National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mayan nigerian qua

  1. Mayan Telegraphese: Intonational Determinants of Inflectional Development in Quich Mayan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pye, Clifton


    -tional structure of the language they are learning. 1. I collected longitudinal records from four Quiche Mayan children (aged 2;0 to 3;0 when I began) living in the highland village of Zunil, Guatemala. I visited the children in their homes over a nine... in prefabricated routines. (c) 'If [morpheme] x has low frequency and low perceptual salience, and is verbally con-ditioned [sic] and expressive of a semantic modulation, then it will be completely absent from Stage I.' The next step is to apply these predictions...

  2. QuaRC Data Acquisition Card Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Grdal

    Clear HiQ Aero Q3 ControlPaQ-FW Q4 Q8 MultiQ-PCI Gumstix Card Config Buffered I/O Immediate I/O Time Watchdog Watchdog Clear DAQCard-6024e DAQCard-6062e DAQCard-6715 PCI-6023e PCI-6024e PCI-6025e PCI-6032e PCI-6034e PCI-6035e PCI-6036e PCI-6040e PCI-6052e PCI-6220 #12;QuaRC Data Acquisition Card Support

  3. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikeda, JM; Schaffer, JR; Ixcot, MLS; Page, K; Hearst, N


    aids/ Countries/lac/guatemala_profile.pdf (2010). AccessedHIV and AIDS study among Mayan populations in Guatemala.Guatemala City: National HIV/AIDS program and UN Population

  4. General overview of the Nigerian construction industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dantata, Sanusi (Sanusi A.)


    The purpose of this study is to investigate and provide a general overview of the Nigerian construction industry, its role in the national economy, the main participants in the industry, the problems that they face, and ...

  5. PRODUCT AND MARKOV MEASURES OF Anthony H. Dooley, Ivo Klemes and Anthony N. Quas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quas, Anthony

    PRODUCT AND MARKOV MEASURES OF TYPE III Anthony H. Dooley, Ivo Klemes and Anthony N. Quas. A natural class of examples is given by the actions where the measure is a product measure. An action which of measures of type III0 or, given a product measure to decide whether it is of type III0. (Moore's criterion

  6. Comparative analysis of Nigerian international oil marketing model (NIOMM) and the models of four selected OPEC members; and a proposed new model for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udeke, O.O.


    This study demonstrates that NIOMM has deficiencies and, as a result, has affected the progress of Nigeria's political and socio-economic development. One finding is that Nigeria is beset with ineffective planning, lack of marketing expertise, and inadequate marketing strategies. Other findings show that: (1) the Nigerian oil industry (HOI) is suffering from mismanagement stemming from corruption, tribalism, Federal Character Policy, and lack of dedication and patriotism by the Nigerian workers; (2) there is inefficiency in the Nigerian national petroleum corporation (NNPC) but, at the same time, the inefficiency is partly because of the government policies, conflicts, interference by high government officials and politicians, and the enormous size of the oil industry; (3) oil revenues are improperly utilized; (4) neither the multinational oil corporations (MNOCs) nor multinational corporations (MNCs) are assisting the oil producing nations (OPNs) or developing countries (DCs) in their economic development, and MNOCs and MNCs are interested in profit maximization; and (5) MNCs do not transfer the type of technology that meets the needs of DCs, and sometimes the technology creates problems for DCs which ultimately results into conflicts between MNCs and DCs. The inverse of these problems has been a sine qua non for success in the IOMMs of the four OPEC member, especially in Saudi Arabia.

  7. A Tale of Two Mam Children: Contact-Induced Language Change in Mayan Child Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pye, Clifton


    households . Existing studies of bilingualism in Mayan communities are based on in- terviews with adolescent and adult speakers (Brown 1998, Collins 2005, and Garzon 1998) . The Brown and Garzon studies established that Kaqchikel Maya communities relatively... into Spanish and by interpreting his brothers utterances for the adults . MIG also speaks more often than any of the other participants, and provides a background narrative in Spanish throughout the session . Later in the session, NORs mother offers...

  8. Abstract This paper identifies non-stationary effects in grid like Network-on-Chip (NoC) traffic and proposes QuaLe, a novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Onur

    contributions are as follows: We propose QuaLe, a novel quantum-leap-inspired model for characterizing packet itself, our quantum-leap model intro- duces the fitness concept as a tool to encompass the universal mul

  9. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obuasi, P.A.


    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  10. Reservoir compartmentalization of deep-water Intra Qua Iboe sand (Pliocene), Edop field, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermance, W.E.; Olaifa, J.O. [Mobile Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria); Shanmugam, G. [Mobile Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others


    An integration of 3-D seismic and sedimentological information provides a basis for recognizing and mapping individual flow units within the Intra Qua Iboe (IQI) reservoir (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria. Core examination show the following depositional facies: A-Sandy slump/mass flow, B-Muddy slump/mass flow, C. Bottom current reworking. D-Non-channelized turbidity currents, E. Channelized (coalesced) turbidity currents. F-Channelized (isolated) turbidity currents, G-Pelagic/hemipelagic, H-Levee, I-Reworked slope, J-Wave dominated, and K-Tide dominated facies. With the exception of facies J and K, all these facies are of deep-water affinity. The IQI was deposited on an upper slope environment in close proximity to the shelf edge. Through time, as the shelf edge migrated scaward, deposition began with a channel dominated deep-water system (IQI 1 and 2) and progressed through a slump/debris flow dominated deep-water system (IQI 3, the principle reservoir) to a tide and wave dominated shallow-water system (IQI 4). Compositional and textural similarities between the deep-water facies result in similar log motifs. Furthermore, these depositional facies are not readily apparent as distinct seismic facies. Deep-water facies A, D, E, and F are reservoir facies, whereas facies B, C, G, H, and I are non-reservoir facies. However, Facies G is useful as a seismically mappable event throughout the study area. Mapping of these non-reservoir events provides the framework for understanding gross reservoir architecture. This study has resulted in seven defined reservoir units within the IQI, which serves as the architectural framework for ongoing reservoir characterization.

  11. Slump dominated upper slope reservoir facies, Intra Qua Iboe (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); Hermance, W.E.; Olaifa, J.O. [Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria)


    An integration of sedimentologic and 3D seismic data provides a basis for unraveling complex depositional processes and sand distribution of the Intra Qua Iboe (IQI) reservoir (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria. Nearly 3,000 feet of conventional core was examined in interpreting slump/slide/debris flow, bottom current, turbidity current, pelagic/hemipelagic, wave and tide dominated facies. The IQI was deposited on an upper slope in close proximity to the shelf edge. Through time, as the shelf edge migrated seaward, deposition began with a turbidite channel dominated slope system (IQI 1 and 2) and progressed through a slump/debris flow dominated slope system (IQI 3, the principal reservoir) to a tide and wave dominated, collapsed shelf-edge deltaic system (IQI 4). Using seismic time slices and corresponding depositional facies in the core, a sandy {open_quotes}fairway{open_quotes} has been delineated in the IQI 3. Because of differences in stacking patterns of sandy and muddy slump intervals, seismic facies show: (1) both sheet-like and mounded external forms (geometries), and (2) parallel/continuous as well as chaotic/hummocky internal reflections. In wireline logs, slump facies exhibits blocky, coarsening-up, fining-up, and serrated motifs. In the absence of conventional core, slump facies may be misinterpreted and even miscorrelated because seismic facies and log motifs of slumps and debris flows tend to mimic properties of turbidite fan deposits. The slump dominated reservoir facies is composed of unconsolidated fine-grained sand. Thickness of individual units varies from 1 to 34 feet, but amalgamated intervals reach a thickness of up to 70 feet and apparently form connected sand bodies. Porosity commonly ranges from 20 to 35%. Horizontal permeability commonly ranges from 1,000 to 3,000 md.

  12. Lead Exposure: A Contributing Cause of the Current Breast Cancer Epidemic in Nigerian Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alatise, Olusegun I.; Schrauzer, Gerhard N.


    Keywords Breast cancer . Lead . Cadmium . Tin . Chromium .selenium and low doses of lead on mammary tumor development2001) Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in Nigerian

  13. Lead and other metals in dried fish from Nigerian markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoye, C.O.B. (Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria))


    The Nigerian economy had remarkable industrial growth between 1970 and 1980 and industrialization and urbanization have been sustained albeit at a slower rate. Nevertheless, waste management remains grossly underdeveloped. Environmental concern is only a recent phenomenon, resulting thus far in the launching of a monthly clean-up campaign in 1984 and the establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1988. The level of public awareness has not been encouraging. The indiscriminate discharge of largely untreated factory and urban effluents has continued. Streets and home surroundings become littered soon after clean-up exercises. Inadequate facilities contribute to the unwholesome situation. Refuse collecting centers are mostly without any holding containers, and solid wastes, the focus of the monthly clean-up, are left on the bare ground. Heavy automobile traffic and high lead content of the local automobile fuels have not helped matters. Heavy metals in the human environment are of global concern. In developed countries, limits of concentrations in fish and other foods have been set to safeguard public health, but Nigeria has yet to set any standards because of lack of baseline data. Within the last decade, scientists have been reporting on heavy metal levels in fish from the aquatic environment of Nigeria. Among the metals, lead was the most prominent, with a mean value comparable to the set limits in Great Britain and New Zealand. The present study was aimed at further establishing the levels of contamination in fish by lead and other metals in the Nigerian aquatic systems. Smoke-dried fish, being the most consumed by the local population, was chosen for the survey on the levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc. Possible surface contamination arising from observed poor handling practices was also investigated. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Application of a. Delta. P technique to monitor oxidation of Nigerian coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogunsola, O.I.; Mikula, R.J. (Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, CANMET, Coal Research Lab., P.O. Bag 1280, Devon, Alberta (CA))


    In this paper, the results of a study on the effect of oxidation on the {Delta}P index and acidity of three Nigerian coals are reported. The coals are oxidized in air over a period of 35 days at both 100 and 50{degrees} C. The heating value, slurry pH (acidity), and the {Delta}P index of three Nigerian coal samples were monitored as a function of oxidation time. The results revealed a decrease in {Delta}P index and an increase in the acidity of all three coals with increase in oxidation time. The heating value of the coals was also reduced by the oxidation.

  15. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria))


    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Adjusting flow station job to remote Nigerian location yields savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooten, R.; Williams, E.C. (OPI International Inc., Houston, TX (United States))


    In September 1991, Chevron Nigeria Ltd. and Nigerian National Petroleum Crop. contracted Offshore Pipelines to design, procure, construct, install, and commission the Opuekeba 30,000 b/d crude-oil flow station on an offshore platform near Olero Creek, Nigeria, approximately 22 miles from the nearest deepwater access. Chevron's original project plan included bringing the flow station to the site in small packages and then assembling it in a lengthy field hook-up process. Offshore Pipelines developed a plan early in the project to maximize construction and hook-up in the fabrication yard, then transport the nearly complete structures to site by way of a newly dredged canal. What proved to be most difficult was the site location in Nigeria. Job planning and communication were important in the successful completion of the project. Keeping the components of the large and complex facility simple proved to be effective and efficient and played a key role in completing the project on time and within budget. The paper discusses overcoming obstacles, lift and depth constraints, dredging, fabrication, installation, and large-time problems.

  17. Sodium and oxygen in Nigerian coals: Possible effects on ash fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegbe, S.B.; Adetunji, J. [Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)


    Ash fouling during heat transfers in coal power-plants has been known to be an engineering problem caused by high sodium levels of the feed-coals. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used in determining the concentration of some alkali elements (Na, Ca, Mg) associated with ash fouling for eight Nigerian coals mined at Onyeama, Ogbete, Enugu, Gombe, Okaba, Afikpo, Lafia and Asaba. Sodium levels were generally low (0.001-0.036%). Oxygen concentrations considered as an indicative measure of the wettability of each of the coals were determined. The possible effects of the concentration of these elements on ash fouling were discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Intense droughts blamed for Mayan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    commercial GM crops produce bumper yields PENTAGON'S PLEDGE US promises no civilian GPS blackout in the event

  19. Natural resource booms and Third World development: Assessing the subsectoral impacts of the Nigerian petroleum boom on agricultural export performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, S.M.


    Linear and quadratic expansion model formulations are developed to assess the relative complexity of booming-non-booming sector interactions. Specific attention is given to the extent to which the growth rates of Nigerian agricultural exports have changed over time as: (a) the volume of oil exports, and (b) the growth rate of oil exports are allowed to vary over a set of hypothetical values which reflect Nigerian oil-boom realities. Four important conclusions emerge: (a) the quadratic expansion model most accurately captures Nigerian oil-agricultural exports are most clearly influenced by the oil boom; (c) the growth rate of capital-intensive agricultural exports are initially stimulated, and later stagnated by the oil boom, while the growth rate of subsidized labor intensive agricultural exports are first stagnated and then stimulated by the oil boom; and (d) the expansion method provides a useful alternative means of exploring theoretical and applied issues related to the Dutch Disease paradigm. the implications of the findings for agricultural and petroleum policy in Nigeria are assessed, and a research agenda for further booming-non-booming sector investigations is proposed.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh and smoked fish samples from three Nigerian cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akpan, V.; Lodovici, M.; Dolara, P. (Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Florence (Italy))


    Nigeria is a major producer of crude oil in sub-Saharan Africa. In-shore and off-shore wells are located in richly watered creeks in the southern part of the country. Although published data on environmental impact assessment of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are lacking, there is a growing concern about the possible contamination of estuarine and coastal waters and of marine species by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). PAHs are ubiquitous priority pollutants that occur naturally in crude oil, automobile exhaust emissions and smoke condensates from incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials. PAHs with high molecular weight are less readily biodegraded by indigenous microorganisms in some regions, and given their marked hydrophobic characteristics, may persist in the aqueous environment, thus contaminating the food chain by bioaccumulating in aquatic species like fish and mussels. Major Nigerian oil wells are located in the vicinity of breeding and harvesting sites serving the fresh-water fishing industry. Large hauls of fresh fish are normally consumed cooked in soups or smoke cured in handcrafted traditional ovens using freshly cut red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa) wood as fuel. Though smoke curing is economical and may ensure longer conservation of fish, it undoubtedly increases the burden of PAHs in finished products as a result of partial charring and from smoke condensates or mangroves that also contain PAHs in measurable quantities as reported by Asita et al. (1991). Apart from PAHs analyzed by Emerole (1980) in smoked food samples from Ibadan using simple analytical methods, those from industrial and other anthropogenic sources have rarely been analyzed in Nigeria. We tried therefore to update the data and address this discrepancy. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quam, S. (Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria))


    The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US $39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

  2. Integrated reservoir management doubles Nigerian field reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akinlawon, Y.; Nwosu, T.; Satter, A.; Jespersen, R.


    An integrated alliance across disciplines, companies and countries enabled Texaco to conduct a comprehensive reservoir analysis of the North Apoi/Funiwa field in Nigeria. Recommendations implemented in 3 months doubled the book reserves of this mature field. The paper discusses the objectives, the integration of organizations, reservoir analysis, and conclusions. The conclusions made from the integrated study are: (1) 3-D seismic data dramatically improved reservoir description. (2) OOIP is considerably more than the booked values and reserves additions are substantial. (3) Significant value has been added to TOPCON`s assets as a result of teamwork and a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the reservoirs and optimizing the scenarios for reservoir management. (4) Teamwork and integration of professionals, data, technology and tools was critical to the projects success. (5) The study set an example for effective and expeditious technology transfer and applications. (6) Partnering of TOPCON, DPR, NAPIMS, EPTD and SSI resulted in a quick cycle time and set an excellent example of integration and alliance.

  3. Language Futures from Uprooted Pasts: Emergent Language Activism in the Mayan Diaspora of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Sonya


    Power, and Politics in Guatemala. Austin: U of Texas. Burns,Land of the Holy Spirit: Guatemala under General Efrai? nof the Devil: A History of Guatemala. Boston, MA: South End.

  4. Strengthening the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority: A Policy Analysis of the Nigerian Excess Crude Account and the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugwuibe, Cynthia


    New Land Grant Mexico Permanent Fund) Savings* Oil and otherBotswana East Timor Mexico Saudi Arabia Oil Oil State OilSavings Oil and other non-commodity sources New Mexico State

  5. Strengthening the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority: A Policy Analysis of the Nigerian Excess Crude Account and the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugwuibe, Cynthia


    of instability in the world oil market and to foster prudentthe budget. The world oil market is susceptible to temporaryto improve oil revenue management and achieve its market-

  6. Strengthening the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority: A Policy Analysis of the Nigerian Excess Crude Account and the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugwuibe, Cynthia


    Since international oil prices fluctuate erratically, oilexcess oil revenues when oil prices skyrocket, and tap intoif the current rise in oil prices persists, the manner in

  7. Strengthening the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority: A Policy Analysis of the Nigerian Excess Crude Account and the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugwuibe, Cynthia


    Reserve Fund) Oil & Gas Russia National Welfare Pension FundLibya Russia UAE Abu Dhabi Algeria Kazakhstan Oil & Gas

  8. Strengthening the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority: A Policy Analysis of the Nigerian Excess Crude Account and the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugwuibe, Cynthia


    al. , 2001). Natural resources especially oil are a volatilefact that oil and other forms of natural resources can be aof natural resource commodities especially oil fluctuates,

  9. ICI and Penspen in Nigerian and Qatari methanol deals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.


    The U.K. consulting and engineering company Penspen Ltd. (London) has signed a second joint venture agreement in Qatar and has selected the ICI (London) methanol process. The technology will also be used in a world-scale methanol plant in Nigeria that Penspen is helping to set up. Under the first agreement, signed on January 1 with Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC), a 50/50 venture is being formed to build a $370-million, 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant at Umm Said. ICI will provide its low-pressure technology and help market 75% of the output. Completion is due late 1994.

  10. Operators jumping E and D spending in Nigerian programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    Nigeria's campaign to increase foreign investment in its petroleum industry and boost oil and gas productive capacity continues to gather steam. Critical to that effort is a continuing push by the government to offer more attractive fiscal and concession terms to private domestic and foreign companies. Nigeria's petroleum ministry has submitted a new draft petroleum policy for government approval. The campaign is getting results, if responses by key foreign operators are any indication. This paper reports that the changing investment climate in Nigeria is attracting more outside financing.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Mestizo and Indigenous Mayan Young Women in Guatemala: Attitudes and Knowledge of Sexual Reproduction and Health among Members of Children International's Youth Health Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trapp, Sarah Casement


    Children Internationals Youth Health Corps Program uses Peer Education techniques to teach impoverished adolescents about Sexual Health and Reproduction. In the Youth Health Corps in Guatemala, both rural indigenous Maya youth and urban mestizo...

  12. Toxicity of corexit 9527 and Nigerian crude oil in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, S.; Nelson, G.; Brooks, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [and others


    When oil is spilled into aquatic systems, chemical dispersants frequently are applied to enhance emulsification and biological availability. In this study, toxicity of Corexit 9527 (Cx), a widely used dispersant, was evaluated with oil both in vivo and in vitro. Initially, both Cx and oil were bioassayed in a micro-suspension modification of the Salmonella reversion bioassay. Next, rats were dosed 5 weeks with oil, Cx or Cx/oil. Body and tissue weights, urine mutagenicity, and effect on intestinal enzymes and microbiota were determined. Cx (1:1000 dilution) was toxic in the bioassay and oil was negative (TA98 & TA100 +/-S9). Similar results were observed for urinary metabolites. Body and tissue weights were unaffected, but a significant reduction in small intestinal azo reductase (AR) and/or {beta}-glucuronidase (BG) was observed in animals that received Cx, oil, or Cx/oil. Effects on cecal AR were observed in the 3 treatment groups. One week nitroreductase (NR) activity was elevated, and 3 and 5 week BG activities were significantly different from controls. This correspond to an elimination of enterobacteria and enterococci in oil-treated rats and enterobacteria fluctuations in Cx- and Cx/oil-treated animals. Even though treatment of rats with Cx has no direct effect on the production of mutagenic urine metabolites from oil-treated animals, significant changes are observed in intestinal microbiota and their enzymes responsible for promutagen and procarcinogen activation.

  13. Towards a theology of conflict transformation: a study of religious conflict in contemporary Nigerian society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akanji, Israel Adelani


    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, is bedevilled with various conflicts which have been exacerbated by the multiplicity and diversity which characterize the nation. The country is a multi-ethnic, multicultural, ...

  14. Petroleum industry sensitivity and world oil market prices: The Nigerian example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalu, T.Ch.U. [Univ. of Ilorin (Nigeria)


    Most empirical studies have focused on the demand side of energy with little or no attention to the supply side. To deal with this defect, this paper adopts a microanalytic approach to the problem of the individual oil firms to provide a basis for determining the effects of changes in such macro-variables as prices on their operations. However, instead of the familiar econometric approach to energy studies, a goal programming approach is adopted. Using a multinational oil company as a case study, the effects of change in crude oil prices are examined. The results, among other things, support the hypersensitivity of oil companies to changes in economic cycles, the price inelasticity of demand for crude oil in the short run, and a time lag between price change and the time an oil company responds to it. The management and policy implications of the results are also discussed. 28 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. "Hideous architecture" : mimicry, feint and resistance in turn of the century southeastern Nigerian building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okoye, Ikemefuna Stanley Ifejika


    This dissertation reconstructs the histories of some exceptional, hitherto unstudied buildings, erected in southeastern Nigeria between 1889 and 1939; they are part of a larger group, dispersed over the African Atlantic ...

  16. Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okpokwasil, G.C.; Nnubia, C. [Univ. of Prot Harcourt (Nigeria)


    Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 {mu}g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Bariod mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Carryover of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in contaminated substrate corn into Nigerian native beer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoye, Z.S.C.


    Aflatoxins, the toxic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Asp. parasiticus, constitute a serious food contamination problem in Nigeria and have been detected in the blood of healthy rural blood donors and primary liver cancer patients from the Guinea savannah region where traditionally brewed cereal beer is popular. A recent survey of traditional breweries in the Jos metropolis has shown a high incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ contamination of their products. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the traditional brewing in destroying aflatoxins in mould-infected substrate grains.

  18. Drowning out the Silence: Nigerian Civil War Literature and the Politics of Gender-Based Violence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hancock, Lynn


    UNDP). Abuja, Nigeria. Nigeria Human Development Report (Programme (UNDP). Abuja, Nigeria. Akinfolarin, W. A. (and the dearth of books in Nigeria. Publishing Research

  19. From oil shortage to oil glut: simulation of growth prospects in the Nigerian economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olofin, S.; Iyaniwura, J.O.


    During the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria provided one of the most interesting cases of development financed through oil revenue. Between 1970 and 1980, the country's GNP grew at an outstanding rate, but after the transition from oil shortage to oil glut, the economy of Nigeria ran into dramatic financial difficulties, which are now placing major constraints to its development. To investigate the transition from an oil-based economy to a stage characterized by greater diversification of exports and more balanced sectoral growth, a model has been built by the University of Ibadan in Nigeria. The model was developed in association with Project LINK staffing for the future inclusion in the Project. According to the finding presented in the study, the annual growth rate of GDP of Nigeria between 1980 and 1988 will be around 2.5%. To compensate the drop of the foreign-exchange earnings caused by the contraction of oil prices and demand, a vigorous export drive of agricultural products is simulated. 8 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Characterization of selected sorghums for the preparation of ogi, a Nigerian fermented food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akingbala, John Olusola


    University, Nigeria Directed by: Dr. Lloyd W. Rooney A standardized laboratory method for the production of ogi was developed and used to evaluate seven sorghum cultivars of diverse physical and chemical characteristics for ogi making properties.... The sorghum grains varied in density, hardness, pericarp thickness, pericarp color, presence of testa, endosperm type and endosperm texture. Ogi produced was compared to three commercial ogi samples obtained from Nigeria. ATx413xNSA954 and Funks-G766W...

  1. Experiencing Maya Palaces: Royal Power, Space, and Architecture at Holmul, Guatemala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongelluzzo, Ryan


    The Ruins of Holmul Guatemala. Peabody Museum, Cambridge.Authentic Maya 2005 Guatemala: Cradle of Mayan Civilization.Period Holmul Region, Guatemala, Vanderbilt University.

  2. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]


    innovation regarding alternative energy sources. A relatedin developing alternatives to oil as energy sources, it mayan energy crop and grow- ers most profitable alternative

  3. Land Tenure and Land Administration Issues in Guatemala Danielle Kelly Donovan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onsrud, Harlan J.

    Civilization's hierarchical system and the Spanish exploitation. The Mayan Civilization involved communally by Mexico, on the southeast by Honduras and El Salvador, and on the southwest by the Pacific Ocean in 1523 lead to ruthless exploitation of Mayan land. Geography, amount and accessibility of arable land

  4. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.


    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  5. Macro-econometric model of the Nigerian economy: a simulated analysis of oil shocks in a development context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usip, E.E.E.


    The precarious position of Nigeria in being a one-resource (oil) based economy in terms of revenue generation has become a major cause of concern for the experts and political pundits. In this study, the author seeks to explore further the empirical basis for this concern in two stages. First, a macro-econometric model of Nigeria was constructed and evaluated. The model highlights the various channels through which the oil sector influences the rest of the economy. Economic theory, econometric techniques, existing fund of knowledge in the practice, computer simulation, and the institutional framework of Nigeria were brought to bear upon the modeling process. In the second stage, the resulting simulation model was used to examine the sensitivity of the economy to the leading sector (oil) as well as the growth potential of Nigeria up to 1986. The crucial question that was addressed is: will the oil sector be able to support a continuing economic growth of Nigeria in the absence of policy initiatives to diversify the revenue base of the economy. Although the empirical findings are hypothetical, they do have far-reaching implications for Nigeria's growth prospects and political stability.

  6. The sacred nature of Maya bonesetting: ritual validation in an empirical practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Clarence Edward


    traditional Mayan spiritual beliefs. To account for the importance of ritual traditions in bonesetting, the narratives of wecol bak are provided as evidence for how the liminality that the healers experience in their recruitment is paralleled by the separate...

  7. Pollen from Laguna Verde, Blue Creek, Belize: Implications for Paleoecology, Paleoethnobotany, Agriculture, and Human Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morse, Mckenzie


    This dissertation is a palynological examination of the Mayan archaeological site at Blue Creek, northwestern Belize. This study uncovers more than 4,500 years of environmental and agricultural history of the region, which can be related to human...

  8. What do we do with Nuclear Weapons Now?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Michael M


    1990 What Do We Do with Nuclear Weapons Now? by Michael M.for the Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy MICHAEL M. MAYan electoral majority in nuclear weapons states. Unlike

  9. Quadratic Diffusion Monte-Carlo Algorithms for Solving Atomic Many-Body Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Siu A.


    function p " ' ear and qua npr qua ra adratic. Near d tic. Since prrectly line 'ther linear r in Mpnte c is clearly ne ensity is Ppp vergence ' the central a functipn o or binning . 12, as direct ite~at~on. ' analyfic estimathefo pported...

  10. 1997 Benjamin F. Soares. All rights reserved. No part of the following papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . AImpact of Deregulation on Bank Performance, Capitalisation, and Competition.@ In Deregulation Industry.@ In Deregulation in the Nigerian Banking Industry: Directions, Challenges, Problems,


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozyrakis, Christos

    me of what's important "at the end of the day." To Kunle, a.k.a., Papa K., a.k.a., the Wild Nigerian

  12. Essays on the Economics of Environmental Issues: The Environmental Kuznets Curve to Optimal Energy Portfolios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meininger, Aaron G.


    170 C.4 Natural Gas OLS Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . .Utilization of Nigerian natural gas resources: Potentialsbeing paid to coal and natural gas, and by increasing the

  13. V I R G I N I A P O L Y T E C H N I C I N S T I T U T E A N D S T A T E U N I V E R S I T Y A n e qua l op portu ni ty , a ffi rma ti ve ac t io n i ns ti tu tio n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Science and Management Natural Resources and Conservation Chemistry Chemistry Polymer Chemistry grants sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF). VT-AMP supports sustained and comprehensive Classifications Agricultural Sciences Animal Sciences Food Science and Technology Soil Sciences

  14. Ensalamento do 1 semestre de 2014 do curso de EngCivil Atualizado em : 06/02/2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paraná, Universidade Federal do

    :30 PH18 60 CM201-D - Calculo Diferencial e Integral I QUA 9:30 - 11:30 SEX 9:30 - 11:30 PH01 70 CM201-E - Calculo Diferencial e Integral I QUA 9:30 - 11:30 SEX 9:30 - 11:30 PH11 60 CM201-F - Calculo Diferencial e:30 - 9:30 PE01 50 #12;CM043-C - Calculo III SEG 17:30 - 19:30 QUA 17:30 - 19:30 PA02 69 CM043-D - Calculo

  15. Jan Van Haaren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Jesse

    2.3 Efficientie Lokeren en Racing Genk. Charleroi en KV Kortrijk manifesteren zich qua efficientie voor doel tussen de clubs in play- off 1. Club Brugge en Standard zijn efficienter in uitwedstrijden dan


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Karl

    - tion and aminostratigraphic dating of upper Qua- ternary marine deposits in the LosAngeles basin of 146 2 (Cheng et al., 1999). Near-primary uranium isotopic composition and agreement among

  17. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -point source pollution, quality of ground water and surface water, efficient septic tank design, and ecosystem, Treatment Descriptors: Water QuaArkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2002 Introduction Statewide Mission

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - Geodesy_Mapping_Application.ppt [Read...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nothing else..... Latitudes and Longitudes are not unique unless qualified with datum u ess qua ed t datu name Heights are not unique are not unique unless qualified with Surface...

  19. brief communications nature methods | VOL.10 NO.4 | APRIL2013 | 343

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    the translation machinery by genetic engineering. Cells are cultured in the presence of the azide-bearing methio combined their strengths in QuaNCAT (Fig. 1). To test the feasibility and sensitivity of QuaNCAT, we and either `heavy' [13C6,15N4]l-Arg and [13C6,15N2]l-Lys for stimulated cells or with `medium' [13C6]l- Arg

  20. Khi phc Sm D tho K hoch Khi phc Sm v nh gi Mi trng Giai on IV N g y 2 0 t h n g 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on IV c trn www.gulfspillrestoration.noaa. gov v nhiu a im trong cng ng vng vnh (xem dan sch trn Trc Giai on IV, cc y vin thng qua ba k hoch khi phc sm, bao gm tng cng 54 d n trn khp vng Vnh vi tng chi ph khong 698 triu USD. Cc y vin cng thng qua mt K Hoch Khi phc Sm theo quy trnh v

  1. Comparative study of selected Brazilian and Nigerian policies to promote the transfer and development of technology: the role of regime and non-regime factors, and some results from the automobile industry, 1967-80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusau, B.H.


    This study is concerned with the policies adopted by Brazil and Nigeria to promote the transfer and development of technology in industry. The objectives are two-fold: (1) to compare and analyze the policies with respect to the automobile industries in the 1967-1980 period; (2) to investigate whether their adoption was solely a function of the different ideological values and issue levels of economic development of the countries, or whether the regimes are solely an expression of the patterns of that development. The study adopted the Comparative Public Policy approach to explore the various hypotheses formulated. The findings showed that Brazil realized more significant results than Nigeria in technology development, while in other areas, such as the curtailment of imports, employment generation, etc., the results are mixed. The study concludes that both regime and industrial development factors influence the variation in the policies, although the regime factor seems to explain more of the variation.

  2. Commodification of Kaqchikel: A Commodities Chain Approach to the Kaqchikel Language in the Foreign Language and Area Studies Program*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Philip T.


    to establish a program to teach Kaqchikel, an indigenous Mayan language of Guatemala. Teaching Kaqchikel at KU was made possible... to democratize and give birth to La Nueva Guatemala with economic and military support from the U.S., dramatically escalated its violence against indigenous Mayas. During this same time, the U.S. began realizing that increased globalization and its resultant...

  3. Relying on years of ethnographic research in highland Guatemala, this qualitative study explores domestic and family violence in a Maya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract Relying on years of ethnographic research in highland Guatemala, this qualitative study conducted with most living members of an extended family in two departments of western Guatemala, and ten and Research. She has conducted extensive research with Mayan peoples in Guatemala, exploring issues related

  4. The solar eclipse is indeed a momentous, or at least visually entertain-ing and curious happening in astrology.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    The solar eclipse is indeed a momentous, or at least visually entertain- ing and curious happening recordings of lunar and solar eclipses. 2 #12;The Dresden Codex was for the Mayans a way to predict eclipses likely that Martin Meinshausen proposed that this data was related to the timing of series of solar

  5. Curriculum Vitae ANDREW R. WILLIS, PH.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willis, Andrew R.

    -based image compression and implementation of JPEG-2000 on integrated circuits. Software / hardware design of the ADVJP2000 image compression integrated circuit (released May 2002). The current revision (Aug. 2004 in Oxcutzcab, Mexico (Huntichmul, Labna, Kuic sites - Mayan civilization) and in Herzilya-Petuach, Israel

  6. The Character of Popular Indigenous Cinema in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okome, Onookome


    269. Ekwuazi, Hyginus. Film In Nigeria. Jos: Nigerian FilmOF POPULAR INDIGENOUS CINEMA IN NIGERIA I Onookome Okome Theindigenous film of Nigeria must be seen and discussed within

  7. Ofure Isenmila Degree studied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    at pursuing a career in the Nigerian oil and gas industry with particular interest in Environmental impact in Nigeria toady. The MSc Sustainability and Environmental studies availed me to opportunity to choose from

  8. Characterization of Mesoamerican jade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.L.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.


    Jadeite occurring in the Motague River Valley of Guatemala has been characterized by neutron activation analysis and forms two district, phase-related groups. Comparison of the compositional profiles of Mayan jadeite artifacts reveals many specimens having profiles matching those of the Montagua source. Of particular interest are the large number of jadeite artifacts which show internal similarity yet have compositional patterns which are significantly different from the Montagua samples and Montagua-related artifacts. A few of the analyzed Costa Rican artifacts show patterns similar to those of the Motagua yet the vast majority fall within one of the two Costa Rican compositional groups. When considering the non-Motagua related Mayan artifacts, the analytical approach appears to be sufficiently sensitive so as to distinguish differences between the Chrome-green and Chichen-green material. Even two Honduran site specific groups of albite - cultural jade - form distinct groups.

  9. Agriculture, technology, and conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilverberg, Cody John


    Agricultural Research CIIDH Centro Internacional para Investigaciones en Derechos Humanos (International Center for Human Rights Research) CPR Comunidad de Poblaci?n en Resistencia (Community in Resistance) departamento A Guatemalan political unit similar... the guerrillas were active. Among the victims were ?men, women and children of all social strata: workers, professionals, church members, politicians, peasants, students and academics; in ethnic terms, the vast majority were Mayans? (Tomuschat, et al., 1999...

  10. A Study of Sustainable Compost Micro-Enterprise In Chimaltenango, Guatemala: Profitability and Employee Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silberg, Timothy


    , Pagiola, & Raiche, 1994). Lutz et al. (1994) explain ed that land degradation poses a severe threat to the sustainability of agricultural production. Soil degradation, ??is common in de?eloping countries. A history of Mayan agricultural practices has... ) - the measured amount of factor input per unit of gross output; the labor and capital requirements embodied in the commodity; the input requirements per unit of commodity, directly or indirectly through the production of the commodity inputs. A measureme nt...

  11. Use of Quantitative Uncertainty Analysis to Support M&VDecisions in ESPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.; Koehling, Erick; Kumar, Satish


    Measurement and Verification (M&V) is a critical elementof an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) - without M&V, thereisno way to confirm that the projected savings in an ESPC are in factbeing realized. For any given energy conservation measure in an ESPC,there are usually several M&V choices, which will vary in terms ofmeasurement uncertainty, cost, and technical feasibility. Typically,M&V decisions are made almost solely based on engineering judgmentand experience, with little, if any, quantitative uncertainty analysis(QUA). This paper describes the results of a pilot project initiated bythe Department of Energy s Federal Energy Management Program to explorethe use of Monte-Carlo simulation to assess savings uncertainty andthereby augment the M&V decision-making process in ESPCs. The intentwas to use QUA selectively in combination with heuristic knowledge, inorder to obtain quantitative estimates of the savings uncertainty withoutthe burden of a comprehensive "bottoms-up" QUA. This approach was used toanalyze the savings uncertainty in an ESPC for a large federal agency.The QUA was seamlessly integrated into the ESPC development process andthe incremental effort was relatively small with user-friendly tools thatare commercially available. As the case study illustrates, in some casesthe QUA simply confirms intuitive or qualitative information, while inother cases, it provides insight that suggests revisiting the M&Vplan. The case study also showed that M&V decisions should beinformed by the portfolio risk diversification. By providing quantitativeuncertainty information, QUA can effectively augment the M&Vdecision-making process as well as the overall ESPC financialanalysis.

  12. Summer 1986 Water Quality Leads List of Concerns at Water Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    priority Water Quality - Residual retention times for toxic substances in the soil and water are unkn ownSummer 1986 Water Quality Leads List of Concerns at Water Workshop A lack of information concerni the synergistic and long-term effec ts of dimin - ished water qua lity. led a list of the top water prob lems

  13. Cross-layer reconfigurable optical network: fast failure recovery in testbed for routing algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathula, Balagangadhar G

    consumption [1, 2]. Indeed, we are now at the point where power and heat dissipation are major cost factors future data networks are not only the sine qua non issue of high bandwidth, but also failure resiliency and power consumption. This can be addressed by a cross-layer physical impairments awareness permeating

  14. A Science _Service Feature 7 WHY TEWEATmR 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the quality as W e l l as qua. Light of short wave lengths, such as blue and ultra-violet Tne smoke cloud of the solar radiation dl' Cloudiness frequently reduses the daytime illumination t With a completely overcast of sunlight. suffers more loss i n passing through a hazy atmosphere than does light of long mv(+ '.@ngths

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Study Protein Folding and Unfolding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    and results are essential in validating the force fields (V7 10/11 13:29) VCH/G J-1079 Buchner I PMU: WSL data is conditio sine qua non to validate the simulation results and very helpful for improv- ing force

  16. Comparative Myology of the Forelimb of Squirrels (Sciuridae) RICHARD W. THORINGTON, JR.,* KAROLYN DARROW,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    includes terrestrial and arbo- real bounding, climbing, digging, and gliding. The fossil evidence suggests of the forelimb musculature of squirrels, which plays a key role in gliding, climbing, digging, and qua- drupedal; Hafner et al., '94; Oshida et al., '96). The muscular anatomy of squirrels is well known for only 11

  17. A Theoretical Study on the Hydrogen Transport Mechanism in SrTiO3 Perovskite. II. Scandium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helgaker, Trygve

    A Theoretical Study on the Hydrogen Transport Mechanism in SrTiO3 Perovskite. II. Scandium Doping to clarify the proton-conduction mechanism in Sc-doped SrTiO3 perovskite, from the viewpoint of energetics, Inc. DOI: 10.1002/qua.24086 Introduction As is well known, cubic SrTiO3 perovskite shows high proton

  18. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 67, NO. 1 (JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2002); P. 177187, 13 FIGS., 2 TABLES. 10.1190/1.1451490

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sailhac, Pascal

    experiment was conducted in the vicinity of the waste management area of a potash mine in western Canada management area of the industrial plant. An additional aim was to compare the results obtainable from the use. The secondary intent was to map subsurface Qua- ternary glacial deposits and related aquifers near the waste

  19. Nigeria steps up action to define and increase its oil reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, N.


    This paper reports that within the past 18 months, the Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum Resources has moved aggressively to increase investment in known producing areas and stimulate exploration in frontier regions in order to define and expand the country's reserve base for the start of the 21st century. At industry seminars held in November and December 1991 in Houston, London, and Lagos, the Ministry in association with TGSI-Mabon Geophysical Co. reviewed the Nigerian political and economic climate, recent industry development and leasing activity, deep-water geology and exploration potential, and the probable areas' terms and conditions for a new bidding round to be announced in early 1992.

  20. "The College's African Studies Program has given me the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    of African geography, culture and socio-political history, both here and in Africa. After completing my you envision Africa, what comes to mind? Exotic wildlife? Diverse cultures? Lush resources? What about Egyptian politics, Moroccan architecture, Nigerian literature or the South African economy? With 54


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    , Indian American, Nigerian American, and Vietnamese American Nurses Associations i.e. associations that represent some of the largest foreign-born nursing populations in the U.S., we explore how foreign. 2012; Schiflett 2004). Comprised of twenty-one hospitals with seven acute care, six pediatric care

  2. Foreign Fishery Developments Nigeria Plans Large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foreign Fishery Developments Nigeria Plans Large Fishing Fleet Expansion Table 1.-Nigerian fishing reported deliveries. Development Program Nigeria's oil exports have enabled its Government to fInance Africa's most ambitious development program. Nigeria has the largest population of any country in Africa

  3. | JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2014 | Hydro INTERNATIONAL22 symbols and features used on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    span. Additional surveys conducted by the multi-national oil and gas companies exploring in the region into three main cartographic groups: natural, manmade and undefined. In Nigeria, the current navigational of the shoreline for developing countries, such as Nigeria, is a challenge. Most of the information on the Nigerian

  4. Angular momentum transport modeling: achievements of a gyrokinetic quasi-linear approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottier, P; Camenen, Y; Gurcan, O D; Casson, F J; Garbet, X; Hennequin, P; Tala, T


    QuaLiKiz, a model based on a local gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver is expanded to include momentum flux modeling in addition to heat and particle fluxes. Essential for accurate momentum flux predictions, the parallel asymmetrization of the eigenfunctions is successfully recovered by an analytical fluid model. This is tested against self-consistent gyrokinetic calculations and allows for a correct prediction of the ExB shear impact on the saturated potential amplitude by means of a mixing length rule. Hence, the effect of the ExB shear is recovered on all the transport channels including the induced residual stress. Including these additions, QuaLiKiz remains ~10 000 faster than non-linear gyrokinetic codes allowing for comparisons with experiments without resorting to high performance computing. The example is given of momentum pinch calculations in NBI modulation experiments.

  5. Anhydrous ferric chloride as an alkylation catalyst: The condensation of 2-methylpropene and benzene, preparation and identification of several fractions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mommessin, Pierre Robert


    Lg T: I snoop /~qua ep ? polio mn'[IunIp snoop. &qua 'op:zonI. xzg uo'oq 'oppxc+uad snzoqdsoqd 'pgoa o-?zngIos 'ap-=onIg ue3ozpZq sa qons 'sos. . Ie'=- plo'-' 1 c acTTa e Jd aqua uQ suoqgT oogppq ot )gmo Te qf~ $ese J IIT+ sane&Ia g&qq. emI~ amos... -uesezo. Qq~ , T eosazuao, qq. . ~ aueguq Pua . ue~::nod ~o uotgus -ueP too ev", PetPuq s Pixatsvnoty, Puu 'B?og 'Butuatip Q' "g J. elQ J euagnq-u erg qgtsp. Qe. ~-. aqqa eZV. SgtuSa Zattmtg Ouasueo. -tfiouo--. , see-tap pu- euez, :aqtfi. ?nq...

  6. The effect of GnRH on induction of follicular development and ovulation in anovulatory and ovulatory mares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennington, Debra Louise


    pad faq qua!eabeunooua pue aI!oi 'aouaLged unuse gfasEw u! anaL Iaq aw bufqew pue neM aqq. aw 5u!Moqs uo3. noE queqg 'yanqui og 'F, Cfeufg puff . paydwaqge aneq y ge!fg ffe u! qua!eabeunooua pue quoddns 'aoueueaquog ufaqg uog uopbufuuaW I Cassnff... treatment and 70% of the time during GnRH treatment. Control anovulatory mares exhibited estrous behavior 17'K and 15% of the time during the two 25 U1 Q +J Ql Q CL C) c o ) O fO O O Cl col (LUj/6") SN3BOJS3908d 26 courses of sham...

  7. Determination of vapor liquid equilibrium for the ternary iso-propanol/atactic-polypropylene/n-heptane mixture at 105C and 140C, and the binary iso-propanol/atactic-polypropylene mixture at 85C using perturbation gas chromatography / cby Lamar Lane Joffrion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joffrion, Lamar Lane


    Taqg cog uozzag Z H pue uosqeN v pue 'zzogga as~qua s~qs go uo~s~r. zadns quaTged stq zog savoy' sayzeqg ~aqua pue aspayzouqoe oq saqstz zoqgne aqua 'AyyeuosgTppy uoxzepunog aouaToS yeuozgeN aqua pue iuaurqzedap Guxsaauzfu3 yeoxtsa~ gSV sexag aqua go...TzsTzaqoezeqg oTmeulpomzaqZ, azngxTH EuTTapog Lzoaqg uoTgnToS LT uo11ezado TeguamTzadx3 L1 NOIssnzsIG GNv szins33 aznpaoozd uoTgezedazd umnTog pue sTeTzaqeH TeoTmaqg sngezeddv ZNHHI33dX3 suoTgeTaH oTmeuEpomzaqZ, suoTgeTa3 oTqdez604emoIqg 'ZEOHHZ, NOIzzn...

  8. The effects of protein level and feeding methods on egg production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, James Cecil


    ' msebssahgr fRe aehhm eb@sa ta ~ hLa ayg~eaa ta 5c, f, E Qua Hs@4 af the IIaItattaaek ot Nek4tg Ih&asd~ af tba kgt%egtagal aid IImataeI? aal ~ of Tesaa, Ihe hia hakyhk saggaaLhcee~ ?fI? aalu efLXSA aeyeaa ttoay to %. W. A Nxma~ ~ta Nrtaeahm hek...

  9. D n xut Khi phc Sm Giai on IV D n xut Khi phc loi ra bin sm s gip khi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trong vic pht hin v bo v t ca loi ra bin Kemp's ridley qua vic tng cng nhn s, cc hot ng gio dc Gladys Porter cho chng trnh hp tc bo tn ca Hoa K v Mexico ti Mexico. D n cng cung cp 02 cabin cho quyn Texas v B Ni v (DOI), v s tng cng kh nng ng ph phc hi ra b thng v thu thp cht. Chnh quyn

  10. Influence of fertilization on nutrient status and size of bare-root Pinus taeda L. seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Margot Marie


    is the reforestation of harvested lands. Ninety- nine percent of forested land in Texas is planted with bare-root pine seedlings (Lord 1993). Because they may rely on the economics of plant production, both private landowners aad public landholders can insure... their conhnued success through carefuBy designed reforestation pfogranlL The goal of such reforestation programs is to realistically maximim the survival and growth of outplanted seedlings. Achieving this goal depends upon many factors tucludbtg seedling qua...

  11. Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien Unite Mixte de Recherche 7178

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    eriences nous permettant de caracteriser le capteur ont ete menees au sein de l'IPHC ainsi qu'`a leriences ont ete menees `a l'IRSN sur une source de 252Cf moderee `a l'eau lourde. Les resultats obtenus the possibility to use active pixel sensors as operational neutron dosemeters. To do so, the sensor that has been

  12. Kh trng khn cp nc ung Trong nhng thi k ri ren, cc s y t a phng c th khuyn co ngi dn dng nc thn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nc cho gia nh bn, bn vn c th tm c s lng gii hn dng bng cch ly nc ra t bnh nc nng, hay l tan nc ni . Thuc kh trng t hiu nghim nu nc c. Cn phi lc nc c qua nhng khn sch hoc yn cho lng xung, v khng b r st. C hai phng php kh trng thng dng v hiu qu nu lng nc t. Phng php th nht l un

  13. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  14. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewusi, V.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (NG))


    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  15. Public budgeting, public policy, and the politics of resource allocation in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ugorji, E.C.


    The problem of determining who gets what in terms of allocating the nation's resources has plagued Nigerian leaders since independence. It is in this context that this dissertation is focused on the politics of the federal governments's use of the budget as an effective mechanism for mobilizing and constructively utilizing the nation's human and material resources to improve the general well-being of all segments of the Nigerian society. This study was conducted through direct interviews and discussions with some federal government officials and some Nigerian scholars concerned about the problems of development in Nigeria. From the findings, it is concluded that the federal budget process has not functioned efficiently and effectively as a vehicle for moving the nation forward in the direction of sustained and balanced economic progress. Whereas the above situation can be attributed to some structural deficiencies in the budgetary process, it can also be argued that bribery and corruption, fraud and misuse of public funds by politicians and top government officials, be they civilians or military, have undermined all efforts at using the budget as an instrument for accomplishing development objectives.

  16. Chung Qui Ch T i Cantor Ng Quang Hng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngo, Hung Q.

    Tm t t n i dung Trong bi ny, ti s duy t qua cc t ng l n v l ch s xoay quanh m t trong nh ng bi ton quan tr ng nh t c a th k 21: bi ton "P ch i NP" (P versus NP). Cu tr l i ng gi 1 tri u USD [20] v danh ti ng i vo l ch s khoa h c. Cng nh bi ton Fermat l n, b n thn cu tr l i cho bi

  17. Manifestation of the spin Hall effect through charge-transport in the mesoscopic regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hankiewicz, EM; Molenkamp, LW; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo.


    , and D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. B 65, 041306(R) (2002). 28 V. Daumer, H. Buhmann, C. R. Becker, and L. W. Molenkamp (unpublished). 29 R. Fiederling, M. Keim, G. Reuscher, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, A. Waag, and L. W. Molenkamp, Nature (London) 402, 787... in the bulk. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.241301 PACS number(s): 73.43.2f, 72.25.Dc, 72.25.Hg, 85.75.2d INTRODUCTION The ability to manipulate electronically spins and to gen- erate spin currents in semiconductors is the sine qua non for the full development...

  18. Comment to a paper [arXiv:1103.4937] of M. Villata on antigravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet


    In a recent paper of M. Villata [arXiv:1103.4937], it is claimed that "antigravity appears as a prediction of general relativity when CPT is applied." However, the present paper argues that Villata puts the cart before the horse qua methodology, and that the resulting theory cannot be reconciled with the ontological presuppositions of general relativity. The conclusion is that Villata's suggestion for the physics that might underlie a gravitational repulsion of matter and antimatter is not acceptable in its current state of development.

  19. Slaughter Calf Production.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Uel D.


    ?cing fh.e szcb- ject matte?. in, this pzt blicntiolz. Slaughter Calf Production UEL D. THOMPSON, Extension Animal Hzcsba.ndman Texas A. & M. College System MllLlWJ cuttin home1 about -..- - does r -- ' qua1 mor may iinif - I HE SOUTHERN... of the offspring. illustrated in Figure 1. At the Lufkin Experiment Station the mat- I ing of a good quality Hereford bull to a pood quality half-Rrahman half-Hereford cow con- i sistently produced the heaviest calves at wean- 1 Summary of Lufkin Experiment...

  20. Salvia sp.? 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh D. Wilson


    de analisis para Ilegar al fondo de las discusiones teologicas. Dando por supuesta la fe corno sine qua non de la condicion cristiana, Abelardo cree necesario que el hombre vea apoyada su fe por la razon humana (McCallum 104, 105); Quiere conciliar... de Cristo" y la volveremos a encontrar en el LBA. A partir del siglo doce y durante los siglos trece y catorce observamos una intelectualidad que lucha entre su apego a la fe recibida y el deseo de algunos de cumplir con el mandato de San Pablo de...

  1. State versus federal mechanisms of regulating uses of wetlands in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nachtsheim, Henry John


    , and storm damaoe. They also serve as natural pollution control areas and prevent land erosion from inland v!aters. Although the value of wetlands is priceless in maintain1no water qua'iity and marine life, they are disappearing at a rate of 300, 000 acres... traditionally has monitored activities in the navigable waters of the U. S. under the auspices of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, has been attacked by some as not being the agency with the competence to do so. The Corps of Engineers has itself been...

  2. Income and Cost Analysis: Cooperative Cotton Gins and Cooperative Supply Associations of Texas, Season 1949-50.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulson, W. E.


    net margin situation as to additions or deductions as income is higher or lower than standard and as costs are Power or higher than standard. CONTENTS I I Page Digest 2 "Break-even" Volume-A Concept of Long Standing with Texas Ginners... + $8.14 per unit sales. OVERHEAD AND OPERATING COSTS ID COST ANALYSIS ess lume 2 ex- ue to fixed is a 'Iects . . .---- lIllIl# ?qua- unit ment 3. tions re : vesteci vesteci r from at in^ Finally cost analysis may be approached...

  3. nh gi Tn tht Ti nguyn Thin nhin Trn du Deepwater Horizon D n Ci thin Tri nghim Ngi i B v Xe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IVProposedEarlyRestorationProject M T D N D n ci thin vic s dng ng dnh cho xe p v ngi i b ti Davis Bayou bao gm tng cng ci thin qua khi khong 10.000 c dn chuyn n cc vng ln cn. Ngi s dng tuyn ng giao thng cng cng ny bao gm sung c quy hoch v tng chn s c xy dng nhng ni c ng c nng ln. D n cng bao gm vic xy dng bin bo

  4. Oil and development: The case of agriculture in Nigeria and Algeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachrach, E.R.


    This thesis explores the relationship between the oil-boom of the 1970s and development outcomes and the prospects in two African OPEC states. The theoretical framework is provided by the political-economy literatures, both domestic and international. The research is carried out as a limited comparative study with a loosely constructed (before-during-after) interrupted time-series design. Algeria's greater success in managing it soil economy suggests further evidence supporting the promise of a mixed political-economy state model. State and societal complexions are identified, with a primarily qualitative methodology, to explain Nigerian and Algerian development outcomes on the heels of the oil decade.

  5. Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atuma, S.S.; Okor, D.I.


    The extraction, identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human blood and urine are of great importance for monitoring human exposure to this environmental chemical. Although reports abound in the literature on PCP residues, toxicity and environmental fate, there is hardly any information on its existence in the developing tropical countries, particularly in Nigeria. There is therefore the need to survey the status of PCP in Nigerian environment with a view to establishing the potential health hazards resulting from its bioaccumulation. This paper reports a preliminary survey of the residue levels of PCP in human blood and urine of the general population in Bendel State of Nigeria.

  6. Petroleum and structural change in a developing society: the case of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olayiwola, P.O.


    This study of Nigeria provides a multidimensional analysis of development. The Nigerian development experience is considered as the interrelation of: (a) economic development paradigm which guided development thinking; (b) the national planning model and apparatus employed; (c) the ideology of nationalism; and (d) the internal and external factors in Nigeria's environment that combined to influence its development strategies. As a society, Nigeria has undergone profound changes over the period of the last 25 years. It was transformed from a primarily agricultural society to an industrializing one. A key source of this change has been the emergence of the petroleum economy. Nigeria's GDP grew an extraordinary 81% per annum on average between 1960 and 1980. Yet, the aggregate performance of the petroleum economy was far better, adding to Nigerian economic wealth at an average rate of 7400% per annum. Judged on these terms, Nigeria's overall economic performance from independence to 1980 was spectacular; the performance of its petroleum economy astounding. Despite this performance, the structure of Nigeria's political economy is nearly the same as it was at independence. It remains one in which economic life depends critically upon world-market conditions and the level of trade with developed economies.

  7. Pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR DE L'UNIVERSIT DE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    'ai réserve les derniers mots en vietnamien de ce petit paragraphe pour ma famille. Cu i cùng thì con cng làm t là m r t vui, con cng v y, m . Ch ti c m t ñi u, b không còn ñ cùng vui v i m con mình n a. B à, con nh. Không có em và con bên c nh ch c anh cng không v t qua ñ c nh ng giai ño n khó khn nh t trong nh

  8. c n Trung Quc n n n n Malaysia n Nam Phi Ti sao cn hc i hc?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    trong hai mi nm qua. Các ngành ngh và khóa hc truyn thng ã thay i và danh sách các khóa hc cng nh c hi sinh viên hin ang theo hc cng là mt ngun thông tin tuyt vi tìm hiu v nhng la chn và cuc sng ti trng i tháng 9, mc dù các hc sinh cng có th np h s ngoài thi gian này. VTAC cng là ni con ca quý v có th np n

  9. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donges, Jonathan F; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik V; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk A; Kurths, Jrgen


    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence qua...

  10. Chemical characteristics of precipitation beneath three forest types in east Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Charles Edward


    . 27 9. 14 138. 07 Vl IU Qt IQ VI I 5- W Ql o c E CU CU CT Cl Ql Ql L/I 4? E 5- 0 0 5- Vl O C IA ICI I C/I 0 5- Ql /Cl ~ O O. O D o CU 5- CU GL CD ~ Vl c 0 C-I VI I I/I I/I C/I IC Vl E IU O /C Vl I N w E o QI N 0... 5. M IQ I/I Ql 4 ? D 0 W ~ ~ 5 C QI Ql 0 0 I/I 4- Q, ' Ql 0 IQ I I ~ ~ ~ QQ 0 0 0 0 0 0 tg lg ~ OJ )Ueo&ed'Uol)D!&Dg $0 qua!oggaog 20 T~hh hf 11 Throughfal1 in the loblolly pine plantation (PP) was 82/ of inci- dent precipitation...

  11. The use of radar data in the investigation of precipitation distributions and anomalous propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truppi, Lawrence Ernest


    ~', ". 'f"' & 'P'3 ", , 3;CILflCIP. '. . I! l !lCI, XIII' . Qfif 30 fifCILVBIZ~Z. 'I ClI 'I V;YG VVff'3'P, dC ', 3". ff '&3Z SVXBI JO . =8: J1 2 'A V X 2%~ozbeq. eg goagqnS so&sg Enrnusl dONSIOS dO KKJSVN Jo eaxSap aqua uoJ eguaeegynbaz aqua Jo qua...Lxwnuep 30iV. '20S 3C P, ':IJGKI go eez3ap aqua cog egueurezynbez aqua go guantIIygIng Iaygmd uy sexed go a3aIIog Ieoyuaqoaff pua IamgInoyzqy aqua go Iooqog agenpezg a~ og peggILqng Icf BflHI 3 . ". fOif, fPJifWI ?C'I I'fO'fdC'Pif, "f1C...

  12. The World of Dark Shadows Issue 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors


    hi...U . coyi::!,. C.rolyn and I .houldnt around th. bu&b ~ t.l11D~ YOl!. 101. 1~Y8 cb otb.r ao4 w. wOll14 lib to fat aarr1e1.- " Elis.b.t h itted loud S.'i .nd ~.r aoutb-~ ~ ~ brandy ,.lid ioto th. Sl.... Ma;ri.dl 1l1a.bat~ ~4... dilfer.nt way. Biria - a0l2 bets. T!JelCD o;own 8Qua:.'o so.mad minut. to the hrse Nt fUtt10l:; cbout th~ t ~ll tr6~tops. Th. winged oreaturesav no bumanl. hovever, excopt tvo man tacing 80cb other 10 tront ot the Blue Whale Tav~~. Tbe 1..1e,01...

  13. Planning implications of energy research in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osotimehin, S.O.A.; Benjamin, N.R.D.; Sanni, S.A.


    A survey of projects in research institutions and major public energy organizations was undertaken with a view to determining to what extent energy research activities are in consonance with national research objectives. Such a survey is also useful in developing an appropriate energy research policy for Nigeria. It appears that energy R and D efforts are concentrated in the area of alternative energy resources; this accounts for 66% of the total projects. Most of the local efforts are duplication of international research efforts. Even though the demand for energy research is well defined, the absence of proper coordination and adequate policy instruments have resulted in the unattainment of the research goals of the energy sector. Thus, the arguement adduced by some investigators that lack of demand for research is the main obstacle for designing and implementing a relevant science policy in a developing country does not hold for Nigerian conditions.

  14. Biotechnology research in Nigeria: A socio-economic analysis of the organication of agricultural research system's response to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duru, G.C.


    Many agricultural development experts and social scientists argue that a lack of appropriate technology was a limiting factor in the efforts by developing countries to expand their agricultural productivity. Biotechnology is now advanced as a technology that could meet these needs. Agricultural and social scientists maintain that the new biotechnology, if realistically applied, could assist a developing nation such as Nigeria to solve its agricultural problems. But one concern is the private character of biotechnology which limits its transferability to the LDCs. This situation will impose unusual constraints on national agricultural development programs and increase dependence if national research capability is weak. The basic finding of this field research was that the Nigerian national agricultural research system was weak, which meant that the potentials and promises of biotechnology will elude the country's desire to improve its agriculture in the immediate future. The primary weakness rested in inadequate funding and infrastructural deficiencies.

  15. History of energy sources and their utilization in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogunsola, O.I. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt (NG))


    Nigeria, a major oil producer, is rich in other energy sources. These include wood, coal, gas, tar sands, and hydro power. Although oil has been the most popular, some other energy sources have a longer history. This article discusses the historical trends in the production and utilization of Nigerian energy sources. Wood has the longest history. However,its utilization was limited to domestic cooking. Imported coal was first used in 1896, but it was not discovered in Nigeria until 1909 and was first produced in 1916. Although oil exploration started in 1901, it was first discovered in commercial quantity in 1956 and produced in 1958. Oil thereafter took over the energy scene from coal until 1969, when hydro energy was first produced. Energy consumption has been mainly from hydro. Tar sands account for about 55% of total proven non-renewable reserves.

  16. Mobil plans methanol plant in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.


    Mobil Chemical (Houston) is in discussions with Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC; Lagos) on a joint venture methanol plant at Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The U.S. firm has invited process owners to submit proposals for a 1-million m.t./year unit and hopes to select the technology by the end of this year. Three proposals have been submitted: Lurgi, offering its own low-pressure process; John Brown/Davy, with the ICI process; and M.W. Kellogg, proposing its own technology. Shareholding in the joint venture is yet to be decided, but it is likely to be a 50/50 tie-up. Marketing of Mobil's share or of the entire tonnage would be handled by Mobil Petrochemical International (Brussels). The plant could be onstream in late 1996.

  17. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F. [SGI INGENIERIE, Cointrin-Geneva (Switzerland)


    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy was awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.

  18. Oyo-first field Deepwater Nigeria?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilletveit, R.; Nelson, L. [The Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway); Osahon, G. [Allied Energy Resources (Nig) Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)


    The Oyo-1 well was drilled in 3Q95 in OPL 210. The partners in the block are Allied Energy (Operator) and the Statoil and BP Alliance. This well was the first well drilled in Deepwater Nigeria and is a reported hydrocarbon discovery. Although the well was within the Niger Delta depositional system, the deepwater play types drilled were quite different than anything previously tested on the Nigerian shelf or onshore. One year on, some of the questions to be asked are: (1) What did Oyo-1 discover? (2) What has been done to establish the commerciality, or otherwise, of the hydrocarbon pools encountered? (3) What impact does this discovery have on other prospects identified in the deepwater area? The answer to these questions will help to identify whether a new hydrocarbon province in the deepwater Nigeria area can be developed, or not.

  19. The Impact of Information Technology in Nigeria's Banking Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oluwatolani, Oluwagbemi; Philip, Achimugu


    Today, information technology (IT) has become a key element in economic development and a backbone of knowledge-based economies in terms of operations, quality delivery of services and productivity of services. Therefore, taking advantage of information technologies (IT) is an increasing challenge for developing countries. There is now growing evidence that Knowledge-driven innovation is a decisive factor in the competitiveness of nations, industries, organizations and firms. Organizations like the banking sector have benefited substantially from e-banking, which is one among the IT applications for strengthening the competitiveness. This paper presents the current trend in the application of IT in the banking industries in Nigeria and gives an insight into how quality banking has been enhanced via IT. The paper further reveals that the deployment of IT facilities in the Nigerian Banking industry has brought about fundamental changes in the content and quality of banking business in the country. This analysis...

  20. Sequence stratigraphic framework of Neogene strata in offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacht, J.A. [Seis Strat Services, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States); Bowen, B.E.; Hall, D.J. [Excalibur Consulting, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others


    The western portion of the Nigerian continental margin (Dahomey Basin) exhibits stable to moderately unstable progradation. Systems tracts are similar to those described by Vail for stable progradational margins. In contrast, strata off the central and eastern portions of the Nigerian coast (Niger Delta Complex) exhibit highly unstable progradation, and systems tracts are similar to those in Neogene strata of the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Lowstand basin floor fans in both areas are defined by a well-developed upper reflection. This reflection downlaps along the sequence boundary or abuts against the downthrown side of a growth fault surface. Most lower lowstand (slope fan) strata exhibit discontinuous to semi-continuous subparallel reflections. However, this systems tract also contains channel complexes characterized by chaotic bedding with small bright spots and less common large channels, which exhibit concave-upward reflections. In the western portion of the study area, lower lowstand deposits commonly pinch out on the slope. Deposition occurred largely from point sources. In contrast, contemporaneous shallow-water facies are developed in lower lowstand systems tracts in the Niger Delta Complex. Deposition occurred along a line source. Large amplitude anomalies in the upper lowstand (prograding wedge) suggest well-developed sheet sands occur in shallow-water and deep-water in the Niger Delta complex. However, in the Dahomey Basin there is little evidence of deep-water sands in this interval. The transgressive and highstand systems tracts are usually very thin in outer shelf to basin floor strata in both areas. Both the Dahomey Basin and Niger Delta Complex exhibit different stratigraphic geometries, and therefore, require different exploration strategies.

  1. A Lattice Study of Quark and Glue Momenta and Angular Momenta in the Nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deka, M; Yang, Y B; Chakraborty, B; Dong, S J; Draper, T; Glatzmaier, M; Gong, M; Lin, H W; Liu, K F; Mankame, D; Mathur, N; Streuer, T


    We report a complete calculation of the quark and glue momenta and angular momenta in the proton. These include the quark contributions from both the connected and disconnected insertions. The quark disconnected insertion loops are computed with $Z_4$ noise, and the signal-to-noise is improved with unbiased subtractions. The glue operator is comprised of gauge-field tensors constructed from the overlap operator. The calculation is carried out on a $16^3 \\times 24$ quenched lattice at $\\beta = 6.0$ for Wilson fermions with $\\kappa=0.154, 0.155$, and $0.1555$ which correspond to pion masses at $650, 538$, and $478$ MeV, respectively. The chirally extrapolated $u$ and $d$ quark momentum/angular momentum fraction is found to be $0.64(5)/0.70(5)$, the strange momentum/angular momentum fraction is $0.023(6)/0.022(7)$, and that of the glue is $0.33(6)/0.28(8)$. The previous study of quark spin on the same lattice revealed that it carries a fraction of $0.25(12)$ of proton spin. The orbital angular momenta of the qua...

  2. Thickness effect on the structural and electrical properties of poly-SiGe films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asafa, T.B., E-mail: [KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Witvrouw, A. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schneider, D. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Material and Beam Technology, Winterbergstrasse 28, Dresden (Germany); Moussa, A. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Tabet, N.; Said, S.A.M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Stress and Young's modulus of poly-SiGe film are linked to the grain columnar structure. The above properties remain unchanged for poly-SiGe films thicker than 40 nm. The point of transition is close to the electron mean free path for SiGe. Both the resistivity and Hall mobility follow a similar trend. - Abstract: As lateral dimensions of electromechanical devices are scaled down to length scales comparable to electron mean free paths, the influence of thickness effect on their properties becomes sine qua non. This paper presents a detailed study of thickness effect on the Young's modulus, residual stress, resistivity and Hall mobility of ultrathin poly-Si{sub 11}Ge{sub 89} films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Young's moduli for the films thicker than ?40 nm are close to the bulk value (135 GPa) while those of the thinner films are much lower. The reduction in resistivity and subsequent improved Hall mobility as thickness increases are discussed in light of surface morphology which is evident from atomic microscopy images. The near constant values of Young's modulus, resistivity and Hall mobility for the films thicker than ?40 nm are attributed to the columnar grain structure as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy images.

  3. Dynamics of a solar prominence tornado observed by SDO/AIA on 2012 November 7-8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mghebrishvili, I; Kukhianidze, V; Ramishvili, G; Shergelashvili, B; Veronig, A; Poedts, S


    We study the detailed dynamics of a solar prominence tornado using time series of 171, 304, 193 and 211 {\\AA} spectral lines obtained by Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Atmospheric Imaging Assembly during 2012 November 7-8. The tornado first appeared at 08:00 UT, November 07, near the surface, gradually rose upwards with the mean speed of $\\sim$ 1.5 km s$^{-1}$ and persisted over 30 hr. Time-distance plots show two patterns of quasi-periodic transverse displacements of the tornado axis with periods of 40 and 50 minute at different phases of the tornado evolution. The first pattern occurred during the rising phase and can be explained by the upward motion of the twisted tornado. The second pattern occurred during the later stage of evolution when the tornado already stopped rising and could be caused either by MHD kink waves in the tornado or by the rotation of two tornado threads around a common axis. The later hypothesis is supported by the fact that the tornado sometimes showed a double structure during the qua...

  4. Enigmatic compressional structures in an extensional province: Eku field, OML 67, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinones, M.; Evans, R. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Alofe, K.; Onyeise, B. [Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria)


    Acquisition of 3-D seismic data over OML 67-70 and a detailed reservoir description study done on the Eku field, have allowed identification of previously unrecognized compressional features. Situated within a depocenter between arcuate normal growth faults, the Eku structure consists of a shale-cored anticlinal fold and fold-and-thrust separated by a zone of lateral displacement. The crests of the folds have been eroded at a major unconformity at the base of the Qua Iboe shale (Early Pliocene). In the absence of definitive biostratigraphic data, correlations among the various fault-blocks are based on the character of sedimentary packages and sequences on wireline logs. Combined with analysis of the geometry of faults and folds, the correlations support a description of pulsatory movement of folding and faulting, that ultimately culminated in extensional reactivation of earlier regional extension and the not coincident. The effect of the anticipated reservoir sections, and deformation, both compressional, was gravity-driven and on shale detachments. A working hypothesis to explain the disparity in direction of earlier extension and subsequent compression is that thermal expansion that accompanied formation of the Cameroon volcanic line to the east of the Niger Delta in Miocene time, caused a change in the direction of structuring, allowing downslope gravity-driven compression to be superimposed on pre-existing extensional features.

  5. Enigmatic compressional structures in an extensional province: Eku field, OML 67, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinones, M.; Evans, R. (Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)); Alofe, K.; Onyeise, B. (Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria))


    Acquisition of 3-D seismic data over OML 67-70 and a detailed reservoir description study done on the Eku field, have allowed identification of previously unrecognized compressional features. Situated within a depocenter between arcuate normal growth faults, the Eku structure consists of a shale-cored anticlinal fold and fold-and-thrust separated by a zone of lateral displacement. The crests of the folds have been eroded at a major unconformity at the base of the Qua Iboe shale (Early Pliocene). In the absence of definitive biostratigraphic data, correlations among the various fault-blocks are based on the character of sedimentary packages and sequences on wireline logs. Combined with analysis of the geometry of faults and folds, the correlations support a description of pulsatory movement of folding and faulting, that ultimately culminated in extensional reactivation of earlier regional extension and the not coincident. The effect of the anticipated reservoir sections, and deformation, both compressional, was gravity-driven and on shale detachments. A working hypothesis to explain the disparity in direction of earlier extension and subsequent compression is that thermal expansion that accompanied formation of the Cameroon volcanic line to the east of the Niger Delta in Miocene time, caused a change in the direction of structuring, allowing downslope gravity-driven compression to be superimposed on pre-existing extensional features.

  6. An assessment of the mechanical stability of wells offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, J.P.; Ottesen, S.


    In 1991 lost time due to stuck pipe related drilling problems accounted for approximately 18% of total drilling time in Mobil Producing Nigeria Ultd.`s (MPN) offshore operations. The primary cause of stuck pipe was identified as mechanical wellbore instability. This paper presents an assessment of the mechanical stability of MPN`s wells offshore Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to: (1) determine the magnitude of the in-situ principal stresses and material properties of the troublesome Intra-Biafra and Qua Iboe shale sequences; (2) quantify the drilling fluid densities required to drill mechanically stable wells through these formations; (3) review and recommend well planning and operational parameters which aid in minimizing wellbore stability-related drilling problems. The well-bore stability assessment was carried out with the aid of a 3-dimensional wellbore stability model using field derived data from the study area to corroborate the results. The collection and analysis of drilling data (borehole geometry and density logs, pore pressure, leak-off tests, local geology and other relevant well records) to determine the magnitude of the in-situ principal stresses, together with compressive strength tests on formation cores are discussed. Minimum safe drilling fluid densities to promote wellbore stability as a function of well geometry and depth are presented for the most troublesome shales drilled in the study area. Implementation of the results reduced wellbore stability related problems and associated trouble time to less than 5% in 1992.

  7. Primordial features due to a step in the inflaton potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Sriramkumar, L. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Aich, Moumita; Souradeep, Tarun [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Jain, Rajeev Kumar, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211, Geneva 4 (Switzerland)


    Certain oscillatory features in the primordial scalar power spectrum are known to provide a better fit to the outliers in the cosmic microwave background data near the multipole moments of l = 22 and 40. These features are usually generated by introducing a step in the popular, quadratic potential describing the canonical scalar field. Such a model will be ruled out, if the tensors remain undetected at a level corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of, say, r ? 0.1. In this work, in addition to the popular quadratic potential, we investigate the effects of the step in a small field model and a tachyon model. With possible applications to future datasets (such as PLANCK) in mind, we evaluate the tensor power spectrum exactly, and include its contribution in our analysis. We compare the models with the WMAP (five as well as seven-year), the QUaD and the ACBAR data. As expected, a step at a particular location and of a suitable magnitude and width is found to improve the fit to the outliers (near l = 22 and 40) in all these cases. We point out that, if the tensors prove to be small (say, r?<0.01), the quadratic potential and the tachyon model will cease to be viable, and more attention will need to be paid to examples such as the small field models.

  8. Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White


    During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

  9. Niger delta deepwater region petroleum potential assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)


    On behalf of the Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources some 23,000 km of high quality 192 channel, 96 fold seismic, and associated gravity and magnetic data were acquired by TGSI-Mabon Geophysical Co. and made available to the industry in 1991. These data were collected over all deepwater blocks in conjunction with the planned 1993 license round. Later, during 1993 and 1994 TGSI with Mabon Ltd. and Stratum Petroleum Services extended the program onto the shelf (7,000 km) and into the ultra deepwater areas (6,400 km), making possible modern studies of the entire offshore delta complex. In assessing the petroleum potential of an undrilled region, it is useful to refer to analogous basins or provinces already with histories of hydrocarbon exploration and discovery. With this in mind, and using limited data from the already drilled areas of Nigeria offshore, the adjacent West Africa salt basin and Brazil in particular, an attempt is made to discuss the hydrocarbon habitat of the undrilled Niger delta deepwater offshore sedimentary sequences.

  10. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Lle-Lfe (Nigeria))


    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  11. The application of seismic stratigraphic methods on exploration 3D seismic data to define a reservoir model in OPL 210, Deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragnhild, L.; Ventris, P. [Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway); Osahon, G. [Allied Energy Resources (Nig) Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)


    OPL 210 lies in deepwater on the northwestern flank of the Niger Delta. The partners in this block are Allied Energy and The Statoil and BP Alliance. The license has a 5 year initial exploration phase and carries a 2 well commitment. At present the database comprises a 1 x 1 km grid of 2D seismic across the block, and 450 sq. km of 3D in an area of special interest. A larger 3D survey is planned for 1995. Little is known about the reservoir in the deep water, but we expect our main target to be ponded slope and basin turbidites. As such the bulk of the shelf well data available has little or no relevance to the play type likely to be encountered. Prior to drilling, seismic stratigraphy has been one of several methods used to generate a consistent predictive reservoir model. The excellent quality and high resolution of the 3D data have allowed identification and detailed description of several distinctive seismic facies. These facies are described in terms of their internal geometries and stacking patterns. The geometries are then interpreted based on a knowledge of depositional processes from analog slope settings. This enables a predictive model to be constructed for the distribution of reservoir within the observed facies. These predictions will be tested by one of the first wells drilled in the Nigerian deepwater in mid 1995.

  12. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. (Univ. of Lagos (Nigeria))


    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  13. Environmental risk management and preparations for the first deep water well in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, F.


    Statoil is among the leaders in protecting health, environment and safety in all aspects of the business. The evaluations of business opportunities and development of blocks opened by authorities for petroleum exploration, are assessed in accordance with the goals for environmental protection. Progressive improvement of environmental performance is secured through proper environmental risk management. In 1995, Statoil, the technical operator on Block 210 off the Nigerian coast, was the first company to drill in deep waters in this area. An exploration well was drilled in a water depth of about 320 meters. The drilling preparations included environmental assessment, drillers Hazop, oil spill drift calculations, oil spill response plans and environmental risk analysis. In the environmental preparations for the well, Statoil adhered to local and national government legislation, as well as to international guidelines and company standards. Special attention was paid to the environmental sensitivity of potentially affected areas. Statoil co-operated with experienced local companies, with the authorities and other international and national oil companies. This being the first deep water well offshore Nigeria, it was a challenge to co-operate with other operators in the area. The preparations that were carried out, will set the standard for future environmental work in the area. Co-operation difficulties in the beginning were turned positively into a attitude to the environmental challenge.

  14. Sedimentation and tectonics in the southern Bida Basin, Nigeria: depositional response to varying tectonic context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braide, S.P. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Minna (Nigeria))


    The Upper Cretaceous Bida basin of central Nigeria is sandwiched between the Precambrian schist belts of the Northern Nigerian massif and the West African craton. Of interest is the southern part of the basin, which developed in continental settings, because the facies architecture of the sedimentary fill suggests a close relation between sedimentation dynamics and basin margin tectonics. This relationship is significant to an understanding of the basin's origin, which has been controversial. A simple sag and rift origin has been suggested, and consequently dominated the negative thinking on the hydrocarbon prospects of the basin which were considered poor. This detailed study of the facies indicates rapid basin-wide changes from various alluvial fan facies through flood-basin and deltaic facies to lacustrine facies. Paleogeographic reconstruction suggests lacustrine environments were widespread and elongate. Lacustrine environments occurred at the basin's axis and close to the margins. This suggests the depocenter must have migrated during the basin's depositional history and subsided rapidly to accommodate the 3.5-km-thick sedimentary fill. Although distinguishing pull-apart basins from rift basins, based solely on sedimentologic grounds, may be difficult, the temporal migration of the depocenter, as well as the basin architecture of upward coarsening cyclicity, show a strong tectonic and structural overprint that suggests a tectonic framework for the Southern Bida basin similar in origin to a pull-apart basin.

  15. The use of exploration 3D seismic data to optimise oil exploration in OPL 210 deepwater, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.C.; Lilletveit, R.; Sandvoll, T. [Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway)] [and others


    Allied Energy and the Statoil and BP Alliance are currently partners in the OPL 210 license, in deepwater Nigeria. The license has a 5 year initial exploration phase which carries a two well commitment. To optimize the location of these wells in this challenging and costly drilling environment the partnership has decided to acquire extensive exploration 3D seismic data within the block. Interpretation of the first of two planned 3D surveys has led to a much clearer understanding of: (a) The structural segmentation of the prospect and thus a clearer idea of the likely hydrocarbon pool size. (b) The distribution of amplitude anomalies and thus, hopefully, a superior understanding of reservoir distribution and hydrocarbons. Here the limiting factor is clearly the lack of deepwater geophysical calibration, due to the absence of wells. Consequently, conclusions at this stage, are qualitative either than quantative. Combined with detailed seismic stratigraphic and high tech geophysical analysis, these two aspects will assist in the highgrading of segments in the prospect, prior to final decisions on the well locations. The first well, planned for 1995, will be one of the first wells drilled in the Nigerian deepwater area. Examples of both 2D and 3D data will be used to demonstrate the above and some of the first well results will be integrated into our interpretation to highlight how some of our perceptions may have changed.

  16. 6th International Meshing Roundtable '97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.


    The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

  17. Quantum Measurements: a modern view for quantum optics experimentalists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aephraim M. Steinberg


    In these notes, based on lectures given as part of the Les Houches summer school on Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics in August, 2013, I have tried to give a brief survey of some important approaches and modern tendencies in quantum measurement. I wish it to be clear from the outset that I shy explicitly away from the "quantum measurement problem," and that the present treatment aims to elucidate the theory and practice of various ways in which measurements can, in light of quantum mechanics, be carried out; and various formalisms for describing them. While the treatment is by necessity largely theoretical, the emphasis is meant to be on an experimental "perspective" on measurement -- that is, to place the priority on the possibility of gaining information through some process, and then attempting to model that process mathematically and consider its ramifications, rather than stressing a particular mathematical definition as the {\\it sine qua non} of measurement. The textbook definition of measurement as being a particular set of mathematical operations carried out on particular sorts of operators has been so well drilled into us that many have the unfortunate tendency of saying "that experiment can't be described by projections onto the eigenstates of a Hermitian operator, so it is not really a measurement," when of course any practitioner of an experimental science such as physics should instead say "that experiment allowed us to measure something, and if the standard theory of measurement does not describe it, the standard theory of measurement is incomplete." Idealisations are important, but when the real world breaks the approximations made in the theory, it is the theory which must be fixed, and not the real world.

  18. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; Powell, Dennis; LaBute, Montiago; Hyman, James M.; Rivas, Ariel; Jankowski, Mark; Berendzen, Joel; Loeppky, Jason; et al


    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities ofmorepotential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.less

  19. Material flows of mobile phones and accessories in Nigeria: Environmental implications and sound end-of-life management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osibanjo, Oladele [Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)], E-mail:; Nnorom, Innocent Chidi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University Uturu (Nigeria)


    Presently, Nigeria is one of the fastest growing Telecom markets in the world. The country's teledensity increased from a mere 0.4 in 1999 to 10 in 2005 following the liberalization of the Telecom sector in 2001. More than 25 million new digital mobile lines have been connected by June 2006. Large quantities of mobile phones and accessories including secondhand and remanufactured products are being imported to meet the pent-up demand. This improvement in mobile telecom services resulted in the preference of mobile telecom services to fixed lines. Consequently, the contribution of fixed lines decreased from about 95% in year 2000 to less than 10% in March 2005. This phenomenal progress in information technology has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) in the country. Abandoned fixed line telephone sets estimated at 120,000 units are either disposed or stockpiled. Increasing quantities of waste mobile phones estimated at 8 million units by 2007, and accessories will be generated. With no material recovery facility for e-waste and/or appropriate solid waste management infrastructure in place, these waste materials end up in open dumps and unlined landfills. These practices create the potential for the release of toxic metals and halocarbons from batteries, printed wiring boards, liquid crystal display and plastic housing units. This paper presents an overview of the developments in the Nigerian Telecom sector, the material in-flow of mobile phones, and the implications of the management practices for wastes from the Telecom sector in the country.

  20. Final work plan : phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Montgomery City, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division


    From September 1949 until September 1966, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) leased property at the southeastern end of Montgomery City, Missouri, for the operation of a grain storage facility. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In January 2000, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a soil sample (220 {micro}g/kg) and two soil gas samples (58 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and 550 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) collected at the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of a pre-CERCLIS site screening investigation (SSI) performed by TN & Associates, Inc., on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII (MoDNR 2001). In June 2001, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) conducted further sampling of the soils and groundwater at the former CCC/USDA facility as part of a preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI). The MoDNR confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride (at a maximum identified concentration of 2,810 {micro}g/kg) and chloroform (maximum 82 {micro}g/kg) in the soils and also detected carbon tetrachloride and chloroform (42.2 {micro}g/L and 58.4 {micro}g/L, respectively) in a groundwater sample collected at the former facility (MoDNR 2001). The carbon tetrachloride levels identified in the soils and groundwater are above the default target level (DTL) values established by the MoDNR for this contaminant in soils of all types (79.6 {micro}g/kg) and in groundwater (5.0 {micro}g/L), as outlined in Missouri Risk-Based Corrective Action (MRBCA): Departmental Technical Guidance (MoDNR 2006a). The corresponding MRBCA DTL values for chloroform are 76.6 {micro}g/kg in soils of all types and 80 {micro}g/L in groundwater. Because the observed contamination at Montgomery City might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA will conduct investigations to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the possible subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at the Montgomery City site and (2) evaluate the health and environmental threats potentially represented by the contamination. This work will be performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and the MoDNR, to address carbon tetrachloride contamination potentially associated with a number of former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. The investigations at Montgomery City will be conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The site characterization at Montgomery City will take place in phases. This approach is recommended by the CCC/USDA and Argonne, so that information obtained and interpretations developed during each incremental stage of the investigation can be used most effectively to guide subsequent phases of the program. This site-specific Work Plan outlines the specific technical objectives and scope of work proposed for Phase I of the Montgomery City investigation. This Work Plan also includes the community relations plan to be followed throughout the CCC/USDA program at the Montgomery City site. Argonne is developing a Master Work Plan specific to operations in the state of Missouri. In the meantime, Argonne has issued a Provisional Master Work Plan (PMWP; Argonne 2007) that has been reviewed and approved by the MoDNR for current use. The PMWP (Argonne 2007) provides detailed information and guidance on the investigative technologies, analytical methodologies, qua