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1

Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the first use of a beta-eliminating cut based on a maximum-likelihood characterization described above.

Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Biogeochemical Behavior of Dissolved Arsenic and Uranium Concentrations in Public Water Supply Wells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Public water supply (PWS) wells currently contain dissolved uranium concentrations above the federally mandated maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 ppb (parts per billion) and… (more)

mcvey, kevin j

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

MAXIMUM HUMIDITY INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect

Moisture-sensitive systems to measure and indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure are discussed. A chemical indicator utilizing deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. To provide indication of the time at which the exposure occurs, a circuit employing a resistive-type sensor was developed. A small, commercially available sensor is used in a portable probe to detect humidity leaks into controlled areas.

Abel, W B

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Determining Relative f and d Orbital Contributions to M?Cl Covalency in MCl62– (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, U) and UOCl5 Using Cl K-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and ground-state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT) were used to probe electronic structure for O{sub h}-MCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}(M = Ti, Zr, Hf, U) and C{sub 4v}-UOCl{sub 5}{sup -}, and to determine the relative contributions of valence 3d, 4d, 5d, 6d, and 5f orbitals in M-Cl bonding. Spectral interpretations were guided by time-dependent DFT calculated transition energies and oscillator strengths, which agree well with the experimental XAS spectra. The data provide new spectroscopic evidence for the involvement of both 5f and 6d orbitals in actinide-ligand bonding in UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}. For the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}, where transitions into d orbitals of t{sub 2g} symmetry are spectroscopically resolved for all four complexes, the experimentally determined Cl 3p character per M-Cl bond increases from 8.3(4)% (TiCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}) to 10.3(5)% (ZrCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}), 12(1)% (HfCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}), and 26 18(1)% (UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}). Chlorine K-edge XAS spectra of UOCl{sub 5}{sup -} provide additional insights into the transition assignments by 27 lowering the symmetry to C{sub 4v}, where five pre-edge transitions into both 5f and 6d orbitals are observed. For UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}, the XAS data 28 suggest that orbital mixing associated with the U 5f orbitals is considerably lower than that of the U 6d orbitals. For both UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}29 and UOCl{sub 5}{sup -}, the ground-state DFT calculations predict a larger 5f contribution to bonding than is determined experimentally. 30 These findings are discussed in the context of conventional theories of covalent bonding for d- and f-block metal complexes.

Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Clark, David L.; Conradson, Steven D.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Martin, Richard L.; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Shuh, David K.; Wagner, Gregory L.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.; Wolfsberg, Laura E.; Yang, Ping

2012-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

5

MaximumLetThrough.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Maximum Let-Through Currents in the APS Storage Ring Quadrupole, Sextupole, and Corrector Magnets J. Carwardine, D. McGhee, G. Markovich May 18, 1999 Abstract Limits are described for the maximum magnet currents, under specified fault conditions, for the storage ring quadrupole, sextupole, and corrector magnets. Introduction In computing the maximum let-through current for the magnets for the storage ring, several factors must be considered. In general, the maximum current likely to occur even under fault conditions is less than the maximum theoretical DC current given the magnet resistance and the maximum available DC voltage. The first level of protection against magnet current overloads is the over-current interlock that is built into the converter electronics package. The threshold is set to approximately 110% of

6

Removal to Maximum Extent Practical  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Summary Notes from 1 November 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Removal of Highly Radioactive Radionuclides/Key Radionuclides to the Maximum Extent Practical

7

The Maximum Intensity of Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An exact equation governing the maximum possible pressure fall in steady tropical cyclones is developed, accounting for the full effects of gaseous and condensed water on density and thermodynamics. The equation is also derived from Carnot's ...

Kerry A. Emanuel

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Hardness of Maximum Constraint Satisfaction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We show optimal (up to a constant factor) NP-hardness for maximum constraint satisfaction problem with k variables per constraint (Max-k-CSP), whenever k is larger than… (more)

Chan, Siu On

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°–70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a ...

J. R. Garratt

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Maximum order of planar digraphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the degree/diameter problem for directed planar graphs. We show that planar digraphs with diameter 2 and maximum out-degree and in-degree d, d ? 41, cannot have more than 2d vertices. We show that 2d ...

Rinovia Simanjuntak; Mirka Miller

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Resources Process Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General Information on process contaminants(3-MCPD). Reference list included. Resources Process Contaminants 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certified chemists chloropropanediol contaminants dete

12

Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General information on process contaminants(3-MCPD). Reference list included. Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certified chemists chloropropanediol contaminants deter

13

Maximum Building Energy Efficiency Research Laboratory secures...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Network - Maximum Building Energy Efficiency Research Laboratory secures LEED Gold July 01, 2013 The recently completed 14.3m Maximum Building Energy Efficiency...

14

Occurrence and Potential Human-Health Relevance of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water from Domestic Wells in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Laboratory Reporting Level MCL, Maximum Contaminant Level MRL, Maximum Reporting Level MTBE, Methyl tert Figures 3 #12;Abstract BACKGROUND: As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic concentrations to U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and Health-Based Screening Levels. RESULTS: VOCs

15

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

16

Resources for Process Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed information regarding 3-MCPD esters and a reference list by topic. Resources for Process Contaminants 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certified chemists chloropropanediol contaminants de

17

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973–96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and ...

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Tritium Surface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Glovebox wipe surveys were conducted to correlate surface tritium contamination with atmospheric tritium levels. Surface contamination was examined as a function of tritium concentration and of tritium form, HT/T2 and HTO. The relationship between atmospheric HTO concentration and cleanup time was also investigated.

Sienkiewicz, Charles J.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Contamination Control Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

EBY, J.L.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

20

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Maximum Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermodynamic approach to estimating maximum potential intensity (MPI) of tropical cyclones is described and compared with observations and previous studies. The approach requires an atmospheric temperature sounding, SST, and surface pressure; ...

Greg J. Holland

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter: Theoretical Aspects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new ensemble-based data assimilation method, named the maximum likelihood ensemble filter (MLEF), is presented. The analysis solution maximizes the likelihood of the posterior probability distribution, obtained by minimization of a cost ...

Milija Zupanski

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Final work plan : phase II investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri (Figure 1.1). During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of statewide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]) described as being approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. The identified concentrations in these two wells were above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the Missouri risk-based corrective action default target level (MRBCA DTL) values of 5.0 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride in water used for domestic purposes (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b, 2006). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an investigation to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the potential risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment posed by the contamination. This work is being performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and the MoDNR, to address carbon tetrachloride contamination potentially associated with a number of former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. The site characterization at Savannah is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The investigation at Savannah is being conducted in phases. This approach is being used by the CCC/USDA and Argonne, with the approval of the MoDNR, so that information obtained and interpretations developed during each incremental stage of the investigation can be used most effectively to guide subsequent phases of the program. Phase I of the Savannah program was conducted in October-November 2007 and January 2008 (Argonne 2007a, 2008). This site-specific Work Plan provides a brief summary of the Phase I findings and the results of groundwater level monitoring that has been ongoing since completion of the Phase I study and also outlines technical objectives, investigation tasks, and investigation methods for Phase II of the site characterization at Savannah.

LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

24

Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10{sup -6} torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non-volatile components. Equilibrium is lost, and the surface builds up a layer of carbon-based gunk.

Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Modeling for Airborne Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms.

F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In particular, the invention relates to remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by the injection of nutrients to stimulate growth of pollutant-degrading microorganisms. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

27

Maximum Entropy Production in Climate Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R. D. Lorenz et al. claim that recent data on Mars and Titan show that planetary atmospheres are in unconstrained states of maximum entropy production (MEP). Their model as it applies to Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan is reexamined, and it is ...

Richard Goody

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Modeling Maximum Hail Size in Alberta Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional steady-state cloud model was combined with a time-dependent hail growth model to predict the maximum hailstone size on the ground. Model runs were based on 160 proximity soundings recorded within the Alberta Hail Project area ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Eugene R. Poolman

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Integrating Correlated Bayesian Networks Using Maximum Entropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of generating a joint distribution for a pair of Bayesian networks that preserves the multivariate marginal distribution of each network and satisfies prescribed correlation between pairs of nodes taken from both networks. We derive the maximum entropy distribution for any pair of multivariate random vectors and prescribed correlations and demonstrate numerical results for an example integration of Bayesian networks.

Jarman, Kenneth D.; Whitney, Paul D.

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

HTO Contamination on Polymeric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contamination and Waste / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology

Yasunori Iwai; Kazuhiro Kobayashi; Toshihiko Yamanishi

31

Estimation of Radionuclide Content in Contaminated Laundry  

SciTech Connect

Radioactively contaminated laundry is normally sent off site for processing. Laundry is defined as radiologically contaminated anti-cs and respirators. This laundry is shipped as "limited quantity," in accordance with 49CFR173.421. This requires that 95% of the radionuclides shipped are characterized and quantified. In addition, the total quantity must be 10(-3) below the A2 limits specified in 49CFR173. In any facility evaluated, the most conservative (highest activity) waste stream was used as the source term. If a new waste stream is established for a facility, its normalized activity should be compared to the evaluated waste stream to ensure the limits are not exceeded. This article documents a method used for estimating the radionuclide content in contaminated laundry. The maximum values were compared to 49CFR173. Itwas determined that if the contaminated laundry/respirators are shipped in an Interstate Nuclear Services (INS), L-59, limited quantity shipping container and the highest contact radiation level on any side, as measured with an ion chamber, does not exceed 0.5 mR h(-1), the container complies with the requirements of 49CFR173 and could be shipped "limited quantity" from any of the facilities evaluated.

Schrader, Bradley J

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Methods to quantify contamination effects on silica gel samples  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a study to establish methods for measuring sorption degradation of contaminated solid desiccants and determining the identity and nature of the contaminants. A literature search was conducted to determine how contaminants affect the sorption properties of silica gel and advanced solid desiccant materials; the search yielded 73 papers. Silica gel was chosen for the contamination study; nine samples from various batches and suppliers were tested. Methods were established (1) to measure the degradation of desiccant adsorption capacity caused by regeneration processes and/or exposure to contaminants and (2) to determine the nature of these contaminants. Sorption measurements on a limited number of fresh silica gel samples showed that the water adsorption capacity varied about +-10%. The silica gel sample regenerated with electric heaters exhibited a maximum capacity degradation of 7%. Silica gel samples processed in other ways lost between 20% and 47% capacity, depending on the age and cycle of regeneration. The contaminants found were silicon, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Contamination can degrade the water sorption capacity of desiccants.

Pesaran, A.A.; Thomas, T.M.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Mildly Context Sensitive Grammars For Estimating Maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction The maximum-entropy framework provides great flexibility in specifying what features a model may take into account, making it e#ective for a wide range of natural language processing tasks. But because parameter estimation in this framework involves computations over the whole space of possible labelings, it is unwieldy for the parsing problem, where this space is very large. Researchers have tried several strategies for e#ciently training parsing models in the maximum-entropy framework. Ratnaparkhi's parser (1997) models the probabilities of actions of a pushdown automaton instead of the probabilities of entire parses, but for this reason is susceptible to the label-bias problem (La#erty et al. 2001). Abney (1997) proposes random sampling of the parse space. Johnson et al. (1999) propose using conditional estimation instead of joint estimation. This reduces the space to the possible parses of a single sentence, which is much smaller but can still be unmanageably large f

David Chiang

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Discontinuities in the Maximum-Entropy Inference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit the maximum-entropy inference of the state of a finite-level quantum system under linear constraints. The constraints are specified by the expected values of a set of fixed observables. We point out the existence of discontinuities in this inference method. This is a pure quantum phenomenon since the maximum-entropy inference is continuous for mutually commuting observables. The question arises why some sets of observables are distinguished by a discontinuity in an inference method which is still discussed as a universal inference method. In this paper we make an example of a discontinuity and we explain a characterization of the discontinuities in terms of the openness of the (restricted) linear map that assigns expected values to states.

Stephan Weis

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

35

Areawide chemical contamination  

SciTech Connect

Nine case histories illustrate the mounting problems owing to chemical contamination that often extends beyond the workplace into the community. The effects include not only carcinogenesis and teratogenesis, so much in the public's mind, but also severe neurological and gonadal disabilities immediately after exposure. Recognition of causal relationships is often made by astute clinicians. The experience of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in studying Japanese survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki serves as a model for future studies of communities exposed to unusual environmental contamination.

Miller, R.W.

1981-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

36

Mercury contamination extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Subsurface Contamination Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Subsurface Contamination Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

Purifying contaminated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.

Murphy, T W

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Contamination control device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A contamination control device for use in a gas-insulated transmission bus consisting of a cylindrical center conductor coaxially mounted within a grounded cylindrical enclosure. The contamination control device is electrically connected to the interior surface of the grounded outer shell and positioned along an axial line at the lowest vertical position thereon. The contamination control device comprises an elongated metallic member having a generally curved cross-section in a first plane perpendicular to the axis of the bus and having an arcuate cross-section in a second plane lying along the axis of the bus. Each opposed end of the metallic member and its opposing sides are tapered to form a pair of generally converging and downward sloping surfaces to trap randomly moving conductive particles in the relatively field-free region between the metallic member and the interior surface of the grounded outer shell. The device may have projecting legs to enable the device to be spot welded to the interior of the grounded housing. The control device provides a high capture probability and prevents subsequent release of the charged particles after the capture thereof.

Clark, Robert M. (Ligonier, PA); Cronin, John C. (Greensburg, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the contaminant/substrate with the particular decontamination technology is also very important. Results of decontamination testing from hundreds of contaminated coupons have lead to certain conclusions about the contamination and the type of decontamination methods being deployed. A recent addition to the DARPA initiated methodology simulates the deposition of nuclear fallout. This contamination differs from previous tests in that it has been developed and validated purely to simulate a 'loose' type of contamination. This may represent the first time that a radiologically contaminated 'fallout' stimulant has been developed to reproducibly test decontamination methods. While no contaminant/methodology may serve as a complete example of all aspects that could be seen in the field, the study of this family of simulation methods provides insight into the nature of radiological contamination.

Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Maximum Error Modeling for Fault-Tolerant Computation using Maximum a posteriori (MAP) Hypothesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of current generation computing machines in safety-centric applications like implantable biomedical chips and automobile safety has immensely increased the need for reviewing the worst-case error behavior of computing devices for fault-tolerant computation. In this work, we propose an exact probabilistic error model that can compute the maximum error over all possible input space in a circuit specific manner and can handle various types of structural dependencies in the circuit. We also provide the worst-case input vector, which has the highest probability to generate an erroneous output, for any given logic circuit. We also present a study of circuit-specific error bounds for fault-tolerant computation in heterogeneous circuits using the maximum error computed for each circuit. We model the error estimation problem as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, over the joint error probability function of the entire circuit, calculated efficiently through an intelligent search of the entire input space using probabilistic traversal of a binary join tree using Shenoy-Shafer algorithm. We demonstrate this model using MCNC and ISCAS benchmark circuits and validate it using an equivalent HSpice model. Both results yield the same worst-case input vectors and the highest % difference of our error model over HSpice is just 1.23%. We observe that the maximum error probabilities are significantly larger than the average error probabilities, and provides a much tighter error bounds for fault-tolerant computation. We also find that the error estimates depend on the specific circuit structure and the maximum error probabilities are sensitive to the individual gate failure probabilities.

Karthikeyan Lingasubramanian; Syed M. Alam; Sanjukta Bhanja

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

46

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: February 6, 0: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on AddThis.com...

47

Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Us Department Contacts Media Contacts Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study Title Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study Publication Type...

48

Concerns Regarding Lead Contamination and Radiological Controls...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Concerns Regarding Lead Contamination and Radiological Controls at the Nevada Test Site, INS-O-06-02 Concerns Regarding Lead Contamination and Radiological Controls at...

49

Final work plan : Phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.  

SciTech Connect

From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of state-wide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]), approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride concentrations in the Morgan well have ranged from the initial value of 29 {micro}g/L in 1998, up to a maximum of 61 {micro}g/L in 1999, and back down to 22 {micro}g/L in 2005. The carbon tetrachloride concentration in the MoDOT well in 2000 (the only time it was sampled) was 321 {micro}g/L. The concentrations for the two wells are above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA will conduct investigations to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the health and environmental threats potentially posed by the contamination. This work will be performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and MoDNR, to address carbon tetrachloride contamination potentially associated with a number of former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. The investigative activities at Savannah will be conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an agreement with the DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The site characterization at Savannah will take place in phases. This approach is recommended by the CCC/USDA and Argonne, so that information obtained and interpretations developed during each incremental stage of the investigation can be used most effectively to guide subsequent phases of the program. This site-specific Work Plan outlines the specific technical objectives and scope of work proposed for Phase I of the Savannah investigation. This Work Plan also includes the community relations plan to be followed throughout the CCC/USDA program at the Savannah site. Argonne is developing a Master Work Plan specific to operations in the state of Missouri. In the meantime, Argonne will issue a Provisional Master Work Plan (PMWP; Argonne 2007) that will be submitted to the MoDNR for review and approval. The agency has already reviewed and approved (with minor changes) the present Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) under which Argonne currently operates in Kansas. The PMWP (Argonne 2007) will provide detailed information and guidance on the investigative technologies, analytical methodologies, quality assurance-quality control measures, and general health and safety policies to be employed by Argonne for all investigations at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. Both the PMWP

LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

2007-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

50

Fast Local Search for the Maximum Independent Set Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 29, 2008 ... Fast Local Search for the Maximum Independent Set Problem. Diogo V. Andrade (diogo ***at*** google.com) Mauricio G. C. Resende (mgcr ...

51

THE MAXIMUM k-COLORABLE SUBGRAPH PROBLEM AND ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goal of this paper is to investigate the polyhedral con- .... The resulting graph with a maximum (black,white,crossed)-colorable ...... Due to the ad-.

52

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States: 2007 Update This report provides an update to an estimate for U.S. aggregate ...

53

Maximum a posteriori based kernel classifier trained by linear programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new approach for classification problem based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. The necessary and sufficient condition for the cost function to estimate a posteriori probability was obtained. It was clarified by the condition ... Keywords: cost function, kernel function, linear programming, maximum a posteriori

Nopriadi Nopriadi; Yukihiko Yamashita

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Estimating Maximum Surface Winds from Hurricane Reconnaissance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radial profiles of surface winds measured by the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) are compared to radial profiles of flight-level winds to determine the slant ratio of the maximum surface wind speed to the maximum flight-level wind ...

Mark D. Powell; Eric W. Uhlhorn; Jeffrey D. Kepert

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Maximum likelihood estimation of Gaussian mixture models using stochastic search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaussian mixture models (GMM), commonly used in pattern recognition and machine learning, provide a flexible probabilistic model for the data. The conventional expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters ... Keywords: Covariance parametrization, Expectation-maximization, Gaussian mixture models, Identifiability, Maximum likelihood estimation, Particle swarm optimization, Stochastic search

Ça?lar Ar?; Selim Aksoy; Orhan Ar?kan

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION Seungjin on the variance of decon­ volved signal. We also consider the maximum negen­ tropy principle and show that the CME version, without any prior knowledge (such as channel impulse response, training data). As the demand

Choi, Seungjin

57

Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart VAMSI K. MOOTHA, ANDREW E. ARAI, AND ROBERT S. BALABAN Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ

Mootha, Vamsi K.

58

JGI - Why Sequence Contaminated Groundwater?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contaminated Groundwater? Contaminated Groundwater? Because the majority of microorganisms in nature have never been cultured, little is known about their genetic properties, biochemical functions, and metabolic characteristics. Although the sequence of the microbial community "genome" can now be determined with high-throughput sequencing technology, the complexity and magnitude of most microbial communities make meaningful data acquisition and interpretation difficult. Thus, the sequence determination of a groundwater microbial community with manageable diversity and complexity (~20 phylotypes) is a timely challenge. The samples for this project come from the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Well FW-010. The overall objective is to provide a fundamental and comprehensive

59

Trends of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in Northern South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of testing the homogeneity of the basic data used in this study, that is, the mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature (as derived from daily observations) of several long-term climatological stations of ...

Ramon A. Quintana-Gomez

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A maximum likelihood approach towards aggregating partial orders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many of the possible applications as well as the theoretical models of computational social choice, the agents' preferences are represented as partial orders. In this paper, we extend the maximum likelihood approach for defining "optimal" voting rules ...

Lirong Xia; Vincent Conitzer

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Synoptic Reorganization of Atmospheric Flow during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global atmosphere–ocean model of intermediate complexity is used to study the influence of glacial boundary conditions on the atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum in a systematical manner. A web of atmospheric ...

Flávio Justino; Axel Timmermann; Ute Merkel; Enio P. Souza

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

On Determinations of Maximum Hailstone Sizes from Hallpad Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reports of hailstones larger than those indicated by hailpad observations being found on the ground around the hailpad sites raise questions about the validity of maximum-size determinations. Data from the Grossversuch IV hailpad network ...

Paul L. Smith; Albert Waldvogel

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Characteristics of Maximum Concentrations from Multiple Point Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple quasi-Newton numerical scheme is applied to determine the hypothetical worst-case meteorology that will result in the maximum combined concentrations at any receptor location in air quality modeling over short distances for multiple ...

N. M. Zoumakis

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effects of Tides on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights: Probability Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical study was carried out to understand how the probability distribution for maximum wave heights (?m) during tsunamis depends on the initial tsunami amplitude (A) and the tides. It was assumed that the total wave height is the linear ...

Harold O. Mofjeld; Frank I. González; Vasily V. Titov; Angie J. Venturato; Jean C. Newman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Normalized Maximum-Likelihood Estimators of the Directional Wave Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of data-adaptative directional wave spectrum estimators is proposed. These estimators may be considered as an improvement over the well-known extended maximum-likelihood method (EMLM). The normalization is based on the idea of ...

M. A. Arribas; J. J. Egozcue

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Maximum likelihood sequence estimation from the lattice viewpoint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considers the problem of data detection in multilevel lattice-type modulation systems in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive white Gaussian noise. The conventional maximum likelihood sequence estimator using the Viterbi algorithm has ...

Wai Ho Mow

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Humidity Profile Retrieval Using a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite data inversion method based on a maximum entropy principle is presented. The method is both physical since a radiative transfer model with its adjoint is needed, and also statistical since errors of the observed radiances and of a ...

Bernard Urban

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Maximum Likelihood Estimation Using Parallel Computing: An Introduction to MPI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The computational difficulty of econometric problems has increased dramatically in recent years as econometricians examine more complicated models and utilize more sophisticated estimation techniques. Many problems in econometrics are `embarrassingly ... Keywords: MPI, maximum likelihood estimation, parallel computing, parallel programming

Christopher A. Swann

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Maximum containment : the most controversial labs in the world  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2002, following the September 11th attacks and the anthrax letters, the United States allocated money to build two maximum containment biology labs. Called Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) facilities, these labs were built to ...

Bruzek, Alison K. (Allison Kim)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Computing maximum non-crossing matching in convex bipartite graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider computing a maximum non-crossing matching in convex bipartite graphs. For a convex bipartite graph of n vertices and m edges, we present an O (n logn ...

Danny Z. Chen; Xiaomin Liu; Haitao Wang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Sidelobe Contamination in Bistatic Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of sidelobe contamination in a bistatic network is explored. The McGill bistatic network consists of one S-band Doppler radar and two low-gain passive receivers at remote sites. Operational experience with the bistatic network ...

Ramón de Elía; Isztar Zawadzki

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Method for refining contaminated iridium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

Heshmatpour, Bahman (Waltham, MA); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Estimating the Observed Atmospheric Response to SST Anomalies: Maximum Covariance Analysis, Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Assessment, and Maximum Response Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three multivariate statistical methods to estimate the influence of SST or boundary forcing on the atmosphere are discussed. Lagged maximum covariance analysis (MCA) maximizes the covariance between the atmosphere and prior SST, thus favoring ...

Claude Frankignoul; Nadine Chouaib; Zhengyu Liu

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Analytical Requirements for Petroleum Contaminated Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical Requirements for Petroleum Contaminated Soils According to 20 NMAC 9.1.704 704. REQUIRED), or other applicable statutes. Page 1 of 1Analytical Requirements for Petroleum Contaminated Soils 4

77

Regulatory Resources for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulatory information and references for 3-MCPD(3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol )process contaminants. Regulatory Resources for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certifi

78

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

79

Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Natural Contamination from the Mancos...

80

Measurements and Standards for Contaminants in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements and Standards for Contaminants in Environmental Samples. ... Kelly, WR, Long, SE, and Seiber, JR, Standard Reference Materials ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 of 3) 3 of 3) RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH Student's Guide Office of Environment, Safety & Health U.S. Department of Energy February 1997 DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This page intentionally left blank. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Table of Contents Page TERMINAL OBJECTIVE............................................................................1 ENABLING OBJECTIVES...........................................................................1 I. RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION................................................. 2 A. Comparison of Radiation and Radioactive Contamination ..................... 2 B. Types of Contamination.............................................................. 2

82

Google Earth Tour: How Contaminants Got There  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Google Earth Tour: How Contaminants Got There Click here to load the tour...then click the play button below...

83

Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Height(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Height(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 0.6 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + A Alden Large Flume + 0.0 + Alden Small Flume + 0.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 0.3 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.0 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 0.6 +

84

CLEANING OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED OCCUPATIONAL CLOTHING  

SciTech Connect

The soiling and contamination of work clothing and ways of removing this contamination are discussed. Means of disinfection, washing tests with radioactive-contaminated cotton clothing, construction of the laundry, and cleaning protective clothing of plastic and other materials with the help of washing methods and polyphosphates are described. (M.C.G.)

Siewert, G.; Schikora, Th.

1963-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE January 2010 Prepared for the Interagency DE-AC05-76RL01830 Waste Disposal Workshops: Anthrax-Contaminated Waste AM Lesperance JF Upton SL #12;#12;PNNL-SA-69994 Waste Disposal Workshops: Anthrax- Contaminated Waste AM Lesperance JF Upton SL

86

Contaminated Outdoor High Voltage Insulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The external insulation of power lines and outdoor substations is a weak point in transmission systems. The insulation is particularly susceptible to failure if proper attention has not been given to its design, condition monitoring, and maintenance. In regions with high contamination levels, regular maintenance and the application of palliative measures can be critical to ensure that the system meets its outage performance targets. This can involve pure maintenance measures such as cleaning the insulato...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

87

Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

Chee Leong Ching; Wei Khim Ng

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: · Be easy to apply · Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest · Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity · Not be hazardous in final applied form · Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to be applied by divers after scrubbing loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuuming up the sludge. A special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pool with no airborne contamination problems.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Modeling of contaminant transport in underground coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study and discuss the impact of contaminants produced from underground coal gasification on groundwater, a coupled seepage-thermodynamics-transport model for underground gasification was developed on the basis of mass and energy conservation and pollutant-transport mechanisms, the mathematical model was solved by the upstream weighted multisell balance method, and the model was calibrated and verified against the experimental site data. The experiment showed that because of the effects of temperature on the surrounding rock of the gasification panel the measured pore-water-pressure was higher than the simulated one; except for in the high temperature zone where the simulation errors of temperature, pore water pressure, and contaminant concentration were relatively high, the simulation values of the overall gasification panel were well fitted with the measured values. As the gasification experiment progressed, the influence range of temperature field expanded, the gradient of groundwater pressure decreased, and the migration velocity of pollutant increased. Eleven months and twenty months after the test, the differences between maximum and minimum water pressure were 2.4 and 1.8 MPa, respectively, and the migration velocities of contaminants were 0.24-0.38 m/d and 0.27-0.46 m/d, respectively. It was concluded that the numerical simulation of the transport process for pollutants from underground coal gasification was valid. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geosciences

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

An effective heuristic algorithm for the maximum satisfiability problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic local search algorithms (SLS) have been increasingly applied to approximate solutions of the weighted maximum satisfiability problem (MAXSAT), a model for solutions of major problems in AI and combinatorial optimization. While MAXSAT instances ... Keywords: Bose-Einstein distribution, Extremal Optimization, Heuristic search, MAXSAT, Problem solving

Mohamed El Menaï; Mohamed Batouche

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

An electromagnetism metaheuristic for solving the Maximum Betweenness Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an electromagnetism (EM) metaheuristic for solving NP hard Maximum Betweenness Problem (MBP). A new encoding scheme with appropriate objective functions is implemented. Specific representation of the individuals enables the EM ... Keywords: Betweenness problem, Combinatorial optimization, Electromagnetism-like mechanism

Vladimir Filipovi?; Aleksandar Kartelj; Dragan Mati?

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Mixed Integer Linear Programming for Maximum-Parsimony Phylogeny Inference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue ... Keywords: Computational Biology, Algorithms, Integer Linear Programming, Steiner tree problem, Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, Maximum parsimony

Srinath Sridhar; Fumei Lam; Guy E. Blelloch; R. Ravi; Russell Schwartz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Global Increasing Trends in Annual Maximum Daily Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. ...

Seth Westra; Lisa V. Alexander; Francis W. Zwiers

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Probable Maximum Precipitation Study for Wisconsin and Michigan: Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study provides maps and supporting information on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for Wisconsin and Michigan. The refinement of PMP for the study area has typically lowered the PMP from the generalized values in Hydrometeorological Report (HMR) 51. The study followed HMR 51 procedures with some minor changes that apply to other regions.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Feature Extraction Based on Maximum Nearest Subspace Margin Criterion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the classification rule of sparse representation-based classification (SRC) and linear regression classification (LRC), we propose the maximum nearest subspace margin criterion for feature extraction. The proposed method can be seen as a preprocessing ... Keywords: Dimensionality reduction, Face recognition, Feature extraction, Finger knuckle print recognition, Linear regression classification

Yi Chen; Zhenzhen Li; Zhong Jin

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Maximum Fuel Energy Saving of a Brayton Cogeneration Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An endoreversible Joule-Brayton cogeneration cycle has been optimized with fuel energy saving as an assessment criterion. The effects of power-to-heat ratio, cycle temperature ratio, and user temperature ratio on maximum fuel energy saving and efficiency ... Keywords: cogeneration cycle, fuel energy saving, thermodynamic optimization

Xiaoli Hao; Guoqiang Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Maximum Potential Intensities of Tropical Cyclones near Isla Socorro, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum potential intensity (MPI) of a tropical cyclone represents a theoretical upper limit to the strength of the storm imposed by the laws of physics and the energy available to the system in the atmosphere and the ocean. The MPI in this ...

Jay S. Hobgood

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The Summer Cyclone Maximum over the Central Arctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fascinating feature of the northern high-latitude circulation is a prominent summer maximum in cyclone activity over the Arctic Ocean, centered near the North Pole in the long-term mean. This pattern is associated with the influx of lows ...

Mark C. Serreze; Andrew P. Barrett

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor speed measurements as control variable inputs. The dependence on the accuracy of the measurement devices makes the controller less reliable. The proposed control scheme is based on the stiff system concept and provides a fast response and a dynamic solution to the complicated aerodynamic system. This control scheme provides a response to the wind changes without the knowledge of wind speed and turbine parameters. The system consists of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), a passive rectifier, a dc/dc boost converter, a current controlled voltage source inverter, and a microcontroller that commands the dc/dc converter to control the generator for maximum power extraction. The microcontroller will also be able to control the current output of the three-phase inverter. In this work, the aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbines and the power conversion system topology are explained. The maximum power tracking control algorithm with a variable step estimator is introduced and the modeling and simulation of the wind turbine generator system using the MATLAB/SIMULINK® software is presented and its results show, at least in principle, that the maximum power tracking algorithm developed is suitable for wind turbine generation systems.

Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene Climate in CCSM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) is studied for two past climate forcings, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene. The LGM, approximately 21 000 yr ago, is a glacial period with large ...

Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Esther C. Brady; Gabriel Clauzet; Robert Tomas; Samuel Levis; Zav Kothavala

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical The employment of the renewable energy source has grown from long-established concepts into devices for powering--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel

Greenberg, Albert

103

MCMR: Maximum coverage and minimum redundant text summarization model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In paper, we propose an unsupervised text summarization model which generates a summary by extracting salient sentences in given document(s). In particular, we model text summarization as an integer linear programming problem. One of the advantages of ... Keywords: Branch-and-bound, Integer linear programming, Less redundancy, Maximum coverage, Particle swarm optimization, Text summarization

Rasim M. Alguliev; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Makrufa S. Hajirahimova; Chingiz A. Mehdiyev

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Doffing Procedures for Firefighters' Contaminated Turnout Gear: Documentation for Videotape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Firefighting in an area contaminated by radioactive materials can result in contaminated clothing that requires careful handling. This report documents a videotape that provides simple how-to procedures for doffing contaminated or potentially contaminated firefighter turnout gear.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Seismic Imaging of UXO-Contaminated Underwater Sites (Interim Report)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imaging of UXO-Contaminated Underwater Sites” Roland GrittoImaging of UXO-Contaminated Underwater Sites” over the first

Gritto, Roland; Korneev, Valeri; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Lane

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility  

SciTech Connect

The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Environmental geochemistry of radioactive contamination.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report attempts to describe the geochemical foundations of the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. The information is obtained and applied in three interacting spheres of inquiry and analysis: (1) experimental studies and theoretical calculations, (2) field studies of contaminated and natural analog sites and (3) model predictions of radionuclide behavior in remediation and waste disposal. Analyses of the risks from radioactive contamination require estimation of the rates of release and dispersion of the radionuclides through potential exposure pathways. These processes are controlled by solubility, speciation, sorption, and colloidal transport, which are strong functions of the compositions of the groundwater and geomedia as well as the atomic structure of the radionuclides. The chemistry of the fission products is relatively simple compared to the actinides. Because of their relatively short half-lives, fission products account for a large fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear waste for the first several hundred years but do not represent a long-term hazard in the environment. The chemistry of the longer-lived actinides is complex; however, some trends in their behavior can be described. Actinide elements of a given oxidation state have either similar or systematically varying chemical properties due to similarities in ionic size, coordination number, valence, and electron structure. In dilute aqueous systems at neutral to basic pH, the dominant actinide species are hydroxy- and carbonato-complexes, and the solubility-limiting solid phases are commonly oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. In general, actinide sorption will decrease in the presence of ligands that complex with the radionuclide; sorption of the (IV) species of actinides (Np, Pu, U) is generally greater than of the (V) species. The geochemistry of key radionuclides in three different environments is described in this report. These include: (1) low ionic strength reducing waters from crystalline rocks at nuclear waste research sites in Sweden; (2) oxic water from the J-13 well at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in tuffaceous rocks; and (3) reference brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The transport behaviors of radionuclides associated with the Chernobyl reactor accident and the Oklo Natural Reactor are described. These examples span wide temporal and spatial scales and include the rapid geochemical and physical processes important to nuclear reactor accidents or industrial discharges as well as the slower processes important to the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Application of geochemical information to remediating or assessing the risk posed by radioactive contamination is the final subject of this report. After radioactive source terms have been removed, large volumes of soil and water with low but potentially hazardous levels of contamination may remain. For poorly-sorbing radionuclides, capture of contaminated water and removal of radionuclides may be possible using permeable reactive barriers and bioremediation. For strongly sorbing radionuclides, contaminant plumes will move very slowly. Through a combination of monitoring, regulations and modeling, it may be possible to have confidence that they will not be a hazard to current or future populations. Abstraction of the hydrogeochemical properties of real systems into simple models is required for probabilistic risk assessment. Simplifications in solubility and sorption models used in performance assessment calculations for the WIPP and the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain are briefly described.

Bryan, Charles R.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Property:Maximum Velocity(m/s) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Velocity(m/s) Velocity(m/s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Velocity(m/s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Velocity(m/s)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alden Large Flume + 0.9 + B Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 2.7 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 7.2 + Carderock Rotating Arm Tow Tank + 25.8 + Carderock Tow Tank 1 + 9.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 10.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 25.8 + Chase Tow Tank + 2.5 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 18.3 + H Haynes Tow Tank + 1.8 + I Ice Towing Tank + 0.5 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 2.7 + M MHL Free Surface Channel + 2 + MHL High Speed Cavitation + 25.9 + MHL Tow Tank + 6.7 + MIT Tow Tank + 1.5 + MMA Tugboat/ Barge/ Vessel + 5.1 + Maine Tow Tank + 3 +

110

Minimum/maximum excitation limiter performance goals for small generation  

SciTech Connect

Small generators connected to the utility system often act as followers as they tend to follow system bus voltage variations. For the lack of kVA capacity, small machines tend to be susceptible to becoming over or under excited (excessive Vars in or Vars out of the generator) as the voltage regulator tries to maintain its setpoint with variations in system bus voltage. Minimum and maximum excitation limiters are utilized to limit the voltage regulator characteristic response to system bus voltage changes, that can otherwise result in machine overheating and/or pulling out of synchronization. This paper reviews the operating performance of minimum and maximum excitation limiters used on small machines, and provides the user typical performance expectations. The examples will highlight both main field and exciter field applications. Lastly, conditions will be reviewed that may occur during excitation limiter initial startup that can affect their ability to be initially tuned.

Eberly, T.W.; Schaefer, R.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

LITERATURE REVIEW ON MAXIMUM LOADING OF RADIONUCLIDES ON CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE  

SciTech Connect

Plans are underway to use small column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions at Savannah River Site. The ion exchange material slated for the SCIX project is engineered or granular crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Information on the maximum loading of radionuclides on CST is needed by Savannah River Remediation for safety evaluations. A literature review has been conducted that culminated in the estimation of the maximum loading of all but one of the radionuclides of interest (Cs-137, Sr-90, Ba-137m, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241, and Cm-244). No data was found for Cm-244.

Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

112

Chemical maximum humidity indicator update report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Raw materials and manufactured parts sometimes must be kept in a controlled-humidity environment. The use of moisture-sensitive systems to indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure is discussed. A chemical indicator made from deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. The performance and long-term-stability characteristics of the indicator are described.

Abel, W.B.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Unification of Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Inference via Plausible Reasoning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper modifies Jaynes's axioms of plausible reasoning and derives the minimum relative entropy principle as well as Bayes's rule from first principles. The new axioms, which I call the Optimum Information Principle, is applicable whenever the decision maker is given the data and the relevant background information. Given that the maximum entropy principle and Bayesian inference are useful methods, the Optimum Information Principle is at least as useful.

Toda, Alexis Akira

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Property:Maximum Wave Length(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Length(m) Wave Length(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Length(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Length(m)" Showing 18 pages using this property. A Alden Small Flume + Variable + Alden Wave Basin + 1.8 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 12.2 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 15.2 + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + 64 + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + 30 + H Haynes Wave Basin + 10.7 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 22 + M MIT Tow Tank + 4.6 + O OTRC Wave Basin + 25 + Ohmsett Tow Tank + 18 + R Richmond Field Station Tow Tank + 2 + S SAFL Channel + 6.6 + Sandia Lake Facility + 4.57 + Sheets Wave Basin + 10 + Ship Towing Tank + 6 + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:Maximum_Wave_Length(m)&oldid=597351

115

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Total Maximum Daily Load Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) The overall goal of the Clean Water Act is to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the NationÂ’s waters." In 1999, EPA proposed changes to Section 303(d), to establish Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for watersheds that do not meet this goal. The TMDL is the highest amount of a given pollutant that is permissible in that body of water over a given period of time. TMDLs include both waste load allocation (WLA) for point sources and load allocations for non-point sources. In Appalachia, acid mine drainage (AMD) is the single most damaging non-point source. There is also particular concern of the atmospheric deposition of airborne sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury compounds. States are currently in the process of developing comprehensive lists of impaired waters and establishing TMDLs for those waters. EPA has recently proposed a final rule that will require states to develop TMDLs and implement plans for improving water quality within the next 10 years. Under the new rule, TMDL credits could be traded within a watershed.

116

Risk associated with hospital rooms contaminated with 131I by patients being treated for thyroid carcinoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iodine-131 contamination is known to be present in hospital rooms that are used to confine patients being treated with quantities of 1311 in excess of 1. 1 GBq. These activities of 13 'I are used as a post-surgical follow-up procedure to a thyroidectomy as a means of treating thyroid cancer. Previous studies have indicated the extent of contamination in hospital rooms being used during these procedures. However, contamination has not been related to risk. This paper quantifies the risk in terms of effective dose equivalent to members of the public and personnel from 1311 contamination when only minimal precautions are taken to contain the contamination during the 1311 thyroid cancer treatment procedure. Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) calculations using the NRC published dose models for surface contamination results in public exposures of less than 2.7 uSv per patient and personnel exposures of less than 2.1 uSv yr-1. Maximum TEDE to the public considering the detectable limits of portable area survey equipment indicated a worst case exposure of 340 uSv per patient. As a result, conservative protective measures utilized by many institutions, such a lining the room with plastic, appear not to be warranted.

Jones, David Maurice

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Process for reducing radioactive contamination in phosphogypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process of two crystallization stages for reducing radioactive contamination of phosphogypsum is disclosed. In the process anhydrite crystals are obtained through dehydration of the radiation containing phosphogypsum in strong sulfuric acid; a portion of the anhydrite crystals containing the radioactive contamination is converted to substantially radiation free gypsum by crystallizing out on a large solids concentration of radiation free gypsum seed crystals; and coarse radiation free gypsum crystals are separated from small anhydrite crystal relics containing substantially all of the radioactive contamination.

Gaynor, J.C.; Palmer, J.W.

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

119

Radiological Worker Training - Radiological Contamination Control...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B December 2008 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL WORKER TRAINING RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C....

120

Accident Investigation Report Plutonium Contamination in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accident Investigation Report Plutonium Contamination in the Zero Power Physics Reactor Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory, November 8, 2011 January 2012 Disclaimer...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An integrated maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- This paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for a photovoltaic panel, that is to be integrated with the panel during manufacturing. The MPPT is inexpensive, efficient and has few components that serve to increase the MPPT’s mean time between failures (MTBF). The MPPT uses an inexpensive micro-controller to perform all of its functions. This includes maximum power point tracking, series battery voltage regulation, sensorless short circuit protection of the MPPT’s converter and intelligent shutdown and wakeup at dusk and dawn. The MPPT can source 10 A to a 6 V- 36 V lead-acid storage battery and can be connected in parallel or series with other MPPTs. The MPPT may be easily configured to perform output voltage regulation on passive and water pumping loads. It could also control the actuation of a diesel generator in a hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS). Energy transfer enhancements of up to 26%, compared to solar panels without MPPTs, have been measured. The complete component and materials cost of the MPPT is approximately 2’8 % of the cost of photovoltaic panels with a peak power rating of 154 W. The integrated MPPT also consumes no stored energy at night. 1.

Wernher Swiegers

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Predicting the solar maximum with the rising rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth rate of solar activity in the early phase of a solar cycle has been known to be well correlated with the subsequent amplitude (solar maximum). It provides very useful information for a new solar cycle as its variation reflects the temporal evolution of the dynamic process of solar magnetic activities from the initial phase to the peak phase of the cycle. The correlation coefficient between the solar maximum (Rmax) and the rising rate ({\\beta}a) at {\\Delta}m months after the solar minimum (Rmin) is studied and shown to increase as the cycle progresses with an inflection point (r = 0.83) at about {\\Delta}m = 20 months. The prediction error of Rmax based on {\\beta}a is found within estimation at the 90% level of confidence and the relative prediction error will be less than 20% when {\\Delta}m \\geq 20. From the above relationship, the current cycle (24) is preliminarily predicted to peak around October 2013 with a size of Rmax =84 \\pm 33 at the 90% level of confidence.

Du, Z L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Dismantling an alpha-contaminated facility  

SciTech Connect

The difficult task of removing large pieces of highly contaminated equipment from an obsolete plutonium-239 facility was completed in a seven-month operation that included structural alteration of the process building. Detailed job planning, job execution and contamination control were major factors in accomplishing the task. (auth)

Caldwell, R.D.; Harper, R.M.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

CONTAMINATION CONTROL AT THE HANFORD LAUNDRY  

SciTech Connect

The laundry operation consists of a decontamination laundry, non- regulated laundry service, and a central mask cleaning station. Control of radioactive contamination is accomplished by presorting at the point of use, minimizing handling of contaminated articles, and the discharge of waste effluents under controlled conditions. Procedures are described in detail. (C.H.)

Linderoth, C.E.; Little, G.A.

1962-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

126

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

128

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

129

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

Amonette, James E. (Richland, WA); Fruchter, Jonathan S. (Richland, WA); Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA); Cole, Charles R. (West Richmond, WA); Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richmond, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent concerns regarding environmental contamination have necessitated the development of appropriate technologies to assess the presence and mobility of metals in soil and estimate possible ways to decrease the level of soil metal contamination. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that may be used to cleanup contaminated soils. Successful application of phytoremediation, however, depends upon various factors that must be carefully investigated and properly considered for specific site conditions. To efficiently affect the metal removal from contaminated soils we used the ability of plants to accumulate different metals and agricultural practices to improve soil quality and enhance plant biomass. Pot experiments were conducted to study metal transport through bulk soil to the rhizosphere and stimulate transfer of the metals to be more available for plants' form. The aim of the experimental study was also to find fertilizers that could enhance uptake of metals and their removal from contaminated soil.

Shtangeeva, I.; Laiho, J.V-P.; Kahelin, H.; Gobran, G.R.

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

Qualms concerning Tsallis ’ Use of the Maximum Entropy Formalism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tsallis ’ ‘statistical thermodynamic ’ formulation of the nonadditive entropy of degree-? is neither correct nor self-consistent. It is well known that the maximum entropy formalism [1], the minimum discrimination information [2], and Gauss ’ principle [3, 4] all lead to the same results when a certain condition on the prior probability distribution is imposed [5]. All these methods lead to the same form of the posterior probability distribution; namely, the exponential family of distributions. Tsallis and collaborators [6] have tried to adapt the maximum entropy formalism that uses the Shannon entropy to one that uses a nonadditive entropy of degree-?. In order to come out with analytic expressions for the probabilities that maximize the nonadditive entropy they found it necessary to use ‘escort probabilities’[7] of the same power as the nonadditive entropy. If the procedure they use is correct then it follows that Gauss ’ principle should give the same optimum probabilities. Yet, we will find that the Tsallis result requires that the prior probability distribution be given by the same unphysical condition as the maximum entropy formalism and, what is worse, the potential of the error law be required to vanish. The potential of the error law is what information theory refers to as the error [8]; that is, the difference between the inaccuracy and the entropy. Unless the ‘true ’ probability distribution, P = (p(x1), p(x2)...,p(xm)) coincides with the estimated probability distribution, Q = (q(x1), q(x2),...q(xm)), the error does not vanish. Moreover, we shall show that two procedures of averaging, one using the escort probabilities explicitly, do not give the same result, and the relation between the potential of the error law and the nonadditive entropy requires the latter to vanish when the former vanishes. Let X be a random variable whose values x1, x2,..., xm are obtained at m independent trials. Prior to the observations the distribution is Q, and after the observations the unknown probability distribution is P. The observer has 1 at his disposal the statistic â = 1

B. H. Lavenda; J. Dunning-davies

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

134

Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites and facilities. Note that Riley and Zachara analyzed the data from only 18 sites/facilities including 91 plumes. In this paper, we present the results of statistical analyses of the data in the GWD as guidance for planning future basic and applied research of groundwater contaminants within the DOE complex. Our analyses include the evaluation of a frequency and ranking of specific contaminants and contaminant groups, contaminant concentrations/activities and total contaminant masses and activities. We also compared the results from analyses of the GWD with those from the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The difference between our results and those summarized in the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara could be caused by not only additional releases, but also by the use of modern site characterization methods, which more accurately reveal the extent of groundwater contamination. Contaminated sites within the DOE complex are located in all major geographic regions of the United States, with highly variable geologic, hydrogeologic, soil, and climatic conditions. We assume that the information from the 60 DOE sites included in the GWD are representative for the whole DOE complex. These 60 sites include the major DOE sites and facilities, such as Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Savannah River Site, South Carolina; Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. These five sites alone ccount for 71% of the value of the remediation work.

Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

135

Thallium in Coal Combustion Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element that is present in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs). Thallium is of interest because it has a relatively low maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water. This Technical Brief provides EPRI data on thallium in CCPs, along with general information on its occurrence, health effects, and treatment. Most of the information presented is summarized from the 2008 EPRI Technical Report 1016801, Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: ..

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

136

Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides.

Imrich, K.J.; Leader, D.R.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacityseems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. Thereport presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

Information Center

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

138

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research...

139

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance to EMS care providers for properly handling and packaging potentially radiologically contaminated patients. This procedure applies to Emergency Medical Service care providers who respond to a radioactive material transportation incident that involves potentially contaminated injuries. Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient.docx More Documents & Publications Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Medical Examiner/Coroner on the Handling of a Body/Human Remains that are Potentially Radiologically Contaminated

140

Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals June 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site...

142

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Multithreaded Algorithms for Maximum Matching in Bipartite Graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract—We design, implement, and evaluate algorithms for computing a matching of maximum cardinality in a bipartite graph on multi-core and massively multithreaded computers. As computers with larger number of slower cores dominate the commodity processor market, the design of multithreaded algorithms to solve large matching problems becomes a necessity. Recent work on serial algorithms based on searching for augmenting paths for this problem have shown that their performance is sensitive to the order in which the vertices are processed for matching. In a multithreaded environment, imposing a serial order in which vertices are considered for matching would lead to loss of concurrency and performance. But this raises the question: Would parallel matching algorithms on multithreaded machines improve performance over a serial algorithm? We answer this question in the affirmative. We report efficient multithreaded implementations of two key algorithms (Hopcroft- Karp based on breadth-first-search, and Pothen-Fan based on depth-first-search) and their variants, combined with the Karp- Sipser initialization algorithm. We report extensive results and insights using three shared-memory platforms (a 48-core AMD Opteron, a 32-core Intel Nehalem, and a 128-processor Cray XMT) on a representative set of real-world and synthetic graphs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of augmentation-based parallel algorithms for bipartite cardinality matching.

Azad, Md Ariful; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Rajamanickam, Siva; Boman, Erik G.; Khan, Arif; Pothen, Alex

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry Axis: Alignment with Other Cosmic Asymmetries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a global pixel based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4 degrees-15 degrees and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large scale Healpix resolutions (N_{side}=16 (3.7 degrees), N_{side}=8 (7.3 degrees) and N_{side}=4 (14.7 degrees)). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (\\alpha dipole, Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 10^4 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on LCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduces the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed \\alpha dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5%$ (depending on the resolution chosen for the CMB map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.

Antonio Mariano; Leandros Perivolaropoulos

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

145

Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The shallow alluvial aquifer at Fry Canyon, Utah, is contaminated with up to 17 mgL uranium leached from processed tailings at an ore upgrader processing plant that was operated...

146

The Effects of Contamination on HVDC Insulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is currently documenting the various issues that should be considered when converting existing AC lines to high voltage DC (HVDC) lines. One issue that has not yet been dealt with properly is the selection of external DC insulation with respect to contamination. Since the beginning of overhead power transmission, it has been recognized that the performance of external insulation is adversely affected when the insulating surface is contaminated with airborne deposits such as marine salt or industrial...

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

147

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

148

METHOD FOR REMOVING CONTAMINATION FROM PRECIPITATES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate, amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium. The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. since this solution has been found to be uniquely effective in washing fission production contamination from the bismuth phosphate precipitate.

Stahl, G.W.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

150

Contaminants, Water and Human Health: New Lessons from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminants, Water and Human Health: New Lessons from Alligators. Purpose: Many chemicals introduced into the environment ...

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance to EMS care providers for properly handling and packaging potentially radiologically contaminated patients. This procedure applies to Emergency Medical Service care providers who respond to a radioactive material transportation incident that involves potentially contaminated injuries. Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient.docx More Documents & Publications Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Emergency Response to a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response

153

Comparison of multiple ecogenomics methods for determining ecosystem function in uranium-contaminated environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to attenuate nletal and radionuclide contamination.problem of metal and radionuclide contamination of soil and

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Spatial Forecasts of Maximum Hail Size Using Prognostic Model Soundings and HAILCAST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasting the occurrence of hail and the maximum hail size is a challenging problem. This paper investigates the feasibility of producing maps of the forecast maximum hail size over the Canadian prairies using 12-h prognostic soundings from an ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Ron Goodson; Terrence W. Krauss

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Dynamical Interpretation of the Tritium Maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tropical tritium distribution between 1974 and 1981 is characterized by a maximum along the equator centered between 125° and 145°W. It signifies that this region has received the maximum input of high northern latitude water. A dynamical ...

Michael J. McPhaden; Rana A. Fine

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE FOR THE NFSS CENTRAL DRAINAGE DITCH DECEMBER 1986 Prepared for UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS OFFICE Under Contract No. DE-AC05-81OR20722 By Bechtel National, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bechtel Job No. 14501 I 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1.1 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used for establishing a supplemental residual contamination guideline for the NFSS vicinity property known as the Central Drainage Ditch (CDD). Supplemental guidelines may exceed authorized guidelines if the resultant dose will not exceed the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr (Ref. 1). This evaluation is based on realistic exposure pathways that were

157

Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

Ganguli, Partha S. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

On the Vertical Decay Rate of the Maximum Tangential Winds in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, it is shown that the maximum tangential winds within tropical cyclones decrease with height at a percentage rate that is nearly independent of both the maximum wind speed and the radius of maximum winds (RMW). This can be seen by ...

Daniel P. Stern; David S. Nolan

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

MaxSolver: An efficient exact algorithm for (weighted) maximum satisfiability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximum Boolean satisfiability (max-SAT) is the optimization counterpart of Boolean satisfiability (SAT), in which a variable assignment is sought to satisfy the maximum number of clauses in a Boolean formula. A branch and bound algorithm based on the ... Keywords: DPLL, Linear programming, Nonlinear programming, Unit propagation, Variable ordering, Weighted maximum satisfiability

Zhao Xing; Weixiong Zhang

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

1994-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

System for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

Melioration of the radiocesium contaminated land  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method is described of radiocesium fixation in soils contaminated by this radionuclide. To immobilize radiocesium, the soil surface is treated with aqueous hexacyanoferrate solution of alkaline metals. It has been experimentally shown that application of K4 [Fe(CN)6]{\\bullet}3H2O at a rate of 1,3g/kg soil reduces the fraction of exchangeable 137Cs 100-fold (100 times). The method is effective for the plots where contamination is concentrated in the top 1 - 2 cm soil layer.

I. E. Epifanova; E. G. Tertyshnik

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

163

Section 3.12 of the In Search of Truth Project Environmental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contaminant Levels (MCL) have been used as basis for permit conditions by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board. In 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency...

164

Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

Phifer, Mark A. (N. Augusta, SC); Sappington, Frank C. (Dahlonega, GA); Millings, Margaret R. (N. Augusta, SC); Turick, Charles E. (Aiken, SC); McKinsey, Pamela C. (Aiken, SC)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and...

166

Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City,...

167

Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

168

Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

Metzler, Donald R. (DeBeque, CO); Morrison, Stanley (Grand Junction, CO)

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

SAIC

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ in contaminated soils plays a crucial role in determining the long term fate of toxic metal pollutants speciation in laboratory contaminated soils with thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of precipitate stability

Sparks, Donald L.

171

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

06-97 06-97 February 1997 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 March 2002 Reaffirmation with Errata August 2002 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Reaffirmation with Errata DOE-HDBK-1106-97 Radiological Contamination Control for Laboratory Research

172

Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants Speaker(s): Mathew MacLeod Date: June 29, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone Chemical products pervade modern society, and furnish unprecedented wealth and comfort to citizens of countries with industrialized economies. Demand for products such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, flame-retardants and additives for consumer products requires large scale production and distribution of these chemicals, and they are inevitably released into the environment. Responsible management of chemicals therefore requires a quantitative understanding of amounts released, how the chemicals partition and travel in the environment, and how they might expose and thus adversely affect human and ecological populations. This

173

GENII dose calculations for offsite maximum individual and populations from Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Document describes the potential dose consequences to the offsite maximum individual and population for ground and stack level releases at the offsite receptors from the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

Nguyen, L.V.

1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

174

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 of 3) 2 of 3) Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research Instructor's Guide Office of Environment, Safety & Health U.S. Department of Energy February 1997 DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This page intentionally left blank. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Table of Contents Page DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - Course/Lesson Plan.............................. 1 Standardized Core Course Materials................................................... 1 Course Goal.........................................................................1 Target Audience.................................................................. 1 Course Description............................................................... 1 Prerequisites...................................................................... 1

175

Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

Rick Demmer

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

177

Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

Francis, A.J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Desiccant contamination in desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a desiccant contamination experiment and the impact of the obtained silica gel degradation data on the performance of a desiccant cooling system. A test apparatus was used to thermally cycle several desiccant samples and expose them to ambient'' humid air or contaminated'' humid air. The source of contamination was cigarette smoke. The exposed desiccant samples were removed after 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 months of exposure and their moisture capacities were measured. The silica get samples thermally cycled with ambient air showed a 5% to 30% to 70% of their moisture capacity. Using the obtained degradation data in a system, the impact of desiccant degradation on the performance of a desiccant cooling cycle was estimated. Depending on the degree of desiccant degradation, the decrease in thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity of the system was 10% to 35%. It was found that the COP and the cooling capacity of a system after desiccant degradation can be improved by increasing the rotational speed of the dehumidifier. This indicates that a simple engineering solution may exist to alleviate some type of degradations. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Pesaran, A.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

Mullen, Lisa K. [Bluegrass Concrete Cutting Inc., 107 Mildred Street PO Box 427, Greenville, Alabama 36037 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Mobilization of trace elements in aquifers by biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants. Master Thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study had two objectives: (1) to determine the extent of metal mobility within petroleum-contaminated aquifers, (2) to determine if biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons can explain metal mobility. The approach reviewed analytical results from 2305 groundwater sampling events, taken from 958 wells, located at 136 sites found at 53 Air Force installations. The study showed that high levels of metals are present at petroleum hydrocarbon sites where metals would not generally be expected. Of the metals with drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), mercury and silver were detected the least frequently. Barium and copper were detected at the sites, but fewer than 2.5 percent of the samples exceeded their MCLs. All other metals exceeded their MCLs in at least 2.5 percent of the samples, with antimony and lead exceeding their MCLs in 19 percent and 10 percent of samples, respectively. Higher concentrations of barium and manganese were most strongly correlated with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and relatively strong correlations also existed for aluminum, arsenic, iron, and lead. Major cations such as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were least affected by petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations.

Kearney, S.L.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Maximum likelihood blind image separation using nonsymmetrical half-plane Markov random fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a maximum likelihood approach for blindly separating linear instantaneous mixtures of images. The spatial autocorrelation within each image is described using non-symmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields in order to simplify ... Keywords: blind source separation (BSS), maximum likelihood approach, nonstationary sources, nonsymmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields

Rima Guidara; Shahram Hosseini; Yannick Deville

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The greedy algorithm for domination in graphs of maximum degree 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that for a connected graph with n nodes and e edges and maximum degree at most 3, the size of the dominating set found by the greedy algorithm is at most 10n - 2e/13 if e ? 11/10n, 11n - ... Keywords: algorithms, dominating set, maximum size

Suzanne M. Seager

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A Note on the Parameterized Complexity of Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Note on the Parameterized Complexity of Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation Sebastian B University, 41296 G¨oteborg, Sweden ptr@chalmers.se Abstract In the Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation problem, a set P of paths in a tree and a parameter k is given, and we want to orient the edges

Damaschke, Peter

185

Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Using Only Single Current Sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is proportional to its short current. One of them has a monitor photovoltaic cell to detect its shortMaximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Using Only Single Current Sensor Toshihiko» «Solar cell systems» Abstract This paper describes a novel strategy of maximum-power-point tracking

Fujimoto, Hiroshi

186

Original article: Comparison of maximum peak power tracking algorithms for a small wind turbine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms dedicated for small wind turbines (SWTs). Many control strategies with different features are available and it is very important to select proper one in order to achieve best performance ... Keywords: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), PMSG, Small wind turbine (SWT)

R. Kot, M. Rolak, M. Malinowski

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Effect of immiscible liquid contaminants on P-wave transmission through natural aquifer samples  

SciTech Connect

We performed core-scale laboratory experiments to examine the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation in heterogeneous media. This work is part of a larger project to develop crosswell seismic methods for minimally invasive NAPL detection. The test site is the former DOE Pinellas Plant in Florida, which has known NAPL contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic attenuation, which may be due to lithology and/or contaminants (NAPL or gas phase). Intact core was obtained from the field site, and P-wave transmission was measured by the pulse-transmission technique with a 500 kHz transducer. Two types of samples were tested: a clean fine sand from the upper portion of the surficial aquifer, and clayey-silty sand with shell fragments and phosphate nodules from the lower portion. Either NAPL trichloroethene or toluene was injected into the initially water-saturated sample. Maximum NAPL saturations ranged from 30 to 50% of the pore space. P-wave velocity varied by approximately 4% among the water-saturated samples, while velocities decreased by 5 to 9% in samples at maximum NAPL saturation compared to water-saturated conditions. The clay and silt fraction as well as the larger scatterers in the clayey-silty sands apparently caused greater P-wave attenuation compared to the clean sand. The presence of NAPLs caused a 34 to 54% decrease in amplitudes of the first arrival. The central frequency of the transmitted energy ranged from 85 to 200 kHz, and was sensitive to both grain texture and presence of NAPL. The results are consistent with previous trends observed in homogeneous sand packs. More data will be acquired to interpret P-wave tomograms from crosswell field measurements, determine the cause of high attenuation observed in the field data and evaluate the sensitivity of seismic methods for NAPL detection.

Geller, Jil T.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An aerial view of Hanford’s D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. An aerial view of Hanford's D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River.

189

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An aerial view of Hanford’s D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. An aerial view of Hanford's D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River.

190

Contaminated Variance-Mean mixing model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Generalised Normal Variance-Mean (GNVM) model in which the mixing random variable is Gamma distributed is considered. This model generalises the popular Variance-Gamma (VG) distribution. This GNVM model can be interpreted as the addition of noise ... Keywords: DIC, JAGS, Maximum likelihood estimation, Mixing representation, Normal Variance-Mean distribution, Variance-Gamma distribution

Thomas Fung, Joanna J. J. Wang, Eugene Seneta

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

New Challenges in Contamination Control: The Leadership Role of IEST in Shaping Future Research and Practices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

updated.. WG–CC902: MIL-HDBK-406: Contamination Controland Clean Work Stations; MIL-HDBK-407: Contamination Control

Xu, Tengfang; Eudy, Jane; Berndt, Charles

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

FRANCIS,A.J.

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

193

Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles.

1998-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

194

Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

Schuresko, Daniel D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

THE DESIGN OF A RADIOACTIVITY CONTAMINATION METER  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the design and performance of a portable instrument for measurement of radiation from small quantities of radioactive contamination. The device weighs 4 lb 2 oz, operates on a single flashlight battery for 200 hr, and operates at low temperatures with the proper battery. The most novel feature is a clockworkdriven chopper for a-c. The circuit includes cold cathode tubes and a halogen-quenched G-M tube. Reliability was emphasized in the design. (T.R.H.)

Goulding, F.S.

1954-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

196

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 16 weight percent CaCO{sub 3}. Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na{sub 2}S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na{sub 2}S, where it would be converted to Hg{sub 2}S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na{sub 2}S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

"Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" 2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" " Potential by Census Region, 1991" " (Estimates in Physical Units)" ,,,,"RSE" ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum","Row" "Type of Energy","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)","Factors" "RSE Column Factors:",1,1.2,0.8 ," Total United States" ,"-","-","-" "Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthours)",718480,701478,766887,2 "Natural Gas (billion cubic feet)",5345,3485,5887,2 "Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",23885,19113,201081,3.7 "Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",65837,36488,201921,2.6

198

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Need for a contamination control textbook  

SciTech Connect

Since the authors have become associated with contamination control technology they have repeatedly found themselves searching for technical information that was either never documented and therefore never reached a technical journal or was too specific to appear in a technical article. On countless occasions they have found other workers frustrated over the same lack of concise and up to date information in the relatively broad and interdisciplinary field of surface science, surface cleaning, and clean room operation and design. It is for these reasons that the authors wish to suggest formally that those engineers, chemists, technicians, and surface scientists working in this field collectively create a textbook that they may use as their first reference and teaching book. The text of this paper suggests a topical outline for a book and gives examples of the kinds of information that it should contain and the types of questions it should address. Included is an extensive bibliography recently collected showing the diversity of disciplines that those working in contamination control must be knowledgeable of and the variety of publications and journals in which these reports and articles are generally found.

Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Guntrum, S.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicated good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and industrial waters, including Hg{sup 2+}, elemental mercury, methyl mercury, and colloidal mercury. The process possesses very fast kinetics, which allows for higher flow rates and smaller treatment units. These sorbent technologies, used in tandem or individually depending on the treatment needs, can provide DOE sites with a cost-effective method for reducing mercury concentrations to very low levels mandated by the regulatory community. In addition, the technologies do not generate significant amounts of secondary wastes for disposal. Furthermore, the need for improved water treatment technologies is not unique to the DOE. The new, stringent requirements on mercury concentrations impact other government agencies as well as the private sector. Some of the private-sector industries needing improved methods for removing mercury from water include mining, chloralkali production, chemical processing, and medical waste treatment. The next logical step is to deploy one or more of these sorbents at a contaminated DOE site or at a commercial facility needing improved mercury treatment technologies. A full-scale deployment is planned in fiscal year 2000.

Robin M. Stewart

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative has partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to bring together a special section of the recent issue (November 2012). The section was prepared in association with the Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative-led symposium at the annual American Chemical Society meeting on "Understanding Behavior and Fate of Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments." The section consists of 12 papers which present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments, many of which highlight recent work at the Hanford site. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

203

Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study Schematic of soil-gas and contaminant transport into a slab-on-grade building at a former service station site. Three effects are illustrated that can contribute to reducing the amount of contaminant available for entry into the building: biodegradation by soil microorganisms; a layer of soil that limits diffusive movement of the contaminant; and wind-driven ventilation of the soil below the building. Not illustrated are the effects of ventilation on contaminant concentrations inside the building. The transport of soil-gas-borne contaminants into buildings has been documented as a significant source of human exposure to some pollutants indoors; one example is radon, which has received widespread public

204

In-situ remediation system for contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume is described. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Corey, J.C.; Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

1988-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

205

In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like.

Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC); Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Kaback, Dawn S. (Aiken, SC)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the RoMIC-AFRI was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination. The initiative at Oak Ridge is a collaborative effort that leverages DOE investments in basic science and applied research and the work of site contractors to address the complex challenges in the remediation of legacy waste at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants

207

Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals June 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The 200 West Pump and Treat System is Hanford’s largest facility for treating contaminated groundwater. The 200 West Pump and Treat System is Hanford's largest facility for treating contaminated groundwater. A graphic showing the 200 West Pump and Treat plumes and well network. A graphic showing the 200 West Pump and Treat plumes and well network. The 200 West Pump and Treat System is Hanford's largest facility for treating contaminated groundwater. A graphic showing the 200 West Pump and Treat plumes and well network. RICHLAND, Wash. - Workers supporting groundwater cleanup for EM's

208

Microscopic characterization of radionuclide contaminated soils to assist remediation efforts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of optical, scanning, and analytical electron microscopies have been used to describe the nature of radionuclide contamination at several sites. These investigations were conducted to provide information for remediation efforts. This technique has been used successfully with uranium-contaminated soils from Fernald, OH, and Portsmouth, OH, thorium-contaminated soil from a plant in Tennessee, plutonium-contamination sand from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and incinerator ash from Los Alamos, NM. Selecting the most suitable method for cleaning a particular site is difficult if the nature of the contamination is not understood. Microscopic characterization allows the most appropriate method to be selected for removing the contamination and can show the effect a particular method is having on the soil. A method of sample preparation has been developed that allows direct comparison of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, enabling characterization of TEM samples to be more representative of the bulk sample.

Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like. 3 figs.

Corey, J.C.; Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

210

Recent Trends of Minimum and Maximum Surface Temperatures over Eastern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated recent trends in the mean surface minimum and maximum air temperatures over eastern Africa by use of both graphical and statistical techniques. Daily records for 71 stations for the period 1939–92 were used.

S. M. King’uyu; L. A. Ogallo; E. K. Anyamba

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Use of Polar-orbiting Satellite Sounding Data to Estimate Rural Maximum and Minimum Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with ...

Gregory L. Johnson; Jerry M. Davis; Thomas R. Karl; Alan L. McNab; J. Dan Tarpley; Peter Bloomfield

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Inertial measurement unit calibration using Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The robustness of Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering (FIMLOF) for inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration in high-g centrifuge environments is considered. FIMLOF uses an approximate Newton's Method ...

Thompson, Gordon A. (Gordon Alexander)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Wind Mixing and Restratification in a Lake near the Temperature of Maximum Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cooling of a freshwater take provides an opportunity for studying wind mixing and restratification under the peculiar conditions associated with a density maximum. The concepts are explored using a mixing-layer model that incorporates both ...

David M. Farmer; Eddy Carmack

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Tropical Cyclone Genesis Factors in Simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale environmental factors that favor tropical cyclogenesis are calculated and examined in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PMIP2). Despite universally colder ...

Robert L. Korty; Suzana J. Camargo; Joseph Galewsky

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks in a Vertical Energy-Balance Model with Maximum Entropy Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vertically one-dimensional model is developed with cloud fraction constrained by the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. The model reasonably reproduces the global mean climate with its surface temperature, radiation and heat fluxes, ...

Biao Wang; Teruyuki Nakajima; Guangyu Shi

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Energy and Enstrophy Spectra of Geostrophic Turbulent Flows Derived from a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principle of maximum entropy is used to obtain energy and enstrophy spectra as well as average relative vorticity fields in the context of geostrophic turbulence on a rotating sphere. In the unforced-undamped (inviscid) case, the maximization ...

W. T. M. Verkley; Peter Lynch

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that ...

Thomas R. Karl; Richard W. Knight; Kevin P. Gallo; Thomas C. Peterson; Philip D. Jones; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Recent Maximum Temperature Anomalies at Albany, New York: Fact or Fiction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis has been conducted of a suspected daily maximum temperature (DMT) bias introduced by the replacement of the National Weather Service (NWS) HO-63 bygrothermograph with a modernized HO-83 instrument at Albany, New York, on 6 February ...

Ronald W. Kessler; Lance F. Bosart; Robert S. Gaza

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Predicting Daily Maximum Temperatures Using Linear Regression and Eta Geopotential Thickness Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between forecast geopotential thickness and observed maximum temperature is investigated, and regression equations are calculated using numerical model thickness forecasts for Nashville. Model thickness forecast accuracy is shown ...

Darrell R. Massie; Mark A. Rose

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Maximum Intensity of Tropical Cyclones in Axisymmetric Numerical Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An axisymmetric numerical model is used to evaluate the maximum possible intensity of tropical cyclones. As compared with traditionally formulated nonhydrostatic models, this new model has improved mass and energy conservation in saturated ...

George H. Bryan; Richard Rotunno

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Observational Evidence for Reduction of Daily Maximum Temperature by Croplands in the Midwest United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate model simulations have shown that conversion of natural forest vegetation to croplands in the United States cooled climate. The cooling was greater for daily maximum temperature than for daily minimum temperature, resulting in a reduced ...

Gordon B. Bonan

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Estimating Summer Design Temperatures from Daily Maximum Temperatures in New Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many climatological locations report only maximum and minimum temperatures. However, in certain applications, such as estimation of design temperatures, the frequency distribution of hourly temperatures is required. For this reason, a method is ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

A mechanism for explaining the maximum intraseasonal oscillation center over the western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During late boreal summer (July through October), the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) exhibits maximum variability over the western North Pacific (WNP) centered in the South China Sea and Philippine Sea, while many numerical models have difficulty ...

Fei Liu; Bin Wang

224

Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...

Dahl, Kristina Ariel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Tropical Cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum: An Atmosphere–Mixed Layer Ocean Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of tropical temperature to glacial forcing is examined by using an atmosphere–mixed layer ocean (A–MLO) model to simulate the climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) following specifications established by the Paleoclimate ...

Anthony J. Broccoli

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

On the Maximum Exospheric Temperature of Hydrogen-Dominated Planetary Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that under static conditions the maximum temperature attainable in the exospheres of hydrogen-dominated planetary atmospheres is of order 105 K when gravitational separation between hydrogen and other elements has occurred, and 104 K ...

G. P. Horedt

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Recent Trends in Maximum and Minimum Temperature Threshold Exceedences in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the annual number of daily maximum and minimum temperature threshold exceedences between 1951 and 1993 are assessed at a network of 22 primarily rural sites in the northeastern United States. After adjusting the annual time series for ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Wavenumber Analysis of Azimuthally Distributed Data: Assessing Maximum Allowable Gap Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performing wavenumber decomposition on azimuthally distributed data such as those in tropical cyclones can be challenging when data gaps exist in the signal. In the literature, ad hoc approaches are found to determine maximum gap size beyond which ...

Sylvie Lorsolo; Altu? Aksoy

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

An Interactive Method for Estimating Maximum Hailstone Size from Forecast Soundings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic/prognostic sounding analysis package is presented to aid operational forecasters. First, a diagnostic sounding analysis is shown which computes standard thermodynamic parameters while including a scheme to estimate the maximum hail ...

James T. Moore; John P. Pino

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Systematic Biases in Manual Observations of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate that manual observations of daily maximum and minimum temperature are strongly biased toward temperatures ending in certain digits. The nature and severity of these biases are quantified using standard statistical methods. ...

Jon M. Nese

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Performance of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

algorithms for stand- alone photovoltaic systems," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 11 of a maximum power point tracker," in IEEE Photovolatic Specialists Conference, 2008, pp. 1­3. [10] W. Wu, N

Odam, Kofi

232

Optimising maximum power output and minimum entropy generation of Atkinson cycle using mutable smart bees algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is optimising maximum power output (MPO) and minimum entropy generation (MEG) of an Atkinson cycle as a multi-objective constraint thermodynamic problem by a new improved artificial bee colony algorithm which utilises 'mutable ...

Mofid Gorji; Ahmad Mozaffari; Sina Mohammadrezaei Noudeh

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Combining Lagrangian decomposition with an evolutionary algorithm for the knapsack constrained maximum spanning tree problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a Lagrangian decomposition approach for the Knapsack Constrained Maximum Spanning Tree problem yielding upper bounds as well as heuristic solutions. This method is further combined with an evolutionary algorithm to a sequential hybrid approach. ...

Sandro Pirkwieser; Günther R. Raidl; Jakob Puchinger

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

A Method to Estimate Missing Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to estimate missing daily maximum and minimum temperatures is presented. Temperature estimates are based on departures from daily temperature normals at the three closest stations with similar observation times. Although applied to ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Keith L. Eggleston; Warren W. Knapp

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Atlantic Ocean circulation at the last glacial maximum : inferences from data and models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO? ...

Dail, Holly Janine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The Influence of Large-Scale Climate Variability on Winter Maximum Daily Precipitation over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is fitted to winter season daily maximum precipitation over North America, with indices representing El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the North ...

Xuebin Zhang; Jiafeng Wang; Francis W. Zwiers; Pavel Ya Groisman

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

238

Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

239

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Recovery from Mercury Contamination in the Second Songhua River, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K. , & Rubin, J. R. (2005). Mercury levels and relationshipsJ. , et al. (1999). Mercury in contaminated coastalEnvironmental costs of mercury pollution. Science of the

Zhang, Z. S.; Sun, X. J.; Wang, Q. C.; Zheng, D. M.; Zheng, N.; Lv, X. G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cell System Contaminants...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell System Contaminants Material Screening Data NREL designed this interactive material selector tool to help fuel cell developers and material suppliers explore the results...

242

EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site, Sweetwater County, Wyoming EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and...

243

Ellipsometric Measurement of Contamination in an Oil Pumped uhv System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determinations have been made of oil contamination on a surface in an oil pumped uhv system for DC702 and DC705 oil

R. M. Rollason; R. W. Fane; W. E. J. Neal

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

RESRAD Computer Code- Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989.

245

Bioremediation of Diesel Contaminated Soil Using Spent Mushroom Compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting has been shown to be an effective bioremediation technique for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In this research, spent mushroom compost (SMC), a sustainable,… (more)

Eramo, Alessia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Roadsides, contaminated fields could be unlikely solutions to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory considered a new idea: using contaminated and unused land to grow crops for biofuel. Negri and Gopalakrishnan knew that hardy, inedible plants like switchgrass or poplar...

247

The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Institute www.hnei.hawaii.edu The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability Richard Rocheleau Trent Molter William Collins Silvia Wessel Hawaii...

248

T.G. Hinton: Remediation of Radioactively Contaminated Ecosystems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Knox and R. Sharitz. 2005. Phytoremediation potential of native trees in a uranium and thorium contaminated wetland. J. Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chem. 264:417-422. Whicker, F....

249

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

250

2011 Vittorio de Nora Award Winner: Recycling of Contaminated ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Removal of contaminants such as the coat and organic materials- applied for protection and appearance- are the tail that wags the recycling dog. Successful ...

251

Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

252

Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined.

Gmur, N.F.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2008 ... heavy metals was found using factor analysis. Keywords Heavy metals Á Roadside soils Á. Transportation period Á Contamination index Á.

254

Effect of System Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

liquid-based contaminants derived from structural plastics and assembly aid materials (lubricant, grease, adhesive, seal). A minor part of our efforts is focused on an in situ...

255

Conventional methods for removing sulfur and other contaminants...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conventional methods for removing sulfur and other contaminants from syngas typically rely on chemical or physical absorption processes operating at low temperatures. When cooled...

256

NREL: Energy Analysis - Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands Map of U.S. Map of Potential Limbo Land Sites for Consideration for Renewable Energy Technology Development. Enlarge image NREL's...

257

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Change Notice 2 Change Notice 2 with Reaffirmation January 2007 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Page/Section Change

258

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reaffirmation Reaffirmation August 2002 Change Notice 1 December 2004 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Page/Section Change

259

Cleaning oil contaminated beaches with chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Oil-dispersing chemicals were treated for cleaning persistent-type crude oil from experimentally contaminated New Jersey coastal beaches and were found to be generally ineffective. Although they completely cleaned the surface of the oiled sand, they removed little of the total oil. Instead they caused the oil to penetrate more deeply into the underlying sand, thereby compounding the pollution problem by expanding the zone of pollution, complicating any subsequent mechanical removal and, possibly, causing the oil to persist longer. Chemical treatment failed to induce quicksand or cause perceptible erosion of beach sand. A decrease in the cohesiveness of the sand was observed, but this also occurred in the presence of oil alone and could not be attributed to the presence of chemical.

1969-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R&D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved.

Winter, M.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment  

SciTech Connect

At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R&D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage < 10{sup -7} cc/seconds at 2500 psia. The bell jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved.

Winter, M.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Cranbury, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Investigation of contamination bearing algae in the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Recent discussions in the group have given rise to the problem of determining whether the beta contamination found in the Columbia River is carried by the algae which are found in the retention basin. The algae accumulate in the basin and apparently remain there longer than the retained water, and thus may be contaminated to a greater extent than the water itself.

Paas, H.J.

1947-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

264

A transportable fluorescence imagining system for detecting fecal contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feces are the primary source of many pathogenic organisms that can potentially contaminate agricultural commodities. Feces generally contain chlorophyll a and related compounds due to ingestion of plant materials. Fluorescent responses of these compounds ... Keywords: Fecal contamination, Fluorescence, Food safety, Multispectral imaging

Alan M. Lefcourt; Moon S. Kim; Yud-Ren Chen

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Guide for Characterization of Sites Contaminated with Energetic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the remediation of federal facility sites contaminated with explosives or radioactive wastes. EPA/625/R-93 be contaminated by EM: · Firing ranges - Small-arms ranges - Artillery ranges - Anti-tank ranges - Tank/013. EPA Method (1994) Nitroaromatics and nitramines by HPLC. In Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste

266

Toxicology and Risk Assessment for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Toxicology and Risk Assessment references for 3-MCPD (3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol )or process contaminants. Toxicology and Risk Assessment for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs apri

267

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers by Tom Myers Abstract Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential and preferential flow through fractures--could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale

268

Estimating Maximum Droplet Size that can Evaporate to a Respirable Size Droplet  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of slurries and solutions containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools and dissolved contaminants such as cesium. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal.

Schmitt, Bruce E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Ryan, Grant W.

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

269

ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose coefficients for 38 radionuclides based on NCRP Wound Model and ICRP biokinetic models This report is intended to assist health physics and medical staff in more rapidly assessing the potential dosimetric consequences of a contaminated wound. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their uptake into the transfer compartment has been combined with the International Commission on Radiological Protection element-specific systemic models for those radionuclides to derive dose coefficients for intakes via contaminated wounds. Examples are also provided on using the dose coefficients to generate derived reference

270

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments April 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue. DVZ-AFRI conducted a symposium at the annual American Chemical Society meeting on "Understanding Behavior and Fate of Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments." They produced 12 papers that present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments, many of which highlight recent work at the Hanford site. The publications can be accessed here. For more information, contact Skip Chamberlain with the EM's Office of Soil

271

Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this User's Guide is to provide instructors with an overview of the key points covered in the video. The Student Handout portion of this Guide is designed to assist the instructor in reviewing those points with students. The Student Handout should be distributed to students after the video is shown and the instructor should use the Guide to facilitate a discussion on key activities and duties at the scene. PRE-HOSPITAL PRACTICES FOR HANDLING A RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED PATIENT More Documents & Publications Emergency Response to a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient

272

Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT); Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

273

System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Between 1950 and 1970 the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant generated transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste, which was buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste must now be retrieved and sent to a permanent disposal site. During retrieval the main contaminates to be controlled are compounds of plutonium and americium. Since these substances are small sized, and extremely mobile, airborne concentrations must be kept to a minimum to effectively eliminate personnel uptake during retrieval operations. This report describes an invention that relates to a system to control contamination due to TRU airborne particles and was developed consisting of an outer containment building, an inner containment area, a dust suppression system including an electrostatic contaminate capture subsystem, a contamination control system including a moisture control subsystem, a rapid monitoring subsystem, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems.

Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Feldman, E.M.; Scott, D.W.; Mullen, C.K.; Meyer, L.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination.

CONNELL, D.J.

1999-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

275

Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

276

PRE-HOSPITAL PRACTICES FOR HANDLING A RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED PATIENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER Viewing this video and completing the enclosed printed study material do not by themselves provide sufficient skills to safely engage in or perform duties related to emergency response to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. Meeting that goal is beyond the scope of this video and requires either additional specific areas of competency or more hours of training

277

Microcontroller Servomotor for Maximum Effective Power Point for Solar Cell System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper a Maximum Power point (MPP) tracking algorithm is developed using dual-axis servomotor feedback tracking control system. An efficient and accurate servomotor system is used to increase the system efficiency and reduces the solar cell system coast. The proposed automatic servo control system based on PIC microcontroller which is used to control the photovoltaic (PV) modules. This servo system will track the sun rays in order to get MPP during the day using direct radiation. A photo cell is used to sense the direct sun radiation and feedback a signal to the PIC microcontroller, and then the decisions are made through the microcontroller and send a command to the servomotor system to achieve maximum power generation. The proposed system is demonstrated through simulation results. Finally, using the proposed system based on PIC microcontroller, the system will be more efficient, minimum cost, and maximum power transfer is obtained.

Al-Khalidy, M.; Al-Rawi, O.; Noaman, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Spectral Modeling of SNe Ia Near Maximum Light: Probing the Characteristics of Hydro Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed detailed NLTE spectral synthesis modeling of 2 types of 1-D hydro models: the very highly parameterized deflagration model W7, and two delayed detonation models. We find that overall both models do about equally well at fitting well observed SNe Ia near to maximum light. However, the Si II 6150 feature of W7 is systematically too fast, whereas for the delayed detonation models it is also somewhat too fast, but significantly better than that of W7. We find that a parameterized mixed model does the best job of reproducing the Si II 6150 line near maximum light and we study the differences in the models that lead to better fits to normal SNe Ia. We discuss what is required of a hydro model to fit the spectra of observed SNe Ia near maximum light.

E. Baron; S. Bongard; David Branch; Peter H. Hauschildt

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

279

Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation. Research at Rensselaer focused on the development of haloalkane dehalogenase as a critical enzyme in the dehalogenation of contaminated materials (ultimately trichloroethylene and related pollutants). A combination of bioinformatic investigation and experimental work was performed. The bioinformatics was focused on identifying a range of dehalogenase enzymes that could be obtained from the known proteomes of major microorganisms. This work identified several candidate enzymes that could be obtained through relatively straightforward gene cloning and expression approaches. The experimental work focused on the isolation of haloalkane dehalogenase from a Xanthobacter species followed by incorporating the enzyme into silicates to form biocatalytic silicates. These are the precursors of SENs. At the conclusion of the study, dehalogenase was incorporated into SENs, although the loading was low. This work supported a single Ph.D. student (Ms. Philippa Reeder) for two years. The project ended prior to her being able to perform substantive bioinformatics efforts that would identify more promising dehalogenase enzymes. The SEN synthesis, however, was demonstrated to be partially successful with dehalogenases. Further work would provide optimized dehalogenases in SENs for use in pollution remission.

Jonathan S. Dordick; Jay Grate; Jungbae Kim

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Scientific highlights of the Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena (STIP) intervals during the SMY/SMA (Solar Maximum Year/Solar Maximum Analysis)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The STIP Project was instrumental in the coordination of multi-disciplinary ground-and -space-based synoptic observations and analysis of solar/interplanetary events during the period covered by the Solar Maximum Year and Solar Maximum Analysis. Eight STIP Intervals for coordinated studies were conducted during the SMY/SMA period starting with STIP Interval VII (August 1979) and ending with Interval XIV (20 May - 20 July 1982). These results increased our understanding and knowledge of a variety of phenomena including coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their in situ shock wave detections within 1 AU; shock physics; acceleration of particles at variously classified shocks by V x B drift and Fermi mechanisms; magnetic clouds; interplanetary disturbances; x-ray imaging of preflare and flare-generated CMEs, and white light imaging of CMEs during SMY by both spacecraft and ground-based instruments. In addition, scientific progress was made on the tracking of disturbances (initiated by flares, eruptive prominences, and coronal holes) into interplanetary space as well as some of their consequences as observed at 1 AU and throughout the heliosphere.

Dryer, M.; Shea, M.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Applying synchrotron phase measurement to the estimation of maximum beam intensity in the Fermilab Booster  

SciTech Connect

It is important to have experimental methods to estimate the maximum beam intensity for the Fermilab Booster as objective input into long term program commitments. An important existing limit is set by the available rf power. This limit is difficult to set a priori, because the real longitudinal impedance is not well known. The synchrotron phase at transition crossing was measured using both the mountain range plot and the direct phase measurement of the RF accelerating voltage relative to the beam, and results were consistent. They were applied to predict 6 x 10{sup 12} maximum Booster beam intensity with present running conditions.

Xi Yang; James MacLachlan

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

283

What is the maximum rate at which entropy of a string can increase?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to Susskind, a string falling toward a black hole spreads exponentially over the stretched horizon due to repulsive interactions of the string bits. In this paper such a string is modeled as a self-avoiding walk and the string entropy is found. It is shown that the rate at which information/entropy contained in the string spreads is the maximum rate allowed by quantum theory. The maximum rate at which the black hole entropy can increase when a string falls into a black hole is also discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostyantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

ESTIMATES FOR RELEASE OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED CONCRETE AT THE HADDAM NECK NUCLEAR PLANT.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning of the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant operated by Connecticut Yankee is in progress. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the Containment Building and Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) Building. Consideration is being given to leaving some subsurface concrete from the Containment, Spent Fuel and certain other buildings in place following NRC license termination. Characterization data of most of these structures show small amounts of residual contamination. The In-Core Sump area of the Containment Building has shown elevated levels of tritium, Co-60, Fe-55, and Eu-152 and lesser quantities of other radionuclides due to neutron activation of the concrete in this area. This analysis is provided to determine levels of residual contamination that will not cause releases to the groundwater in excess of the acceptable dose limits. The objective is to calculate a conservative relationship between the radionuclide concentration of subsurface concrete and the maximum groundwater concentration (pCi/L) for the concrete that may remain following license termination at Connecticut Yankee.

SULLIVAN, T.

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Transuranic contaminated waste functional definition and implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to examine the problem(s) of TRU waste classification and to document the development of an easy-to-apply standard(s) to determine whether or not this waste package should be emplaced in a geologic repository for final disposition. Transuranic wastes are especially significant because they have long half-lives and some are rather radiotoxic. Transuranic radionuclides are primarily produced by single or multiple neutron capture by U-238 in fuel elements during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Reprocessing of spent fuel elements attempts to remove plutonium, but since the separation is not complete, the resulting high-activity liquids still contain some plutonium as well as other transuranics. Likewise, transuranic contamination of low-activity wastes also occurs when the transuranic materials are handled or processed, which is primarily at federal facilities involved in R and D and nuclear weapons production. Transuranics are persistent in the environment and, as a general rule, are strongly retained by soils. They are not easily transported through most food chains, although some reconcentration does take place in the aquatic food chain. They pose no special biological hazard to humans upon ingestion because they are weakly absorbed from the gastrointestional tract. A greater hazard results from inhalation since they behave like normal dust and fractionate accordingly.

Kniazewycz, B.G.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Assessment of hot gas contaminant control  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Achieving maximum spatial diversity with decouple-and-forward relaying in dual-hop OSTBC transmissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this letter, we prove that decouple-and-forward (DCF) relaying for dual-hop orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) transmissions achieves the maximum diversity order attainable by dual-hop MIMO relaying systems. Decoupling at the relay transforms ... Keywords: OSTBC, decouple-and-forward relaying, diversity order, dual-hop MIMO system, rayleigh fading channels

In-Ho Lee; Dongwoo Kim

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

GenDocSum+MCLR: Generic document summarization based on maximum coverage and less redundancy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rapid growth of information on the Internet and electronic government recently, automatic multi-document summarization has become an important task. Multi-document summarization is an optimization problem requiring simultaneous optimization ... Keywords: Differential evolution algorithm, Generic document summarization, Less redundancy, Maximum coverage, Optimization model

Rasim M. Alguliev; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Makrufa S. Hajirahimova

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum: Influence of Model Horizontal Resolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate at the last glacial maximum (LGM) has been simulated using the U.K. Universities Global Atmospheric Modeling Programme (UGAMP) general circulation model (GCM) truncated at total wavenumbers 21, 42, and 63 (T21, T42, and T63) with ...

Buwen Dong; Paul J. Valdes

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Some further investigation on maximum throughput: does network coding really help?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Network coding has been shown to be the solution that allows to reach the theoretical maximum throughput in a capacitated telecommunication network [1]. It has also been shown to be a very appealing and practical alternative to routing-based approaches ...

Eric Gourdin; Yuhui Wang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Maximum-Likelihood Property of Estimators of Wave Parameters from Heave, Pitch, and Roll Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that ocean-wave spectrum parameters obtained from spectra of time series measured with heave, pitch, and roll data buoys are maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators under certain assumptions about the wave field. A modified set of ML ...

Ingrid K. Glad; Harald E. Krogstad

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Why Is There a Tritium Maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific Thermocline?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is suggested that the tritium maximum in the central Pacific is caused by two water pathways across the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), one from the central Pacific and the other from the Mindanao Current. It is argued that an interior ...

Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Exact algorithms for maximum acyclic subgraph on a superclass of cubic graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding a maximum acyclic subgraph is on the list of problems that seem to be hard to tackle from a parameterized perspective. We develop two quite efficient algorithms (one is exact, the other parameterized) for (1, n)-graphs, a class containing ...

Henning Fernau; Daniel Raible

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Technique to Determine the Radius of Maximum Wind of a Tropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple technique is developed that enables the radius of maximum wind of a tropical cyclone to be estimated from satellite cloud data. It is based on the characteristic cloud and wind structure of the eyewall of a tropical cyclone, after the ...

France Lajoie; Kevin Walsh

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A variable speed wind generator maximum power tracking based on adaptative neuro-fuzzy inference system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power from wind varies depending on the environmental factors. Many methods have been proposed to locate and track the maximum power point (MPPT) of the wind, such as the fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy. In this ... Keywords: ANFIS, MPPT, Power generation, Variable speed wind generator, Wind energy

A. Meharrar; M. Tioursi; M. Hatti; A. Boudghène Stambouli

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Probable Maximum Precipitation Study for Wisconsin and Michigan: Volume 2: Workbook and User's Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study provides maps and supporting information on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for Wisconsin and Michigan. The refinement of PMP for the study area has typically lowered the PMP from the generalized values in Hydrometeorological Report (HMR) 51. The study followed HMR 51 procedures with some minor changes that apply to other regions.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the power comes from a renewable source such a solar cell (photovoltaic, or PV for short) or a windmillMaximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System Younghyun Kim optimization from an energy generation source (e.g., a solar cell array) to an energy storage element (e

Pedram, Massoud

298

Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

converter. II. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL A PV cell can be represented by an equivalentMaximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy "ANFIS availability and vast potential, world has turned to solar photovoltaic energy to meet out its ever increasing

Recanati, Catherine

299

Dynamical Reconstruction of Upper-ocean Conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proxies indicate that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Ocean was marked by increased meridional and zonal near-sea-surface temperature gradients relative to today. Using a least-squares fit of a full general circulation and sea-ice model to ...

Holly Dail; Carl Wunsch

300

Deployment guidelines for achieving maximum lifetime and avoiding energy holes in sensor network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for maximum network lifetime in many mission-critical applications of wireless sensor networks motivates the great significance to deploy as few sensors as possible to achieve the expected network performance. In this paper, we first characterize ... Keywords: Adjustable transmission range, Energy-hole, Network lifetime, Node deployment, Wireless sensor network

Anfeng Liu; Xin Jin; Guohua Cui; Zhigang Chen

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

New Techniques and Data Sources for Probable Maximum Precipitation: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety review of new and existing dams under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) requires evaluation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) at the site of the dam. This report shows how weather radar, satellite data sources, and paleohydrology analysis techniques can improve the estimation of PMP for regions or individual basins.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

New Techniques and Data Sources for Probable Maximum Precipitation: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety review of new and existing dams under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) requires evaluation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) at the site of the dam. This report shows how weather radar, satellite data sources, and paleohydrology analysis techniques can improve the estimation of PMP for regions or individual basins.

1993-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

303

Towards a frequency-dependent discrete maximum principle for the implicit Monte Carlo equations  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that temperature solutions of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations can exceed the external boundary temperatures, a so-called violation of the 'maximum principle.' Previous attempts at prescribing a maximum value of the time-step size {Delta}{sub t} that is sufficient to eliminate these violations have recommended a {Delta}{sub t} that is typically too small to be used in practice and that appeared to be much too conservative when compared to numerical solutions of the IMC equations for practical problems. In this paper, we derive a new estimator for the maximum time-step size that includes the spatial-grid size {Delta}{sub x}. This explicitly demonstrates that the effect of coarsening {Delta}{sub x} is to reduce the limitation on {Delta}{sub t}, which helps explain the overly conservative nature of the earlier, grid-independent results. We demonstrate that our new time-step restriction is a much more accurate means of predicting violations of the maximum principle. We discuss how the implications of the new, grid-dependent timestep restriction can impact IMC solution algorithms.

Wollaber, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Larsen, Edward W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Cosmic Ray Hits in the Central Nervous System at Solar Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that a manned mission to Mars be launched at solar maximum rather than at solar minimum to minimize the radiation exposure to galactic cosmic rays. It is true that the number of hits from highly ionizing particles to critical regions ...

Curtis S. B.; Vazquez M. E.; Wilson J. W.; Kim M.-H. Y.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Maximum power point tracking and optimal Li-ion battery charging control for photovoltaic charging system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the severity of the global energy crisis and environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one kind of important renewable energy source. Solar energy has the advantages of maximum reserve, inexhaustibleness, and is free from ... Keywords: Genetic algorithms (GA), Photovoltaic (PV), Variable Step Size Incremental Conductance method

Her-Terng Yau; Qin-Cheng Liang; Chin-Tsung Hsieh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Bayesian Changepoint Analysis of the Annual Maximum of Daily and Subdaily Precipitation over South Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian changepoint analysis is applied to detect a change point in the 30-year (1976–2005) time series of the area-averaged annual maximum precipitation (A3MP) for the six accumulated time periods (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) over South Korea. ...

Chansoo Kim; Myoung-Seok Suh; Ki-Ok Hong

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Review article: Achieving maximum reliability in fault tolerant network design for variable networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to present a novel method to achieve maximum reliability for fault tolerant optimal network design when network has variable size. Reliability calculation is most important and critical component when fault tolerant optimal ... Keywords: Fault tolerant optimal design, Fixed and varying link reliability, Maximizing reliability, Neural networks, Variable network size

B. Kaushik, N. Kaur, A. K. Kohli

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR on geomagnetic activity, quantified by the maximum hourly Dst and tri-hourly ap indices, in a period of 3 days after the shock, are evaluated. Correlations between shock parameters and Dst and ap geomagnetic indices

309

Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities , V.B. Yurchyshyn1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities A. Kilcik1 , V.B. Yurchyshyn1 maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN) and the geomagnetic indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activity. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because

310

Impact of Aligning Climatological Day on Gridding Daily Maximum–Minimum Temperature and Precipitation over Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 1 July 1961, the climatological day was redefined to end at 0600 UTC at all principal climate stations in Canada. Prior to that, the climatological day at principal stations ended at 1200 UTC for maximum temperature and precipitation and 0000 ...

Ron F. Hopkinson; Daniel W. McKenney; Ewa J. Milewska; Michael F. Hutchinson; Pia Papadopol; Lucie A. Vincent

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song Intelligent sources of alternative energy. The construction of wind farms is destined to grow in the U.S., possibly twenty-fold by the year 2030. To maximize the wind energy capture, this paper presents a model for wind

Kusiak, Andrew

312

Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

313

Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background  

SciTech Connect

The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite`s t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set).

Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Numerical maximum likelihood estimation for the g-and-k and generalized g-and-h distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuing increases in computing power and availability mean that many maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) problems previously thought intractable or too computationally difficult can now be tackled numerically. However, ML parameter estimation for ... Keywords: g-and-k distribution, generalized g-and-h distribution, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), numerical maximum likelihood estimation (NMLE), quantile distributions

G. D. Rayner; H. L. MacGillivray

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study  

SciTech Connect

Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE standards. However, concentration were still above the levels measured in data centers that do not use economizers (3) Current filtration in data centers is minimal (ASHRAE 40%) since most air is typically recycled. When using economizers, modest improvements in filtration (ASHRAE 85%) can reduce particle concentrations to nearly match the level found in data centers that do not use economizers. The extra cost associated with improve filters was not determined in this study. (4) Humidity was consistent and within the ASHRAE recommended levels for all data centers without economizers. Results show that, while slightly less steady, humidity in data centers with economizers can also be controlled within the ASHRAE recommended levels. However, this control of humidity reduces energy savings by limiting the hours the economizer vents are open. (5) The potential energy savings from economizer use has been measured in one data center. When economizers were active, mechanical cooling power dropped by approximately 30%. Annual savings at this center is estimated within the range of 60-80 MWh/year, representing approximately a 5% savings off the mechanical energy load of the data center. Incoming temperatures and humidity at this data center were conservative relative to the ASHRAE acceptable temperature and humidity ranges. Greater savings may be available if higher temperature humidity levels in the data center area were permitted. The average particle concentrations measured at each of the eight data center locations are shown in Table 1. The data centers ranged in size from approximately 5,000 ft{sup 2} to 20,000 ft{sup 2}. The indoor concentrations and humidity in Table 1 represents measurements taken at the server rack. Temperature measurements at the server rack consistently fell between 65-70 F. The Findings section contains a discussion of the individual findings from each center. Data centers currently operate under very low contamination levels. Economizers can be expected to increase the particle concentration in data centers, but the increase appears to still be

Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

316

Mercury Contamination in the Northeastern United States: Science-Based Decision Making About Fish Consumption .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mercury contamination poses a known threat to human health, yet the degree of contamination and resulting human exposure remains unknown in many regions. Assessments of… (more)

Shayler, Hannah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

A Comparison of Popular Remedial Technologies for Petroleum Contaminated Soils from Leaking Underground Storage Tanks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1992. Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. BocaApplied Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Columbus:Eve. 1998. Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils. Boca

Kujat, Jonathon D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater July 15, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE (509) 376-4171 Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov Tania Reyes, CHPRC (509) 373-6828 Tania_Reyes@rl.gov Department of Energy goal for fiscal year 2013 met early Note: Photos and graphics are available for downloading on our website link: http://ow.ly/mO5cT RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has exceeded this year's goal for treating 1.4 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Washington state. "In the last few years, DOE built three new groundwater treatment facilities, and now we are seeing the results," said Briant Charboneau,

319

Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S, and Flegal AR 2008. Mercury in the San Francisco Estuary.may 2010 Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in Sancontaminants such as ele- mental mercury and cyanide used in

Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people.

Jannik, G.T.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

Clark, E.A.

1995-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

322

Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at 331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site, Sweetwater County, Wyoming EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site, Sweetwater County, Wyoming SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal for the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Test Site remediation that would be performed at the Rock Springs site in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 31, 2000 EA-1331: Finding of No Significant Impact Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site July 31, 2000 EA-1331: Final Environmental Assessment

324

Categorical Exclusion for Pinnacle Peak Substation PCB contaminated Electrical  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion for Pinnacle Peak Substation PCB contaminated Electrical Equipment Removal Project located north of Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION A. Proposed Action: Western proposes drain and dispose of PCB contaminated oil from two bushings, and decontaminate one· bushing and rack, break apart PCB contaminated concrete and excavate PCB contaminated soil at Pinnacle Peak Substation. Western will be use existing access roads and vehicles such as cranes, backhoes, dozers, bucket trucks, crew trucks and pickup trucks to bring personnel and equipment to the work area. This work is necessary to maintain the safety and reliability of the bulk electrical system. The project is located in Maricopa County, Arizona. The attached map shows the

325

NETL: Gasification Systems - Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Project Number: DE-SC00008243 TDA Research, Inc. is developing a high-capacity, low-cost sorbent that removes anhydrous ammonia (NH3), mercury (Hg), and trace contaminants from coal- and coal/biomass-derived syngas. The clean-up system will be used after the bulk warm gas sulfur removal step, and remove NH3 and Hg in a regenerable manner while irreversibly capturing all other trace metals (e.g., Arsenic, Selenium) reducing their concentrations to sub parts per million (ppm) levels. Current project plans include identifying optimum chemical composition and structure that provide the best sorbent performance for removing trace contaminants, determining the effect of operating parameters, conducting multiple-cycle experiments to test the life of the sorbent for NH3 and Hg removal, and conducting a preliminary design of the sorbent reactor.

326

Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater July 15, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE (509) 376-4171 Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov Tania Reyes, CHPRC (509) 373-6828 Tania_Reyes@rl.gov Department of Energy goal for fiscal year 2013 met early Note: Photos and graphics are available for downloading on our website link: http://ow.ly/mO5cT RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has exceeded this year's goal for treating 1.4 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Washington state. "In the last few years, DOE built three new groundwater treatment facilities, and now we are seeing the results," said Briant Charboneau,

327

EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located 99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications Summary This EA was being prepared to evaluate potential environmental impacts of a proposal to dispose of nickel scrap that is volumetrically contaminated with radioactive materials and that DOE recovered from equipment it had used in uranium enrichment. This EA is on hold. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities at this time.

328

Groundwater Contamination and Treatment at Department of Energy Sites – 2008  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this document is to provide DOE Program/Project Managers, upper management, and other interested parties with a snapshot in time of the status of major groundwater contamination and...

329

Groundwater Contamination and Treatment at Department of Energy Sites – 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document provides DOE Program/Project Managers, senior management, and other interested parties with a snapshot in time of the status of major groundwater contamination and remedial approaches...

330

Presentations and Papers on Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentations and papers 3-MCPD EFL, ILSI World Conference on Oilseed Processing, Fats & Oils Processing, Biofuels & Applications Presentations and Papers on Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid anal

331

Influence of Ground Clutter Contamination on Polarimetric Radar Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of ground clutter contamination on the estimation of polarimetric radar parameters, horizontal reflectivity (Zh), differential reflectivity (Zdr), correlation coefficient (?h?), and differential propagation phase (dp) was examined. ...

Katja Friedrich; Urs Germann; Pierre Tabary

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may 2010 Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in SanCA 94025 Abstract The hydraulic gold-mining process usedsediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra

Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Rapid and Robust Detection Methods for Poison and Microbial Contamination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for ...

Lu, Peter J.

334

Mechanisms of metal release from contaminated coastal sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fate of trace metals in contaminated coastal sediments is poorly understood, yet critical for effective coastal management. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and quantify the mechanisms leading to the release ...

Kalnejais, Linda H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Contaminant Fate and Transport in North America: From Emission...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contaminant Fate and Transport in North America: From Emission to Human Exposure Speaker(s): Mathew MacLeod Date: March 1, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of...

336

Effect of water contamination on aging of hydraulic oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A. Rozenberg, Influence of Lubricating Oils on Reliability and Life of ... Oil samples were contaminated with water by mixing with 0.I, 0.5 ... The reserve of antioxi-.

337

Groundwater Contamination and Treatment at Department of Energy Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this document is to provide DOE Program/Project Managers, upper management, and other interested parties with a snapshot in time of the status of major groundwater contamination and...

338

Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Fuzzy one-class classification model using contamination neighborhoods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuzzy classification model is studied in the paper. It is based on the contaminated (robust) model which produces fuzzy expected risk measures characterizing classification errors. Optimal classification parameters of the models are derived by minimizing ...

Lev V. Utkin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision analysis (DDA) (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). This new model includes the uncertainty in the three-dimensional spatial distribution of lithology and hydraulic conductivity from the 1999 model as well as the uncertainty in the other flow and transport parameters from the 2000 DDA model. Additionally, the new model focuses on a much smaller region than was included in the earlier models, that is, the subsurface within the UC-1 land withdrawal area where the 1999 model predicted radionuclide transport will occur over the next 1,000 years. The purpose of this unclassified document is to present the modifications to the CNTA groundwater flow and transport model, to present the methodology used to calculate contaminant boundaries, and to present the Safe Drinking Water Act and risk-derived contaminant boundaries for the Faultless underground nuclear test CAU.

Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

Menkhaus, Daniel E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Loomis, Guy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mullen, Carlan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Scott, Donald W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Feldman, Edgar M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meyer, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

A multilayer groundwater sampler for characterizing contaminant plumes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report describes activities related to the design and initial demonstration of a passive multilayer groundwater sampling system. The apparatus consists of remotely controlled cylinders filled with deionized water which are connected in tandem. Vertical fine structure of contaminants are easily defined. Using the apparatus in several wells may lead to three dimensional depictions of groundwater contamination, thereby providing the information necessary for site characterization and remediation.

Kaplan, E.; Heiser, J.

1992-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

343

A multilayer groundwater sampler for characterizing contaminant plumes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes activities related to the design and initial demonstration of a passive multilayer groundwater sampling system. The apparatus consists of remotely controlled cylinders filled with deionized water which are connected in tandem. Vertical fine structure of contaminants are easily defined. Using the apparatus in several wells may lead to three dimensional depictions of groundwater contamination, thereby providing the information necessary for site characterization and remediation.

Kaplan, E.; Heiser, J.

1992-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

344

Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Handbook of Remedial Alternatives for MGP Sites with Contaminated Sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated sediment management is a rapidly developing and maturing field of environmental engineering, with an expansive set of publicly available documents in the scientific and engineering literature. This Handbook of Remedial Alternatives for MGP Sites with Contaminated Sediments provides a compendium of the state-of-the-practice from the literature, and augments it with practical case-study experience from the field. It is intended to provide MGP site-managers with a single source document for eva...

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

346

System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

Enhancement of maximum attainable ion energy in the radiation pressure acceleration regime using a guiding structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Pressure Acceleration relies on high intensity laser pulse interacting with solid target to obtain high maximum energy, quasimonoenergetic ion beams. Either extremely high power laser pulses or tight focusing of laser radiation is required. The latter would lead to the appearance of the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the laser group velocity and is highly influenced by the transverse expansion of the target. Ion acceleration is only possible with target velocities less than the group velocity of the laser. The transverse expansion of the target makes it transparent for radiation, thus reducing the effectiveness of acceleration. Utilization of an external guiding structure for the accelerating laser pulse may provide a way of compensating for the group velocity and transverse expansion effects.

Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Global convergence of diluted iterations in maximum-likelihood quantum tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present an inexact stepsize selection for the Diluted R\\rho R algorithm, used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate to the density matrix in quantum state tomography. We give a new interpretation for the diluted R\\rho R iterations that allows us to prove the global convergence under weaker assumptions. Thus, we propose a new algorithm which is globally convergent and suitable for practical implementation.

D. S. Gonçalves; M. A. Gomes-Ruggiero; C. Lavor

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

349

ccsd-00016436,version1-4Jan2006 Maximum pseudo-likelihood estimator for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

point processes By Jean-Michel Billiot1 , Jean-Fran¸cois Coeurjolly1,2 and R´emy Drouilhet1 Labsad. 2 Corresponding author 1 #12;2 J.-M. Billiot, J.-F. Coeurjolly and R. Drouilhet Abstract This paper the effectiveness of maximum #12;4 J.-M. Billiot, J.-F. Coeurjolly and R. Drouilhet pseudo-likelihood estimator. 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Maximum pseudolikelihood estimator for exponential family models of marked Gibbs point processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the estimation of a vector $\\bm {\\theta}$ parametrizing an energy function of a Gibbs point process, via the maximum pseudolikelihood method. Strong consistency and asymptotic normality results of this estimator depending on a single realization are presented. In the framework of exponential family models, sufficient conditions are expressed in terms of the local energy function and are verified on a wide variety of examples.

Billiot, Jean-Michel; Drouilhet, Rémy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Kinetics of Cd Release from Some Contaminated Calcareous Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils with heavy metals may pose long-term risk to groundwater quality leading to health implications. Bioavailability of heavy metals, like cadmium (Cd) is strongly affected by sorption and desorption processes. The release of heavy metals from contaminated soils is a major contamination risks to natural waters. The release of Cd from contaminated soils is strongly influenced by its mobility and bioavailability. In this study, the kinetics of Cd desorption from ten samples of contaminated calcareous soils, with widely varying physicochemical properties, were studied using 0.01 M EDTA extraction. The median percentage of Cd released was about 27.7% of the total extractable Cd in the soils. The release of Cd was characterized by an initial fast release rate (of labile fractions) followed by a slower release rate (of less labile fractions) and a model of two first-order reactions adequately describes the observed release of Cd from the studied soil samples. There was positive correlation between the amount of Cd released at first phase of release and Cd in exchangeable fraction, indicating that this fraction of Cd is the main fraction controlling the Cd in the kinetic experiments. There was strongly negative correlation between the amount of Cd released at first and second phases of release and residual fraction, suggesting that this fraction did not contribute in Cd release in the kinetic experiments. The results can be used to provide information for evaluation of Cd potential toxicity and ecological risk from contaminated calcareous soils.

Sajadi Tabar, S.; Jalali, M., E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Management of Contaminated Autologous Grafts in Plastic Surgery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: Contamination of autologous grafts unfortunately occurs in plastic surgery, but the literature provides no guidance for management of such incidents. Methods: American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery members were asked to complete an online survey that asked about the number and causes of graft contaminations experienced, how surgeons dealt with the problem, the clinical outcomes, and patient disclosure. Results: Nineteen hundred surgeons were asked to participate in the survey, and 223 responded. Of these, 70 % had experienced at least 1 graft contamination incident, with 26 % experiencing 4 or more. The most frequently reported reason for graft contamination was a graft falling on the floor (reported by 75%). Nearly two thirds of the contaminated grafts related to craniofacial procedures. Ninety-four percent of grafts were managed with decontamination and completion of the operation. The most common method of decontamination was washing with povidone-iodine, but this practice is contrary to recommendations in the literature. Only 3 surgeons (1.9%) said a clinical infection developed following decontaminated graft use. Patients were not informed in 60 % of graft contamination incidents. The survey results and review of the literature led

Robert F. Centeno; A Ankit R. Desai; Marla E. Watson; Ma C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Bioaugmentation of TNT-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial transformation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in phics. contaminated soil was investigated in this research. A Bacillus sp., isolated from soil obtained from an army ammunition facility, was used to enhance the rate of TNT removal over a 360 day test period. The soil treatments in this study included: (1) the Bacillus sp., (2) the existing indigenous microorganisms, and (3) a sterile control. The disappearance of TNT, as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was compared to the reduction in mutagenic activity of hexane:acetone solvent extracts, as measured in the Salmonella/microsome assay with the histidine requiring TA98 tester strain. The results indicated a similar TNT removal rate in all three treatments. The TNT in the microbial treatments started at approximately 47[]13 mg g[] soil. By day 360, this concentration was reduced to 28[]10 mg g soil in the Bacillus sp the indigenous microbial treatment. The sterile control treatment and 26[]8 mg g[] which was reduced to 22[]2 started with a day 0 TNT concentration of 31[]6 mg g [] day 360. This represented a disappearance of between 30-40% of the g [] y original TNT in all three treatments. The reduction in mutagenicity, as indicated by weighted activity calculations, differed between the microbial treatments and the sterile control. A 50-60% reduction was observed in the microbial treatments. In the boxes treated with the addition of the Bacillus sp. the weighted activity at a dose of 16 :g/plate started at 49[]13 net revenants per microgram solvent extract on microgram after 360 days. The solvent extracts from soil treated with indigenous microorganisms went from a weighted activity of 47[]15 net revenants per microgram on day 0 to 17[]5 on day 360. The sterile control did not reduce mutagenicity by any appreciable amount. The day 0 weighted activity was measured to be 44[]11 net revenants per microgram solvent extract and on day 360 it was 50[]1 . The TNT concentrations in the sterile control samples were lowest throughout the study however, the mutagenicity was highest.

Bokelmann, Annamarie

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant  

SciTech Connect

The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal devise (RDD). Concern for weapon proliferation by rogue nation states from the byproduct production of yellowcake is an unlikely scenario. To extract the fissile U-235 (0.07%) isotope from the yellowcake (99.3%) requires the erection of a costly major gaseous diffusion or a cascading centrifuge facility. Such a facility would be extremely difficult to mask. Therefore, from a diminished security risk and positive economic and environmental viewpoints, the utilization of a phosphoric acid beneficiation process extracting uranium is desirable. (authors)

LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, Texas (United States); Gibbs, S.G. [U. T. Houston School of Public Health, El Paso, Texas (United States); Winston, J.W. [Medical Physicist, Radiological Physics, Inc., El Paso, Texas (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Texas Water Resources: Vulnerability from Contaminants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical models of flow and transport are commonly applied for the sustainable management of water resources and for the selection of appropriate remediation techniques. However, these numerical models are not always accurate due to uncertain parameters and the disparity of scales across which observations are made, hydrological processes occur, and modeling is conducted. The modeling framework becomes further complex because hydrologic processes are coupled with chemical and biological processes. This dissertation focuses on the most widespread contaminants of surface and ground water, which are E. coli and nitrate, respectively. Therefore, this research investigates the linkages between bio-chemical and hydrologic processes for E. coli transport, explores the spatio-temporal variability of nitrate, quantifies uncertainty, and develops models for both E. coli and nitrate transport that better characterize these biogeochemical linkages. A probabilistic framework in the form of Bayesian Neural Networks (BNN) was used to estimate E. coli loads in surface streams and was compared with a conventional model LOADEST. This probabilistic framework is crucial when water quality data are scarce, and most models require a large number of mechanistic parameters to estimate E. coli concentrations. Results indicate that BNN provides better characterization of E. coli at higher loadings. Results also provide the physical, chemical, and biological factors that are critical in the estimation of E. coli concentrations in Plum Creek, Texas. To explore model parameters that control the transport of E. coli in the groundwater (GW) and surface water systems, research was conducted in Lake Granbury, Texas. Results highlight the importance of flow regimes and seasonal variability on E. coli transport. To explore the spatio-temporal variability of nitrate across the Trinity and Ogallala aquifers in Texas, an entropy-based method and a numerical study were employed. Results indicate that the overall mean nitrate-N has declined from 1940 to 2008 in the Trinity Aquifer as opposed to an increase in the Ogallala Aquifer. The numerical study results demonstrate the effect of different factors like GW pumping, flow parameters, hydrogeology of the site at multiple spatial scales. To quantify the uncertainty of nitrate transport in GW, an ensemble Kalman filter was used in combination with the MODFLOW-MT3DMS models. Results indicate that the EnKF notably improves the estimation of nitrate-N concentrations in GW. A conceptual modeling framework with deterministic physical processes and stochastic bio-chemical processes was devised to independently model E. coli and nitrate transport in the subsurface. Results indicate that model structural uncertainty provides useful insights to modeling E. coli and nitrate transport.

Dwivedi, Dipankar

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2000 0 0 62 63 59 63 58 61 59 63 62 65 2001 61 61 63 65 64 60 58 56 54 58 59 58 2002 54 57 54 50 51 50 52 50 56 57 50 43 2003 40 41 41 40 38 39 41 43 39 39 38 42 2004 43 45 45 45 44 49 48 49 48 48 49 50 2005 52 53 51 50 55 57 54 55 56 57 57 58 2006 55 57 59 58 58 57 66 62 63 64 65 64 2007 63 63 68 71 70 69 69 71 73 77 79 75 2008 76 77 75 72 73 73 72 72 NA 77 72 73 2009 75 76 72 70 65 60 61 60 60 63 62 63 2010 64 65 63 66 67 67 67 65 64 62 62 62

357

THE FIRST MAXIMUM-LIGHT ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the first maximum-light ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared (NIR) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectrum. This spectrum of SN 2011iv was obtained nearly simultaneously by the Hubble Space Telescope at UV/optical wavelengths and the Magellan Baade telescope at NIR wavelengths. These data provide the opportunity to examine the entire maximum-light SN Ia spectral energy distribution. Since the UV region of an SN Ia spectrum is extremely sensitive to the composition of the outer layers of the explosion, which are transparent at longer wavelengths, this unprecedented spectrum can provide strong constraints on the composition of the SN ejecta, and similarly the SN explosion and progenitor system. SN 2011iv is spectroscopically normal, but has a relatively fast decline ({Delta}m{sub 15}(B) = 1.69 {+-} 0.05 mag). We compare SN 2011iv to other SNe Ia with UV spectra near maximum light and examine trends between UV spectral properties, light-curve shape, and ejecta velocity. We tentatively find that SNe with similar light-curve shapes but different ejecta velocities have similar UV spectra, while those with similar ejecta velocities but different light-curve shapes have very different UV spectra. Through a comparison with explosion models, we find that both a solar-metallicity W7 and a zero-metallicity delayed-detonation model provide a reasonable fit to the spectrum of SN 2011iv from the UV to the NIR.

Foley, Ryan J.; Marion, G. Howie; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Berta, Zachory K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kromer, Markus; Taubenberger, Stefan; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Roepke, Friedrich K.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, Franco; Seitenzahl, Ivo R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia I. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Simcoe, Robert A., E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664D Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Hybrid energy storage systems based on compressed air and supercapacitors with maximum efficiency point tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system based on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), where the charging and discharging is done within maximum efficiency conditions. As the maximum efficiency conditions impose the level of converted power, an intermittent time-modulated operation mode is applied to the thermodynamic converter to obtain a variable converted power. A smoothly variable output power is achieved with the help of a supercapacitive auxiliary storage device used as a filter. The paper describes the concept of the system, the power-electronic interface circuits and especially the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) algorithm and the strategy used to vary the output power. In addition, the paper will present the characteristics of a high efficiency storage device where the pure pneumatic machine is replaced by an oil-hydraulics and pneumatics converter, used under isothermal conditions. Practical results are also presented, recorded from a low-power pneumatic motor coupled to a small DC generator, as well as from a first prototype of the final hydraulic/pneumatic system.

Sylvain Lemofouet; Alfred Rufer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Maximum Neutral Buoyancy Depth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon: Implications for Survival during Hydroturbine Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the maximum depth at which juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha can acclimate by attaining neutral buoyancy. Depth of neutral buoyancy is dependent upon the volume of gas within the swim bladder, which greatly influences the occurrence of injuries to fish passing through hydroturbines. We used two methods to obtain maximum swim bladder volumes that were transformed into depth estimations - the increased excess mass test (IEMT) and the swim bladder rupture test (SBRT). In the IEMT, weights were surgically added to the fishes exterior, requiring the fish to increase swim bladder volume in order to remain neutrally buoyant. SBRT entailed removing and artificially increasing swim bladder volume through decompression. From these tests, we estimate the maximum acclimation depth for juvenile Chinook salmon is a median of 6.7m (range = 4.6-11.6 m). These findings have important implications to survival estimates, studies using tags, hydropower operations, and survival of juvenile salmon that pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those found within the Columbia and Snake River hydropower system.

Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

A novel maximum power point tracker for PV panels using switching frequency modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A novel technique for efficiently extracting maximum power from photovoltaic (PV) panels is presented. The power conversion stage, which is connected between a PV panel and a load or bus, is a SEPIC or Cuk converter or their derived circuits operating in discontinuous inductor–current or capacitor–voltage mode. Method of locating the maximum power point (MPP) is based on injecting a small-signal sinusoidal perturbation into the switching frequency and comparing the ac component and the average value of the panel terminal voltage. Apart from not requiring any sophisticated digital computation of the panel power, the proposed technique does not approximate the panel characteristics and can globally locate the MPP under wide insolation conditions. The tracking capability has been verified experimentally with a 10 W solar panel under a controlled experimental setup. Performances under the steady state and in the large-signal change of the insolation level will be given. Index Terms—DC–DC power conversion, maximum-powerpoint tracking, photovoltaic. I.

K. K. Tse; M. T. Ho; Student Member; Henry S. -h. Chung; S. Y. (ron Hui; Senior Member

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that <0.5 ppm sulfur can be achieved. Removal of HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

363

SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys  

SciTech Connect

The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot's motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot's motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs.

Dudar, E.; Teese, G.; Wagner, D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys  

SciTech Connect

The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot`s motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot`s motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs.

Dudar, E.; Teese, G.; Wagner, D.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Straw Compost and Bioremediated Soil as Inocula for the Bioremediation of Chlorophenol-Contaminated Soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Straw compost and bioremediated soil as inocula for the bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated soil.

M M Laine; K S Jorgensen; M. Minna; Laine; Kirsten S. Jørgensen

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability.

Dinh, H.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

367

Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado

368

Challenges of the Global Water Shortage: Contamination of Water Resources by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISPOSAL GEOGENIC CONTAMINANTS #12;Sources: Mining and smelting Anaconda smelter BP-ARCO repository Clark

Mark, Pinsky

369

Potential Impacts of Leakage from Black Rock Reservoir on the Hanford Site Unconfined Aquifer: Initial Hypothetical Simulations of Flow and Contaminant Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial scoping calculations of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site were carried out for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) to investigate the potential impacts on the Hanford unconfined aquifer that would result from leakage from the proposed Black Rock Reservoir to the west. Although impacts on groundwater flow and contaminant transport were quantified based on numerical simulation results, the investigation represented a qualitative assessment of the potential lateral recharge that could result in adverse effects on the aquifer. Because the magnitude of the potential leakage is unknown, hypothetical bounding calculations were performed. When a quantitative analysis of the magnitude of the potential recharge from Black Rock Reservoir is obtained, the hydrologic impacts analysis will be revisited. The analysis presented in this report represents initial bounding calculations. A maximum lateral recharge (i.e., upland flux) was determined in the first part of this study by executing steady-state flow simulations that raised the water table no higher than the elevation attained in the Central Plateau during the Hanford operational period. This metric was selected because it assumed a maximum remobilization of contaminants that existed under previous fully saturated conditions. Three steady-state flow fields were then used to analyze impacts to transient contaminant transport: a maximum recharge (27,000 acre-ft/yr), a no additional flux (365 acre-ft/yr), and an intermediate recharge case (16,000 acre-ft/yr). The transport behavior of four radionuclides was assessed for a 300 year simulation period with the three flow fields. The four radionuclides are tritium, iodine-129, technetium-99, and uranium-238. Transient flow and transport simulations were used to establish hypothetical concentration distributions in the subsurface. Using the simulated concentration distributions in 2005 as initial conditions for steady-state flow runs, simulations were executed to investigate the relative effects on contaminant transport from the increased upland fluxes. Contaminant plumes were analyzed for 1) peak concentrations and arrival times at downstream points of compliance, 2) the area of the aquifer contaminated at or above the drinking water standard (DWS), and 3) the total activity remaining in the domain at the end of the simulation. In addition to this analysis, unit source release simulations from a hypothetical tracer were executed to determine relative travel times from the Central Plateau. The results of this study showed that increases in the lateral recharge had limited impact on regional flow directions but accelerated contaminant transport. Although contaminant concentrations may have initially increased for the more mobile contaminants (tritium, technetium-99, and iodine-129), the accelerated transport caused dilution and a more rapid decline in concentrations relative to the Base Case (no additional flux). For the low-mobility uranium-238, higher lateral recharge caused increases in concentration, but these concentrations never approached the DWS. In this preliminary investigation, contaminant concentrations did not exceed the DWS study metric. With the increases in upland fluxes, more mass was transported out of the aquifer, and concentrations were diluted with respect to the base case where no additional flux was considered.

Freedman, Vicky L.

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a result of severe cattle grazing along riparian areas and deltas. Groundwater and springs also feed the lake, and are likely critical for oxygen supply during winter stratification. During the winter of 1991, Henrys Lake experienced low dissolved oxygen levels resulting in large fish kills. It is thought that thick ice cover combined with an increase in nutrient loads created conditions resulting in poor water quality. The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, DEQ is currently conducting a study to determine the water quality of Henrys Lake, the sources contributing to its deterioration, and potential remedial actions to correct problem areas.

John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

MAXIMUM CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEED AS AN INDICATOR OF SOLAR AND GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the relationship between the monthly averaged maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN), and the geomagnetic Dst and Ap indices covering the 1996-2008 time interval (solar cycle 23). Our new findings are as follows. (1) There is a noteworthy relationship between monthly averaged maximum CME speeds and sunspot numbers, Ap and Dst indices. Various peculiarities in the monthly Dst index are correlated better with the fine structures in the CME speed profile than that in the ISSN data. (2) Unlike the sunspot numbers, the CME speed index does not exhibit a double peak maximum. Instead, the CME speed profile peaks during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Similar to the Ap index, both CME speed and the Dst indices lag behind the sunspot numbers by several months. (3) The CME number shows a double peak similar to that seen in the sunspot numbers. The CME occurrence rate remained very high even near the minimum of the solar cycle 23, when both the sunspot number and the CME average maximum speed were reaching their minimum values. (4) A well-defined peak of the Ap index between 2002 May and 2004 August was co-temporal with the excess of the mid-latitude coronal holes during solar cycle 23. The above findings suggest that the CME speed index may be a useful indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activities. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because it better reflects the intensity of Earth-directed solar eruptions.

Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Gopalswamy, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ozguc, A. [Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, 34684 Istanbul (Turkey); Rozelot, J. P. [Nice University, OCA-Fizeau Dpt. Av. Copernic, 06130 Grasse (France)

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

The maximum time interval of time-lapse photography for monitoring construction operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many construction companies today utilize webcams on their jobsites to monitor and record construction operations. Jobsite monitoring is often limited to outdoor construction operations due to lack of mobility of wired webcams. A wireless webcam may help monitor indoor construction operations with enhanced mobility. The transfer time of sending a photograph from the wireless webcam, however, is slower than that of a wired webcam. It is expected that professionals may have to analyze indoor construction operations with longer interval time-lapse photographs if they want to use a wireless webcam. This research aimed to determine the maximum time interval for time-lapse photos that enables professionals to interpret construction operations and productivity. In order to accomplish the research goal, brickwork of five different construction sites was videotaped. Various interval time-lapse photographs were generated from each video. Worker?s activity in these photographs was examined and graded. The grades in one-second interval photographs were compared with the grades of the same in longer time interval photographs. Error rates in observing longer time-lapse photographs were then obtained and analyzed to find the maximum time interval of time-lapse photography for monitoring construction operations. Research has discovered that the observation error rate increased rapidly until the 60-second interval and its increasing ratio remained constant. This finding can be used to predict a reasonable amount of error rate when observing time-lapse photographs less than 60-second interval. The observation error rate with longer than 60-second interval did not show a constant trend. Thus, the 60-second interval could be considered as the maximum time interval for professionals to interpret construction operations and productivity.

Choi, Ji Won

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

DOE P 310.1 Admin Chg 1, Maximum Entry and Mandatory Separation Ages for Certain Security Employees  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The policy establishes the DOE policy on maximum entry and mandatory separation ages for primary or secondary positions covered under special statutory ...

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

374

The maximum energy dissipation principle and phenomenological cooperative and collective effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The collective phenomena in physics and cooperative phenomena in biology/chemistry is compared in terms of the variational description. The maximum energy dissipation principle is employed and the cost-like functional is chosen according to an optimal control based formulation (Moroz, 2008; Moroz, 2009). Using this approach, the variational outline has been considered for non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. The differences between the application of the proposed approach to the description of cooperative phenomena in chemical/biochemical kinetics and the Landau free energy approach to collective phenomena in physics have been investigated.

Moroz, Adam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Schuler, C.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

Driver, C.J.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overall objective of this project was to develop a technology platform for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system at elevated temperatures (500-1,000 F) and gasifier pressures to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants, including H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCl, Hg, and As. This technology development effort involved progressive development and testing of sorbent/catalytic materials and associated processes through laboratory, bench, pilot, and demonstration testing phases, coupled with a comprehensive systems analysis at various stages of development. The development of the regenerable RTI-3 desulfurization sorbent - a highly attrition-resistant, supported ZnO-based material - was the key discovery in this project. RTI-3's high attrition resistance, coupled with its high reactivity, effectively allowed its application in a high-velocity transport reactor system. Production of the RTI-3 sorbent was successfully scaled up to an 8,000-lb batch by Sued-Chemie. In October 2005, RTI obtained U.S Patent 6,951,635 to protect the RTI-3 sorbent technology and won the 2004 R&D 100 Award for development of this material. The RTI-3 sorbent formed the basis for the development of the High-Temperature Desulfurization System (HTDS), a dual-loop transport reactor system for removing the reduced sulfur species from syngas. An 83-foot-tall, pilot HTDS unit was constructed and commissioned first at ChevronTexaco's gasification site and later at Eastman's gasification plant. At Eastman, the HTDS technology was successfully operated with coal-derived syngas for a total of 3,017 hrs over a 12-month period and consistently reduced the sulfur level to <10 ppmv. The sorbent attrition rate averaged {approx}31 lb/MM lb of circulation. To complement the HTDS technology, which extracts the sulfur from syngas as SO{sub 2}, RTI developed the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP, operating at high pressure and high temperature, uses a small slipstream of syngas to catalytically reduce the SO{sub 2} produced in the warm syngas desulfurization process to elemental sulfur. To demonstrate this process at Eastman, RTI constructed and commissioned a skid-mounted pilot DSRP unit. During its 117-h operation, the DSRP system achieved 90% to 98% removal of the inlet sulfur. The DSRP catalyst proved very robust, demonstrating consistent reaction rates in multiple experiments over a 3-year period. Sorbent materials for removing trace NH{sub 3}, Hg, and As impurities from syngas at high temperature and high pressure were developed and tested with real syngas. A Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} sorbent for removal of CO{sub 2} from syngas at high temperature was also developed and tested. The Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} material demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} removal, but its regeneration was found to be technically challenging. Additionally, reverse-selective polymer membrane materials were investigated for the bulk removal of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from syngas. These materials exhibited adequate separation at ambient conditions for these acid gases. Field testing of these membrane modules with real syngas demonstrated potential use for acid-gas separation from syngas. The HTDS/DSRP technologies are estimated to have a significant economic advantage over conventional gas cleanup technologies such as Selexol{trademark} and Rectisol. From a number of system studies, use of HTDS/DSRP is expected to give a 2-3 percentage point increase in the overall IGCC thermal efficiency and a significant reduction in capital cost. Thus, there is significant economic incentive for adaptation of these warm gas cleanup technologies due to significantly increased thermal efficiency and reduction in capital and operating costs. RTI and Eastman are currently in discussions with a number of companies to commercialize this technology.

B. S. Turk; R. P. Gupta; S. Gangwal; L. G. Toy; J. R. Albritton; G. Henningsen; P. Presler-Jur; J. Trembly

2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

379

Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 10.0 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + A Alden Large Flume + 0.0 + Alden Wave Basin + 1.0 + C Chase Tow Tank + 3.1 + Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility + 2.3 + Coastal Inlet Model Facility + 2.3 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 4.0 + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + 3.0 + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + 3.0 +

380

THE RISE AND FALL OF OPEN SOLAR FLUX DURING THE CURRENT GRAND SOLAR MAXIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use geomagnetic activity data to study the rise and fall over the past century of the solar wind flow speed V{sub SW}, the interplanetary magnetic field strength B, and the open solar flux F {sub S}. Our estimates include allowance for the kinematic effect of longitudinal structure in the solar wind flow speed. As well as solar cycle variations, all three parameters show a long-term rise during the first half of the 20th century followed by peaks around 1955 and 1986 and then a recent decline. Cosmogenic isotope data reveal that this constitutes a grand maximum of solar activity which began in 1920, using the definition that such grand maxima are when 25-year averages of the heliospheric modulation potential exceeds 600 MV. Extrapolating the linear declines seen in all three parameters since 1985, yields predictions that the grand maximum will end in the years 2013, 2014, or 2027 using V{sub SW}, F{sub S}, or B, respectively. These estimates are consistent with predictions based on the probability distribution of the durations of past grand solar maxima seen in cosmogenic isotope data. The data contradict any suggestions of a floor to the open solar flux: we show that the solar minimum open solar flux, kinematically corrected to allow for the excess flux effect, has halved over the past two solar cycles.

Lockwood, M.; Rouillard, A. P. [Space Environment Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton University, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Finch, I. D. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mike.lockwood@stfc.ac.uk

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The correlation of 27 day period solar activity and daily maximum temperature in continental Australia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the first observation of a 27 day period component in daily maximum temperature recorded at widely spaced locations in Australia. The 27 day component, extracted by band pass filtering, is correlated with the variation of daily solar radio flux during years close to solar minimum. We demonstrate that the correlation is related to the emergence of regions of solar activity on the Sun separated, temporally, from the emergence of other active regions. In this situation, which occurs only near solar minimum, the observed 27 day variation of temperature can be in phase or out of phase with the 27 day variation of solar activity. During solar maximum correlation of temperature and solar activity is much less defined. The amplitude of the 27 day temperature response to solar activity is large, at times as high as 6 degrees C, and much larger than the well documented temperature response to the 11 year cycle of solar activity. We demonstrate that the 27 day temperature response is localised to the Australia...

Edmonds, Ian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

RESRAD Computer Code - Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deployed Deployed Widely Used and Maintained Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division - RESRAD Program RESRAD codes are used at more than 300 sites since its first release in 1989. Page 1 of 2 Argonne National Laboratory Multiple States & Sites Illinois RESRAD Computer Code - Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites Challenge The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989. The RESRAD code has been updated since then to improve the models within the codes, to operate on new computer platforms, to use new state of science radiation dose and risk factors, and to calculate cleanup criteria ("Authorized Limits") for radioactively contaminated sites. A series of similar codes have been developed to address radiation dose, risk, and cleanup criteria

383

In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

384

Radiological Worker Training - Radiological Contamination Control for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B B December 2008 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL WORKER TRAINING RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE Radiological Worker Training Appendix B Radiological Contamination Control for Laboratory Research DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ . Radiological Worker Training Appendix B Radiological Contamination Control for Laboratory Research DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 iii Foreword This Handbook describes a recommended implementation process for core training as outlined in

385

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

386

Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development Max H. Sherman, Erin L. Hult * Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 90R3083, Berkeley, CA 94720-8133, USA h i g h l i g h t s < A lumped parameter model is applied to describe emission and storage buffering of contaminants. < Model is used to assess impact of ventilation on indoor formaldehyde exposure. < Observations of depletion of stored contaminants can be described by model. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8 November 2012 Received in revised form 7 February 2013 Accepted 11 February 2013 Keywords: Buffering capacity Formaldehyde Moisture a b s t r a c t A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde

387

Impacts of Contaminant Storage on Indoor Air Quality: Model Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impacts of Contaminant Storage on Indoor Air Impacts of Contaminant Storage on Indoor Air Quality: Model Development Max H. Sherman and Erin L. Hult Environmental Energy Technologies Division January 2013 In Press as Sherman, M.H., Hult, E.L. 2013. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development. Atmospheric Environment. LBNL-6114E 2 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

388

Particulate Contamination Within Fusion Devices and Complex (Dusty) Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, dust particulate contamination has increasingly become an area of concern within the fusion research community. In a burning plasma machine design like the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), dust contamination presents problems for diagnostic integration and may contribute to tritium safety issues. Additionally due to ITER design, such dust contamination problems are projected to become of even greater concern due to dust/wall interactions and possible instabilities created within the plasma by such particulates. Since the dynamics of such dust can in general be explained employing a combination of the ion drag, Coulomb force, and ion pre-sheath drifts, recent research in complex (dusty) plasma physics often offers unique insights for this research area. This paper will discuss the possibility of how experimental observations of the dust and plasma parameters within a GEC rf Reference Cell might be employed to diagnose conditions within fusion reactors, hopefully pr...

Creel, J; Kong, J; Hyde, Truell W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Evaluation of Recent Trailer Contamination and Supersack Integrity Issues  

SciTech Connect

During the period from fiscal year (FY) 2009 to FY 2011, there were a total of 21 incidents involving radioactively contaminated shipment trailers and 9 contaminated waste packages received at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). During this time period, the EnergySolutions (ES) Clive, Utah, disposal facility had a total of 18 similar incidents involving trailer and package contamination issues. As a result of the increased occurrence of such incidents, DOE Environmental Management Headquarters (EM/HQ) Waste Management organization (EM-30) requested that the Energy Facility Contractors’ Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) conduct a detailed review of these incidents and report back to EM-30 regarding the results of this review, including providing any recommendations formulated as a result of the evaluation of current site practices involving handling and management of radioactive material and waste shipments.

Gordon, S.

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

Lithographic performance evaluation of a contaminated EUV mask after cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface contamination and subsequent mask surface cleaning on the lithographic performance of a EUV mask is investigated. SEMATECH's Berkeley micro-field exposure tool (MET) printed 40 nm and 50 nm line and space (L/S) patterns are evaluated to compare the performance of a contaminated and cleaned mask to an uncontaminated mask. Since the two EUV masks have distinct absorber architectures, optical imaging models and aerial image calculations were completed to determine any expected differences in performance. Measured and calculated Bossung curves, process windows, and exposure latitudes for the two sets of L/S patterns are compared to determine how the contamination and cleaning impacts the lithographic performance of EUV masks. The observed differences in mask performance are shown to be insignificant, indicating that the cleaning process did not appreciably affect mask performance.

George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Dittmar, Kornelia; Holfeld, Christian; Wuest, Andrea

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

391

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

392

Roadsides, contaminated fields could be unlikely solutions to fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Roadsides, contaminated fields could be unlikely solutions to fuel Roadsides, contaminated fields could be unlikely solutions to fuel shortages, water pollution By Louise Lerner * August 11, 2009 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - The lonely, weed-choked roadsides along America's highways may turn out to be an unexpected solution to two of the biggest issues facing the U.S. today-potential fuel shortages and water pollution. In a new study, environmental scientists Cristina Negri and Gayathri Gopalakrishnan of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory considered a new idea: using contaminated and unused land to grow crops for biofuel. Negri and Gopalakrishnan knew that hardy, inedible plants like switchgrass or poplar trees grow quickly and need far less attention than conventional biofuel crops like corn-and it turns out they may also purify water and

393

Categorical Exclusion 4596: High Contamination Area (HCA) Cleanup Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Detennination Form Detennination Form PropQsed Action Tit!~: High Contamination Area (HCA) C!e;;Jnup Project (4596) Pro~ram or Field Offif.s: Y-12 Site OffiCe Locmion(s) (City/CountvLState): Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee Prot?Oscd Action Description: PAGE 02/04 l,:·:~:.s:~.t?)fuiW6v:: ~ 4fB~ir:::8~1 The proposed action is to disposition the materiels and equipment stored in a radiological high contamination area (HCA). This area is paved and fenced with no roof or shelter. Tile HCA was used as an accumulation area for rad contaminated materials and equipment from operations. Categorical Exclusion(s) Avoli!¢l: 81.3- ~outine maintenance For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulnti011s regaruing categorical exclusions, including the full text of each

394

The exact distribution of the maximum, minimum and the range of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exact distribution of the maximum and minimum frequencies of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric distributions of n balls in m urns is compactly represented as a product of stochastic matrices. This representation ... Keywords: Dirichlet multinomial, Multinomial maximum, minimum, range, Multinomial outliers, inliers, Multivariate hypergeometric, Stochastic matrix

Charles J. Corrado

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

6.25 KHZ -MAXIMUM SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY The demand for wireless connectivity is increasing. Emerging technologies create  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6.25 KHZ - MAXIMUM SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY The demand for wireless connectivity is increasing. Emerging technologies create applications that require instant information. Wireless SCADA solutions demand RF channels is ready today to utilize the existing spectrum for maximum efficiency. Until now, 6.25 kHz bandwidth

Allen, Gale

396

Disposal barriers that release contaminants only by molecular diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineered barriers can slow the movement of pollutants out of land disposal facilities in several ways. If the advective velocity is low, release will be primarily by molecular diffusion. Attenuation processes also work to slow the transport of many contaminants. Barriers that cause pollutants to be released almost entirely by molecular diffusion represent the best barriers achievable. Use of thick barrier materials will maximize the breakthrough time of contaminants that diffuse through the barrier. Thin barriers with exceedingly low permeabilities will not necessarily outperform thicker, more permeable liners. In fact, if diffusion is the dominant mechanism of release, the thicker, more permeable barrier may actually outperform the thinner barrier with lower permeability.

Daniel, D.E.; Shackelford, C.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation & decommissioning (D&D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination) instead of focusing on long-term cleanup requirements. An acknowledgement of the long timeframe for complete restoration and the need for long-term management can also help a site transition from the process of pilot testing different remedial strategies to selecting a final remedy and establishing a long-term management and monitoring approach. This approach has led to cost savings and the more efficient use of resources across the Department of Defense complex and at numerous industrial sites across the U.S. Defensible end states provide numerous benefits for the DOE environmental remediation programs including cost-effective, sustainable long-term monitoring strategies, remediation and site transition decision support, and long-term management of closure sites.

Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

398

Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

Miller Julianne J.,Mizell Steve A.,Nikolich George,Campbell Scott A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

400

Models for estimating saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes models for saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections. The effects of queue interaction between these two intersections are taken into account in both models. The saturation flow model is based on the Prosser-Dunne model. The presence of queues in the inter-signal link causes a reduction in saturation flow and capacity. The analytical model on which the methodology is based assumes that upstream movements discharge at their normal saturation flow rate or arrival flow rate until the downstream queue extends back to the upstream intersection and blocking occurs. The model calculates the capacities of movements at the upstream intersection as a reduced effective green period. The model can be used to estimate capacities at paired intersections with multiple upstream and downstream green periods. The results from the model are compared with TRAF-NETSIM simulation results. The results of this comparison show that the model predicts throughput better when movements at the upstream intersection (for which throughput are being calculated) are oversaturated. This thesis recommends that the capacity of movements be calculated using the reduced effective green period rather than the reduced saturation flow. The second model developed as a part of this research predicts the maximum demand at the downstream intersection. The through movement at the upstream intersection is assumed to be oversaturated and cross street movements are not considered. The analysis shows that either the upstream capacity, downstream capacity or storage capacity becomes critical and influences the maximum demand depending on the different combinations of upstream and downstream green and storage spacing considered. The demand from the models is used as input to the 1994 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) delay equation and the delay compared with that simulated by TRAF-NETSIM for various cases. The comparison shows that the models developed predict values that compare favorably with results from TRAF NETSIM. It is recommended that the models be used to compute the upper bound for the HCM delay equation for the cases analyzed.

Nanduri, Sreelata

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program. Estimating contaminant losses from components of remediation alternatives for contaminated sediments. Report for March 1991-April 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial and municipal point-source discharges and nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and urban areas over many years have contaminated bottom sediments in the rivers, harbors, and nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. Areas in the Great Lakes that remain seriously impaired have been designated as areas of concern (AOCs) under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1988).

Myers, T.E.; Averette, D.E.; Olin, T.J.; Palermo, M.R.; Reible, D.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Maximum relative excitation of a specific vibrational mode via optimum laser-pulse duration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For molecules and materials responding to femtosecond-scale optical laser pulses, we predict maximum relative excitation of a Raman-active vibrational mode with period T when the pulse has a full-width-at-halfmaximum duration tau approximate to 0.42T. This result follows from a general analytical model, and is precisely confirmed by detailed density-functional-based dynamical simulations for C(60) and a carbon nanotube, which include anharmonicity, nonlinearity, no assumptions about the polarizability tensor, and no averaging over rapid oscillations within the pulse. The mode specificity is, of course, best at low temperature and for pulses that are electronically off-resonance, and the energy deposited in any mode is proportional to the fourth power of the electric field.

Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Zhibin; Jiang, Chenwei; Gao, Meng; Allen, Roland E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Analysis of Cyclic Maximum Pressure and Peak Pressure Angle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.

G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker

2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

404

A maximum-entropy approach to the adiabatic freezing of a supercooled liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I employ the van der Waals theory of Baus and coworkers to analyze the fast, adiabatic decay of a supercooled liquid in a closed vessel with which the solidification process usually starts. By imposing a further constraint on either the system volume or pressure, I use the maximum-entropy method to quantify the fraction of liquid that is transformed into solid as a function of undercooling and of the amount of a foreign gas that could possibly be also present in the test tube. Upon looking at the implications of thermal and mechanical insulation for the energy cost of forming a solid droplet within the liquid, I identify one situation where the onset of solidification inevitably occurs near the wall in contact with the bath.

Santi Prestipino

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

ULTRASONIC IMAGING USING A FLEXIBLE ARRAY: IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MAXIMUM CONTRAST AUTOFOCUS ALGORITHM  

SciTech Connect

In previous work, we have presented the maximum contrast autofocus algorithm for estimating unknown imaging parameters, e.g., for imaging through complicated surfaces using a flexible ultrasonic array. This paper details recent improvements to the algorithm. The algorithm operates by maximizing the image contrast metric with respect to the imaging parameters. For a flexible array, the relative positions of the array elements are parameterized using a cubic spline function and the spline control points are estimated by iterative maximisation of the image contrast via simulated annealing. The resultant spline gives an estimate of the array geometry and the profile of the surface that it has conformed to, allowing the generation of a well-focused image. A pre-processing step is introduced to obtain an initial estimate of the array geometry, reducing the time taken for the algorithm to convergence. Experimental results are demonstrated using a flexible array prototype.

Hunter, A. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol (United Kingdom)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

406

Analytical expressions for maximum wind turbine average power in a Rayleigh wind regime  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Average or expectation values for annual power of a wind turbine in a Rayleigh wind regime are calculated and plotted as a function of cut-out wind speed. This wind speed is expressed in multiples of the annual average wind speed at the turbine installation site. To provide a common basis for comparison of all real and imagined turbines, the Rayleigh-Betz wind machine is postulated. This machine is an ideal wind machine operating with the ideal Betz power coefficient of 0.593 in a Rayleigh probability wind regime. All other average annual powers are expressed in fractions of that power. Cases considered include: (1) an ideal machine with finite power and finite cutout speed, (2) real machines operating in variable speed mode at their maximum power coefficient, and (3) real machines operating at constant speed.

Carlin, P.W.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Online Robot Dead Reckoning Localization Using Maximum Relative Entropy Optimization With Model Constraints  

SciTech Connect

The principle of Maximum relative Entropy optimization was analyzed for dead reckoning localization of a rigid body when observation data of two attached accelerometers was collected. Model constraints were derived from the relationships between the sensors. The experiment's results confirmed that accelerometers each axis' noise can be successfully filtered utilizing dependency between channels and the dependency between time series data. Dependency between channels was used for a priori calculation, and a posteriori distribution was derived utilizing dependency between time series data. There was revisited data of autocalibration experiment by removing the initial assumption that instantaneous rotation axis of a rigid body was known. Performance results confirmed that such an approach could be used for online dead reckoning localization.

Urniezius, Renaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

408

Targeted search for continuous gravitational waves: Bayesian versus maximum-likelihood statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the Bayesian framework for detection of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the context of targeted searches, where the phase evolution of the GW signal is assumed to be known, while the four amplitude parameters are unknown. We show that the orthodox maximum-likelihood statistic (known as F-statistic) can be rediscovered as a Bayes factor with an unphysical prior in amplitude parameter space. We introduce an alternative detection statistic ("B-statistic") using the Bayes factor with a more natural amplitude prior, namely an isotropic probability distribution for the orientation of GW sources. Monte-Carlo simulations of targeted searches show that the resulting Bayesian B-statistic is more powerful in the Neyman-Pearson sense (i.e. has a higher expected detection probability at equal false-alarm probability) than the frequentist F-statistic.

Reinhard Prix; Badri Krishnan

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Targeted search for continuous gravitational waves: Bayesian versus maximum-likelihood statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the Bayesian framework for detection of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the context of targeted searches, where the phase evolution of the GW signal is assumed to be known, while the four amplitude parameters are unknown. We show that the orthodox maximum-likelihood statistic (known as F-statistic) can be rediscovered as a Bayes factor with an unphysical prior in amplitude parameter space. We introduce an alternative detection statistic ("B-statistic") using the Bayes factor with a more natural amplitude prior, namely an isotropic probability distribution for the orientation of GW sources. Monte-Carlo simulations of targeted searches show that the resulting Bayesian B-statistic is more powerful in the Neyman-Pearson sense (i.e. has a higher expected detection probability at equal false-alarm probability) than the frequentist F-statistic.

Prix, Reinhard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

High?resolution x?ray microscopy using an undulator source, photoelectron studies with MAXIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the first results of high?spatial resolution x?ray imaging studies with an upgraded version of the scanning photoemission multiple application x?ray imaging undulator microscope. The microscope is a multilayercoated Schwarzschild objective that focuses undulator radiation onto the sample. The recent upgrade improved the spatial resolution by a factor six reaching a full width at half maximum value of 0.5 ?m. Highly polished mirrors reduced the diffuse background by almost two orders of magnitude and drastically improved the contrast. The improved microscope was used to perform a series of tests on microgrids and reverse Fresnel zone plates. The microscope capability to detect chemical and topological contrast was verified by using patterned metal overlayers on Si and GaAs substrates. Further improvements to increase the flux and the spatial resolution are underway; this includes the installation of a new undulator beamline.

C. Capasso; A. K. Ray?Chaudhuri; W. Ng; S. Liang; R. K. Cole; J. Wallace; F. Cerrina; G. Margaritondo; J. H. Underwood; J. B. Kortright; R. C. C. Perera

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

A. Vaudrey; P. Baucour; F. Lanzetta; R. Glises

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

412

Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

Vaudrey, A; Lanzetta, F; Glises, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Application of the Maximum Entropy Method to the (2 + 1)d Four-Fermion Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate spectral functions extracted using the Maximum Entropy Method from correlators measured in lattice simulations of the (2+1)-dimensional four-fermion model. This model is particularly interesting because it has both a chirally broken phase with a rich spectrum of mesonic bound states and a symmetric phase where there are only resonances. In the broken phase we study the elementary fermion, pion, sigma, and massive pseudoscalar meson; our results confirm the Goldstone nature of the ? and permit an estimate of the meson binding energy. We have, however, seen no signal of ? ? ?? decay as the chiral limit is approached. In the symmetric phase we observe a resonance of non-zero width in qualitative agreement with analytic expectations; in addition the ultra-violet behaviour of the spectral functions is consistent with the large non-perturbative anomalous dimension for fermion composite operators expected in this model. 1 1

C. R. Allton A; J. E. Clowser A; J. B. Kogut C; C. G. Strouthos A

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Jaynes' Maximum Entropy Principle, Riemannian Metrics and Generalised Least Action Bound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The set of solutions inferred by the generic maximum entropy (MaxEnt) or maximum relative entropy (MaxREnt) principles of Jaynes - considered as a function of the moment constraints or their conjugate Lagrangian multipliers - is endowed with a Riemannian geometric description, based on the second differential tensor of the entropy or its Legendre transform (negative Massieu function). The analysis provides a generalised {\\it least action bound} applicable to all Jaynesian systems, which provides a lower bound to the cost (in generic entropy units) of a transition between inferred positions along a specified path, at specified rates of change of the control parameters. The analysis therefore extends the concepts of "finite time thermodynamics" to the generic Jaynes domain, providing a link between purely static (stationary) inferred positions of a system, and dynamic transitions between these positions (as a function of time or some other coordinate). If the path is unspecified, the analysis gives an absolute lower bound for the cost of the transition, corresponding to the geodesic of the Riemannian hypersurface. The analysis is applied to (i) an equilibrium thermodynamic system subject to mean internal energy and volume constraints, and (ii) a flow system at steady state, subject to constraints on the mean heat, mass and momentum fluxes and chemical reaction rates. The first example recovers the {\\it minimum entropy cost} of a transition between equilibrium positions, a widely used result of finite-time thermodynamics. The second example leads to a new {\\it minimum entropy production principle}, for the cost of a transition between steady state positions of a flow system.

Robert K. Niven; Bjarne Andresen

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

415

Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

Thomas, L.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

MADmap: A Massively Parallel Maximum-Likelihood Cosmic Microwave Background Map-Maker  

SciTech Connect

MADmap is a software application used to produce maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap is already being run on up to O(1011) time samples, O(108) pixels and O(104) cores, with ongoing work to scale to the next generation of data sets and supercomputers. We describe MADmap's algorithm based around a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver, fast Fourier transforms and sparse matrix operations. We highlight MADmap's ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets and describe its application to simulations of the Planck and EBEX experiments. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analysing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available, and we argue that, given Moore's Law, MADmap will be capable of reducing the most massive projected data sets.

Cantalupo, Christopher; Borrill, Julian; Jaffe, Andrew; Kisner, Theodore; Stompor, Radoslaw

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

417

A Tool For Assessing Contamination Risk in Wellhead Protection Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Facility siting and operation restrictions aimed at groundwater protection can potentially affect a wide range of industrial activities located in or near designated Wellhead Protection Areas (WHPAs). This study provides a simple tool -- EPRI's Health Standard Exceedance (HSE) index -- for assessing the potential groundwater contamination risk associated with organic compounds in a WHPA.

2000-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

Methodology Formation Mitigation of Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3-MCPD (3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol )Methodology,Formation,and Mitigation reference papers. Methodology Formation Mitigation of Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles cert

419

Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

THE RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RECOVERY OF CONTAMINATED AREAS  

SciTech Connect

The Civil Effects Test Operation Exercise CEX-57.1 following Operation Plumbbob was carried out to obtain information on decontamination procedures that could be used as radiological countermeasures. The test was conducted on D + 1 and D + 2 days after shot Coulomb C. Data were obtained on reclamation of land areas by scraping with a motorgrader, on fire-hosing and scrubbing a concrete- slab roof, and on fire-hosing a composition roof. In addition, some shielding data were obtained for a small building with 6-in.-thick concrete walls and roof. The conceptual nature of a radiological defense system and the role of decontamination or reclamation in such a system are discussed. Most of the report deals with methods for reducing the observed data to interpretive form because the data were taken within a large contaminated area. The decontamination effectiveness in terms of the fraction of contamination remaining was computed. It is concluded that low levels of contamination at the Nevada Test Site could be utilized to advantage to obtain data on gamma -radiation properties, such as the effects of materials and source geometries on the attenuation of fission-product gamma rays. However, higher levels of fall-out in terms of the fall-out particle mass, are required to obtain useful information and training on decontamination techniques; therefore the use of low levels of contamination to conduct studies in this area is not recommended. (auth)

Miller, C.F.

1958-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Identification of 300 Area Contaminants of Potential Concern for Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the process used to identify source area contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) in support of the 300 Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan. This report also establishes the exclusion criteria applicable for 300 Area use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the COPCs.

R.W. Ovink

2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

423

EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL  

SciTech Connect

Soils contaminated with radionuclides are an environmental concern at most Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Clean up efforts at many of these sites are ongoing using conventional remediation techniques. These remediation techniques are often expensive and may not achieve desired soil volume reduction. Several studies using alternative remediation techniques have been performed on plutonium-contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site. Results to date exhibit less than encouraging results, but these processes were often not fully optimized, and other approaches are possible. Clemson University and teaming partner Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the National Environmental Technologies Laboratory, are assisting the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in re-evaluating technologies that have the potential of reducing the volume of plutonium contaminated soil. This efforts includes (1) a through literature review and summary of (a) NTS soil characterization and (b) volume reduction treatment technologies applied to plutonium-contaminated NTS soils, (2) an interactive workshop for vendors, representatives from DOE sites and end-users, and (3) bench scale demonstration of applicable vendor technologies at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory.

Hoeffner, S. L.; Navratil, J. D.; Torrao, G.; Smalley, R.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

424

Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Performance of Maximum Likelihood Estimators of Mean Power and Doppler Velocity with A Priori Knowledge of Spectral Width  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of mean velocity and signal power for Doppler radar and Doppler lidar, assuming known signal spectral width, is presented. The results are compared with the theoretical limit of the Cramer–...

Rod Frehlich

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

A Comparative Study of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures over Argentina: NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis versus Station Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares surface-station temperature observations over Argentina with gridpoint analyses available in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset. The primary objective is to determine whether the maximum and minimum surface temperatures from the ...

Matilde M. Rusticucci; Vernon E. Kousky

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Dependence of Extreme Daily Maximum Temperatures on Antecedent Soil Moisture in the Contiguous United States during Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents an analysis of the dependence of summertime daily maximum temperature on antecedent soil moisture using daily surface observations from a selection of stations in the contiguous United States and daily time series of soil ...

Imke Durre; John M. Wallace; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Meteorological Patterns Associated with Maximum 3-Hour Average Concentrations Predicted by the CRSTER Model for a Tall Stack Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional meteorological patterns associated with maximum 3-hour average concentrations predicted by the U.S. EPA CRSTER model for emissions from a tall stack were examined for a limited sample. Causes of predicted peaks were the movements of weak ...

Paul N. Derezotes

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A Satellite Method to Identify Structural Properties of Mesoscale Convective Systems Based on the Maximum Spatial Correlation Tracking Technique (MASCOTTE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple, fully automated, and efficient method to determine the structural properties and evolution (tracking) of cloud shields of convective systems (CS) is described. The method, which is based on the maximum spatial correlation tracking ...

Leila M. V. Carvalho; Charles Jones

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Spatial Interpolation of Daily Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature Based on Meteorological Model Analyses and Independent Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly meteorological forecast model initializations are used to guide the spatial interpolation of daily cooperative network station data in the northeastern United States. The hourly model data are transformed to daily maximum and minimum ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Brian N. Belcher

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

A Numerical Study on the Atmospheric Circulation over the Midlatitude North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the atmospheric circulation change over the midlatitude North Pacific under the boundary conditions during the last glacial maximum (LGM) have been studied by atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with different ocean ...

Wataru Yanase; Ayako Abe-Ouchi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

A Southeastern South American Daily Gridded Dataset of Observed Surface Minimum and Maximum Temperature for 1961–2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents a southeastern South American gridded dataset of daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures for 1961–2000. The data used for the gridding are observed daily data from meteorological stations in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and ...

Bárbara Tencer; Matilde Rusticucci; Phil Jones; David Lister

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

An Eddy Parameterization Based on Maximum Entropy Production with Application to Modeling of the Arctic Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An eddy parameterization derived from statistical mechanics of potential vorticity is applied for inviscid shallow-water equations. The solution of a variational problem based on the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle provides, with some ...

Igor Polyakov

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas adopted in its residential building energy code a maximum 0.40 solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration (e.g., windows, glazed doors and skylights)-a critical driver of cooling energy use, comfort and peak demand. An analysis of the expected costs and benefits of low solar heat gain glazing, and specifically the SHGC requirement in the new Texas Residential Building Energy Code,1 shows that the 0.40 SHGC requirement is ideal for Texas and that the benefits far outweigh the expected costs. For consumers, the requirement will increase comfort and reduce their cost of home ownership. The anticipated public benefits are also substantial - the result of full implementation can be expected to: 1) Reduce cumulative statewide cooling energy use over ten years by 15 billion kWh; 2) Reduce cumulative statewide electric peak demand over ten years by over 1200 MW; 3) Result in cooling cost savings of more than a billion dollars; and 4) Reduce cumulative statewide key air pollutants.

Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Maximum Reasonable Radioxenon Releases from Medical Isotope Production Facilities and Their Effect on Monitoring Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

Fission gases such as 133Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of 99Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Saey, et al., 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5×109 Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Saey, Paul R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the impact of instrumental systematic errors in interferometric measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra. We simulate interferometric CMB observations to generate mock visibilities and estimate power spectra using the statistically optimal maximum likelihood technique. We define a quadratic error measure to determine allowable levels of systematic error that does not induce power spectrum errors beyond a given tolerance. As an example, in this study we focus on differential pointing errors. The effects of other systematics can be simulated by this pipeline in a straightforward manner. We find that, in order to accurately recover the underlying B-modes for r = 0.01 at 28 < l < 384, Gaussian-distributed pointing errors must be controlled to 0. Degree-Sign 7 root mean square for an interferometer with an antenna configuration similar to QUBIC, in agreement with analytical estimates. Only the statistical uncertainty for 28 < l < 88 would be changed at {approx}10% level. With the same instrumental configuration, we find that the pointing errors would slightly bias the 2{sigma} upper limit of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by {approx}10%. We also show that the impact of pointing errors on the TB and EB measurements is negligibly small.

Zhang Le; Timbie, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sutter, Paul M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, 1110 W Green Street, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bunn, Emory F., E-mail: lzhang263@wisc.edu [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 235, 8088 (2001) doi:10.1006/jcis.2000.7249, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of adsorption envelopes, electrophoretic mobility (EM) measurements, and X-ray absorp- tion spectroscopy (XAS Key Words: arsenic; -Al2O3; adsorption mechanisms; XAS; elec- trophoretic mobility; oxide the maximum concentration level (MCL) for total As in drinking water from 50 to 5 ppb. This new MCL 1 To whom

Sparks, Donald L.

438

Metagenomic and Cultivation-Based Analysis of Novel Microorganisms and Functions in Metal-Contaminated Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uranium and vanadium-contaminated site, the Old Rifle Mill in Rifle, Colorado, USA. From these enrichments

Yelton, Alexis Pepper

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

440

Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening Process and Results Srinandini Parthasarathy, Thomas E. McKone, Michael G. Apte Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor Environment Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 April 29, 2111 Prepared for the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Energy Related Environmental Research Program Legal Notice The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a national laboratory of the DOE managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract Number DE-AC02- 05CH11231. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Sponsor and pursuant to an M&O Contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Argonne cleans contaminated Kansas site by feeding bacteria | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne cleans contaminated Kansas site by feeding bacteria Argonne cleans contaminated Kansas site by feeding bacteria By Jared Sagoff * October 8, 2010 Tweet EmailPrint When cleaning the bathroom, we usually consider bacteria the enemy. However, a new study conducted by environmental scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has demonstrated a way to enlist bacteria in the fight to cleanse some of the country's most intractably polluted locations. Last year, a team of Argonne scientists led by Lorraine LaFreniere injected iron microparticles underneath fields long-polluted with carbon tetrachloride near Centralia, Kansas. The researchers coated the microparticles with organic material, which served as bait for bacteria that created the conditions necessary to safely convert the toxic chemical

442

Undergraduate Research at Jefferson Lab - Analysis of Contamination Levels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compton Scattering Chamber Compton Scattering Chamber Previous Project (Compton Scattering Chamber) Undergraduate Research Main Index Next Project (Non-linear Multidimensional Optimization) Non-linear Multidimensional Optimization Analysis of Contamination Levels of Jefferson Laboratory SRF Clean Room Facilities during Power Outage Using FE-SEM/EDX Studies of Copper Coupons Student: Kaitlyn M. Fields School: College of William and Mary Mentored By: Ari D. Palczewski and Charles E. Reece Superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerating cavities at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility support high surface electric and magnetic fields with minimal energy dissipation and resistance. The performance of these cavities can be limited by particulate contamination, which can become a source of enhanced field emission. Clean cavity assembly

443

In Situ Biological Uranium Remediation within a Highly Contaminated Aquifer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Situ Biological Uranium Remediation In Situ Biological Uranium Remediation within a Highly Contaminated Aquifer Matthew Ginder-Vogel1, Wei-Min Wu1, Jack Carley2, Phillip Jardine2, Scott Fendorf1 and Craig Criddle1 1Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Microbial Respiration Figure 1. Uranium(VI) reduction is driven by microbial respiration resulting in the precipitation of uraninite. Uranium contamination of ground and surface waters has been detected at numerous sites throughout the world, including agricultural evaporation ponds (1), U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons manufacturing areas, and mine tailings sites (2). In oxygen-containing groundwater, uranium is generally found in the hexavalent oxidation state (3,4), which is a relatively soluble chemical form. As U(VI) is transported through

444

Reductive dissolution approaches to removal of uranium from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Traditional approaches to uranium recovery from ores have employed oxidation of U(IV) minerals to form the uranyl cation which is subsequently complexed by carbonate or maintained in solution by strong acids. Reductive approaches for uranium decontamination have been limited to removing soluble uranium from solutions by formation of U{sup 4+} which readily hydrolyses and precipitates. As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration, we have developed a reductive approach to solubilization of uranium from contaminated soils which employs reduction to destabilize U(VI) solid and sorbed species, and strong chelators for U(IV) to prevent hydrolysis and solubilize the reduced from. This strategy has particular application to sites where the uranium is present primarily as intractable U(VI) phases and where high fractions of the contamination must be removed to meet regulatory requirements.

Brainard, J.R.; Iams, H.D.; Strietelmeier, B.A.; Del-Rio Garcia, M.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical fiber.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fiber-optic gas phase surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of several contaminant gases of interest to state-of-health monitoring in high-consequence sealed systems has been demonstrated. These contaminant gases include H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and moisture using a single-ended optical fiber mode. Data demonstrate that results can be obtained and sensitivity is adequate in a dosimetric mode that allows periodic monitoring of system atmospheres. Modeling studies were performed to direct the design of the sensor probe for optimized dimensions and to allow simultaneous monitoring of several constituents with a single sensor fiber. Testing of the system demonstrates the ability to detect 70mTorr partial pressures of H{sub 2} using this technique and system.

Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Rumpf, Arthur Norman; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Removal of bird contamination in wind profiler signal spectra.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problem of bird interference with radar performance is as old as radar itself; however, the problem specific to wind profiler operation has not drawn the attention of researchers until the last 5 or 6 years. Since then, the problem has been addressed in many publications and several ways to solve it have been indicated. Recent advances in radar hardware and software made the last generation of profilers much more immune to bird contamination. However, many older profilers are still in use; errors in averaged (hourly) winds due to bird interference may be as high as 15 m/s. The objective of the present study is to develop a practical method to derive mean winds from averaged spectral data of a 915-MHz wind profiler under the condition of bird contamination.

Pekour, M. S.

1998-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

447

Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils  

SciTech Connect

Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.

J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Removal of Dioxin Contamination for Gas Turbine Generator Set Repair  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination projects are typically undertaken in the interest of reducing disposal costs. This goal can be achieved because decontamination concentrates the contaminant into a smaller volume or changes its form so that a lower cost disposal technology becomes available. Less frequently, decontamination adds value back to the fouled structure or contaminated piece of equipment. This removal of dioxins from a gas turbine generator set is one of the latter cases. A multi-million dollar piece of equipment could have been destined for the scrap pile. Instead, an innovative, non-destructive decontamination technology, developed under EPA and DOE demonstration programs has was employed so that the set could repaired and put back into service. The TechXtractchemical decontamination technology reduced surface dioxin / furan concentrations from as high as 24,000 ng / m2 to less than 25 ng / m2 and below detection limits.

Fay, W. S.; Borah, R.E.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

449

An analysis of maximum residential energy-efficiency in hot and humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy-efficient building design involves minimizing the energy use and optimizing the performance of individual systems and components of the building. The benefits of energyefficient design, in the residential sector, are direct and tangible, provided that design strategies with a substantial combined energy and cost-saving potential are adopted. Many studies have been performed to evaluate the energy-saving potential and the costeffectiveness of various design options, and to identify conditions for optimizing the performance of building systems and components. The results of these studies, published in various resources, were analyzed discretely using different techniques, and were reported using different bases for comparison. Considering the complex interaction of, and energy flows through various building components, it is difficult to directly compare/combine the results from various studies to determine the energy-saving potential of combination of strategies, and to select an appropriate set of strategies for making design decisions. Therefore, this thesis develops a comprehensive survey and analysis of energy-efficient design strategies and their energy-saving potential, in isolation as well as in combination, using a DOE-2 simulation model of a prototype house in the hot and humid climate of Houston, Texas. Optimized strategies that included building configuration, materials/ assembly for building envelop components, and efficient mechanical and electrical systems, equipment and appliances, were applied in combination that could minimize the annual energy use. Application of these strategies is expected to allow downsizing systems and equipment and to confirm their operation at their rated performance, resulting in additional installation and operation cost savings. The study is concluded by outlining the procedures for selecting optimized set of strategies, and by developing guidelines for achieving maximum energy-efficiency in singlefamily detached houses in hot and humid climates. Thus, this study will facilitate the selection of energy-saving measures for their individual or combined application for developing energyefficient residences in hot and humid climates.

Malhotra, Mini

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Contaminant Dating and Natural Recovery with Radioisotopes in Sediment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many reasons to conduct dated sediment core investigations. These include the site-specific analysis of sediment accumulation rates, natural and modern contaminant background concentrations, storm water effects, sediment stability, natural recovery, source identification, and recontamination potential. Environmental investigators use a limited number of radioisotopes for sediment dating, including 1) beryllium-7 for sediment deposition during the last year, 2) lead-210 and cesium-137 for sedime...

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences Title Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3650E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., Thomas E. McKone, Max H. Sherman, and Brett C. Singer Journal Indoor Air Volume 21 Start Page 92 Issue 2 Pagination 92-109 Date Published 04/2011 Keywords resave Abstract Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants were representative of concentrations in residences in the United States. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants are identified as contaminants of concern for chronic health effects in a large fraction of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on robustness of reported concentration data and fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3- butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM2.5. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM2.5, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO2.

453

Dimensioning Guidelines for Applying Insulators in Contaminated Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A particular weakness of outdoor substations is the external insulation. The insulation is particularly susceptible to failure if proper attention has not been given to its design, condition monitoring, and maintenance. In regions characterized by high contamination levels, appropriate dimensioning, regular maintenance, and the application of palliative measures can be critical to ensure that the system meets its outage performance targets. This can involve pure maintenance measures such as ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

454

Biofilm Shows Spatially Stratified Metabolic Responses to Contaminant Exposure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to elucidate the spatiotemporal responses of live S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms to U(VI) (uranyl, UO22+) and Cr(VI) (chromate, CrO42-), important environmental contaminants at DOE contaminated sites. Toward this goal, we applied noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, diffusion, relaxation and spectroscopy techniques to monitor in situ spatiotemporal responses of S. oneidensis biofilms to U(VI) and Cr(VI) exposure in terms of changes in biofilm structures, diffusion properties, and cellular metabolism. Exposure to U(VI) or Cr(VI) did not appear to change the overall biomass distribution but caused changes in the physicochemical microenvironments inside the biofilm as indicated by diffusion measurements. Changes in the diffusion properties of the biofilms in response to U(VI) and Cr(VI) exposure imply a novel function of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) affecting the biotransformation and transport of contaminants in the environment. In the presence of U(VI) or Cr(VI), the anaerobic metabolism of lactate was inhibited significantly, although the biofilms were still capable of reducing U(VI) and Cr(VI). Local concentrations of Cr(III)aq in the biofilm suggested relatively high Cr(VI) reduction activities at the top of the biofilm, near the medium-biofilm interface. The depth-resolved metabolic activities of the biofilm suggested higher diversion effects of gluconeogenesis and C1 metabolism pathways at the bottom of the biofilm and in the presence of U(VI). This study provides a noninvasive means to investigate spatiotemporal responses of biofilms, including surface-associated microbial communities in engineering, natural and medical settings, to various environmental perturbations including exposure to environmental contaminants and antimicrobials.

Cao, Bin; Majors, Paul D.; Ahmed, B.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Sylvia, Crystal P.; Shi, Liang; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated aqueous and sediment environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Six bioremediation methods were tested in laboratory microcosms using field soil and water samples from within the fire-wall area of a petroleum storage tank. This soil had been intermittently contaminated with Bunker C fuel oil and other petroleum materials over an extended period of time. This study focuses on the behavior of the laboratory microcosms designed to simulate the in situ conditions and the six bioremedial methods employed in a related field study. The six treatment methods were: 1) aeration with essential nutrients and indigenous organisms, 2) aeration with essential nutrients and an inoculation from a refinery wastewater treatment facility, 3) aeration with oleophilic fertilizer and indigenous organisms, 4) aeration with essential nutrients and biosurfactant organisms, 5) aeration with nutrients and proprietary organisms, and 6) aeration only. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) analyses and gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometric (GC-MS) analyses of the petroleum fractions were used to determine if the enhancement methods were more effective than the control in biodegrading the contaminants. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the petroleum reduction rates among the six treatment methods. The conclusions were that the petroleum was not bioavailable --transfer from soil-to-water was likely the rate controlling factor in this study. Biodegradation rates were significantly slowed by the highly weathered state of the petroleum, and the extreme spatial heterogeneity hindered the sampling and analysis of the petroleum. These conclusions were further supported in a second experiment using only the extracted petroleum contaminant. The extracted petroleum was biodegraded when made available in shake flasks. Three different ,consortia were shown to significantly biodegrade the petroleum contaminant when made bioavailable. These consortia were able to reduce the TPH and many other specific hydrocarbons.

Mills, Marc Allyn

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Impact of Contaminated Environment on Insulator Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A particular weakness of outdoor substations is the external insulation. The insulation is particularly susceptible to failure if proper attention has not been given to its design, condition monitoring, and maintenance. In regions characterized by high contamination levels, regular maintenance and the application of palliative measures can be critical to ensure that the system meets its outage performance targets. This can involve pure maintenance measures such as insulator cleaning or performance-enhanc...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

457

[Wing 1 radiation survey and contamination report]. Final report  

SciTech Connect

We have completed the 5480.11 survey for Wing 1. All area(s)/item(s) requested by the 5480.11 committee have been thoroughly surveyed and documented. Decontamination/disposal of contaminated items has been accomplished. The wing 1 survey was started on 8/13/90 and completed 9/18/90. However, the follow-up surveys were not completed until 2/18/91. We received the final set of smear samples for wing 1 on 1/13/91. A total of 5,495 smears were taken from wing 1 and total of 465 smears were taken during the follow-up surveys. There were a total 122 items found to have fixed contamination and 4 items with smearable contamination in excess of the limits specified in DOE ORDER 5480.11 (AR 3-7). The following area(s)/item(s) were not included in the 5480.11 survey: Hallways, Access panels, Men`s and women`s change rooms, Janitor closets, Wall lockers and item(s) stored in wing 1 hallways and room 1116. If our contract is renewed, we will include those areas in our survey according to your request of April 15, 1991.

Olsen, K.

1991-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

458

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

459

Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

METHODS OF HANDLING AND LAUNDERING BERYLLIUM-CONTAMINATED GARMENTS  

SciTech Connect

In beryllium industries, it has been the general practice to supply workers with protective clothing. Problems in handling and laundering this clothing were investigated. These problems include: potential hazard to laundry workers and subsequent wearers of the clothing, special laundering techniques, methods to determine the degree of contamination on garments, and determining the most desirable types of garments for the purpose. Four methods to determine the degree of contamination discussed include the shake test, the vacuum test, the rinse test, and the smear test. Assuming conventional laundering procedures have been used, the potential hazard to subsequent wearers of the garment is minimal. Standards for determining adequacy of laundry are suggested. These ar 0.1 mu g Be/cm/sup 2/ as determined by the vacuum test, or 200 mu g Be/garment as determined by the rinse test. Possible hazard to those handling contaminated garments could be significant. This hazard is best controlled simply by use of wet methods. Included in this report is the summary of a survey conducted to determine how these problems are handled in other beryllium industries. (auth)

Cohen, J.J.

1963-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mcl maximum contaminant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an MCL. Table 9. US EPA TCLP Contaminant Regulatory Levels (Hazardous Waste Fact Sheet: TCLP: Toxicity Characteristic2010. http://www.ehso.com/cssepa/TCLP%20fact%20sheet%20from%

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Inhibited Release of Mobile Contaminants from Hanford Tank Residual Waste  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of contaminant release from Hanford Site tank residual waste have indicated that in some cases certain contaminants of interest (Tc and Cr) exhibit inhibited release. The percentage of Tc that dissolved from residual waste from tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, and 241-C-203 ranged from approximately 6% to 10%. The percent leachable Cr from residual waste from tanks C-103, C 202, and C-203 ranged from approximately 1.1% to 44%. Solid phase characterization results indicate that the recalcitrant forms of these contaminants are associated with iron oxides. X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of Tc and Cr in residual waste indicates that these contaminants occur in Fe oxide particles as their lower, less soluble oxidation states [Tc(IV) and Cr(III)]. The form of these contaminants is likely as oxides or hydroxides incorporated within the structure of the Fe oxide. Leaching behavior of U from tank residual waste was studied using deionized water, and CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 saturated solutions as leachants. The release behavior of U from tank residual waste is complex. Initial U concentrations in water and CaCO3 leachants are high due to residual amounts of the highly soluble U mineral cejkaite. As leaching and dilution occur NaUO2PO4 {center_dot} xH2O, Na2U2O7(am) and schoepite (or a similar phase) become the solubility controlling phases for U. In the case of the Ca(OH)2 leachant, U release from tank residual waste is dramatically reduced. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the solubility of CaUO4(c) controls release of U from residual waste in the Ca(OH)2 leachants. It is assumed the solubility controlling phase is actually a hydrated version of CaUO4 with a variable water content ranging from CaUO4 to CaUO4 {center_dot} (H2O). The critically reviewed value for CaUO4(c) (log KSP0 = 15.94) produced good agreement with our experimental data for the Ca(OH)2 leachates.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Heald, Steve M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

463

Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium (VI), and 2,4 dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by zero valent iron and palladized iron under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Reduction experiments of the contaminants were carried out individually and in combination. All three target contaminants were effectively reduced by both iron (Feo) and palladized iron (Pd/Fe'). However, the rate of reduction by Pd/Fe' was found to be much faster than that by Feo. The reduction of all the contaminants in mixed waste was found to be slower than in the individual experiments, but the difference was most significant in the 2,4-DNT reduction. This observation indicates that there may be a possibility of competition for reactive sites among the contaminants and precipitation resulting from CR(VI) reduction may coat iron surfaces, which may ultimately slow the whole zero valent metals (ZVMS) treatment process in remediating mixed waste sites. The 20 mg/L of CR(VI) was reduced below detection limits in 10 hours by Fe' and in 1.5 hours by the same amount of Pd/Fe' in individual experiment. An initial concentration of 20 mg/L of TCE was reduced below detection limits in 72 hours by Pd/Fe' whereas only 62% of TCE was reduced by the same amount of Fe' in 144 hours in individual experiment. The reaction orders of 1.84 and 2.04 for total TCE loss alone and in mixed waste by Fe' indicates that the reaction mechanisms are complex. The reduction of 72 mg/L of 2,4-DNT proceeded to below detection limits within 3 hours by both Fe' and Pd/Feo. The only product observed in the reduction of 2,4-DNT was 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT). The 2,4-DAT produced accounted for 83-100% and only 42-54% of the initial mass of 2@4.DNT under anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. Since no degradation of 2,4-DAT alone occurred, these results indicate the possibility of other intermediates or products formation under aerobic conditions. Overall, the results demonstrated the potential application of ZVMs in reducing mixed wastes containing both inorganic and organic contaminant interactions before implementing a ZVMs treatment system, which may help in designing a proper remedial system.

Malla, Deepak Babu

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Texas Bentonites as Amendments of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Poultry Feed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aflatoxins are toxic organic compounds produced by fungi in grains. Moderately contaminated grains that cannot be used as food are often directed to animal feed. Economically-feasible detoxification measures for contaminated feeds are needed. The objectives of this research were to identify effective bentonites as aflatoxin adsorbents and to evaluate the performance of the clays as aflatoxin amendments in feed for broiler chickens. Five bentonite samples from Gonzales, Texas, USA were collected and analyzed against the published selection criteria for aflatoxin adsorbents: aflatoxin adsorption capacity, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon, particle size distribution, and mineralogical and structural compositions. Two bentonites were identified as potentially good aflatoxin adsorbents based on the analyses. These two bentonites were selected for an in vivo poultry experiment where chickens were fed with aflatoxin-contaminated