizes Title I Preliminary Design of the EBT-P Vacuum Pumping System. The Vacuum Pumping System has been designed by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. - St. Louis (MDAC). It includes the necessary vacuum pumps and vacuum valves to evacuate the torus, the Mirror Coil Dewars (MC Dewars), and the Gyrotron Magnet Dewars. The pumping ducts, manifolds, and microwave protection system are also included. A summary of the function of each subsystem and a description of its principle components is provided below. The analyses performed during the system design are also identified.

  5. Proof-of-concept of moving through casing resistivity apparatus. Final report, October 1, 1989--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vail, W.B.; Momii, S.T.

    1997-03-01

    ParaMagnetic Logging, Inc. (PML) demonstrated for the first time during 1990 in a Test Well located in Forth Worth, Texas that formation resistivity could be measured, in-principle, from within cased wells with the Through Casing Resistivity Tool (TCRT) designed and built by PML. Early results from this first instrument provided the impetus to investigate measurements methods to increase data acquisition rates and mechanical designs to improve vertical resolution which were implemented in the second experimental version of the TCRT. PML investigated the design requirements for a tool that could continuously move upward within a cased well. It was found that although such measurements can be done, various interfering signals, including those identified as due to the Triboelectric Effect, would mask the weak borehole casing signals if standard wirelines and components from the industry are utilized which limit the amount of electrical current delivered to the well. Extensive laboratory measurements were performed with the Moving Test Jig to investigate the properties of the Triboelectric Effect. Successful methods of measurement were devised to achieve acceptable performance objectives and to overcome problems with the Triboelectric Effect. One such method is called the Slider Method of Measurement.

  6. High-brightness picosecond ion beam source based on BNL Terawatt CO2 laser: Proof-of-principle experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnikov, Peter

    2012-10-04

    Under the continuing DOE support, we have: o assembled the basic experiment setup and then continued expanding it to include diverse diagnostics and to accommodate gas jet targets in addition to metal foils; o conducted an extensive study of our novel laser, significantly enhanced laser beam diagnostics, and improved relevant laser parameters; o turned our experiments into a truly international endeavor with active collaboration of close to 20 researchers in US, UK, and Germany; o conducted the first ever experiments with proton and ion acceleration by lasers interacting with overcritical plasma of gas jets; o for the first time directly observed radiation pressure acceleration of protons, including quasi-monoenergetic spectra promising for future applications; o for the first time directly observed quasi-stable, bubble-like plasma structures that likely evolved from relativistic laser-plasma solitons (post-solitons). Thus, we have confirmed a strong potential of a picosecond TW CO2 laser as a research tool in laser-plasma science and as a promising vehicle for future applications of laser ion acceleration. This has led to apparent increase of the interest in mid-IR laser ion acceleration. In particular, another major research group began extensive proton acceleration experiments with their own CO2 laser at UCLA. As a result, the mechanisms responsible for laser proton acceleration in gas jets have become somewhat clearer. It is also important to note that modest DOE funding played the role of a seed support ensuring the formation of a multinational research team, whose members contributed its time and equipment with value well in excess of that seed amount.

  7. Security Proof for Password Authentication in TLS-Verifier-based Three-Party Group Diffie-Hellman

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chevassut, Olivier; Milner, Joseph; Pointcheval, David

    2008-04-21

    The internet has grown greatly in the past decade, by some numbers exceeding 47 million active web sites and a total aggregate exceeding100 million web sites. What is common practice today on the Internet is that servers have public keys, but clients are largely authenticated via short passwords. Protecting these passwords by not storing them in the clear on institutions's servers has become a priority. This paper develops password-based ciphersuites for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that are: (1) resistant to server compromise; (2) provably secure; (3) believed to be free from patent and licensing restrictions based on an analysis of relevant patents in the area.

  8. Comment on “Symplectic integration of magnetic systems”: A proof that the Boris algorithm is not variational

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ellison, C. L.; Burby, J. W.; Qin, H.

    2015-11-01

    One popular technique for the numerical time advance of charged particles interacting with electric and magnetic fields according to the Lorentz force law [1], [2], [3] and [4] is the Boris algorithm. Its popularity stems from simple implementation, rapid iteration, and excellent long-term numerical fidelity [1] and [5]. Excellent long-term behavior strongly suggests the numerical dynamics exhibit conservation laws analogous to those governing the continuous Lorentz force system [6]. Moreover, without conserved quantities to constrain the numerical dynamics, algorithms typically dissipate or accumulate important observables such as energy and momentum over long periods of simulated time [6]. Identification of themore » conservative properties of an algorithm is important for establishing rigorous expectations on the long-term behavior; energy-preserving, symplectic, and volume-preserving methods each have particular implications for the qualitative numerical behavior [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11].« less

  9. Development of an instrument for non-destructive identification of Unexploded Ordnance using tagged neutrons - a proof of concept study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitra, S.; Dioszegi, I.

    2011-10-23

    Range clearance operations at munitions testing grounds must discriminate Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) from clutter items and distinguish UXO filled with High Explosives (HE) from those with inert fillers. Non-destructive technologies are thus necessary for the cost-effective disposal of UXO during remediation of such sites. The only technique showing promise so far for the non-destructive elemental characterization of UXO fillers utilizes neutron interactions with the material to detect carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) which have unique ratios in HE. However, several unresolved issues hinder the wide application of this potentially very suitable technique. The most important one is that neutrons interact with all surrounding matter in addition to the interrogated material, leading to a very high gamma-ray background in the detector. Systems requiring bulky shielding and having poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for measuring elements are unsuitable for field deployment. The inadequacies of conventional neutron interrogation methods are overcome by using the tagged-neutron approach, and the availability of compact sealed neutron generators exploiting this technique offers field deployment of non-intrusive measurement systems for detecting threat materials, like explosives and drugs. By accelerating deuterium ions into a tritium target, the subsequent fusion reaction generates nearly back-to-back emissions of neutrons and alpha particles of energy 14.1 and 3.5 MeV respectively. A position-sensitive detector recognizes the associated alpha particle, thus furnishing the direction of the neutron. The tagged neutrons interact with the nuclei of the interrogated object, producing element-specific prompt gamma-rays that the gamma detectors recognize. Measuring the delay between the detections of the alpha particle and the gamma-ray determines where the reaction occurred along the axis of the neutron beam (14.1 MeV neutrons travel at 5 cm/nanosecond, while gamma rays cover 30 cm/nanosecond). The main advantage of the technique is its ability to simultaneously provide 2D and 3D imaging of objects and their elemental composition. This work reports on the efficacy of using 14 MeV neutrons tagged by the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique (APnTOF) to extract neutron induced characteristic gamma-rays from an object-of-interest with high SNR and without interference from nearby clutter.

  10. First proof of topological signature in the high pressure xenon gas TPC with electroluminescence amplification for the NEXT experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ferrario, P.

    2016-01-19

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of xenon in a high-pressure 136Xe gas TPC using electroluminescence (EL) to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qββ. This paper presents the first demonstration that the topology provides extra handles to reject background events using data obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype. Single electrons resulting from the interactions of 22Na 1275 keV gammas and electron-positron pairs produced by conversions of gammas from the 228Th decay chain were used tomore » represent the background and the signal in a double beta decay. Furthermore, these data were used to develop algorithms for the reconstruction of tracks and the identification of the energy deposited at the end-points, providing an extra background rejection factor of 24.3 ± 1.4 (stat.)%, while maintaining an efficiency of 66.7 ± 1% for signal events.« less

  11. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

  12. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Vora, S.D.

    1995-02-21

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}y}N{sub y}O{sub 3}, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075--0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO){sub 12}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 7} flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO{sub 3} interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO{sub 3}, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1,200 to 1,350 C to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power. 4 figs.

  13. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie; Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of wet and gaseous samples through graphene membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kraus, Jürgen; Reichelt, Robert; Günther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly important for exploring morphologically and chemically complex liquid–gas, solid–liquid and solid–gas interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using dexterously designed electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses which make it possible to conduct PES measurements at a few hPa. This report proposes an alternative ambient pressure approach that can be applied to a broad class of samples and be implemented in conventional PES instruments. It uses ultrathin electron transparent but molecularmore » impermeable membranes to isolate the high pressure sample environment from the high vacuum PES detection system. We show that the separating graphene membrane windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow soft X-ray PES of liquid and gaseous water. The performed proof-of-principle experiments confirm the possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples placed inside such hermetic, gas flow or fluidic environmental cells.« less

  15. Industry Self-Regulation as a Means to Promote Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hund, Gretchen; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2005-10-01

    Companies within numerous industries that have been “early adopters” of self-regulation concept, considering the environment and society alongside business issues, have realized several benefits and some competitive advantage while substantially improving their environmental performance. Given that proliferation prevention is also a public good, our premise is that the experience gained and lessons learned from the self-regulation initiative in other industries and more broadly in the arena of sustainable development provide a basis for examining the feasibility of developing self-regulation mechanisms applicable to industries involved with sensitive technologies (nuclear, radiological source, and other dual-use industries)

  16. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  17. NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD AND MEANS FOR FLAW DETECTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hochschild, R.

    1959-03-10

    BS>An improved method is presented for the nondestructive detection of flaws in olectrictilly conductivc articles using magnetic field. According to thc method a homogoneous mignetic field is established in the test article;it right angle" to the artyicle. A probe is aligned with its axis transverse to the translates so hat th4 probe scans the surface of the test article while the axis of the robe is transverse to the direction of translation of the article. In this manner any output current obtained in thc probe is an indication of the size and location of a flaw in the article under test, with a miiiimum of signal pick- up in the probe from the established magnetic field.

  18. Mean excitation energies for stopping power as derived fromoscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical results are summarized. Authors: Inokuti, M ; Turner, J E Publication Date: 1978-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 6733705 Report Number(s): CONF-780534-2 TRN: 78-015326 DOE ...

  19. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1040-2004 Publisher: Taylor & Francis Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak ...

  20. Beyond Mean-Field Calculation For Pairing Correlation (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Hupin, G ; ...

  1. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  2. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, David K.; Margetan, Frank J.; Hasselbusch, Michael D.; Wormley, Samuel J.; Hughes, Michael S.; Thompson, Donald O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions.

  3. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, D.K.; Margetan, F.J.; Hasselbusch, M.D.; Wormley, S.J.; Hughes, M.S.; Thompson, D.O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions. 14 figs.

  4. Characterization of patinas by means of microscopic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2007-11-15

    Many stone-made historic buildings have a yellowish layer called 'patina' on their external surface. In some cases, it is due to the natural ageing of the stone caused by chemical-physical reactions between the surface of the stone and the environment, and in other cases it is the result of biological activity. The origin of these patinas can be also be due to ancient protective treatments. The use of organic additives, such as protein-based compounds, in lime or gypsum-based patinas is a traditional technique, which has been used in past centuries for the conservation and protection of stone materials. The thinness of the patinas ensures that microscopic techniques are irreplaceable for their analysis. Optical Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy together with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer, and Electron Microprobe are the microscopic techniques used for the characterization of these coverings, providing very useful information on their composition, texture and structure.

  5. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok J.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

  6. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  7. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.

    1990-11-27

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities. 3 figs.

  8. New Efficiency Standards Mean Big Energy Savings for Consumers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    As part of the Obama Administration's energy strategy, Energy Department officials have been hard at work helping American families save money by saving energy. Since 2009, we've ...

  9. Parallel k-Means Clustering for Quantitative Ecoregion Delineation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    model-model and model-measurement intercomparison. With the advances in state-of-the-art satellite remote sensing and climate models, observations and model outputs are...

  10. Method and means for separating and classifying superconductive particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jin Y. (Moscow, ID); Kearney, Robert J. (Moscow, ID)

    1991-01-01

    The specification and drawings describe a series of devices and methods for classifying and separating superconductive particles. The superconductive particles may be separated from non-superconductive particles, and the superconductive particles may be separated by degrees of susceptibility to the Meissner effect force. The particles may also be simultaneously separated by size or volume and mass to obtain substantially homogeneous groups of particles. The separation techniques include levitation, preferential sedimentation and preferential concentration. Multiple separation vector forces are disclosed.

  11. Controls upgrade means new job for old units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, J.; Lueckenotte, D.; Alexander, A.

    1995-05-01

    Some 1950s-vintage controls stood in the way of a switchover from base-load to peaking service. Modernization embraced combustion and motor controls, burner management, and a new distributed control system. With ever-increasing competition in the electric business, plant owners are looking for ways to extend the value of their aging generating units rather than investing heavily in new plants. One approach: turn units designed for base-load operation into ones that can reliably handle all required loads. Union Electric Co. opted to go this route. The utility switched two of the four units at its Meramec station, St. Louis, MO, from base-load to peaking-power production. The units each have four coal feeders and pulverizers to fuel the tangentially-fired reheat boilers, which also can burn natural gas. The turbine is a 3,600-rpm, three-cylinder, tandem-compound, triple-exhaust unit. Heart of the upgrade focused on a 1950s controls system. The original, mostly pneumatic, system was satisfactory for base-load operation of the 142-MW units, but operating them as peaking units called for a more efficient, automated system. Moreover, spare parts were no longer available for some the circa-1950s equipment, and plant stocks of renewable spare parts were rapidly diminishing for nearly all of the original equipment.

  12. Obama quickly signals He means business on Green issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-06-15

    President Obama has indicated that the U.S. will join the international community to find a resolution to the critical issue of climate change, but has made it clear that all major emitters must join the effort for it to be effective. The US is likely to agree to cut its emissions by 80 percent by 2050. The toughest task will be to convince a reluctant U.S. Congress to agree to comprehensive carbon legislation and to abide by any agreements reached in Copenhagen. Companies investing in such goods and services as coal-fired power plants and gas guzzling cars could start to incur heavy economic penalties in the near future for their greenhouse gas output.

  13. Table B-1: Analytical Results Statistical Mean Upper Confidence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    .1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(e) LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) (billion NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million

  14. What it means to you | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the facts surrounding the first comprehensive energy legislation passed by Congress in over a decade

  15. Helicon Plasma Source Configuration Analysis by Means of Density Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angrilli, F.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Maggiora, R.; Pavarin, D.; Sparks, D.O.

    1999-11-13

    Initial results have been obtained from operation of a helicon plasma source built to conduct optimization studies for space propulsion applications. The source features an easily reconfigurable antenna to test different geometries. Operating with He as the source gas, peak densities >= 1.6X10{sup 19} m{sup -3} have been achieved. Radial and axial plasma profiles have been obtained using a microwave interferometer that can be scanned axially and a Langmuir probe. The source will be used to investigate operation at high magnetic field, frequency, and input power.

  16. Method and means for producing solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  17. Permanent-magnet flowmeter having improved output-terminal means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    August, C.; Myers, H.J.

    1981-10-26

    Disclosed is an improved permanent magnet flowmeter capable of withstanding bending stresses in the direction of induced emf signals. The flowmeter includes a unique terminal arrangement integrally formed with the flowmeter by trepanning opposing wall sections of the flowmeter body. The terminal arrangement provides increased flowmeter sensitivity by increasing the strength of the induced emf signals.

  18. Permanent magnet flowmeter having improved output terminal means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    August, Charles; Myers, Harry J.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved permanent magnet flowmeter capable of withstanding bending stresses in the direction of induced emf signals. The flowmeter includes a unique terminal arrangement integrally formed with the flowmeter by trepanning opposing wall sections of the flowmeter body. The terminal arrangement provides increased flowmeter sensitivity by increasing the strength of the induced emf signals.

  19. High-Resolution Simulation for Climate Means, Variability, and Extreme |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility A plot of precipitable water (gray scale) and precipitation rate (colors) in a simulation of the Earth's atmosphere. A plot of precipitable water (gray scale) and precipitation rate (colors) in a simulation of the Earth's atmosphere using The Community Earth System Model version 1.2. The atmosphere component used the spectral element dynamical core running on a cubed-sphere grid with an average horizontal resolution of 1/8 degree (13km). At this

  20. Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mixtures from the power plant condenser system and a system for physical separation of steam and gases upstream of the power turbine. The study focused on flashed-steam...

  1. Flow directing means for air-cooled transformers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jallouk, Philip A.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to improvements in systems for force-cooling transformers of the kind in which an outer helical winding and an insulation barrier nested therein form an axially extending annular passage for cooling-fluid flow. In one form of the invention a tubular shroud is positioned about the helical winding to define an axially extending annular chamber for cooling-fluid flow. The chamber has a width in the range of from about 4 to 25 times that of the axially extending passage. Two baffles extend inward from the shroud to define with the helical winding two annular flow channels having hydraulic diameters smaller than that of the chamber. The inlet to the chamber is designed with a hydraulic diameter approximating that of the coolant-entrance end of the above-mentioned annular passage. As so modified, transformers of the kind described can be operated at significantly higher load levels without exceeding safe operating temperatures. In some instances the invention permits continuous operation at 200% of the nameplate rating.

  2. METHOD AND MEANS FOR ELECTROLYTIC PURIFICATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorklund, C.W.; Benz, R.; Maraman, W.J.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1960-02-01

    The technique of electrodepositing pure plutonium from a fused salt electrolyte of PuCl/sub 3/ and aixati metal halides is described. When an iron cathode is used, the plutonium deposit alloys therewith in the liquid state at the 400 to 600 deg C operating temperature, such liquid being allowed to drip through holes in the cathode and collect in a massive state in a tantallum cup. The process is adaptable to continuous processing by the use of depleted plutonium fuel as the anode: good to excellent separation from fission products is obtained with a Pu--Fe "fission" anode containing representative fractions of Ce, Ru, Zr, La, Mo, and Nb.

  3. Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States should take advantage of the natural gas boom and use it as an opportunity to further develop renewable energy sources like wind, solar, geothermal, and hydropower. ...

  4. High-resolution radiography by means of a hodoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Volpi, Alexander

    1978-01-01

    The fast neutron hodoscope, a device that produces neutron radiographs with coarse space resolution in a short time, is modified to produce neutron or gamma radiographs of relatively thick samples and with high space resolution. The modification comprises motorizing a neutron and gamma collimator to permit a controlled scanning pattern, simultaneous collection of data in a number of hodoscope channels over a period of time, and computerized image reconstruction of the data thus gathered.

  5. Tru-ly Clean - What Does It Mean?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The evolution and genesis of the definition of transuranic waste (known as TRU) and its application to the cleanup criteria applied to soils contaminated with transuranics, specifically plutonium, has been a matter of discussion at contaminated sites in the United States and elsewhere. Cleanup decisions and the processes that led up to those decisions have varied at several plutonium contaminated sites within the United States and without the pacific region. The sites with radionuclide soil action levels include Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands; Johnston Atoll, Hawaii; the Hanford Site in Washington State; the Nevada Test Site; the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Colorado; the Chariot Site in north Alaska; and the Maralinga Site in Australia. The soil-action level developed for Rocky Flats by the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment for plutonium is one of the higher soil-action levels approved by regulatory agencies that is considered protective for future use of land at a cleanup site. The Republic of the Marshall Islands has adopted a relatively conservative cleanup standard to accommodate the subsistence lifestyle of the islanders, while the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has been transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior to be used as a fish and wildlife refuge, a land use that resulted in a less conservative plutonium soil cleanup level. (authors)

  6. WHAT THE SMART GRID MEANS TO AMERICANS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As part of this effort, DOE is also responsible for increasing awareness of our nation's Smart Grid. Building upon The Smart Grid: An Introduction, a DOE-sponsored publication ...

  7. WHAT A SMART GRID MEANS TO OUR NATION'S FUTURE. | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As part of this effort, DOE is also responsible for increasing awareness of our nation's Smart Grid. Building upon The Smart Grid: An Introduction, a DOE-sponsored publication ...

  8. WHAT THE SMART GRID MEANS TO AMERICA'S FUTURE.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Our Electric Grid: An infrastructure in search of solutions. ... GLOSSARY PAGE 26 Smart Grid terms worth knowing. ... they can confidently enter the marketplace with their ...

  9. Secure communication of static information by electronic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritton, Dale G.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (10) for the secure transmission of static data (16) from a tag (11) to a remote reader (12). Each time the static data (16) is to be transmitted to the reader (12), the 10 bits of static data (16) are combined with 54 bits of binary data (21), which constantly change from one transmission to the next, into a 64-bit number (22). This number is then encrypted and transmitted to the remote reader (12) where it is decrypted (26) to produce the same 64 bit number that was encrypted in the tag (11). With a continual change in the value of the 64 bit number (22) in the tag, the encrypted numbers transmitted to the reader (12) will appear to be dynamic in character rather than being static.

  10. Numerical study of heterogeneous mean temperature and shock wave...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We numerically study the gas oscillation with shock wave in a resonator of square cross section by solving the initial and boundary value problem of the system of three-dimensional ...

  11. Passive heat-transfer means for nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, J.P.

    1982-06-10

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  12. Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    improve their sustainability, including adopting hybrid, natural gas, or propane vehicles. ... Similarly, propane taxis produce fewer emissions than gasoline and use a domestically ...

  13. Means and method of balancing multi-cylinder reciprocating machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1985-01-01

    A virtual balancing axis arrangement is described for multi-cylinder reciprocating piston machines for effectively balancing out imbalanced forces and minimizing residual imbalance moments acting on the crankshaft of such machines without requiring the use of additional parallel-arrayed balancing shafts or complex and expensive gear arrangements. The novel virtual balancing axis arrangement is capable of being designed into multi-cylinder reciprocating piston and crankshaft machines for substantially reducing vibrations induced during operation of such machines with only minimal number of additional component parts. Some of the required component parts may be available from parts already required for operation of auxiliary equipment, such as oil and water pumps used in certain types of reciprocating piston and crankshaft machine so that by appropriate location and dimensioning in accordance with the teachings of the invention, the virtual balancing axis arrangement can be built into the machine at little or no additional cost.

  14. Mean excitation energies for stopping power of atoms and molecules...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    find that most of the present I values are consistent with those given in the literature. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Subject: 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ...

  15. Property:MeanReservoirTemp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1,010.07 R + Amatitlan Geothermal Area + 513.15 K240 C 464 F 923.67 R + B Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + 543.15 K270 C 518 F 977.67 R + Bad Blumau Geothermal...

  16. METHOD AND MEANS FOR CLOSING TUBES BY SPINNING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graves, E.E.; Coonfare, R.H.

    1958-08-26

    An improved spinning tool is described for producing a fold-free closed end on an aluminum jacketing tube such as is commonly used to protect a uranium fuel element. The tool will fit the toolholder of a lathe in which the jacket is rotated. The tool has a number of working faces so that the hemispherical end- closure is formed, the folds and wrinkles are smcothed out, and the excess metal is trimmed off in one transverse cutting operation. This tool considerably speeds up the closure process, and eliminates the need for a weld seal.

  17. REINTERPRETATION OF SLOWDOWN OF SOLAR WIND MEAN VELOCITY IN NONLINEAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Beijing (China) Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100190, Beijing (China) Space ...

  18. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  19. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gases in geothermal steam power systems are: &24; The gases reduce the heat transfer efficiency of the power plant condensers. The primary effect of this is to increase the...