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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.

Murphy, T W

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Luminous Efficacy Standards for General Purpose Lights | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

output) per watt (measure of power input). The efficacy of a typical incandescent light bulb ranges between 12 lmW and 18 lmW. The efficacy of a typical compact fluorescent...

3

A simple evaluation of global and diffuse Luminous Efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical and humid climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and humid climate A. H. Fakra, H. Boyer, F. Miranville, D. Bigot Building Physics and Systems Laboratory illuminance 1. Introduction Daylighting is recognized as an important and useful strategy in the design. Literature review The luminous efficacy of daylight (in lm/W) is defined as the ratio of daylight illuminance

4

Luminant Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Luminant Energy Luminant Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Luminant Energy Place Texas Utility Id 56288 Utility Location Yes Ownership W ISO Ercot Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Luminant_Energy&oldid=411015" Categories: EIA Utility Companies and Aliases Utility

5

Luminate LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Luminate LLC Luminate LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Luminate, LLC Place Denver, Colorado Zip 80202 Sector Services Product Denver-based consultancy providing technical and management advisory services to companies active in the energy industry. They have specialist expertises in the biofuel industry. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

6

Luminant restores pre-owned draglines  

SciTech Connect

Luminant, a Texas-based coal producer, brings two draglines back to life by moving and refurbishing them. 10 photos.

Donovan, A.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Luminance in computer-aided lighting design  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually ``sees``. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Luminance in computer-aided lighting design  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually sees''. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A Contrast-Based Scalefactor for Luminance Display  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Display Title A Contrast-Based Scalefactor for Luminance Display Publication Type Book LBNL Report Number LBL-35252 Year of Publication 1994 Authors Ward, Gregory J. Call...

10

EARLY PHASE OBSERVATIONS OF EXTREMELY LUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009dc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present early phase observations in optical and near-infrared wavelengths for the extremely luminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2009dc. The decline rate of the light curve is DELTAm{sub 15}(B) = 0.65 +- 0.03, which is one of the slowest among SNe Ia. The peak V-band absolute magnitude is estimated to be M{sub V} = -19.90 +- 0.15 mag if no host extinction is assumed. It reaches M{sub V} = -20.19 +- 0.19 mag if we assume the host extinction of A{sub V} = 0.29 mag. SN 2009dc belongs to the most luminous class of SNe Ia, like SNe 2003fg and 2006gz. Our JHK{sub s} -band photometry shows that this SN is also one of the most luminous SNe Ia in near-infrared wavelengths. We estimate the ejected {sup 56}Ni mass of 1.2 +- 0.3 M{sub sun} for the no host extinction case (and of 1.6 +- 0.4 M{sub sun} for the host extinction of A{sub V} = 0.29 mag). The C II lambda6580 absorption line remains visible until a week after the maximum brightness, in contrast to its early disappearance in SN 2006gz. The line velocity of Si II lambda6355 is about 8000 km s{sup -1} around the maximum, being considerably slower than that of SN 2006gz. The velocity of the C II line is similar to or slightly less than that of the Si II line around the maximum. The presence of the carbon line suggests that the thick unburned C+O layer remains after the explosion. Spectropolarimetric observations by Tanaka et al. indicate that the explosion is nearly spherical. These observational facts suggest that SN 2009dc is a super-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia.

Yamanaka, M.; Arai, A.; Chiyonobu, S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Komatsu, T.; Miyamoto, H. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawabata, K. S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kinugasa, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Honda, S. [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Takayama, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Imada, A.; Kuroda, D. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Kamogata, Asakuchi-shi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Kamata, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kawai, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Konishi, K., E-mail: myamanaka@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan)

2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

11

Measurements of sky luminance, sky illuminance, and horizontal solar radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents initial findings of a sky measurement program currently in progress at the National Bureau of Standards. Measurements are reported on sky luminance and illuminance and how they relate to horizontal solar radiation and sun position. Correlations are presented relating horizontal illuminance to horizontal solar radiation, and zenith luminance to solar altitude. These empirical models are particularly suitable for use in daylighting energy studies since they are based on existing solar data currently available on standard weather tapes.

Treado, S.; Gillette, G.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

MAXIMUM HUMIDITY INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect

Moisture-sensitive systems to measure and indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure are discussed. A chemical indicator utilizing deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. To provide indication of the time at which the exposure occurs, a circuit employing a resistive-type sensor was developed. A small, commercially available sensor is used in a portable probe to detect humidity leaks into controlled areas.

Abel, W B

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Luminant Martin Lake Unit 3 Intelligent Sootblowing Test Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Clyde Bergemann Intelligent Sootblowing (ISB) system was recently installed at Luminant's Martin Lake Unit 3. This report compares the performance of the new ISB system to that of the previous boiler cleaning control system. Criteria monitored during the test included overall heat flux, cleanliness factors from thermodynamic modeling, ash weight, emissions, gas temperatures, and the number of daily sootblower and wallblower operations.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Constraint on super-luminal neutrinos from vacuum Cerenkov processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the Cerenkov-like emission of $e^+ e^-$ from muon super-luminal muon neutrinos assuming a quadratic energy dependence of the neutrino velocity arising from Lorentz violating interactions. We find that with the OPERA result for the neutrino-photon velocity difference, the decay length for the process $\

Subhendra Mohanty; Soumya Rao

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

15

Clustering of Meter-wave Luminous Objects toward Monoceros  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A distribution of the meter-wave luminous objects, which are bright at frequency 74 MHz (a wavelength of 4 m) but not detectable at 1.4 GHz (21 cm) in the VLA surveys, shows a notable concentration in a scale of a few degrees toward Monoceros [(l, b)=(225, 4)]. We argue that it is a part of giant radio relics associated with a nearby cluster of galaxies with cz~2400$ km s^{-1} centered on the spiral galaxy NGC 2377. The angular separation of these objects from the clustering center is consistent with the separation of distant relics to the cluster center if scaled by distance. This fact implies that the concentrations of meter-wave luminous objects can be used as a tracer of the structure of the Local Supercluster and it's vicinity.

Shuji Deguchi; Kazutaka Koike

2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

16

Mid?Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Luminous Infrared Galaxies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a statistical analysis of 248 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) which comprise the Great Observatories All?sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) observed with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on?board Spitzer in the rest?frame wavelength range between 5 and 38 ?m. The GOALS sample enables a direct measurement of the relative contributions of star?formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the total infrared (IR) emission from a large

A. Petric; The GOALS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

MaximumLetThrough.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Maximum Let-Through Currents in the APS Storage Ring Quadrupole, Sextupole, and Corrector Magnets J. Carwardine, D. McGhee, G. Markovich May 18, 1999 Abstract Limits are described for the maximum magnet currents, under specified fault conditions, for the storage ring quadrupole, sextupole, and corrector magnets. Introduction In computing the maximum let-through current for the magnets for the storage ring, several factors must be considered. In general, the maximum current likely to occur even under fault conditions is less than the maximum theoretical DC current given the magnet resistance and the maximum available DC voltage. The first level of protection against magnet current overloads is the over-current interlock that is built into the converter electronics package. The threshold is set to approximately 110% of

18

Removal to Maximum Extent Practical  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Summary Notes from 1 November 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Removal of Highly Radioactive Radionuclides/Key Radionuclides to the Maximum Extent Practical

19

A LUMINOUS AND FAST-EXPANDING TYPE Ib SUPERNOVA SN 2012au  

SciTech Connect

We present a set of photometric and spectroscopic observations of a bright Type Ib supernova SN 2012au from -6 days until {approx} + 150 days after maximum. The shape of its early R-band light curve is similar to that of an average Type Ib/c supernova. The peak absolute magnitude is M{sub R} = -18.7 {+-} 0.2 mag, which suggests that this supernova belongs to a very luminous group among Type Ib supernovae. The line velocity of He I {lambda}5876 is about 15,000 km s{sup -1} around maximum, which is much faster than that in a typical Type Ib supernova. From the quasi-bolometric peak luminosity of (6.7 {+-} 1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, we estimate the {sup 56}Ni mass produced during the explosion as {approx}0.30 M{sub Sun }. We also give a rough constraint to the ejecta mass 5-7 M{sub Sun} and the kinetic energy (7-18) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. We find a weak correlation between the peak absolute magnitude and He I velocity among Type Ib SNe. The similarities to SN 1998bw in the density structure inferred from the light-curve model as well as the large peak bolometric luminosity suggest that SN 2012au had properties similar to energetic Type Ic supernovae.

Takaki, Katsutoshi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ueno, Issei; Ui, Takahiro; Urano, Takeshi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ohsugi, Takashi; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masayuki [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, Ohmine-cho Kita Kazan, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kinugasa, Kenzo [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Sasada, Mahito, E-mail: takaki@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Automated selection of LEDs by luminance and chromaticity coordinate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increased use of LEDs for lighting purposes has led to the development of numerous applications requiring a pre-selection of LEDs by their luminance and / or their chromaticity coordinate. This paper demonstrates how a manual pre-selection process can be realized using a relatively simple configuration. Since a manual selection service can only be commercially viable as long as only small quantities of LEDs need to be sorted, an automated solution suggests itself. This paper introduces such a solution, which has been developed by Harzoptics in close cooperation with Rundfunk Gernrode. The paper also discusses current challenges in measurement technology as well as market trends.

Fischer, Ulrich H P; Reinboth, Christian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Shannon Luminous Metals Co - CA 0-03  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shannon Luminous Metals Co - CA Shannon Luminous Metals Co - CA 0-03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: SHANNON LUMINOUS METALS CO. (CA.0-03 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Shannon Luminous Metals CA.0-03-3 Location: 7356 Santa Monica Blvd. , Hollywood , California CA.0-03-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CA.0-03-2 Site Operations: Research and development of uranium use in luminous paint pigments in the 1950s. CA.0-03-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority - NRC licensed CA.0-03-3 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium CA.0-03-1 Radiological Survey(s): No Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to SHANNON LUMINOUS METALS CO. CA.0-03-1 - AEC Letter; Burman to Alburger; Subject: AEC License

22

The Maximum Intensity of Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An exact equation governing the maximum possible pressure fall in steady tropical cyclones is developed, accounting for the full effects of gaseous and condensed water on density and thermodynamics. The equation is also derived from Carnot's ...

Kerry A. Emanuel

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Hardness of Maximum Constraint Satisfaction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We show optimal (up to a constant factor) NP-hardness for maximum constraint satisfaction problem with k variables per constraint (Max-k-CSP), whenever k is larger than (more)

Chan, Siu On

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

THE ASSESSMENT OF HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE LUMINANCE MEASUREMENTS WITH LED LIGHTING.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research investigates whether a High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) technique can accurately capture luminance values of a single LED chip. Previous studies show that (more)

Tyukhova, Yulia I.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

THE PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE 2008 LUMINOUS OPTICAL TRANSIENT IN NGC 300  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2008 optical transient in NGC 300 is one of a growing class of intermediate-luminosity transients that brighten several orders of magnitude from a previously optically obscured state. The origin of their eruptions is not understood. Our multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from maximum light to more than a year later provide a record of its post-eruption behavior. We describe its changing spectral energy distribution, the evolution of its absorption- and emission-line spectrum, the development of a bipolar outflow, and the rapid transition from a dense wind to an optically thin ionized wind. In addition to strong, narrow hydrogen lines, the F-type absorption-line spectrum of the transient is characterized by strong Ca II and [Ca II] emission. The very broad wings of the Ca II triplet and the asymmetric [Ca II] emission lines are due to strong Thomson scattering in the expanding ejecta. Post-maximum, the hydrogen and Ca II lines developed double-peaked emission profiles that we attribute to a bipolar outflow. Between approximately 60 and 100 days after maximum, the F-type absorption spectrum, formed in its dense wind, weakened and the wind became transparent to ionizing radiation. We discuss the probable evolutionary state of the transient and similar objects such as SN 2008S and conclude that they were most likely post-red supergiants or post-asymptotic giant branch stars on a blue loop to warmer temperatures when the eruption occurred. These objects are not luminous blue variables.

Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bond, Howard E.; Bedin, Luigi R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, Athens GR-15236 (Greece); Berto Monard, L. A. G. [Klein Karoo Observatory (formerly Bronberg), P.O. Box 281, Calitzdorp 6660, Western Cape (South Africa); Prieto, Jose L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Walter, Frederick M., E-mail: roberta@umn.edu, E-mail: kd@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: bond@stsci.edu, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

26

Maximum order of planar digraphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the degree/diameter problem for directed planar graphs. We show that planar digraphs with diameter 2 and maximum out-degree and in-degree d, d ? 41, cannot have more than 2d vertices. We show that 2d ...

Rinovia Simanjuntak; Mirka Miller

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 5070C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80C. Consideration of a ...

J. R. Garratt

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Spatial Domain Watermarking Scheme for Colored Images Based on Log-average Luminance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper a new watermarking scheme is presented based on log-average luminance. A colored-image is divided into blocks after converting the RGB colored image to YCbCr color space. A monochrome image of 1024 bytes is used as the watermark. To embed the watermark, 16 blocks of size 8X8 are selected and used to embed the watermark image into the original image. The selected blocks are chosen spirally (beginning form the center of the image) among the blocks that have log-average luminance higher than or equal the log-average luminance of the entire image. Each byte of the monochrome watermark is added by updating a luminance value of a pixel of the image. If the byte of the watermark image represented white color (255) a value is added to the image pixel luminance value, if it is black (0) the is subtracted from the luminance value. To extract the watermark, the selected blocks are chosen as the above, if the difference between the luminance value of the watermarked image pixel and the original image pixe...

Hussein, Jamal A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Star formation in the luminous YSO IRAS 18345-0641  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: We aim to understand the star formation associated with the luminous young stellar object (YSO) IRAS 18345-0641 and to address the complications arising from unresolved multiplicity in interpreting the observations of massive star-forming regions. Methods: New infrared imaging data at sub-arcsec spatial resolution are obtained for IRAS 18345-0641. The new data are used along with mid- and far-IR imaging data, and CO (J=3-2) spectral line maps downloaded from archives to identify the YSO and study the properties of the outflow. Available radiative-transfer models are used to analyze the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the YSO. Results: Previous tentative detection of an outflow in the H_2 (1-0) S1 line (2.122 micron) is confirmed through new and deeper observations. The outflow appears to be associated with a YSO discovered at infrared wavelengths. At high angular resolution, we see that the YSO is probably a binary. The CO (3--2) lines also reveal a well defined outflow. Nevertheless, the directio...

Varricatt, Watson P; Davis, Chris J; Ramsay, Suzanne; Currie, Malcolm J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Maximum Building Energy Efficiency Research Laboratory secures...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Network - Maximum Building Energy Efficiency Research Laboratory secures LEED Gold July 01, 2013 The recently completed 14.3m Maximum Building Energy Efficiency...

31

LuminAR: Portable robotic augmented reality interface design and prototype  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce LuminAR: a prototype for a new portable and compact projector-camera system designed to use the traditional incandescent bulb interface as a power source, and a robotic desk lamp that carries it, ...

Linder, Natan

32

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

33

DIVERSITY OF LUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE FROM NON-STEADY MASS LOSS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that the diversity in the density slope of the dense wind due to non-steady mass loss can be one way to explain the spectral diversity of Type II luminous supernovae (LSNe). The interaction of SN ejecta and wind surrounding it is considered to be a power source to illuminate LSNe because many LSNe show the wind signature in their spectra (Type IIn LSNe). However, there also exist LSNe without the spectral features caused by the wind (Type IIL LSNe). We show that, even if LSNe are illuminated by the interaction, it is possible that they do not show the narrow spectra from the wind if we take into account the non-steady mass loss of their progenitors. When the shock breakout takes place in a dense wind with the density structure {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -w}, the ratio of the diffusion timescale in the optically thick region of the wind (t{sub d} ) and the shock propagation timescale of the entire wind after the shock breakout (t{sub s} ) strongly depends on w. For the case w {approx}< 1, both timescales are comparable (t{sub d} /t{sub s} {approx_equal} 1) and t{sub d} /t{sub s} gets smaller as w gets larger. For the case t{sub d} /t{sub s} {approx_equal} 1, the shock goes through the entire wind just after the light-curve (LC) peak, and narrow spectral lines from the wind cannot be observed after the LC peak (Type IIL LSNe). If t{sub d} /t{sub s} is much smaller, the shock wave continues to propagate in the wind after the LC peak, and unshocked wind remains (Type IIn LSNe). This difference can be obtained only through careful treatment of the shock breakout condition in a dense wind. The lack of narrow Lorentzian line profiles in Type IIL LSNe before the LC peak can also be explained by the difference in the density slope. Furthermore, we apply our model to Type IIn LSN 2006gy and Type IIL LSN 2008es and find that our model is consistent with the observations.

Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu, E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

34

LuminAR: portable robotic augmented reality interface design and prototype  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce LuminAR: a prototype for a new portable and compact projector-camera system designed to use the traditional incandescent bulb interface as a power source, and a robotic desk lamp that carries it, enabling it with dynamic motion ... Keywords: actuated ui, augmented reality, gestural interfaces, human robot interaction, multi-touch interfaces, robotic lamp

Natan Linder; Pattie Maes

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS GALACTIC NUCLEI N. Z. SCOVILLE AND A. J. BAKER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS GALACTIC NUCLEI N. Z. SCOVILLE AND A. J. BAKER California Institute­wave interferometry has clearly shown the existence of enormous masses (10 9 \\Gamma 10 10 M fi ) of molecular gas. In these systems, molecular gas is an obvious source of fuel for nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN

Baker, Andrew J.

36

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 197396. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and ...

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

The Maximum Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermodynamic approach to estimating maximum potential intensity (MPI) of tropical cyclones is described and compared with observations and previous studies. The approach requires an atmospheric temperature sounding, SST, and surface pressure; ...

Greg J. Holland

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter: Theoretical Aspects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new ensemble-based data assimilation method, named the maximum likelihood ensemble filter (MLEF), is presented. The analysis solution maximizes the likelihood of the posterior probability distribution, obtained by minimization of a cost ...

Milija Zupanski

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Luminant's Big Brown Plant wins for continuous improvement and safety programs  

SciTech Connect

Staff from Luminant's Big Brown Plant accepted the PRB Coal Users' Group's top honour for innovative improvements to coal-handling systems and a sterling safety record. The numbers reveal their accomplishments: an average EFOR less than 4%, an availability factor averaging 90% for a plant that burns a lignite/PRB mix, and staff who worked more than 2.6 million man-hours since March 2000 without a lost-time injury. 13 photos., 1 tab.

Peltier, R.

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

The winds of Luminous Blue Variables and the Mass of AG Car  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present radiation-driven wind models for Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and predict their mass-loss rates. A comparison between our predictions and the observations of AG Car shows that the variable mass loss behaviour of LBVs is due the recombination/ionisation of Fe IV/III and Fe III/II. We also derive a present-day mass of 35 Msun for AG Car.

Jorick S. Vink; Alex de Koter

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta  

SciTech Connect

We have previously shown that epimorphin, a protein expressed on the surface of myoepithelial and fibroblast cells of the mammary gland, acts as a multifunctional morphogen of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we present the molecular mechanism by which epimorphin mediates luminal morphogenesis. Treatment of cells with epimorphin to induce lumen formation greatly increases the overall expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and alters the relative expression of its two principal isoforms, LIP and LAP. These alterations were shown to be essential for the morphogenetic activities, as constitutive expression of LIP was sufficient to produce lumen formation, while constitutive expression of LAP blocked epimorphin-mediated luminal morphogenesis. Furthermore, in a transgenic mouse model in which epimorphin expression was expressed in an apolar fashion on the surface of mammary epithelial cells, we found increased expression of C/EBPbeta, increased relative expression of LIP to LAP, and enlarged ductal lumina. Together, our studies demonstrate a role for epimorphin in luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta expression.

Hirai, Yohei; Radisky, Derek; Boudreau, Rosanne; Simian, Marina; Stevens, Mary E.; Oka, Yumiko; Takebe, Kyoko; Niwa, Shinichiro; Bissell, Mina J.

2002-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

Modeling Maximum Hail Size in Alberta Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional steady-state cloud model was combined with a time-dependent hail growth model to predict the maximum hailstone size on the ground. Model runs were based on 160 proximity soundings recorded within the Alberta Hail Project area ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Eugene R. Poolman

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Maximum Entropy Production in Climate Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R. D. Lorenz et al. claim that recent data on Mars and Titan show that planetary atmospheres are in unconstrained states of maximum entropy production (MEP). Their model as it applies to Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan is reexamined, and it is ...

Richard Goody

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Integrating Correlated Bayesian Networks Using Maximum Entropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of generating a joint distribution for a pair of Bayesian networks that preserves the multivariate marginal distribution of each network and satisfies prescribed correlation between pairs of nodes taken from both networks. We derive the maximum entropy distribution for any pair of multivariate random vectors and prescribed correlations and demonstrate numerical results for an example integration of Bayesian networks.

Jarman, Kenneth D.; Whitney, Paul D.

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Mildly Context Sensitive Grammars For Estimating Maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction The maximum-entropy framework provides great flexibility in specifying what features a model may take into account, making it e#ective for a wide range of natural language processing tasks. But because parameter estimation in this framework involves computations over the whole space of possible labelings, it is unwieldy for the parsing problem, where this space is very large. Researchers have tried several strategies for e#ciently training parsing models in the maximum-entropy framework. Ratnaparkhi's parser (1997) models the probabilities of actions of a pushdown automaton instead of the probabilities of entire parses, but for this reason is susceptible to the label-bias problem (La#erty et al. 2001). Abney (1997) proposes random sampling of the parse space. Johnson et al. (1999) propose using conditional estimation instead of joint estimation. This reduces the space to the possible parses of a single sentence, which is much smaller but can still be unmanageably large f

David Chiang

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Discontinuities in the Maximum-Entropy Inference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit the maximum-entropy inference of the state of a finite-level quantum system under linear constraints. The constraints are specified by the expected values of a set of fixed observables. We point out the existence of discontinuities in this inference method. This is a pure quantum phenomenon since the maximum-entropy inference is continuous for mutually commuting observables. The question arises why some sets of observables are distinguished by a discontinuity in an inference method which is still discussed as a universal inference method. In this paper we make an example of a discontinuity and we explain a characterization of the discontinuities in terms of the openness of the (restricted) linear map that assigns expected values to states.

Stephan Weis

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

47

Optical and X-ray Variability in The Least Luminous AGN, NGC4395  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of optical and X-ray variability in the least luminous known Seyfert galaxy, NGC4395. The featureless continuum changed by a factor of 2 in 6 months, which is typical of more luminous AGN. The largest variation was seen at shorter wavelengths, so that the spectrum becomes `harder' during higher activity states. In a one week optical broad band monitoring program, a 20% change was seen between successive nights. In a 1 month period the spectral shape changed from a power law with spectral index alpha ~0 (characteristic of quasars) to a spectral index alpha ~2 (as observed in other dwarf AGN). ROSAT HRI and PSPC archive data show a variable X-ray source coincident with the galactic nucleus. A change in X-ray flux by a factor \\~2 in 15 days has been observed. When compared with more luminous AGN, NGC4395 appears to be very X-ray quiet. The hardness ratio obtained from the PSPC data suggests that the spectrum could be absorbed. We also report the discovery of weak CaIIK absorption, suggesting the presence of a young stellar cluster providing of the order of 10% of the blue light. Using HST UV archive data, together with the optical and X-ray observations, we examine the spectral energy distribution for NGC4395 and discuss the physical conditions implied by the nuclear activity under the standard AGN model. The observations can be explained by either an accreting massive black hole emitting at about 10^(-3) L_(Edd) or by a single old compact SNR with an age of 50 to 500 yr generated by a small nuclear starburst.

P. Lira; A. Lawrence; P. O'Brien; R. A. Johnson; R. Terlevich; N. Bannister

1999-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

48

New Neutrino Mass Bounds from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release 8 Photometric Luminous Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present neutrino mass bounds using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release Eight (SDSS DR8). The galaxies have photometric redshifts between $z = 0.45$ and $z = 0.65$, and cover 10,000 square degrees and thus probe a volume of 3$h^{-3}$Gpc$^3$, enabling tight constraints to be derived on the amount of dark matter in the form of massive neutrinos. A new bound on the sum of neutrino masses $\\sum m_\

de Putter, Roland; Giusarma, Elena; Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley; White, Martin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Kirkby, David; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Percival, Will J; Ross, Nicholas P; Schneider, Donald P; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Development of High Efficacy, Low Cost Phosphorescent Oled Lightning Luminaire  

SciTech Connect

In this two year program, UDC together with Armstrong World Industries, Professor Stephen Forrest (University of Michigan) and Professor Mark Thompson (University of Southern California) planned to develop and deliver high efficiency OLED lighting luminaires as part of an integrated ceiling illumination system that exceed the Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 performance projections. Specifically the UDC team in 2010 delivered two prototype OLED ceiling illumination systems, each consisting of four individual OLED lighting panels on glass integrated into Armstrong's novel TechZone open architecture ceiling systems, at an overall system efficacy of 51 lm/W, a CRI = 85 and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 10,000 hours. This accomplishment represents a 50% increase in luminaire efficacy and a factor of two in lifetime over that outlined in the solicitation. In addition, the team has also delivered one 15cm x 15cm lighting panel fabricated on a flexible metal foil substrate, demonstrating the possibility using OLEDs in a range of form factors. During this program, our Team has pursued the commercialization of these OLED based ceiling luminaires, with a goal to launch commercial products within the next three years. We have proven that our team is ideally suited to develop these highly novel and efficient solid state lighting luminaires, having both the technical experience and commercial strategy to leverage work performed under this contract. Our calculations show that the success of our program could lead to energy savings of more than 0.5 quads or 8 MMTC (million metric tons of carbon) per year by 2016.

Michael Hack

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

50

2XMM J083026+524133: The most X-ray luminous cluster at redshift 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the distant universe X-ray luminous clusters of galaxies are rare objects. Large area surveys are therefore needed to probe the high luminosity end of the cluster population at redshifts z >= 1. We correlated extended X-ray sources from the second XMM-Newton source catalogue (2XMM) with the SDSS in order to identify new clusters of galaxies. Distant cluster candidates in empty SDSS fields were imaged in the R and z bands with the Large Binocular Telescope. We extracted the X-ray spectra of the cluster candidates and fitted thermal plasma models to the data. We determined the redshift 0.99 +-0.03 for 2XMM J083026+524133 from its X-ray spectrum. With a bolometric luminosity of 1.8 x 10^45 erg/sec this is the most X-ray luminous cluster at redshifts z >= 1. We measured a gas temperature of 8.2 +- 0.9 keV and and estimate a cluster mass M(500) = 5.6 x 10^14 M(solar). The optical imaging revealed a rich cluster of galaxies.

G. Lamer; M. Hoeft; J. Kohnert; A. Schwope; J. Storm

2008-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

51

Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

The Large-scale Distribution of Cool Gas around Luminous Red Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a measurement of the correlation function between luminous red galaxies and cool gas traced by Mg II \\lambda \\lambda 2796, 2803 absorption, on scales ranging from about 30 kpc to 20 Mpc. The measurement is based on cross-correlating the positions of about one million red galaxies at z~0.5 and the flux decrements induced in the spectra of about 10^5 background quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that: (i) This galaxy-gas correlation reveals a change of slope on scales of about 1 Mpc, consistent with the expected transition from a dark matter halo dominated environment to a regime where clustering is dominated by halo-halo correlations. Assuming that, on average, the distribution of Mg II gas follows that of dark matter up to a gas-to-mass ratio, we find the standard halo model to provide an accurate description of the gas distribution over three orders of magnitude in scale. Within this framework we estimate the average host halo mass of luminous red galaxies to be about 10^{13.5} M_s...

Zhu, Guangtun; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Ebelke, Garrett; Ho, Shirley; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Marchante, Moses; More, Surhud; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Petitjean, Patrick; Simmons, Audrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10^44 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-30 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of 56Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to 56Fe via 56Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae...

Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Fraser, M; Wright, D; Chen, T -W; Smith, K; Young, D R; Sim, S A; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Tonry, J L; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Pastorello, A; Tomasella, L; Cappellaro, E; Benetti, S; Mattila, S; Kankare, E; Kangas, T; Leloudas, G; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Berger, E; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Stubbs, C W; Foley, R J; Lunnan, R; Soderberg, A; Sanders, N; Milisavljevic, D; Margutti, R; Kirshner, R P; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taubenberger, S; Botticella, M T; Gezari, S; Urata, Y; Rodney, S; Riess, A G; Scolnic, D; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H A; Magnier, E A; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Waters, C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Direct numerical simulation of temporally evolving luminous jet flames with detailed fuel and soot chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulations of 2D temporally-evolving luminous turbulent ethylene-air jet diffusion flames are performed using a high-order compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The simulations use a reduced mechanism derived from a detailed ethylene-air chemical kinetic mechanism that includes the reaction pathways for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The gas-phase chemistry is coupled with a detailed soot particle model based on the method of moments with interpolative closure that accounts for soot nucleation, coagulation, surface growth through HACA mechanism, and oxidation. Radiative heat transfer of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot is treated by solving the radiative transfer equation using the discrete transfer method. This work presents preliminary results of radiation effects on soot dynamics at the tip of a jet diffusion flame with a particular focus on soot formation/oxidation.

Sankaran, Ramanan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Interaction-Point Phase-Space Characterization using Single-Beam and Luminous-Region Measurements at PEP-II  

SciTech Connect

We present an extensive experimental characterization of the e{sup {+-}} phase space at the interaction point of the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory, that combines a detailed mapping of luminous-region observables using the BABAR detector, with stored-beam measurements by accelerator techniques.

Kozanecki, W; /Saclay; Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Viaud, B.F.; /Montreal U.; Cai, Y.; Fisher, A.S.; O'Grady, C.; Lindquist, B.; Roodman, A.; J.M.Thompson, M.Weaver; /SLAC

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

Maximum Error Modeling for Fault-Tolerant Computation using Maximum a posteriori (MAP) Hypothesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of current generation computing machines in safety-centric applications like implantable biomedical chips and automobile safety has immensely increased the need for reviewing the worst-case error behavior of computing devices for fault-tolerant computation. In this work, we propose an exact probabilistic error model that can compute the maximum error over all possible input space in a circuit specific manner and can handle various types of structural dependencies in the circuit. We also provide the worst-case input vector, which has the highest probability to generate an erroneous output, for any given logic circuit. We also present a study of circuit-specific error bounds for fault-tolerant computation in heterogeneous circuits using the maximum error computed for each circuit. We model the error estimation problem as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, over the joint error probability function of the entire circuit, calculated efficiently through an intelligent search of the entire input space using probabilistic traversal of a binary join tree using Shenoy-Shafer algorithm. We demonstrate this model using MCNC and ISCAS benchmark circuits and validate it using an equivalent HSpice model. Both results yield the same worst-case input vectors and the highest % difference of our error model over HSpice is just 1.23%. We observe that the maximum error probabilities are significantly larger than the average error probabilities, and provides a much tighter error bounds for fault-tolerant computation. We also find that the error estimates depend on the specific circuit structure and the maximum error probabilities are sensitive to the individual gate failure probabilities.

Karthikeyan Lingasubramanian; Syed M. Alam; Sanjukta Bhanja

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

57

ON THE NATURE OF THE PROTOTYPE LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE AG CARINAE. II. WITNESSING A MASSIVE STAR EVOLVING CLOSE TO THE EDDINGTON AND BISTABILITY LIMITS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that the significantly different effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) achieved by the luminous blue variable AG Carinae during the consecutive visual minima of 1985-1990 (T{sub eff} {approx_equal} 22,800 K) and 2000-2001 (T{sub eff} {approx_equal} 17,000 K) place the star on different sides of the bistability limit, which occurs in line-driven stellar winds around T{sub eff} {approx} 21,000 K. Decisive evidence is provided by huge changes in the optical depth of the Lyman continuum in the inner wind as T{sub eff} changes during the S Dor cycle. These changes cause different Fe ionization structures in the inner wind. The bistability mechanism is also related to the different wind parameters during visual minima: the wind terminal velocity was 2-3 times higher and the mass-loss rate roughly two times smaller in 1985-1990 than in 2000-2003. We obtain a projected rotational velocity of 220 {+-} 50 km s{sup -1} during 1985-1990 which, combined with the high luminosity (L{sub *} = 1.5 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun}), puts AG Car extremely close to the Eddington limit modified by rotation ({Omega}{Gamma} limit): for an inclination angle of 90{sup 0}, {Gamma}{sub {Omega}} {approx}> 1.0 for M{sub sun} {approx}Car. Therefore, AG Car is close to, if not at, the {Omega}{Gamma} limit during visual minimum. Assuming M = 70 M{sub sun}, we find that {Gamma}{sub {Omega}} decreases from 0.93 to 0.72 as AG Car expands toward visual maximum, suggesting that the star is not above the Eddington limit during maximum phases.

Groh, J. H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hillier, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Damineli, A., E-mail: jgroh@mpifr.de [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

58

ASCA Observation of an X-Ray-Luminous Active Nucleus in Markarian 231  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have obtained a moderately long (100 kilosecond) ASCA observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 231, the most luminous of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) population. In the best-fitting model we do not see the X-ray source directly; the spectrum consists of a scattered power-law component and a reflection component, both of which have been absorbed by a column N_H \\approx 3 X 10^(22)/cm^2. About 3/4 of the observed hard X-rays arise from the scattered component, reducing the equivalent width of the iron K alpha line. The implied ratio of 1-10 keV X-ray luminosity to bolometric luminosity, L_x/L_bol \\sim 2%, is typical of Sy 1 galaxies and radio-quiet QSOs of comparable bolometric luminosities, and indicates that the bolometric luminosity is dominated by the AGN. Our estimate of the X-ray luminosity also moves Mrk 231 in line with the correlations found for AGN with extremely strong Fe II emission. A second source separated by about 2 arcminutes is also clearly detected, and contributes ...

Maloney, P R; Maloney, Philip R.; Reynolds, Christopher S

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

A Model for Most Luminous and Long Duration Cosmic Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We exploit the fact that General Theory of Relativity (GTR) predicts the existence of compact objects having surface gravitational redshift z_s burst rises dramatically with the value of z_c and can saturate to ~40%. This may explain a gamma ray burst of energy as high as ~5. 10**53 erg. By using the already existing detailed (Newtonian) calculations, it follows that the neutrino heating driven mass loss should be negligible, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the initial fireball could be ~1000. Most of the existing supernova calculations also show that it is extremely difficult to simulate the direct neutrino driven mass loss, and, the shock is not launched if the gravitational field becomes stronger. Since the gravitation potential well of the more compact NS is indded very deep, we do not expect additional baryonic mass ejection. So, without invoking any exotic physics (like strange stars) or overstretching any theory, we may explain most of the luminous GRBs in this simple model.

Abhas Mitra

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

60

Modelling the asymmetric wind of the luminous blue variable binary MWC 314  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a spectroscopic analysis of MWC 314, a luminous blue variable (LBV) candidate with an extended bipolar nebula. The detailed spectroscopic variability is investigated to determine if MWC 314 is a massive binary system with a supersonically accelerating wind or a low-mass B[e] star. We compare the spectrum and spectral energy distribution to other LBVs (such as P Cyg) and find very similar physical wind properties, indicating strong kinship. We combined long-term high-resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring and V-band photometric observations to determine the orbital elements and stellar parameters and to investigate the spectral variability with the orbital phases. We developed an advanced model of the large-scale wind-velocity and wind-density structure with 3-D radiative transfer calculations that fit the orbitally modulated P Cyg profile of He I lam5876, showing outflow velocities above 1000 km/s. We find that MWC 314 is a massive semi-detached binary system of ~1.22 AU, observed at an inclin...

Lobel, A; Martayan, C; Frmat, Y; Dozinel, K Torres; Raskin, G; Van Winckel, H; Prins, S; Pessemier, W; Waelkens, C; Hensberge, H; Dummortier, L; Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S; Lehmann, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

EVOLUTION OF THE VELOCITY-DISPERSION FUNCTION OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES: A HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

We present a hierarchical Bayesian determination of the velocity-dispersion function of approximately 430,000 massive luminous red galaxies observed at relatively low spectroscopic signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {approx} 3-5 per 69 km s{sup -1}) by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. We marginalize over spectroscopic redshift errors, and use the full velocity-dispersion likelihood function for each galaxy to make a self-consistent determination of the velocity-dispersion distribution parameters as a function of absolute magnitude and redshift, correcting as well for the effects of broadband magnitude errors on our binning. Parameterizing the distribution at each point in the luminosity-redshift plane with a log-normal form, we detect significant evolution in the width of the distribution toward higher intrinsic scatter at higher redshifts. Using a subset of deep re-observations of BOSS galaxies, we demonstrate that our distribution-parameter estimates are unbiased regardless of spectroscopic S/N. We also show through simulation that our method introduces no systematic parameter bias with redshift. We highlight the advantage of the hierarchical Bayesian method over frequentist 'stacking' of spectra, and illustrate how our measured distribution parameters can be adopted as informative priors for velocity-dispersion measurements from individual noisy spectra.

Shu Yiping; Bolton, Adam S.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, Apache Point Road, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: yiping.shu@utah.edu, E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

The Nuclear Spectral Energy Distribution of NGC 4395, The Least Luminous Type 1 Seyfert Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present X-ray (ROSAT), infrared, and radio observations of NGC 4395, which harbors the optically least luminous type 1 Seyfert nucleus discovered thus far. In combination with published optical and ultraviolet spectra, we have used these data to assemble the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of the galaxy's nucleus. Interestingly, the SED of NGC 4395 differs markedly from the SEDs of both quasars and typical low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, which may be a manifestation of the different physical conditions (i.e., black hole masses, accretion rates, and/or accretion modes) that exist in these objects. The nuclear X-ray source in NGC 4395 is variable and has an observed luminosity of just ~ 10^38 ergs/s. Although this emission could plausibly be associated with either a weak active nucleus or a bright stellar-mass binary system, the optical and ultraviolet emission-line properties of the nucleus strongly suggest that the X-rays arise from a classical AGN.

E. C. Moran; A. V. Filippenko; L. C. Ho; J. C. Shields; T. Belloni; A. Comastri; S. L. Snowden; R. A. Sramek

1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

64

Additive Evaluation at Luminant Sandow Unit 4: Environmental Energy Services CoalTreat 500 and CoalTreat 710  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundThe use of high-ash Texas lignite at the Luminant Sandow station has resulted in heavy and tenacious deposits on the furnace walls and on the superheat/reheat tube surfaces. Environmental Energy Services (EES) has developed several additives for use in coal-fired boilers to mitigate or reduce the formation and deposition of these types of deposits. Two of these additives were used during a 20-day evaluation in November 2011.ObjectivesThe objectives of ...

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

65

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: February 6, 0: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on AddThis.com...

66

The Environment on few Mpc scales of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at Redshifts z~1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the environment of infrared luminous galaxies (L$_{IR}$[8-1000 $\\mu $m$] >10^{11}$L$_{\\sun}$). We focus on the redshift range 0.7 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 1, where these galaxies dominate the star formation activity and play a significant role in galaxy evolution. We employ MIPS 24$\\mu$m data to identify infrared galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). We use a local density indicator to probe the environment on few Mpc scales and a group member catalog, both of which make use of the DEEP2 spectroscopic redshift catalog, to quantify the environment of these galaxies. We find that the local environment of LIRGs and ULIRGs is intermediate between that of blue and red galaxies. LIRGs and ULIRGs avoid underdense environments and inhabit local environments that are more dense on average than those of other DEEP2 galaxies at similar redshifts. However, when the comparison sample of the non-IR DEEP2 galaxies is restricted to have the same range of stellar mass, color, or luminosity as the IR--galaxies, there is no longer any significant difference in environment; the IR-galaxies follow the same trends in the color-environment and luminosity-environment relations observed at z$\\sim$1. We also find that about 30% of the LIRGs and ULIRGs belong to groups, associated with a minimum dark matter halo of 6$\\times10^{12}$M$_{\\odot}$h$^{-1}$. The group members constitute 20 % of the sources responsible for the IR star formation rate density and comoving energy density at z$\\sim$1.

D. Marcillac; G. H. Rieke; C. Papovich; C. N. A. Willmer; B. J. Weiner; A. L. Coil; M. C. Cooper; B. F. Gerke; J. Woo; J. A. Newman; A. Georgakakis; E. S. Laird; K. Nandra; G. G. Fazio; J. -S. Huang; D. C. Koo

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

ACOUSTIC SCALE FROM THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRA OF SDSS-III DR8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872, 921 galaxies over {approx}10,000 deg{sup 2} between 0.45 < z < 0.65. The extensive spectroscopic training set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous galaxies allows precise estimates of the true redshift distributions of galaxies in our imaging catalog. Utilizing the redshift distribution information, we build templates and fit to the power spectra of the data, which are measured in our companion paper, to derive the location of Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) while marginalizing over many free parameters to exclude nearly all of the non-BAO signal. We derive the ratio of the angular diameter distance to the sound horizon scale D{sub A} (z)/r{sub s} = 9.212{sup +0.416}{sub -{sub 0.404}} at z = 0.54, and therefore D{sub A} (z) = 1411 {+-} 65 Mpc at z = 0.54; the result is fairly independent of assumptions on the underlying cosmology. Our measurement of angular diameter distance D{sub A} (z) is 1.4{sigma} higher than what is expected for the concordance {Lambda}CDM, in accordance to the trend of other spectroscopic BAO measurements for z {approx}> 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS and WiggleZ. We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al.; de Putter et al.) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.

Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Reid, Beth; Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Xu Xiaoying; Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Verde, Licia [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory, 2001 Apache Point Road, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); and others

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fast Local Search for the Maximum Independent Set Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 29, 2008 ... Fast Local Search for the Maximum Independent Set Problem. Diogo V. Andrade (diogo ***at*** google.com) Mauricio G. C. Resende (mgcr...

69

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States: 2007 Update This report provides an update to an estimate for U.S. aggregate ...

70

THE MAXIMUM k-COLORABLE SUBGRAPH PROBLEM AND ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goal of this paper is to investigate the polyhedral con- .... The resulting graph with a maximum (black,white,crossed)-colorable ...... Due to the ad-.

71

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION Seungjin on the variance of decon­ volved signal. We also consider the maximum negen­ tropy principle and show that the CME version, without any prior knowledge (such as channel impulse response, training data). As the demand

Choi, Seungjin

72

Maximum a posteriori based kernel classifier trained by linear programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new approach for classification problem based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. The necessary and sufficient condition for the cost function to estimate a posteriori probability was obtained. It was clarified by the condition ... Keywords: cost function, kernel function, linear programming, maximum a posteriori

Nopriadi Nopriadi; Yukihiko Yamashita

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Estimating Maximum Surface Winds from Hurricane Reconnaissance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radial profiles of surface winds measured by the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) are compared to radial profiles of flight-level winds to determine the slant ratio of the maximum surface wind speed to the maximum flight-level wind ...

Mark D. Powell; Eric W. Uhlhorn; Jeffrey D. Kepert

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Maximum likelihood estimation of Gaussian mixture models using stochastic search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaussian mixture models (GMM), commonly used in pattern recognition and machine learning, provide a flexible probabilistic model for the data. The conventional expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters ... Keywords: Covariance parametrization, Expectation-maximization, Gaussian mixture models, Identifiability, Maximum likelihood estimation, Particle swarm optimization, Stochastic search

a?lar Ar?; Selim Aksoy; Orhan Ar?kan

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart VAMSI K. MOOTHA, ANDREW E. ARAI, AND ROBERT S. BALABAN Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ

Mootha, Vamsi K.

76

The Relation Between Accretion Rate And Jet Power in X-Ray Luminous Elliptical Galaxies  

SciTech Connect

Using Chandra X-ray observations of nine nearby, X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies with good optical velocity dispersion measurements, we show that a tight correlation exists between the Bondi accretion rates calculated from the observed gas temperature and density profiles and estimated black hole masses, and the power emerging from these systems in relativistic jets. The jet powers, which are inferred from the energies and timescales required to inflate cavities observed in the surrounding X-ray emitting gas, can be related to the accretion rates using a power law model of the form log (P{sub Bondi}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) = A + B log (P{sub jet}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}), with A = 0.62 {+-} 0.15 and B = 0.77 {+-} 0.18. Our results show that a significant fraction of the energy associated with the rest mass of material entering the Bondi accretion radius (2.4{sub -0.7}{sup +1.0} per cent, for P{sub jet} = 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) eventually emerges in the relativistic jets. Our results have significant implications for studies of accretion, jet formation and galaxy formation. The observed tight correlation suggests that the Bondi formulae provide a reasonable description of the accretion process in these systems, despite the likely presence of magnetic pressure and angular momentum in the accreting gas. The similarity of the P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} values argues that a significant fraction of the matter entering the accretion radius flows down to regions close to the black holes, where the jets are presumably formed. The tight correlation between P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} also suggests that the accretion flows are approximately stable over timescales of a few million years. Our results show that the black hole ''engines'' at the hearts of large elliptical galaxies and groups feed back sufficient energy to stem cooling and star formation, leading naturally to the observed exponential cut off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function.

Allen, Steven W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Reynolds, C.S.; /Maryland U.

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

NEW NEUTRINO MASS BOUNDS FROM SDSS-III DATA RELEASE 8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present neutrino mass bounds using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release 8. The galaxies have photometric redshifts between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65 and cover 10,000 deg{sup 2}, thus probing a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3} and enabling tight constraints to be derived on the amount of dark matter in the form of massive neutrinos. A new bound on the sum of neutrino masses {Sigma}m{sub {nu}} < 0.27 eV, at the 95% confidence level (CL), is obtained after combining our sample of galaxies, which we call ''CMASS'', with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year cosmic microwave background data and the most recent measurement of the Hubble parameter from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This constraint is obtained with a conservative multipole range of 30 < l < 200 in order to minimize nonlinearities, and a free bias parameter in each of the four redshift bins. We study the impact of assuming this linear galaxy bias model using mock catalogs and find that this model causes a small ({approx}1{sigma}-1.5{sigma}) bias in {Omega}{sub DM} h {sup 2}. For this reason, we also quote neutrino bounds based on a conservative galaxy bias model containing additional, shot-noise-like free parameters. In this conservative case, the bounds are significantly weakened, e.g., {Sigma}m{sub {nu}} < 0.38 eV (95% CL) for WMAP+HST+CMASS (l{sub max} = 200). We also study the dependence of the neutrino bound on the multipole range (l{sub max} = 150 versus l{sub max} = 200) and on which combination of data sets is included as a prior. The addition of supernova and/or baryon acoustic oscillation data does not significantly improve the neutrino mass bound once the HST prior is included. A companion paper describes the construction of the angular power spectra in detail and derives constraints on a general cosmological model, including the dark energy equation of state w and the spatial curvature {Omega}{sub K}, while a second companion paper presents a measurement of the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations from the same data set. All three works are based on the catalog by Ross et al.

De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mena, Olga; Giusarma, Elena [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, University of Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Ho, Shirley; Seo, Hee-Jong; White, Martin; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Kirkby, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

A statistical study of the spectra of very luminous IRAS galaxies. II.Spectral and environmental analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopic observations of a sample of 73 very luminous IRAS galaxies (log(LIR/Lsun)>=11.5 for H0=50km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1},q0=0.5) from the 2Jy red- shift survey catalogue were carried out using the 2.16m telescope at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. The observational data, including the optical images (extracted from Digital Sky Survey) and spectra for these galaxies, are presented in paper I (Wu et al., 1998). In this paper, we give the spectral and morphological classifications for these very luminous IRAS galaxies (VLIRGs). We show that about 60% of VLIRGs exhibit AGN-like spectra (Seyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s, LINER-like galaxies). This fraction goes up to 82% for the ultraluminous IRAS galaxies (ULIRGs) subsample (Log(LIR/ Lsun) >= 12.0). 56% of the VLIRGs show strong interaction or merging signa- tures; this fraction rises to 91% for the ULIRGs. These statistical results strongly suggest that interaction triggers nuclear activities and enhances the infrared luminosity. We find that LINER and a mixture type which have optical properties of both HII galaxies and LINERs could be at the transi- tion stage from infrared luminous HII galaxies to AGNs; their main energy production is from starbursts as well as AGNs. Both infrared luminosities and Ha equivalent widths increase dramatically as nuclear separations between VLIRGs and their nearest neighbors decrease. There is little doubt that strong starbursts happen in the nuclei of VLIRGs. Assuming class 0 as advanced merger, we construct a simple merger sequence, from morphological classes 1 to 4 (with near or far companions), to class 5 and 6 (interacting pairs and mergers) and then to class 0 (isolated galax- ies). Along this sequence, VLIRGs evolve from HII galaxies to AGNs.

H. Wu; Z. L. Zou; X. Y. Xia; Z. G. Deng

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

79

First Stellar Velocity Dispersion Measurement of a Luminous Quasar Host with Gemini North Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first use of the Gemini North laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) system and an integral field unit (IFU) to measure the stellar velocity dispersion of the host of a luminous quasar. The quasar PG1426+015 (z=0.086) was observed with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) on the 8m Gemini North telescope in the H-band as part of the Science Verification phase of the new ALTAIR LGS AO system. The NIFS IFU and LGS AO are well suited for host studies of luminous quasars because one can achieve a large ratio of host to quasar light. We have measured the stellar velocity dispersion of PG1426+015 from 0.1'' to 1'' (0.16 kpc to 1.6 kpc) to be 217+/-15 km/s based on high signal-to-noise ratio measurements of Si I, Mg I, and several CO bandheads. This new measurement is a factor of four more precise than a previous measurement obtained with long-slit spectroscopy and good, natural seeing, yet was obtained with a shorter net integration time. We find that PG1426+015 has a velocity dispersion that places it significantly above the M-sigma relation of quiescent galaxies and lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping. We discuss several possible explanations for this discrepancy that could be addressed with similar observations of a larger sample of luminous quasars.

Linda C. Watson; Paul Martini; Kalliopi M. Dasyra; Misty C. Bentz; Laura Ferrarese; Bradley M. Peterson; Richard W. Pogge; Linda J. Tacconi

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

80

Trends of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in Northern South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of testing the homogeneity of the basic data used in this study, that is, the mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature (as derived from daily observations) of several long-term climatological stations of ...

Ramon A. Quintana-Gomez

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

A maximum likelihood approach towards aggregating partial orders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many of the possible applications as well as the theoretical models of computational social choice, the agents' preferences are represented as partial orders. In this paper, we extend the maximum likelihood approach for defining "optimal" voting rules ...

Lirong Xia; Vincent Conitzer

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

On Determinations of Maximum Hailstone Sizes from Hallpad Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reports of hailstones larger than those indicated by hailpad observations being found on the ground around the hailpad sites raise questions about the validity of maximum-size determinations. Data from the Grossversuch IV hailpad network ...

Paul L. Smith; Albert Waldvogel

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Characteristics of Maximum Concentrations from Multiple Point Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple quasi-Newton numerical scheme is applied to determine the hypothetical worst-case meteorology that will result in the maximum combined concentrations at any receptor location in air quality modeling over short distances for multiple ...

N. M. Zoumakis

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Synoptic Reorganization of Atmospheric Flow during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global atmosphereocean model of intermediate complexity is used to study the influence of glacial boundary conditions on the atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum in a systematical manner. A web of atmospheric ...

Flvio Justino; Axel Timmermann; Ute Merkel; Enio P. Souza

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Humidity Profile Retrieval Using a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite data inversion method based on a maximum entropy principle is presented. The method is both physical since a radiative transfer model with its adjoint is needed, and also statistical since errors of the observed radiances and of a ...

Bernard Urban

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Maximum Likelihood Estimation Using Parallel Computing: An Introduction to MPI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The computational difficulty of econometric problems has increased dramatically in recent years as econometricians examine more complicated models and utilize more sophisticated estimation techniques. Many problems in econometrics are `embarrassingly ... Keywords: MPI, maximum likelihood estimation, parallel computing, parallel programming

Christopher A. Swann

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Normalized Maximum-Likelihood Estimators of the Directional Wave Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of data-adaptative directional wave spectrum estimators is proposed. These estimators may be considered as an improvement over the well-known extended maximum-likelihood method (EMLM). The normalization is based on the idea of ...

M. A. Arribas; J. J. Egozcue

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Maximum likelihood sequence estimation from the lattice viewpoint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considers the problem of data detection in multilevel lattice-type modulation systems in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive white Gaussian noise. The conventional maximum likelihood sequence estimator using the Viterbi algorithm has ...

Wai Ho Mow

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Maximum containment : the most controversial labs in the world  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2002, following the September 11th attacks and the anthrax letters, the United States allocated money to build two maximum containment biology labs. Called Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) facilities, these labs were built to ...

Bruzek, Alison K. (Allison Kim)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Computing maximum non-crossing matching in convex bipartite graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider computing a maximum non-crossing matching in convex bipartite graphs. For a convex bipartite graph of n vertices and m edges, we present an O (n logn ...

Danny Z. Chen; Xiaomin Liu; Haitao Wang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effects of Tides on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights: Probability Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical study was carried out to understand how the probability distribution for maximum wave heights (?m) during tsunamis depends on the initial tsunami amplitude (A) and the tides. It was assumed that the total wave height is the linear ...

Harold O. Mofjeld; Frank I. Gonzlez; Vasily V. Titov; Angie J. Venturato; Jean C. Newman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power spectra give consistent constraints on cosmological models when compared with pre-systematic correction power spectra in the angular scales of interest. The SDSS-III Data Release 8 (SDSS-III DR8) Angular Clustering Data allow a wide range of investigations into the cosmological model, cosmic expansion (via BAO), Gaussianity of initial conditions, and neutrino masses. Here, we refer to our companion papers for further investigations using the clustering data. Our calculation of the survey selection function, systematics maps, and likelihood function for the COSMOMC package will be released at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/boss/galaxy/photoz/.

Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

94

C-GOALS: Chandra observations of a complete sample of luminous infrared galaxies from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present X-ray data for a complete sample of 44 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. These are the X-ray observations of the high luminosity portion of the Great Observatory All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), which includes the most luminous infrared selected galaxies, log (Lir/Lsun) > 11.73, in the local universe, z < 0.088. X-rays were detected from 43 out of 44 objects, and their arcsec-resolution images, spectra, and radial brightness distributions are presented. With a selection by hard X-ray colour and the 6.4 keV iron line, AGN are found in 37% of the objects, with higher luminosity sources more likely to contain an AGN. These AGN also tend to be found in late-stage mergers. The AGN fraction would increase to 48% if objects with mid-IR [Ne V] detection are included. Double AGN are clearly detected only in NGC 6240 among 24 double/triple systems. Other AGN are found either in single nucleus objects or in one of the double nuclei at similar rates. Objects withou...

Iwasawa, K; Teng, Stacy H; U, Vivian; Armus, L; Evans, A S; Howell, J H; Komossa, S; Mazzarella, J M; Petric, A O; Surace, J A; Vavilkin, T; Veilleux, S; Trentham, N

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Estimating the Observed Atmospheric Response to SST Anomalies: Maximum Covariance Analysis, Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Assessment, and Maximum Response Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three multivariate statistical methods to estimate the influence of SST or boundary forcing on the atmosphere are discussed. Lagged maximum covariance analysis (MCA) maximizes the covariance between the atmosphere and prior SST, thus favoring ...

Claude Frankignoul; Nadine Chouaib; Zhengyu Liu

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Height(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Height(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 0.6 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + A Alden Large Flume + 0.0 + Alden Small Flume + 0.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 0.3 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.0 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 0.6 +

97

Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

Chee Leong Ching; Wei Khim Ng

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

An effective heuristic algorithm for the maximum satisfiability problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic local search algorithms (SLS) have been increasingly applied to approximate solutions of the weighted maximum satisfiability problem (MAXSAT), a model for solutions of major problems in AI and combinatorial optimization. While MAXSAT instances ... Keywords: Bose-Einstein distribution, Extremal Optimization, Heuristic search, MAXSAT, Problem solving

Mohamed El Mena; Mohamed Batouche

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mixed Integer Linear Programming for Maximum-Parsimony Phylogeny Inference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue ... Keywords: Computational Biology, Algorithms, Integer Linear Programming, Steiner tree problem, Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, Maximum parsimony

Srinath Sridhar; Fumei Lam; Guy E. Blelloch; R. Ravi; Russell Schwartz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Global Increasing Trends in Annual Maximum Daily Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. ...

Seth Westra; Lisa V. Alexander; Francis W. Zwiers

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Maximum Potential Intensities of Tropical Cyclones near Isla Socorro, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum potential intensity (MPI) of a tropical cyclone represents a theoretical upper limit to the strength of the storm imposed by the laws of physics and the energy available to the system in the atmosphere and the ocean. The MPI in this ...

Jay S. Hobgood

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

An electromagnetism metaheuristic for solving the Maximum Betweenness Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an electromagnetism (EM) metaheuristic for solving NP hard Maximum Betweenness Problem (MBP). A new encoding scheme with appropriate objective functions is implemented. Specific representation of the individuals enables the EM ... Keywords: Betweenness problem, Combinatorial optimization, Electromagnetism-like mechanism

Vladimir Filipovi?; Aleksandar Kartelj; Dragan Mati?

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Maximum Fuel Energy Saving of a Brayton Cogeneration Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An endoreversible Joule-Brayton cogeneration cycle has been optimized with fuel energy saving as an assessment criterion. The effects of power-to-heat ratio, cycle temperature ratio, and user temperature ratio on maximum fuel energy saving and efficiency ... Keywords: cogeneration cycle, fuel energy saving, thermodynamic optimization

Xiaoli Hao; Guoqiang Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The Summer Cyclone Maximum over the Central Arctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fascinating feature of the northern high-latitude circulation is a prominent summer maximum in cyclone activity over the Arctic Ocean, centered near the North Pole in the long-term mean. This pattern is associated with the influx of lows ...

Mark C. Serreze; Andrew P. Barrett

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor speed measurements as control variable inputs. The dependence on the accuracy of the measurement devices makes the controller less reliable. The proposed control scheme is based on the stiff system concept and provides a fast response and a dynamic solution to the complicated aerodynamic system. This control scheme provides a response to the wind changes without the knowledge of wind speed and turbine parameters. The system consists of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), a passive rectifier, a dc/dc boost converter, a current controlled voltage source inverter, and a microcontroller that commands the dc/dc converter to control the generator for maximum power extraction. The microcontroller will also be able to control the current output of the three-phase inverter. In this work, the aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbines and the power conversion system topology are explained. The maximum power tracking control algorithm with a variable step estimator is introduced and the modeling and simulation of the wind turbine generator system using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software is presented and its results show, at least in principle, that the maximum power tracking algorithm developed is suitable for wind turbine generation systems.

Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene Climate in CCSM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) is studied for two past climate forcings, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene. The LGM, approximately 21 000 yr ago, is a glacial period with large ...

Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Esther C. Brady; Gabriel Clauzet; Robert Tomas; Samuel Levis; Zav Kothavala

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Probable Maximum Precipitation Study for Wisconsin and Michigan: Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study provides maps and supporting information on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for Wisconsin and Michigan. The refinement of PMP for the study area has typically lowered the PMP from the generalized values in Hydrometeorological Report (HMR) 51. The study followed HMR 51 procedures with some minor changes that apply to other regions.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Feature Extraction Based on Maximum Nearest Subspace Margin Criterion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the classification rule of sparse representation-based classification (SRC) and linear regression classification (LRC), we propose the maximum nearest subspace margin criterion for feature extraction. The proposed method can be seen as a preprocessing ... Keywords: Dimensionality reduction, Face recognition, Feature extraction, Finger knuckle print recognition, Linear regression classification

Yi Chen; Zhenzhen Li; Zhong Jin

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical The employment of the renewable energy source has grown from long-established concepts into devices for powering--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel

Greenberg, Albert

110

MCMR: Maximum coverage and minimum redundant text summarization model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In paper, we propose an unsupervised text summarization model which generates a summary by extracting salient sentences in given document(s). In particular, we model text summarization as an integer linear programming problem. One of the advantages of ... Keywords: Branch-and-bound, Integer linear programming, Less redundancy, Maximum coverage, Particle swarm optimization, Text summarization

Rasim M. Alguliev; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Makrufa S. Hajirahimova; Chingiz A. Mehdiyev

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Teacher Efficacy Beliefs:Understanding the Relationship Between Efficacy and Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of Chicago Press. McLaughlin, M. W. , & Marsh, D.efficacy construct, McLaughlin and Marsh (1978), researchersinfluence student learning (McLaughlin & Marsh, 1978) (see

Harris, Margaret

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

LITERATURE REVIEW ON MAXIMUM LOADING OF RADIONUCLIDES ON CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE  

SciTech Connect

Plans are underway to use small column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions at Savannah River Site. The ion exchange material slated for the SCIX project is engineered or granular crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Information on the maximum loading of radionuclides on CST is needed by Savannah River Remediation for safety evaluations. A literature review has been conducted that culminated in the estimation of the maximum loading of all but one of the radionuclides of interest (Cs-137, Sr-90, Ba-137m, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241, and Cm-244). No data was found for Cm-244.

Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

113

Minimum/maximum excitation limiter performance goals for small generation  

SciTech Connect

Small generators connected to the utility system often act as followers as they tend to follow system bus voltage variations. For the lack of kVA capacity, small machines tend to be susceptible to becoming over or under excited (excessive Vars in or Vars out of the generator) as the voltage regulator tries to maintain its setpoint with variations in system bus voltage. Minimum and maximum excitation limiters are utilized to limit the voltage regulator characteristic response to system bus voltage changes, that can otherwise result in machine overheating and/or pulling out of synchronization. This paper reviews the operating performance of minimum and maximum excitation limiters used on small machines, and provides the user typical performance expectations. The examples will highlight both main field and exciter field applications. Lastly, conditions will be reviewed that may occur during excitation limiter initial startup that can affect their ability to be initially tuned.

Eberly, T.W.; Schaefer, R.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Property:Maximum Velocity(m/s) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Velocity(m/s) Velocity(m/s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Velocity(m/s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Velocity(m/s)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alden Large Flume + 0.9 + B Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 2.7 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 7.2 + Carderock Rotating Arm Tow Tank + 25.8 + Carderock Tow Tank 1 + 9.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 10.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 25.8 + Chase Tow Tank + 2.5 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 18.3 + H Haynes Tow Tank + 1.8 + I Ice Towing Tank + 0.5 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 2.7 + M MHL Free Surface Channel + 2 + MHL High Speed Cavitation + 25.9 + MHL Tow Tank + 6.7 + MIT Tow Tank + 1.5 + MMA Tugboat/ Barge/ Vessel + 5.1 + Maine Tow Tank + 3 +

115

Unification of Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Inference via Plausible Reasoning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper modifies Jaynes's axioms of plausible reasoning and derives the minimum relative entropy principle as well as Bayes's rule from first principles. The new axioms, which I call the Optimum Information Principle, is applicable whenever the decision maker is given the data and the relevant background information. Given that the maximum entropy principle and Bayesian inference are useful methods, the Optimum Information Principle is at least as useful.

Toda, Alexis Akira

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Chemical maximum humidity indicator update report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Raw materials and manufactured parts sometimes must be kept in a controlled-humidity environment. The use of moisture-sensitive systems to indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure is discussed. A chemical indicator made from deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. The performance and long-term-stability characteristics of the indicator are described.

Abel, W.B.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Property:Maximum Wave Length(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Length(m) Wave Length(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Length(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Length(m)" Showing 18 pages using this property. A Alden Small Flume + Variable + Alden Wave Basin + 1.8 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 12.2 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 15.2 + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + 64 + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + 30 + H Haynes Wave Basin + 10.7 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 22 + M MIT Tow Tank + 4.6 + O OTRC Wave Basin + 25 + Ohmsett Tow Tank + 18 + R Richmond Field Station Tow Tank + 2 + S SAFL Channel + 6.6 + Sandia Lake Facility + 4.57 + Sheets Wave Basin + 10 + Ship Towing Tank + 6 + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:Maximum_Wave_Length(m)&oldid=597351

118

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Total Maximum Daily Load Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) The overall goal of the Clean Water Act is to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters." In 1999, EPA proposed changes to Section 303(d), to establish Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for watersheds that do not meet this goal. The TMDL is the highest amount of a given pollutant that is permissible in that body of water over a given period of time. TMDLs include both waste load allocation (WLA) for point sources and load allocations for non-point sources. In Appalachia, acid mine drainage (AMD) is the single most damaging non-point source. There is also particular concern of the atmospheric deposition of airborne sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury compounds. States are currently in the process of developing comprehensive lists of impaired waters and establishing TMDLs for those waters. EPA has recently proposed a final rule that will require states to develop TMDLs and implement plans for improving water quality within the next 10 years. Under the new rule, TMDL credits could be traded within a watershed.

119

A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

Lovell, Emily Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[abridged] We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2010ay at z\\approx0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{\\pi} survey just \\sim3 days after explosion. We estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, MR\\approx-20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion, v_ph\\approx19.2x10^3 km/s at \\sim40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN 2010ay is 2-5x higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56 Ni, M_Ni=0.9+0.2 M_solar. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, Mej\\approx4.7M_so...

Sanders, Nathan E; Valenti, S; Chomiuk, L; Berger, E; Smartt, S; Hurley, K; Barthelmy, S D; Chornock, R; Foley, R J; Levesque, E M; Narayan, G; Kirshner, R P; Botticella, M T; Briggs, M S; Connaughton, V; Terada, Y; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Mazets, E; Cline, T; von Kienlin, A; Boynton, W; Chambers, K C; Grav, T; Heasley, J N; Hodapp, K W; Jedicke, R; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Luppino, G A; Lupton, R H; Magnier, E A; Monet, D G; Morgan, J S; Onaka, P M; Price, P A; Stubbs, C W; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waterson, M F

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An integrated maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- This paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for a photovoltaic panel, that is to be integrated with the panel during manufacturing. The MPPT is inexpensive, efficient and has few components that serve to increase the MPPTs mean time between failures (MTBF). The MPPT uses an inexpensive micro-controller to perform all of its functions. This includes maximum power point tracking, series battery voltage regulation, sensorless short circuit protection of the MPPTs converter and intelligent shutdown and wakeup at dusk and dawn. The MPPT can source 10 A to a 6 V- 36 V lead-acid storage battery and can be connected in parallel or series with other MPPTs. The MPPT may be easily configured to perform output voltage regulation on passive and water pumping loads. It could also control the actuation of a diesel generator in a hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS). Energy transfer enhancements of up to 26%, compared to solar panels without MPPTs, have been measured. The complete component and materials cost of the MPPT is approximately 28 % of the cost of photovoltaic panels with a peak power rating of 154 W. The integrated MPPT also consumes no stored energy at night. 1.

Wernher Swiegers

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Predicting the solar maximum with the rising rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth rate of solar activity in the early phase of a solar cycle has been known to be well correlated with the subsequent amplitude (solar maximum). It provides very useful information for a new solar cycle as its variation reflects the temporal evolution of the dynamic process of solar magnetic activities from the initial phase to the peak phase of the cycle. The correlation coefficient between the solar maximum (Rmax) and the rising rate ({\\beta}a) at {\\Delta}m months after the solar minimum (Rmin) is studied and shown to increase as the cycle progresses with an inflection point (r = 0.83) at about {\\Delta}m = 20 months. The prediction error of Rmax based on {\\beta}a is found within estimation at the 90% level of confidence and the relative prediction error will be less than 20% when {\\Delta}m \\geq 20. From the above relationship, the current cycle (24) is preliminarily predicted to peak around October 2013 with a size of Rmax =84 \\pm 33 at the 90% level of confidence.

Du, Z L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pollution Impact on Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE

124

Qualms concerning Tsallis Use of the Maximum Entropy Formalism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tsallis statistical thermodynamic formulation of the nonadditive entropy of degree-? is neither correct nor self-consistent. It is well known that the maximum entropy formalism [1], the minimum discrimination information [2], and Gauss principle [3, 4] all lead to the same results when a certain condition on the prior probability distribution is imposed [5]. All these methods lead to the same form of the posterior probability distribution; namely, the exponential family of distributions. Tsallis and collaborators [6] have tried to adapt the maximum entropy formalism that uses the Shannon entropy to one that uses a nonadditive entropy of degree-?. In order to come out with analytic expressions for the probabilities that maximize the nonadditive entropy they found it necessary to use escort probabilities[7] of the same power as the nonadditive entropy. If the procedure they use is correct then it follows that Gauss principle should give the same optimum probabilities. Yet, we will find that the Tsallis result requires that the prior probability distribution be given by the same unphysical condition as the maximum entropy formalism and, what is worse, the potential of the error law be required to vanish. The potential of the error law is what information theory refers to as the error [8]; that is, the difference between the inaccuracy and the entropy. Unless the true probability distribution, P = (p(x1), p(x2)...,p(xm)) coincides with the estimated probability distribution, Q = (q(x1), q(x2),...q(xm)), the error does not vanish. Moreover, we shall show that two procedures of averaging, one using the escort probabilities explicitly, do not give the same result, and the relation between the potential of the error law and the nonadditive entropy requires the latter to vanish when the former vanishes. Let X be a random variable whose values x1, x2,..., xm are obtained at m independent trials. Prior to the observations the distribution is Q, and after the observations the unknown probability distribution is P. The observer has 1 at his disposal the statistic = 1

B. H. Lavenda; J. Dunning-davies

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

126

Submillimetre observations of luminous z>4 radio-quiet quasars and the contribution of AGN to the submm source population  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present sensitive 850 micron SCUBA photometry of a statistically-complete sample of six of the most luminous, z>4 radio-quiet quasars, reaching noise levels comparable with the deep blank sky surveys. One quasar (BR2237-0607; z=4.55) is detected at 850micron with a flux of 5.0mJy (4.5sigma), whilst a second (BR0019-1522; z=4.52) has a detection at the 2 sigma level. When combined with our previous millimetre measurements of z>4 quasars, we find that there is a large range (5--10) in far infrared (FIR) luminosity at fixed UV luminosity, and that the typical quasar has a L_FIR and mass of cool (50K) dust similar to that of the archetyepal low redshift (z=0.018) ultraluminous IRAS} galaxy Arp220. If one assumes a fiducial FIR luminosity of 5x10^12 Lsun for for all quasars with M_B<-23, we find that around 15 per cent of the sources in the SCUBA deep surveys could be classical broad-lined radio-quiet AGN. Thus if one considers the observed ratio of Seyfert II to Seyfert I galaxies at low redshift and any contribution from totally optically obscured AGN, a significant fraction of the SCUBA source population will harbour AGN and hence the inferred star formation rates from submm fluxes may be overestimated if the active nuclei are bolometrically dominant or the IMF is top heavy.

Richard G. McMahon; Robert S. Priddey; Alain Omont; Ignas Snellen; Stafford Withington

1999-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

127

THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: A COMPARISON WITH LUMINOUS QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z {approx} 1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGNs in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z {approx} 1.2, we derive a median mass of 1.02{sub -0.23}{sup +0.21} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} h{sup -1} M{sub sun} for halos hosting central AGNs and an upper limit of {approx}10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5{sigma} level) that X-ray AGNs reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z {approx} 1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGNs is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N {sup 2}/A {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} deg{sup -2} (with N the number of AGNs in a survey area of A deg{sup 2}) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys.

Richardson, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Chatterjee, Suchetana; Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hickox, Ryan, E-mail: jonathan.richardson@uchicago.edu, E-mail: schatte1@uwyo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

128

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacityseems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. Thereport presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

Information Center

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

129

Multithreaded Algorithms for Maximum Matching in Bipartite Graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AbstractWe design, implement, and evaluate algorithms for computing a matching of maximum cardinality in a bipartite graph on multi-core and massively multithreaded computers. As computers with larger number of slower cores dominate the commodity processor market, the design of multithreaded algorithms to solve large matching problems becomes a necessity. Recent work on serial algorithms based on searching for augmenting paths for this problem have shown that their performance is sensitive to the order in which the vertices are processed for matching. In a multithreaded environment, imposing a serial order in which vertices are considered for matching would lead to loss of concurrency and performance. But this raises the question: Would parallel matching algorithms on multithreaded machines improve performance over a serial algorithm? We answer this question in the affirmative. We report efficient multithreaded implementations of two key algorithms (Hopcroft- Karp based on breadth-first-search, and Pothen-Fan based on depth-first-search) and their variants, combined with the Karp- Sipser initialization algorithm. We report extensive results and insights using three shared-memory platforms (a 48-core AMD Opteron, a 32-core Intel Nehalem, and a 128-processor Cray XMT) on a representative set of real-world and synthetic graphs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of augmentation-based parallel algorithms for bipartite cardinality matching.

Azad, Md Ariful; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Rajamanickam, Siva; Boman, Erik G.; Khan, Arif; Pothen, Alex

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry Axis: Alignment with Other Cosmic Asymmetries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a global pixel based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4 degrees-15 degrees and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large scale Healpix resolutions (N_{side}=16 (3.7 degrees), N_{side}=8 (7.3 degrees) and N_{side}=4 (14.7 degrees)). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (\\alpha dipole, Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 10^4 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on LCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduces the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed \\alpha dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5%$ (depending on the resolution chosen for the CMB map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.

Antonio Mariano; Leandros Perivolaropoulos

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

When Crime Pays: Measuring Judicial Efficacy against Corruption in Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for now - crime pays in Brazil. Paginal5de27 ReferencesEfficacy against Corruption in Brazil Carlos Higino Ribeiroa widespread perception in Brazil that civil servants caught

Ribeiro de Alencar, Carlos Higino; Gico, Ivo Jr.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

THE AGE-REDSHIFT RELATION FOR LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES OBTAINED FROM FULL SPECTRUM FITTING AND ITS COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The relative age of galaxies at different redshifts can be used to infer the Hubble parameter and put constraints on cosmological models. We select luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and then cross match it with the MPA/JHU catalog of galaxies to obtain a large sample of quiescent LRGs at redshift z {approx} 0.03-0.39. The total number of quiescent LRGs, 23,883, is divided into four sub-samples according to their velocity dispersions and each sub-sample is further divided into 12 redshift bins. The spectra of the LRGs in each redshift and velocity bin are co-added in order to obtain a combined spectrum with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio. Adopting the GalexEV/SteLib model, we estimate the mean ages of the LRGs from these combined spectra by using the full-spectrum fitting method. We check the reliability of the estimated age by using Monte Carlo simulations and find that the estimates are robust and reliable. Assuming that the LRGs in each sub-sample and each redshift bin were on average formed at the same time, the Hubble parameter at the present time H {sub 0} is estimated from the age-redshift relation obtained for each sub-sample, which is compatible with the H {sub 0} value measured by other methods. We demonstrate that a systematic bias (up to {approx}20%) may be introduced to the H {sub 0} estimation because of recent star formation in the LRGs due to the later major mergers at z {approx}< 0.4, but this bias may be negligible for those sub-samples with large velocity dispersions. Using the age-redshift relations obtained from the sub-sample with the largest velocity dispersion or the two sub-samples with high velocity dispersions, we find H {sub 0} = 65{sup +7} {sub -3} km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} or H {sub 0} = 74{sup +5} {sub -4} km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} by assuming a spatially flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology. With upcoming surveys, such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, even larger samples of quiescent massive LRGs may be obtained, and thus the Hubble parameter can be measured with high accuracy usimg the age-redshift relation.

Liu Gaochao; Lu Youjun; Chen Xuelei; Zhao Yongheng; Du Wei; Meng Xianmin [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

135

Constraint on the cosmological f(R) model from the multipole power spectrum of the SDSS luminous red galaxy sample and prospects for a future redshift survey  

SciTech Connect

A constraint on the viable f(R) model is investigated by confronting theoretical predictions with the multipole power spectrum of the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, data release 7. We obtain a constraint on the Compton wavelength parameter of the f(R) model on the scales of cosmological large-scale structure. A prospect of constraining the Compton wavelength parameter with a future redshift survey is also investigated. The usefulness of the redshift-space distortion for testing the gravity theory on cosmological scales is demonstrated.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Gen; Narikawa, Tatsuya; Sato, Takahiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Huetsi, Gert [Tartu Observatory, EE-61602 Torevere (Estonia)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Emerging Technologies » Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently determining how pollution impacts the efficacy of cool roofs. The project specifically is focusing on the efficacy of white roofs in Northern India. The first phase of the project will take physical measurements to characterize the cooling and climate effects of white roofs. Results from this project will provide important guidance to policymakers and planners as they decide where cool roofs would have the greatest benefits. Project Description The project involves the development of advanced surfaces and next-generation materials to improve solar reflectance of roofs; the ability to reflect the visible, infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths of the

137

A Dynamical Interpretation of the Tritium Maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tropical tritium distribution between 1974 and 1981 is characterized by a maximum along the equator centered between 125 and 145W. It signifies that this region has received the maximum input of high northern latitude water. A dynamical ...

Michael J. McPhaden; Rana A. Fine

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Spatial Forecasts of Maximum Hail Size Using Prognostic Model Soundings and HAILCAST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasting the occurrence of hail and the maximum hail size is a challenging problem. This paper investigates the feasibility of producing maps of the forecast maximum hail size over the Canadian prairies using 12-h prognostic soundings from an ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Ron Goodson; Terrence W. Krauss

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

On the Vertical Decay Rate of the Maximum Tangential Winds in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, it is shown that the maximum tangential winds within tropical cyclones decrease with height at a percentage rate that is nearly independent of both the maximum wind speed and the radius of maximum winds (RMW). This can be seen by ...

Daniel P. Stern; David S. Nolan

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

MaxSolver: An efficient exact algorithm for (weighted) maximum satisfiability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximum Boolean satisfiability (max-SAT) is the optimization counterpart of Boolean satisfiability (SAT), in which a variable assignment is sought to satisfy the maximum number of clauses in a Boolean formula. A branch and bound algorithm based on the ... Keywords: DPLL, Linear programming, Nonlinear programming, Unit propagation, Variable ordering, Weighted maximum satisfiability

Zhao Xing; Weixiong Zhang

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Modeling a Sensor to Improve its Efficacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robots rely on sensors to provide them with information about their surroundings. However, high-quality sensors can be extremely expensive and cost-prohibitive. Thus many robotic systems must make due with lower-quality sensors. Here we demonstrate via a case study how modeling a sensor can improve its efficacy when employed within a Bayesian inferential framework. As a test bed we employ a robotic arm that is designed to autonomously take its own measurements using an inexpensive LEGO light sensor to estimate the position and radius of a white circle on a black field. The light sensor integrates the light arriving from a spatially distributed region within its field of view weighted by its Spatial Sensitivity Function (SSF). We demonstrate that by incorporating an accurate model of the light sensor SSF into the likelihood function of a Bayesian inference engine, an autonomous system can make improved inferences about its surroundings. The method presented here is data-based, fairly general, and made with plu...

Malakar, N K; Knuth, K H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA-LIKE UV/OPTICAL/INFRARED TRANSIENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM METAL-POOR BLUE SUPERGIANTS  

SciTech Connect

Metal-poor massive stars typically end their lives as blue supergiants (BSGs). Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from such progenitors could have an ultra-long duration of relativistic jets. For example, Population III (Pop III) GRBs at z {approx} 10-20 might be observable as X-ray-rich events with a typical duration of T{sub 90} {approx} 10{sup 4}(1 + z) s. The recent GRB111209A at z = 0.677 has an ultra-long duration of T{sub 90} {approx} 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} s and it has been suggested that its progenitor might have been a metal-poor BSG in the local universe. Here, we suggest that luminous UV/optical/infrared emission is associated with this new class of GRBs from metal-poor BSGs. Before the jet head breaks out of the progenitor envelope, the energy injected by the jet is stored in a hot plasma cocoon, which finally emerges and expands as a baryon-loaded fireball. We show that the photospheric emissions from the cocoon fireball could be intrinsically very bright (L{sub peak} {approx} 10{sup 42}-10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) in UV/optical bands ({epsilon}{sub peak} {approx} 10 eV) with a typical duration of {approx}100 days in the rest frame. Such cocoon emissions from Pop III GRBs might be detectable in infrared bands at {approx}years after Pop III GRBs at up to z {approx} 15 by upcoming facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. We also suggest that GRB111209A might have been rebrightening in UV/optical bands up to an AB magnitude of {approx}< 26. The cocoon emission from local metal-poor BSGs might have been observed previously as luminous supernovae without GRBs since they can be seen from the off-axis direction of the jet.

Kashiyama, Kazumi; Yajima, Hidenobu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Suwa, Yudai, E-mail: kzk15@psu.edu [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

GENII dose calculations for offsite maximum individual and populations from Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Document describes the potential dose consequences to the offsite maximum individual and population for ground and stack level releases at the offsite receptors from the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

Nguyen, L.V.

1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

144

NIST Measurement of solid-state lighting products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... luminous efficacy (lm/W), chromaticity, color rendering, and luminous intensity distribution ... of SSL products and is used by DOE Energy Star program ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

145

Maximum likelihood blind image separation using nonsymmetrical half-plane Markov random fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a maximum likelihood approach for blindly separating linear instantaneous mixtures of images. The spatial autocorrelation within each image is described using non-symmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields in order to simplify ... Keywords: blind source separation (BSS), maximum likelihood approach, nonstationary sources, nonsymmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields

Rima Guidara; Shahram Hosseini; Yannick Deville

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The greedy algorithm for domination in graphs of maximum degree 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that for a connected graph with n nodes and e edges and maximum degree at most 3, the size of the dominating set found by the greedy algorithm is at most 10n - 2e/13 if e ? 11/10n, 11n - ... Keywords: algorithms, dominating set, maximum size

Suzanne M. Seager

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A Note on the Parameterized Complexity of Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Note on the Parameterized Complexity of Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation Sebastian B University, 41296 G¨oteborg, Sweden ptr@chalmers.se Abstract In the Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation problem, a set P of paths in a tree and a parameter k is given, and we want to orient the edges

Damaschke, Peter

148

Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Using Only Single Current Sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is proportional to its short current. One of them has a monitor photovoltaic cell to detect its shortMaximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Using Only Single Current Sensor Toshihiko» «Solar cell systems» Abstract This paper describes a novel strategy of maximum-power-point tracking

Fujimoto, Hiroshi

149

Original article: Comparison of maximum peak power tracking algorithms for a small wind turbine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms dedicated for small wind turbines (SWTs). Many control strategies with different features are available and it is very important to select proper one in order to achieve best performance ... Keywords: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), PMSG, Small wind turbine (SWT)

R. Kot, M. Rolak, M. Malinowski

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

"Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" 2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" " Potential by Census Region, 1991" " (Estimates in Physical Units)" ,,,,"RSE" ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum","Row" "Type of Energy","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)","Factors" "RSE Column Factors:",1,1.2,0.8 ," Total United States" ,"-","-","-" "Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthours)",718480,701478,766887,2 "Natural Gas (billion cubic feet)",5345,3485,5887,2 "Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",23885,19113,201081,3.7 "Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",65837,36488,201921,2.6

151

Recent Trends of Minimum and Maximum Surface Temperatures over Eastern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated recent trends in the mean surface minimum and maximum air temperatures over eastern Africa by use of both graphical and statistical techniques. Daily records for 71 stations for the period 193992 were used.

S. M. Kinguyu; L. A. Ogallo; E. K. Anyamba

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

The Use of Polar-orbiting Satellite Sounding Data to Estimate Rural Maximum and Minimum Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with ...

Gregory L. Johnson; Jerry M. Davis; Thomas R. Karl; Alan L. McNab; J. Dan Tarpley; Peter Bloomfield

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Inertial measurement unit calibration using Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The robustness of Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering (FIMLOF) for inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration in high-g centrifuge environments is considered. FIMLOF uses an approximate Newton's Method ...

Thompson, Gordon A. (Gordon Alexander)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Wind Mixing and Restratification in a Lake near the Temperature of Maximum Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cooling of a freshwater take provides an opportunity for studying wind mixing and restratification under the peculiar conditions associated with a density maximum. The concepts are explored using a mixing-layer model that incorporates both ...

David M. Farmer; Eddy Carmack

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

On the Maximum Exospheric Temperature of Hydrogen-Dominated Planetary Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that under static conditions the maximum temperature attainable in the exospheres of hydrogen-dominated planetary atmospheres is of order 105 K when gravitational separation between hydrogen and other elements has occurred, and 104 K ...

G. P. Horedt

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Recent Trends in Maximum and Minimum Temperature Threshold Exceedences in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the annual number of daily maximum and minimum temperature threshold exceedences between 1951 and 1993 are assessed at a network of 22 primarily rural sites in the northeastern United States. After adjusting the annual time series for ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...

Dahl, Kristina Ariel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Predicting Daily Maximum Temperatures Using Linear Regression and Eta Geopotential Thickness Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between forecast geopotential thickness and observed maximum temperature is investigated, and regression equations are calculated using numerical model thickness forecasts for Nashville. Model thickness forecast accuracy is shown ...

Darrell R. Massie; Mark A. Rose

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The Maximum Intensity of Tropical Cyclones in Axisymmetric Numerical Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An axisymmetric numerical model is used to evaluate the maximum possible intensity of tropical cyclones. As compared with traditionally formulated nonhydrostatic models, this new model has improved mass and energy conservation in saturated ...

George H. Bryan; Richard Rotunno

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Observational Evidence for Reduction of Daily Maximum Temperature by Croplands in the Midwest United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate model simulations have shown that conversion of natural forest vegetation to croplands in the United States cooled climate. The cooling was greater for daily maximum temperature than for daily minimum temperature, resulting in a reduced ...

Gordon B. Bonan

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Estimating Summer Design Temperatures from Daily Maximum Temperatures in New Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many climatological locations report only maximum and minimum temperatures. However, in certain applications, such as estimation of design temperatures, the frequency distribution of hourly temperatures is required. For this reason, a method is ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A mechanism for explaining the maximum intraseasonal oscillation center over the western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During late boreal summer (July through October), the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) exhibits maximum variability over the western North Pacific (WNP) centered in the South China Sea and Philippine Sea, while many numerical models have difficulty ...

Fei Liu; Bin Wang

163

An Interactive Method for Estimating Maximum Hailstone Size from Forecast Soundings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic/prognostic sounding analysis package is presented to aid operational forecasters. First, a diagnostic sounding analysis is shown which computes standard thermodynamic parameters while including a scheme to estimate the maximum hail ...

James T. Moore; John P. Pino

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Tropical Cyclone Genesis Factors in Simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale environmental factors that favor tropical cyclogenesis are calculated and examined in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PMIP2). Despite universally colder ...

Robert L. Korty; Suzana J. Camargo; Joseph Galewsky

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks in a Vertical Energy-Balance Model with Maximum Entropy Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vertically one-dimensional model is developed with cloud fraction constrained by the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. The model reasonably reproduces the global mean climate with its surface temperature, radiation and heat fluxes, ...

Biao Wang; Teruyuki Nakajima; Guangyu Shi

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Energy and Enstrophy Spectra of Geostrophic Turbulent Flows Derived from a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principle of maximum entropy is used to obtain energy and enstrophy spectra as well as average relative vorticity fields in the context of geostrophic turbulence on a rotating sphere. In the unforced-undamped (inviscid) case, the maximization ...

W. T. M. Verkley; Peter Lynch

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that ...

Thomas R. Karl; Richard W. Knight; Kevin P. Gallo; Thomas C. Peterson; Philip D. Jones; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Recent Maximum Temperature Anomalies at Albany, New York: Fact or Fiction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis has been conducted of a suspected daily maximum temperature (DMT) bias introduced by the replacement of the National Weather Service (NWS) HO-63 bygrothermograph with a modernized HO-83 instrument at Albany, New York, on 6 February ...

Ronald W. Kessler; Lance F. Bosart; Robert S. Gaza

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Systematic Biases in Manual Observations of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate that manual observations of daily maximum and minimum temperature are strongly biased toward temperatures ending in certain digits. The nature and severity of these biases are quantified using standard statistical methods. ...

Jon M. Nese

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Performance of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

algorithms for stand- alone photovoltaic systems," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 11 of a maximum power point tracker," in IEEE Photovolatic Specialists Conference, 2008, pp. 1­3. [10] W. Wu, N

Odam, Kofi

171

Optimising maximum power output and minimum entropy generation of Atkinson cycle using mutable smart bees algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is optimising maximum power output (MPO) and minimum entropy generation (MEG) of an Atkinson cycle as a multi-objective constraint thermodynamic problem by a new improved artificial bee colony algorithm which utilises 'mutable ...

Mofid Gorji; Ahmad Mozaffari; Sina Mohammadrezaei Noudeh

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Combining Lagrangian decomposition with an evolutionary algorithm for the knapsack constrained maximum spanning tree problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a Lagrangian decomposition approach for the Knapsack Constrained Maximum Spanning Tree problem yielding upper bounds as well as heuristic solutions. This method is further combined with an evolutionary algorithm to a sequential hybrid approach. ...

Sandro Pirkwieser; Gnther R. Raidl; Jakob Puchinger

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

A Method to Estimate Missing Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to estimate missing daily maximum and minimum temperatures is presented. Temperature estimates are based on departures from daily temperature normals at the three closest stations with similar observation times. Although applied to ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Keith L. Eggleston; Warren W. Knapp

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Wavenumber Analysis of Azimuthally Distributed Data: Assessing Maximum Allowable Gap Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performing wavenumber decomposition on azimuthally distributed data such as those in tropical cyclones can be challenging when data gaps exist in the signal. In the literature, ad hoc approaches are found to determine maximum gap size beyond which ...

Sylvie Lorsolo; Altu? Aksoy

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Atlantic Ocean circulation at the last glacial maximum : inferences from data and models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO? ...

Dail, Holly Janine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Tropical Cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum: An AtmosphereMixed Layer Ocean Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of tropical temperature to glacial forcing is examined by using an atmospheremixed layer ocean (AMLO) model to simulate the climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) following specifications established by the Paleoclimate ...

Anthony J. Broccoli

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Influence of Large-Scale Climate Variability on Winter Maximum Daily Precipitation over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is fitted to winter season daily maximum precipitation over North America, with indices representing El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the North ...

Xuebin Zhang; Jiafeng Wang; Francis W. Zwiers; Pavel Ya Groisman

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

VERY RAPID HIGH-AMPLITUDE GAMMA-RAY VARIABILITY IN LUMINOUS BLAZAR PKS 1510-089 STUDIED WITH FERMI-LAT  

SciTech Connect

Here we report on the detailed analysis of the {gamma}-ray light curve of a luminous blazar PKS 1510-089 observed in the GeV range with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite during the period 2011 September-December. By investigating the properties of the detected three major flares with the shortest possible time binning allowed by the photon statistics, we find a variety of temporal characteristics and variability patterns. This includes a clearly asymmetric profile (with a faster flux rise and a slower decay) of the flare resolved on sub-daily timescales, a superposition of many short uncorrelated flaring events forming the apparently coherent longer-duration outburst, and a huge single isolated outburst unresolved down to the timescale of 3 hr. In the latter case we estimate the corresponding {gamma}-ray flux doubling timescale to be below 1 hr, which is extreme and never previously reported for any active galaxy in the GeV range. The other unique finding is that the total power released during the studied rapid and high-amplitude flares constitutes the bulk of the power radiatively dissipated in the source and a significant fraction of the total kinetic luminosity of the underlying relativistic outflow. Our analysis allows us to access directly the characteristic timescales involved in shaping the energy dissipation processes in the source, and to provide constraints on the location and the structure of the blazar emission zone in PKS 1510-089.

Saito, S.; Stawarz, L.; Takahashi, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tanaka, Y. T. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Madejski, G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); D'Ammando, F., E-mail: ssaitoh@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Dip. di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia and INFN, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

179

Microcontroller Servomotor for Maximum Effective Power Point for Solar Cell System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper a Maximum Power point (MPP) tracking algorithm is developed using dual-axis servomotor feedback tracking control system. An efficient and accurate servomotor system is used to increase the system efficiency and reduces the solar cell system coast. The proposed automatic servo control system based on PIC microcontroller which is used to control the photovoltaic (PV) modules. This servo system will track the sun rays in order to get MPP during the day using direct radiation. A photo cell is used to sense the direct sun radiation and feedback a signal to the PIC microcontroller, and then the decisions are made through the microcontroller and send a command to the servomotor system to achieve maximum power generation. The proposed system is demonstrated through simulation results. Finally, using the proposed system based on PIC microcontroller, the system will be more efficient, minimum cost, and maximum power transfer is obtained.

Al-Khalidy, M.; Al-Rawi, O.; Noaman, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Spectral Modeling of SNe Ia Near Maximum Light: Probing the Characteristics of Hydro Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed detailed NLTE spectral synthesis modeling of 2 types of 1-D hydro models: the very highly parameterized deflagration model W7, and two delayed detonation models. We find that overall both models do about equally well at fitting well observed SNe Ia near to maximum light. However, the Si II 6150 feature of W7 is systematically too fast, whereas for the delayed detonation models it is also somewhat too fast, but significantly better than that of W7. We find that a parameterized mixed model does the best job of reproducing the Si II 6150 line near maximum light and we study the differences in the models that lead to better fits to normal SNe Ia. We discuss what is required of a hydro model to fit the spectra of observed SNe Ia near maximum light.

E. Baron; S. Bongard; David Branch; Peter H. Hauschildt

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

LUMINOUS AND HIGH STELLAR MASS CANDIDATE GALAXIES AT z Almost-Equal-To 8 DISCOVERED IN THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z Almost-Equal-To 8. Its two-tiered ''wide and deep'' strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z Almost-Equal-To 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin{sup 2} to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J < 26.2 mag, and are >1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z Almost-Equal-To 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z Almost-Equal-To 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Dave, Romeel [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Reddy, Naveen; Siana, Brian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Cooray, Asantha R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Imaging Molecular Gas in the Luminous Merger NGC 3256 : Detection of High-Velocity Gas and Twin Gas Peaks in the Double Nucleus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular gas in the merging starburst galaxy NGC 3256 has been imaged with the Submillimeter Array at a resolution of 1'' x 2'' (170 x 340 pc at 35 Mpc). This is the first interferometric imaging of molecular gas in the most luminous galaxy within z=0.01. There is a large disk of molecular gas (r > 3 kpc) in the center of the merger with a strong gas concentration toward the double nucleus. The gas disk having a mass of ~3*10^9 Msun in the central 3 kpc rotates around a point between the two nuclei that are 850 pc apart on the sky. The molecular gas is warm and turbulent and shows spatial variation of the intensity ratio between CO isotopomers. High-velocity molecular gas is discovered at the galactic center. Its velocity in our line of sight is up to 420 km/s offset from the systemic velocity of the galaxy; the terminal velocity is twice as large as that due to the rotation of the main gas disk. The high-velocity gas is most likely due to a molecular outflow from the gas disk, entrained by the starburst-driven superwind in the galaxy. The molecular outflow is estimated to have a rate of ~10 Msun/yr and to play a significant role in the dispersal or depletion of molecular gas from the galactic center. A compact gas concentration and steep velocity gradient are also found around each of the twin nuclei. They are suggestive of a small gas disk rotating around each nucleus. If these are indeed mini-disks, their dynamical masses are ~10^9 Msun within a radius of 170 pc.

Kazushi Sakamoto; Paul T. P. Ho; Alison B. Peck

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

184

SN 2006gy: Discovery of the most luminous supernova ever recorded, powered by the death of an extremely massive star like Eta Carinae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abridged) We report our discovery and observations of the peculiar Type IIn supernova SN2006gy in NGC1260, revealing that it reached a peak magnitude of -22, making it the most luminous supernova ever recorded. It is not yet clear what powers the total radiated energy of 1e51 erg, but we argue that any mechanism -- thermal emission, circumstellar interaction, or 56Ni decay -- requires a very massive progenitor star. The circumstellar interaction hypothesis would require truly exceptional conditions around the star probably experienced an LBV eruption like the 19th century eruption of eta Carinae. Alternatively, radioactive decay of 56Ni may be a less objectionable hypothesis. That power source would imply a large Ni mass of 22 Msun, requiring that SN2006gy was a pair-instability supernova where the star's core was obliterated. SN2006gy is the first supernova for which we have good reason to suspect a pair-instability explosion. Based on a number of lines of evidence, we rule out the hypothesis that SN 2006gy was a ``Type IIa'' event. Instead, we propose that the progenitor may have been a very massive evolved object like eta Carinae that, contrary to expectations, failed to completely shed its massive hydrogen envelope before it died. Our interpretation of SN2006gy implies that the most massive stars can explode earlier than expected, during the LBV phase, preventing them from ever becoming Wolf-Rayet stars. SN2006gy also suggests that the most massive stars can create brilliant supernovae instead of dying ignominious deaths through direct collapse to a black hole.

Nathan Smith; Weidong Li; Ryan J. Foley; J. Craig Wheeler; Dave Pooley; Ryan Chornock; Alexei V. Filippenko; Jeffrey M. Silverman; Robert Quimby; Joshua S. Bloom; Charles Hansen

2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

185

BONA FIDE, STRONG-VARIABLE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STARS ARE FAST ROTATORS: DETECTION OF A HIGH ROTATIONAL VELOCITY IN HR CARINAE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report optical observations of the luminous blue variable (LBV) HR Carinae which show that the star has reached a visual minimum phase in 2009. More importantly, we detected absorptions due to Si IV lambdalambda4088-4116. To match their observed line profiles from 2009 May, a high rotational velocity of v{sub rot} approx = 150 +- 20 km s{sup -1} is needed (assuming an inclination angle of 30 deg.), implying that HR Car rotates at approx =0.88 +- 0.2 of its critical velocity for breakup (v{sub crit}). Our results suggest that fast rotation is typical in all strong-variable, bona fide galactic LBVs, which present S-Dor-type variability. Strong-variable LBVs are located in a well-defined region of the HR diagram during visual minimum (the 'LBV minimum instability strip'). We suggest this region corresponds to where v{sub crit} is reached. To the left of this strip, a forbidden zone with v{sub rot}/v{sub crit}>1 is present, explaining why no LBVs are detected in this zone. Since dormant/ex LBVs like P Cygni and HD 168625 have low v{sub rot}, we propose that LBVs can be separated into two groups: fast-rotating, strong-variable stars showing S-Dor cycles (such as AG Car and HR Car) and slow-rotating stars with much less variability (such as P Cygni and HD 168625). We speculate that supernova (SN) progenitors which had S-Dor cycles before exploding (such as in SN 2001ig, SN 2003bg, and SN 2005gj) could have been fast rotators. We suggest that the potential difficulty of fast-rotating Galactic LBVs to lose angular momentum is additional evidence that such stars could explode during the LBV phase.

Groh, J. H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Damineli, A.; Moises, A. P.; Teodoro, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hillier, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Barba, R. [Departamento de fisica, Universidad de La Serena, Benavente 980, La Serena (Chile); Fernandez-Lajus, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Solivella, G., E-mail: jgroh@mpifr-bonn.mpg.d [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata (CCT La Plata-CONICET), Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina)

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Scientific highlights of the Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena (STIP) intervals during the SMY/SMA (Solar Maximum Year/Solar Maximum Analysis)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The STIP Project was instrumental in the coordination of multi-disciplinary ground-and -space-based synoptic observations and analysis of solar/interplanetary events during the period covered by the Solar Maximum Year and Solar Maximum Analysis. Eight STIP Intervals for coordinated studies were conducted during the SMY/SMA period starting with STIP Interval VII (August 1979) and ending with Interval XIV (20 May - 20 July 1982). These results increased our understanding and knowledge of a variety of phenomena including coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their in situ shock wave detections within 1 AU; shock physics; acceleration of particles at variously classified shocks by V x B drift and Fermi mechanisms; magnetic clouds; interplanetary disturbances; x-ray imaging of preflare and flare-generated CMEs, and white light imaging of CMEs during SMY by both spacecraft and ground-based instruments. In addition, scientific progress was made on the tracking of disturbances (initiated by flares, eruptive prominences, and coronal holes) into interplanetary space as well as some of their consequences as observed at 1 AU and throughout the heliosphere.

Dryer, M.; Shea, M.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Applying synchrotron phase measurement to the estimation of maximum beam intensity in the Fermilab Booster  

SciTech Connect

It is important to have experimental methods to estimate the maximum beam intensity for the Fermilab Booster as objective input into long term program commitments. An important existing limit is set by the available rf power. This limit is difficult to set a priori, because the real longitudinal impedance is not well known. The synchrotron phase at transition crossing was measured using both the mountain range plot and the direct phase measurement of the RF accelerating voltage relative to the beam, and results were consistent. They were applied to predict 6 x 10{sup 12} maximum Booster beam intensity with present running conditions.

Xi Yang; James MacLachlan

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

188

What is the maximum rate at which entropy of a string can increase?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to Susskind, a string falling toward a black hole spreads exponentially over the stretched horizon due to repulsive interactions of the string bits. In this paper such a string is modeled as a self-avoiding walk and the string entropy is found. It is shown that the rate at which information/entropy contained in the string spreads is the maximum rate allowed by quantum theory. The maximum rate at which the black hole entropy can increase when a string falls into a black hole is also discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostyantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Numerical maximum likelihood estimation for the g-and-k and generalized g-and-h distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuing increases in computing power and availability mean that many maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) problems previously thought intractable or too computationally difficult can now be tackled numerically. However, ML parameter estimation for ... Keywords: g-and-k distribution, generalized g-and-h distribution, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), numerical maximum likelihood estimation (NMLE), quantile distributions

G. D. Rayner; H. L. MacGillivray

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Achieving maximum spatial diversity with decouple-and-forward relaying in dual-hop OSTBC transmissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this letter, we prove that decouple-and-forward (DCF) relaying for dual-hop orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) transmissions achieves the maximum diversity order attainable by dual-hop MIMO relaying systems. Decoupling at the relay transforms ... Keywords: OSTBC, decouple-and-forward relaying, diversity order, dual-hop MIMO system, rayleigh fading channels

In-Ho Lee; Dongwoo Kim

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

GenDocSum+MCLR: Generic document summarization based on maximum coverage and less redundancy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rapid growth of information on the Internet and electronic government recently, automatic multi-document summarization has become an important task. Multi-document summarization is an optimization problem requiring simultaneous optimization ... Keywords: Differential evolution algorithm, Generic document summarization, Less redundancy, Maximum coverage, Optimization model

Rasim M. Alguliev; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Makrufa S. Hajirahimova

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A Technique to Determine the Radius of Maximum Wind of a Tropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple technique is developed that enables the radius of maximum wind of a tropical cyclone to be estimated from satellite cloud data. It is based on the characteristic cloud and wind structure of the eyewall of a tropical cyclone, after the ...

France Lajoie; Kevin Walsh

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A variable speed wind generator maximum power tracking based on adaptative neuro-fuzzy inference system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power from wind varies depending on the environmental factors. Many methods have been proposed to locate and track the maximum power point (MPPT) of the wind, such as the fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy. In this ... Keywords: ANFIS, MPPT, Power generation, Variable speed wind generator, Wind energy

A. Meharrar; M. Tioursi; M. Hatti; A. Boudghne Stambouli

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Why Is There a Tritium Maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific Thermocline?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is suggested that the tritium maximum in the central Pacific is caused by two water pathways across the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), one from the central Pacific and the other from the Mindanao Current. It is argued that an interior ...

Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Exact algorithms for maximum acyclic subgraph on a superclass of cubic graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding a maximum acyclic subgraph is on the list of problems that seem to be hard to tackle from a parameterized perspective. We develop two quite efficient algorithms (one is exact, the other parameterized) for (1, n)-graphs, a class containing ...

Henning Fernau; Daniel Raible

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the power comes from a renewable source such a solar cell (photovoltaic, or PV for short) or a windmillMaximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System Younghyun Kim optimization from an energy generation source (e.g., a solar cell array) to an energy storage element (e

Pedram, Massoud

197

Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

converter. II. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL A PV cell can be represented by an equivalentMaximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy "ANFIS availability and vast potential, world has turned to solar photovoltaic energy to meet out its ever increasing

Recanati, Catherine

198

Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum: Influence of Model Horizontal Resolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate at the last glacial maximum (LGM) has been simulated using the U.K. Universities Global Atmospheric Modeling Programme (UGAMP) general circulation model (GCM) truncated at total wavenumbers 21, 42, and 63 (T21, T42, and T63) with ...

Buwen Dong; Paul J. Valdes

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Some further investigation on maximum throughput: does network coding really help?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Network coding has been shown to be the solution that allows to reach the theoretical maximum throughput in a capacitated telecommunication network [1]. It has also been shown to be a very appealing and practical alternative to routing-based approaches ...

Eric Gourdin; Yuhui Wang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The Maximum-Likelihood Property of Estimators of Wave Parameters from Heave, Pitch, and Roll Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that ocean-wave spectrum parameters obtained from spectra of time series measured with heave, pitch, and roll data buoys are maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators under certain assumptions about the wave field. A modified set of ML ...

Ingrid K. Glad; Harald E. Krogstad

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Deployment guidelines for achieving maximum lifetime and avoiding energy holes in sensor network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for maximum network lifetime in many mission-critical applications of wireless sensor networks motivates the great significance to deploy as few sensors as possible to achieve the expected network performance. In this paper, we first characterize ... Keywords: Adjustable transmission range, Energy-hole, Network lifetime, Node deployment, Wireless sensor network

Anfeng Liu; Xin Jin; Guohua Cui; Zhigang Chen

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

New Techniques and Data Sources for Probable Maximum Precipitation: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety review of new and existing dams under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) requires evaluation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) at the site of the dam. This report shows how weather radar, satellite data sources, and paleohydrology analysis techniques can improve the estimation of PMP for regions or individual basins.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

New Techniques and Data Sources for Probable Maximum Precipitation: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety review of new and existing dams under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) requires evaluation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) at the site of the dam. This report shows how weather radar, satellite data sources, and paleohydrology analysis techniques can improve the estimation of PMP for regions or individual basins.

1993-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

204

Towards a frequency-dependent discrete maximum principle for the implicit Monte Carlo equations  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that temperature solutions of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations can exceed the external boundary temperatures, a so-called violation of the 'maximum principle.' Previous attempts at prescribing a maximum value of the time-step size {Delta}{sub t} that is sufficient to eliminate these violations have recommended a {Delta}{sub t} that is typically too small to be used in practice and that appeared to be much too conservative when compared to numerical solutions of the IMC equations for practical problems. In this paper, we derive a new estimator for the maximum time-step size that includes the spatial-grid size {Delta}{sub x}. This explicitly demonstrates that the effect of coarsening {Delta}{sub x} is to reduce the limitation on {Delta}{sub t}, which helps explain the overly conservative nature of the earlier, grid-independent results. We demonstrate that our new time-step restriction is a much more accurate means of predicting violations of the maximum principle. We discuss how the implications of the new, grid-dependent timestep restriction can impact IMC solution algorithms.

Wollaber, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Larsen, Edward W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Cosmic Ray Hits in the Central Nervous System at Solar Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that a manned mission to Mars be launched at solar maximum rather than at solar minimum to minimize the radiation exposure to galactic cosmic rays. It is true that the number of hits from highly ionizing particles to critical regions ...

Curtis S. B.; Vazquez M. E.; Wilson J. W.; Kim M.-H. Y.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Maximum power point tracking and optimal Li-ion battery charging control for photovoltaic charging system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the severity of the global energy crisis and environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one kind of important renewable energy source. Solar energy has the advantages of maximum reserve, inexhaustibleness, and is free from ... Keywords: Genetic algorithms (GA), Photovoltaic (PV), Variable Step Size Incremental Conductance method

Her-Terng Yau; Qin-Cheng Liang; Chin-Tsung Hsieh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Dynamical Reconstruction of Upper-ocean Conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proxies indicate that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Ocean was marked by increased meridional and zonal near-sea-surface temperature gradients relative to today. Using a least-squares fit of a full general circulation and sea-ice model to ...

Holly Dail; Carl Wunsch

208

Bayesian Changepoint Analysis of the Annual Maximum of Daily and Subdaily Precipitation over South Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian changepoint analysis is applied to detect a change point in the 30-year (19762005) time series of the area-averaged annual maximum precipitation (A3MP) for the six accumulated time periods (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) over South Korea. ...

Chansoo Kim; Myoung-Seok Suh; Ki-Ok Hong

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Review article: Achieving maximum reliability in fault tolerant network design for variable networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to present a novel method to achieve maximum reliability for fault tolerant optimal network design when network has variable size. Reliability calculation is most important and critical component when fault tolerant optimal ... Keywords: Fault tolerant optimal design, Fixed and varying link reliability, Maximizing reliability, Neural networks, Variable network size

B. Kaushik, N. Kaur, A. K. Kohli

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR on geomagnetic activity, quantified by the maximum hourly Dst and tri-hourly ap indices, in a period of 3 days after the shock, are evaluated. Correlations between shock parameters and Dst and ap geomagnetic indices

211

Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities , V.B. Yurchyshyn1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities A. Kilcik1 , V.B. Yurchyshyn1 maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN) and the geomagnetic indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activity. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because

212

Probable Maximum Precipitation Study for Wisconsin and Michigan: Volume 2: Workbook and User's Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study provides maps and supporting information on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for Wisconsin and Michigan. The refinement of PMP for the study area has typically lowered the PMP from the generalized values in Hydrometeorological Report (HMR) 51. The study followed HMR 51 procedures with some minor changes that apply to other regions.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Impact of Aligning Climatological Day on Gridding Daily MaximumMinimum Temperature and Precipitation over Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 1 July 1961, the climatological day was redefined to end at 0600 UTC at all principal climate stations in Canada. Prior to that, the climatological day at principal stations ended at 1200 UTC for maximum temperature and precipitation and 0000 ...

Ron F. Hopkinson; Daniel W. McKenney; Ewa J. Milewska; Michael F. Hutchinson; Pia Papadopol; Lucie A. Vincent

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song Intelligent sources of alternative energy. The construction of wind farms is destined to grow in the U.S., possibly twenty-fold by the year 2030. To maximize the wind energy capture, this paper presents a model for wind

Kusiak, Andrew

215

Enhancement of maximum attainable ion energy in the radiation pressure acceleration regime using a guiding structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Pressure Acceleration relies on high intensity laser pulse interacting with solid target to obtain high maximum energy, quasimonoenergetic ion beams. Either extremely high power laser pulses or tight focusing of laser radiation is required. The latter would lead to the appearance of the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the laser group velocity and is highly influenced by the transverse expansion of the target. Ion acceleration is only possible with target velocities less than the group velocity of the laser. The transverse expansion of the target makes it transparent for radiation, thus reducing the effectiveness of acceleration. Utilization of an external guiding structure for the accelerating laser pulse may provide a way of compensating for the group velocity and transverse expansion effects.

Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency, or luminous efficacy, of the technologies are incandescent, 10-20 lumens per watt (lum/W); CFL,

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Global convergence of diluted iterations in maximum-likelihood quantum tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present an inexact stepsize selection for the Diluted R\\rho R algorithm, used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate to the density matrix in quantum state tomography. We give a new interpretation for the diluted R\\rho R iterations that allows us to prove the global convergence under weaker assumptions. Thus, we propose a new algorithm which is globally convergent and suitable for practical implementation.

D. S. Gonalves; M. A. Gomes-Ruggiero; C. Lavor

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

218

ccsd-00016436,version1-4Jan2006 Maximum pseudo-likelihood estimator for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

point processes By Jean-Michel Billiot1 , Jean-Fran¸cois Coeurjolly1,2 and R´emy Drouilhet1 Labsad. 2 Corresponding author 1 #12;2 J.-M. Billiot, J.-F. Coeurjolly and R. Drouilhet Abstract This paper the effectiveness of maximum #12;4 J.-M. Billiot, J.-F. Coeurjolly and R. Drouilhet pseudo-likelihood estimator. 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Maximum pseudolikelihood estimator for exponential family models of marked Gibbs point processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the estimation of a vector $\\bm {\\theta}$ parametrizing an energy function of a Gibbs point process, via the maximum pseudolikelihood method. Strong consistency and asymptotic normality results of this estimator depending on a single realization are presented. In the framework of exponential family models, sufficient conditions are expressed in terms of the local energy function and are verified on a wide variety of examples.

Billiot, Jean-Michel; Drouilhet, Rmy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2000 0 0 62 63 59 63 58 61 59 63 62 65 2001 61 61 63 65 64 60 58 56 54 58 59 58 2002 54 57 54 50 51 50 52 50 56 57 50 43 2003 40 41 41 40 38 39 41 43 39 39 38 42 2004 43 45 45 45 44 49 48 49 48 48 49 50 2005 52 53 51 50 55 57 54 55 56 57 57 58 2006 55 57 59 58 58 57 66 62 63 64 65 64 2007 63 63 68 71 70 69 69 71 73 77 79 75 2008 76 77 75 72 73 73 72 72 NA 77 72 73 2009 75 76 72 70 65 60 61 60 60 63 62 63 2010 64 65 63 66 67 67 67 65 64 62 62 62

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221

Maximum Neutral Buoyancy Depth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon: Implications for Survival during Hydroturbine Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the maximum depth at which juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha can acclimate by attaining neutral buoyancy. Depth of neutral buoyancy is dependent upon the volume of gas within the swim bladder, which greatly influences the occurrence of injuries to fish passing through hydroturbines. We used two methods to obtain maximum swim bladder volumes that were transformed into depth estimations - the increased excess mass test (IEMT) and the swim bladder rupture test (SBRT). In the IEMT, weights were surgically added to the fishes exterior, requiring the fish to increase swim bladder volume in order to remain neutrally buoyant. SBRT entailed removing and artificially increasing swim bladder volume through decompression. From these tests, we estimate the maximum acclimation depth for juvenile Chinook salmon is a median of 6.7m (range = 4.6-11.6 m). These findings have important implications to survival estimates, studies using tags, hydropower operations, and survival of juvenile salmon that pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those found within the Columbia and Snake River hydropower system.

Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hybrid energy storage systems based on compressed air and supercapacitors with maximum efficiency point tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system based on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), where the charging and discharging is done within maximum efficiency conditions. As the maximum efficiency conditions impose the level of converted power, an intermittent time-modulated operation mode is applied to the thermodynamic converter to obtain a variable converted power. A smoothly variable output power is achieved with the help of a supercapacitive auxiliary storage device used as a filter. The paper describes the concept of the system, the power-electronic interface circuits and especially the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) algorithm and the strategy used to vary the output power. In addition, the paper will present the characteristics of a high efficiency storage device where the pure pneumatic machine is replaced by an oil-hydraulics and pneumatics converter, used under isothermal conditions. Practical results are also presented, recorded from a low-power pneumatic motor coupled to a small DC generator, as well as from a first prototype of the final hydraulic/pneumatic system.

Sylvain Lemofouet; Alfred Rufer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

A novel maximum power point tracker for PV panels using switching frequency modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractA novel technique for efficiently extracting maximum power from photovoltaic (PV) panels is presented. The power conversion stage, which is connected between a PV panel and a load or bus, is a SEPIC or Cuk converter or their derived circuits operating in discontinuous inductorcurrent or capacitorvoltage mode. Method of locating the maximum power point (MPP) is based on injecting a small-signal sinusoidal perturbation into the switching frequency and comparing the ac component and the average value of the panel terminal voltage. Apart from not requiring any sophisticated digital computation of the panel power, the proposed technique does not approximate the panel characteristics and can globally locate the MPP under wide insolation conditions. The tracking capability has been verified experimentally with a 10 W solar panel under a controlled experimental setup. Performances under the steady state and in the large-signal change of the insolation level will be given. Index TermsDCDC power conversion, maximum-powerpoint tracking, photovoltaic. I.

K. K. Tse; M. T. Ho; Student Member; Henry S. -h. Chung; S. Y. (ron Hui; Senior Member

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

THE FIRST MAXIMUM-LIGHT ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the first maximum-light ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared (NIR) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectrum. This spectrum of SN 2011iv was obtained nearly simultaneously by the Hubble Space Telescope at UV/optical wavelengths and the Magellan Baade telescope at NIR wavelengths. These data provide the opportunity to examine the entire maximum-light SN Ia spectral energy distribution. Since the UV region of an SN Ia spectrum is extremely sensitive to the composition of the outer layers of the explosion, which are transparent at longer wavelengths, this unprecedented spectrum can provide strong constraints on the composition of the SN ejecta, and similarly the SN explosion and progenitor system. SN 2011iv is spectroscopically normal, but has a relatively fast decline ({Delta}m{sub 15}(B) = 1.69 {+-} 0.05 mag). We compare SN 2011iv to other SNe Ia with UV spectra near maximum light and examine trends between UV spectral properties, light-curve shape, and ejecta velocity. We tentatively find that SNe with similar light-curve shapes but different ejecta velocities have similar UV spectra, while those with similar ejecta velocities but different light-curve shapes have very different UV spectra. Through a comparison with explosion models, we find that both a solar-metallicity W7 and a zero-metallicity delayed-detonation model provide a reasonable fit to the spectrum of SN 2011iv from the UV to the NIR.

Foley, Ryan J.; Marion, G. Howie; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Berta, Zachory K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kromer, Markus; Taubenberger, Stefan; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Roepke, Friedrich K.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, Franco; Seitenzahl, Ivo R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia I. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Simcoe, Robert A., E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664D Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Efficacy of Lower-Body Shielding in Computed Tomography Fluoroscopy-Guided Interventions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided interventions pose relevant radiation exposure to the interventionalist. The goal of this study was to analyze the efficacy of lower-body shielding as a simple structural method for decreasing radiation dose to the interventionalist without limiting access to the patient. Material and Methods: All examinations were performed with a 128-slice dual source CT scanner (12 Multiplication-Sign 1.2-mm collimation; 120 kV; and 20, 40, 60, and 80 mAs) and an Alderson-Rando phantom. Scatter radiation was measured with an ionization chamber and a digital dosimeter at standardized positions and heights with and without a lower-body lead shield (0.5-mm lead equivalent; Kenex, Harlow, UK). Dose decreases were computed for the different points of measurement. Results: On average, lower-body shielding decreased scatter radiation by 38.2% within a 150-cm radius around the shielding. This decrease is most significant close to the gantry opening and at low heights of 50 and 100 cm above the floor with a maximum decrease of scatter radiation of 95.9% close to the scanner's isocentre. With increasing distance to the gantry opening, the effect decreased. There is almost no dose decrease effect at {>=}150 above the floor. Scatter radiation and its decrease were linearly correlated with the tube current-time product (r{sup 2} = 0.99), whereas percent scatter radiation decrease was independent of the tube current-time product. Conclusion: Lower-body shielding is an effective way to decrease radiation exposure to the interventionalist and should routinely be used in CT fluoroscopy-guided interventions.

Mahnken, Andreas H., E-mail: mahnken@rad.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Sedlmair, Martin [Siemens, Healthcare Sector (Germany); Ritter, Christine [University of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute (Denmark); Banckwitz, Rosemarie; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens, Healthcare Sector (Germany)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Efficacy of Foundations & Frameworks on Elementary Students' Reading Achievement in Urban Christian Schools.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Foundations & Frameworks (F&F), an instructional program emphasizing reading comprehension, on fourth and fifth grade students' (more)

Blackmon, Cheryl McClure

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

An Analysis of the Efficacy of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Policy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper provides an analysis of the efficacy of United States (US) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction policy implemented in the mid-1990s, specifically targeting the (more)

Meyer, Russell

228

The Role of Self-Efficacy in Stock-Market Participation and Financial Information-Seeking .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study of self-efficacy's (Bandura, 1977) effects on an individual's likelihood to invest in the stock market and seek financial information attempts to uncover some (more)

[No author

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Personal science teaching efficacy and the beliefs and practices of elementary teachers related to science instruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and women in mathematics, science, and technology careers.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(9), 1036-1058.development of an elementary science teaching efficacy

Lardy, Corinne H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

DOE P 310.1 Admin Chg 1, Maximum Entry and Mandatory Separation Ages for Certain Security Employees  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The policy establishes the DOE policy on maximum entry and mandatory separation ages for primary or secondary positions covered under special statutory ...

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

231

MAXIMUM CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEED AS AN INDICATOR OF SOLAR AND GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the relationship between the monthly averaged maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN), and the geomagnetic Dst and Ap indices covering the 1996-2008 time interval (solar cycle 23). Our new findings are as follows. (1) There is a noteworthy relationship between monthly averaged maximum CME speeds and sunspot numbers, Ap and Dst indices. Various peculiarities in the monthly Dst index are correlated better with the fine structures in the CME speed profile than that in the ISSN data. (2) Unlike the sunspot numbers, the CME speed index does not exhibit a double peak maximum. Instead, the CME speed profile peaks during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Similar to the Ap index, both CME speed and the Dst indices lag behind the sunspot numbers by several months. (3) The CME number shows a double peak similar to that seen in the sunspot numbers. The CME occurrence rate remained very high even near the minimum of the solar cycle 23, when both the sunspot number and the CME average maximum speed were reaching their minimum values. (4) A well-defined peak of the Ap index between 2002 May and 2004 August was co-temporal with the excess of the mid-latitude coronal holes during solar cycle 23. The above findings suggest that the CME speed index may be a useful indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activities. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because it better reflects the intensity of Earth-directed solar eruptions.

Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Gopalswamy, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ozguc, A. [Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, 34684 Istanbul (Turkey); Rozelot, J. P. [Nice University, OCA-Fizeau Dpt. Av. Copernic, 06130 Grasse (France)

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

The maximum time interval of time-lapse photography for monitoring construction operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many construction companies today utilize webcams on their jobsites to monitor and record construction operations. Jobsite monitoring is often limited to outdoor construction operations due to lack of mobility of wired webcams. A wireless webcam may help monitor indoor construction operations with enhanced mobility. The transfer time of sending a photograph from the wireless webcam, however, is slower than that of a wired webcam. It is expected that professionals may have to analyze indoor construction operations with longer interval time-lapse photographs if they want to use a wireless webcam. This research aimed to determine the maximum time interval for time-lapse photos that enables professionals to interpret construction operations and productivity. In order to accomplish the research goal, brickwork of five different construction sites was videotaped. Various interval time-lapse photographs were generated from each video. Worker?s activity in these photographs was examined and graded. The grades in one-second interval photographs were compared with the grades of the same in longer time interval photographs. Error rates in observing longer time-lapse photographs were then obtained and analyzed to find the maximum time interval of time-lapse photography for monitoring construction operations. Research has discovered that the observation error rate increased rapidly until the 60-second interval and its increasing ratio remained constant. This finding can be used to predict a reasonable amount of error rate when observing time-lapse photographs less than 60-second interval. The observation error rate with longer than 60-second interval did not show a constant trend. Thus, the 60-second interval could be considered as the maximum time interval for professionals to interpret construction operations and productivity.

Choi, Ji Won

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The maximum energy dissipation principle and phenomenological cooperative and collective effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The collective phenomena in physics and cooperative phenomena in biology/chemistry is compared in terms of the variational description. The maximum energy dissipation principle is employed and the cost-like functional is chosen according to an optimal control based formulation (Moroz, 2008; Moroz, 2009). Using this approach, the variational outline has been considered for non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. The differences between the application of the proposed approach to the description of cooperative phenomena in chemical/biochemical kinetics and the Landau free energy approach to collective phenomena in physics have been investigated.

Moroz, Adam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 10.0 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + A Alden Large Flume + 0.0 + Alden Wave Basin + 1.0 + C Chase Tow Tank + 3.1 + Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility + 2.3 + Coastal Inlet Model Facility + 2.3 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 4.0 + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + 3.0 + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + 3.0 +

235

THE RISE AND FALL OF OPEN SOLAR FLUX DURING THE CURRENT GRAND SOLAR MAXIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use geomagnetic activity data to study the rise and fall over the past century of the solar wind flow speed V{sub SW}, the interplanetary magnetic field strength B, and the open solar flux F {sub S}. Our estimates include allowance for the kinematic effect of longitudinal structure in the solar wind flow speed. As well as solar cycle variations, all three parameters show a long-term rise during the first half of the 20th century followed by peaks around 1955 and 1986 and then a recent decline. Cosmogenic isotope data reveal that this constitutes a grand maximum of solar activity which began in 1920, using the definition that such grand maxima are when 25-year averages of the heliospheric modulation potential exceeds 600 MV. Extrapolating the linear declines seen in all three parameters since 1985, yields predictions that the grand maximum will end in the years 2013, 2014, or 2027 using V{sub SW}, F{sub S}, or B, respectively. These estimates are consistent with predictions based on the probability distribution of the durations of past grand solar maxima seen in cosmogenic isotope data. The data contradict any suggestions of a floor to the open solar flux: we show that the solar minimum open solar flux, kinematically corrected to allow for the excess flux effect, has halved over the past two solar cycles.

Lockwood, M.; Rouillard, A. P. [Space Environment Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton University, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Finch, I. D. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mike.lockwood@stfc.ac.uk

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The correlation of 27 day period solar activity and daily maximum temperature in continental Australia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the first observation of a 27 day period component in daily maximum temperature recorded at widely spaced locations in Australia. The 27 day component, extracted by band pass filtering, is correlated with the variation of daily solar radio flux during years close to solar minimum. We demonstrate that the correlation is related to the emergence of regions of solar activity on the Sun separated, temporally, from the emergence of other active regions. In this situation, which occurs only near solar minimum, the observed 27 day variation of temperature can be in phase or out of phase with the 27 day variation of solar activity. During solar maximum correlation of temperature and solar activity is much less defined. The amplitude of the 27 day temperature response to solar activity is large, at times as high as 6 degrees C, and much larger than the well documented temperature response to the 11 year cycle of solar activity. We demonstrate that the 27 day temperature response is localised to the Australia...

Edmonds, Ian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Organizational Culture and Employees' Computer Self-Efficacy: An Empirical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IT-based business initiatives, such as ERP and BPR, require high computer self-efficacy among employees because these changes require a large-scale use of computers. Computer self-efficacy is affected by many internal and external factors, for instance, ...

YiHua P. Sheng; Michael Pearson; Leon Crosby

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

6.25 KHZ -MAXIMUM SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY The demand for wireless connectivity is increasing. Emerging technologies create  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6.25 KHZ - MAXIMUM SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY The demand for wireless connectivity is increasing. Emerging technologies create applications that require instant information. Wireless SCADA solutions demand RF channels is ready today to utilize the existing spectrum for maximum efficiency. Until now, 6.25 kHz bandwidth

Allen, Gale

239

The exact distribution of the maximum, minimum and the range of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exact distribution of the maximum and minimum frequencies of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric distributions of n balls in m urns is compactly represented as a product of stochastic matrices. This representation ... Keywords: Dirichlet multinomial, Multinomial maximum, minimum, range, Multinomial outliers, inliers, Multivariate hypergeometric, Stochastic matrix

Charles J. Corrado

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Models for estimating saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes models for saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections. The effects of queue interaction between these two intersections are taken into account in both models. The saturation flow model is based on the Prosser-Dunne model. The presence of queues in the inter-signal link causes a reduction in saturation flow and capacity. The analytical model on which the methodology is based assumes that upstream movements discharge at their normal saturation flow rate or arrival flow rate until the downstream queue extends back to the upstream intersection and blocking occurs. The model calculates the capacities of movements at the upstream intersection as a reduced effective green period. The model can be used to estimate capacities at paired intersections with multiple upstream and downstream green periods. The results from the model are compared with TRAF-NETSIM simulation results. The results of this comparison show that the model predicts throughput better when movements at the upstream intersection (for which throughput are being calculated) are oversaturated. This thesis recommends that the capacity of movements be calculated using the reduced effective green period rather than the reduced saturation flow. The second model developed as a part of this research predicts the maximum demand at the downstream intersection. The through movement at the upstream intersection is assumed to be oversaturated and cross street movements are not considered. The analysis shows that either the upstream capacity, downstream capacity or storage capacity becomes critical and influences the maximum demand depending on the different combinations of upstream and downstream green and storage spacing considered. The demand from the models is used as input to the 1994 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) delay equation and the delay compared with that simulated by TRAF-NETSIM for various cases. The comparison shows that the models developed predict values that compare favorably with results from TRAF NETSIM. It is recommended that the models be used to compute the upper bound for the HCM delay equation for the cases analyzed.

Nanduri, Sreelata

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

An Investigation of the Effect of After-Action Reviews on Teams' Performance-Efficacy Relationships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance and efficacy are reciprocally causal; however, the effect of performance on subsequent perceptions of efficacy has received little attention, especially in the context of team training. In addition, the moderating effect of feedback accuracy on the relationship between team performance and team-efficacy is largely unexplored. As such, the objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between team performance and team-efficacy in the context of after-action reviews (AARs). Specifically, this study examined the conjoint influence of (a) the accuracy of performance feedback available to trainees during AARs, and (b) time on the predictive validity of team performance on team-efficacy. Data were obtained from 492 undergraduate students assigned to 123 teams in a 5 hr team training protocol using a 3 (training condition: non-AAR, versus subjective AAR, versus objective AAR) x 3 (sessions) repeated measures design. Contrary to the first set of hypotheses, the positive relationship between performance and efficacy was strongest for teams trained without AARs and weakest for teams trained using subjective AARs. Although team-efficacy was predicted more strongly by more proximal team performance than by more distal team performance, this pattern of results was found only for teams trained either without AARs or with objective AARs. The predictive validity of performance on efficacy decreased as performance episodes became more proximal among teams trained using subjective AARs. Finally, within-team agreement of team-efficacy ratings decreased over time for teams that engaged in AARs and remained constant over time for teams that did not engage in AARs. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. It is anticipated that this research will provide insight into the roles of feedback accuracy and time in the performance-efficacy relationship and provide guidance to researchers and practitioners in effectively integrating AAR design characteristics into team training environments.

Schurig, Ira

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

A maximum-entropy approach to the adiabatic freezing of a supercooled liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I employ the van der Waals theory of Baus and coworkers to analyze the fast, adiabatic decay of a supercooled liquid in a closed vessel with which the solidification process usually starts. By imposing a further constraint on either the system volume or pressure, I use the maximum-entropy method to quantify the fraction of liquid that is transformed into solid as a function of undercooling and of the amount of a foreign gas that could possibly be also present in the test tube. Upon looking at the implications of thermal and mechanical insulation for the energy cost of forming a solid droplet within the liquid, I identify one situation where the onset of solidification inevitably occurs near the wall in contact with the bath.

Santi Prestipino

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

243

Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Analysis of Cyclic Maximum Pressure and Peak Pressure Angle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.

G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker

2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

ULTRASONIC IMAGING USING A FLEXIBLE ARRAY: IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MAXIMUM CONTRAST AUTOFOCUS ALGORITHM  

SciTech Connect

In previous work, we have presented the maximum contrast autofocus algorithm for estimating unknown imaging parameters, e.g., for imaging through complicated surfaces using a flexible ultrasonic array. This paper details recent improvements to the algorithm. The algorithm operates by maximizing the image contrast metric with respect to the imaging parameters. For a flexible array, the relative positions of the array elements are parameterized using a cubic spline function and the spline control points are estimated by iterative maximisation of the image contrast via simulated annealing. The resultant spline gives an estimate of the array geometry and the profile of the surface that it has conformed to, allowing the generation of a well-focused image. A pre-processing step is introduced to obtain an initial estimate of the array geometry, reducing the time taken for the algorithm to convergence. Experimental results are demonstrated using a flexible array prototype.

Hunter, A. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol (United Kingdom)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

245

Maximum relative excitation of a specific vibrational mode via optimum laser-pulse duration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For molecules and materials responding to femtosecond-scale optical laser pulses, we predict maximum relative excitation of a Raman-active vibrational mode with period T when the pulse has a full-width-at-halfmaximum duration tau approximate to 0.42T. This result follows from a general analytical model, and is precisely confirmed by detailed density-functional-based dynamical simulations for C(60) and a carbon nanotube, which include anharmonicity, nonlinearity, no assumptions about the polarizability tensor, and no averaging over rapid oscillations within the pulse. The mode specificity is, of course, best at low temperature and for pulses that are electronically off-resonance, and the energy deposited in any mode is proportional to the fourth power of the electric field.

Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Zhibin; Jiang, Chenwei; Gao, Meng; Allen, Roland E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Analytical expressions for maximum wind turbine average power in a Rayleigh wind regime  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Average or expectation values for annual power of a wind turbine in a Rayleigh wind regime are calculated and plotted as a function of cut-out wind speed. This wind speed is expressed in multiples of the annual average wind speed at the turbine installation site. To provide a common basis for comparison of all real and imagined turbines, the Rayleigh-Betz wind machine is postulated. This machine is an ideal wind machine operating with the ideal Betz power coefficient of 0.593 in a Rayleigh probability wind regime. All other average annual powers are expressed in fractions of that power. Cases considered include: (1) an ideal machine with finite power and finite cutout speed, (2) real machines operating in variable speed mode at their maximum power coefficient, and (3) real machines operating at constant speed.

Carlin, P.W.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Online Robot Dead Reckoning Localization Using Maximum Relative Entropy Optimization With Model Constraints  

SciTech Connect

The principle of Maximum relative Entropy optimization was analyzed for dead reckoning localization of a rigid body when observation data of two attached accelerometers was collected. Model constraints were derived from the relationships between the sensors. The experiment's results confirmed that accelerometers each axis' noise can be successfully filtered utilizing dependency between channels and the dependency between time series data. Dependency between channels was used for a priori calculation, and a posteriori distribution was derived utilizing dependency between time series data. There was revisited data of autocalibration experiment by removing the initial assumption that instantaneous rotation axis of a rigid body was known. Performance results confirmed that such an approach could be used for online dead reckoning localization.

Urniezius, Renaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

248

Targeted search for continuous gravitational waves: Bayesian versus maximum-likelihood statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the Bayesian framework for detection of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the context of targeted searches, where the phase evolution of the GW signal is assumed to be known, while the four amplitude parameters are unknown. We show that the orthodox maximum-likelihood statistic (known as F-statistic) can be rediscovered as a Bayes factor with an unphysical prior in amplitude parameter space. We introduce an alternative detection statistic ("B-statistic") using the Bayes factor with a more natural amplitude prior, namely an isotropic probability distribution for the orientation of GW sources. Monte-Carlo simulations of targeted searches show that the resulting Bayesian B-statistic is more powerful in the Neyman-Pearson sense (i.e. has a higher expected detection probability at equal false-alarm probability) than the frequentist F-statistic.

Reinhard Prix; Badri Krishnan

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Targeted search for continuous gravitational waves: Bayesian versus maximum-likelihood statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the Bayesian framework for detection of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the context of targeted searches, where the phase evolution of the GW signal is assumed to be known, while the four amplitude parameters are unknown. We show that the orthodox maximum-likelihood statistic (known as F-statistic) can be rediscovered as a Bayes factor with an unphysical prior in amplitude parameter space. We introduce an alternative detection statistic ("B-statistic") using the Bayes factor with a more natural amplitude prior, namely an isotropic probability distribution for the orientation of GW sources. Monte-Carlo simulations of targeted searches show that the resulting Bayesian B-statistic is more powerful in the Neyman-Pearson sense (i.e. has a higher expected detection probability at equal false-alarm probability) than the frequentist F-statistic.

Prix, Reinhard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

High?resolution x?ray microscopy using an undulator source, photoelectron studies with MAXIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the first results of high?spatial resolution x?ray imaging studies with an upgraded version of the scanning photoemission multiple application x?ray imaging undulator microscope. The microscope is a multilayercoated Schwarzschild objective that focuses undulator radiation onto the sample. The recent upgrade improved the spatial resolution by a factor six reaching a full width at half maximum value of 0.5 ?m. Highly polished mirrors reduced the diffuse background by almost two orders of magnitude and drastically improved the contrast. The improved microscope was used to perform a series of tests on microgrids and reverse Fresnel zone plates. The microscope capability to detect chemical and topological contrast was verified by using patterned metal overlayers on Si and GaAs substrates. Further improvements to increase the flux and the spatial resolution are underway; this includes the installation of a new undulator beamline.

C. Capasso; A. K. Ray?Chaudhuri; W. Ng; S. Liang; R. K. Cole; J. Wallace; F. Cerrina; G. Margaritondo; J. H. Underwood; J. B. Kortright; R. C. C. Perera

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

A. Vaudrey; P. Baucour; F. Lanzetta; R. Glises

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

252

Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

Vaudrey, A; Lanzetta, F; Glises, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Application of the Maximum Entropy Method to the (2 + 1)d Four-Fermion Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate spectral functions extracted using the Maximum Entropy Method from correlators measured in lattice simulations of the (2+1)-dimensional four-fermion model. This model is particularly interesting because it has both a chirally broken phase with a rich spectrum of mesonic bound states and a symmetric phase where there are only resonances. In the broken phase we study the elementary fermion, pion, sigma, and massive pseudoscalar meson; our results confirm the Goldstone nature of the ? and permit an estimate of the meson binding energy. We have, however, seen no signal of ? ? ?? decay as the chiral limit is approached. In the symmetric phase we observe a resonance of non-zero width in qualitative agreement with analytic expectations; in addition the ultra-violet behaviour of the spectral functions is consistent with the large non-perturbative anomalous dimension for fermion composite operators expected in this model. 1 1

C. R. Allton A; J. E. Clowser A; J. B. Kogut C; C. G. Strouthos A

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

MADmap: A Massively Parallel Maximum-Likelihood Cosmic Microwave Background Map-Maker  

SciTech Connect

MADmap is a software application used to produce maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap is already being run on up to O(1011) time samples, O(108) pixels and O(104) cores, with ongoing work to scale to the next generation of data sets and supercomputers. We describe MADmap's algorithm based around a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver, fast Fourier transforms and sparse matrix operations. We highlight MADmap's ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets and describe its application to simulations of the Planck and EBEX experiments. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analysing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available, and we argue that, given Moore's Law, MADmap will be capable of reducing the most massive projected data sets.

Cantalupo, Christopher; Borrill, Julian; Jaffe, Andrew; Kisner, Theodore; Stompor, Radoslaw

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

255

Jaynes' Maximum Entropy Principle, Riemannian Metrics and Generalised Least Action Bound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The set of solutions inferred by the generic maximum entropy (MaxEnt) or maximum relative entropy (MaxREnt) principles of Jaynes - considered as a function of the moment constraints or their conjugate Lagrangian multipliers - is endowed with a Riemannian geometric description, based on the second differential tensor of the entropy or its Legendre transform (negative Massieu function). The analysis provides a generalised {\\it least action bound} applicable to all Jaynesian systems, which provides a lower bound to the cost (in generic entropy units) of a transition between inferred positions along a specified path, at specified rates of change of the control parameters. The analysis therefore extends the concepts of "finite time thermodynamics" to the generic Jaynes domain, providing a link between purely static (stationary) inferred positions of a system, and dynamic transitions between these positions (as a function of time or some other coordinate). If the path is unspecified, the analysis gives an absolute lower bound for the cost of the transition, corresponding to the geodesic of the Riemannian hypersurface. The analysis is applied to (i) an equilibrium thermodynamic system subject to mean internal energy and volume constraints, and (ii) a flow system at steady state, subject to constraints on the mean heat, mass and momentum fluxes and chemical reaction rates. The first example recovers the {\\it minimum entropy cost} of a transition between equilibrium positions, a widely used result of finite-time thermodynamics. The second example leads to a new {\\it minimum entropy production principle}, for the cost of a transition between steady state positions of a flow system.

Robert K. Niven; Bjarne Andresen

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

Thomas, L.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

A Comparative Study of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures over Argentina: NCEPNCAR Reanalysis versus Station Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares surface-station temperature observations over Argentina with gridpoint analyses available in the NCEPNCAR reanalysis dataset. The primary objective is to determine whether the maximum and minimum surface temperatures from the ...

Matilde M. Rusticucci; Vernon E. Kousky

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Performance of Maximum Likelihood Estimators of Mean Power and Doppler Velocity with A Priori Knowledge of Spectral Width  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of mean velocity and signal power for Doppler radar and Doppler lidar, assuming known signal spectral width, is presented. The results are compared with the theoretical limit of the Cramer...

Rod Frehlich

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A Satellite Method to Identify Structural Properties of Mesoscale Convective Systems Based on the Maximum Spatial Correlation Tracking Technique (MASCOTTE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple, fully automated, and efficient method to determine the structural properties and evolution (tracking) of cloud shields of convective systems (CS) is described. The method, which is based on the maximum spatial correlation tracking ...

Leila M. V. Carvalho; Charles Jones

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Spatial Interpolation of Daily Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature Based on Meteorological Model Analyses and Independent Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly meteorological forecast model initializations are used to guide the spatial interpolation of daily cooperative network station data in the northeastern United States. The hourly model data are transformed to daily maximum and minimum ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Brian N. Belcher

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Southeastern South American Daily Gridded Dataset of Observed Surface Minimum and Maximum Temperature for 19612000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents a southeastern South American gridded dataset of daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures for 19612000. The data used for the gridding are observed daily data from meteorological stations in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and ...

Brbara Tencer; Matilde Rusticucci; Phil Jones; David Lister

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

An Eddy Parameterization Based on Maximum Entropy Production with Application to Modeling of the Arctic Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An eddy parameterization derived from statistical mechanics of potential vorticity is applied for inviscid shallow-water equations. The solution of a variational problem based on the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle provides, with some ...

Igor Polyakov

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Numerical Study on the Atmospheric Circulation over the Midlatitude North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the atmospheric circulation change over the midlatitude North Pacific under the boundary conditions during the last glacial maximum (LGM) have been studied by atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with different ocean ...

Wataru Yanase; Ayako Abe-Ouchi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Dependence of Extreme Daily Maximum Temperatures on Antecedent Soil Moisture in the Contiguous United States during Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents an analysis of the dependence of summertime daily maximum temperature on antecedent soil moisture using daily surface observations from a selection of stations in the contiguous United States and daily time series of soil ...

Imke Durre; John M. Wallace; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Meteorological Patterns Associated with Maximum 3-Hour Average Concentrations Predicted by the CRSTER Model for a Tall Stack Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional meteorological patterns associated with maximum 3-hour average concentrations predicted by the U.S. EPA CRSTER model for emissions from a tall stack were examined for a limited sample. Causes of predicted peaks were the movements of weak ...

Paul N. Derezotes

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas adopted in its residential building energy code a maximum 0.40 solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration (e.g., windows, glazed doors and skylights)-a critical driver of cooling energy use, comfort and peak demand. An analysis of the expected costs and benefits of low solar heat gain glazing, and specifically the SHGC requirement in the new Texas Residential Building Energy Code,1 shows that the 0.40 SHGC requirement is ideal for Texas and that the benefits far outweigh the expected costs. For consumers, the requirement will increase comfort and reduce their cost of home ownership. The anticipated public benefits are also substantial - the result of full implementation can be expected to: 1) Reduce cumulative statewide cooling energy use over ten years by 15 billion kWh; 2) Reduce cumulative statewide electric peak demand over ten years by over 1200 MW; 3) Result in cooling cost savings of more than a billion dollars; and 4) Reduce cumulative statewide key air pollutants.

Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Maximum Reasonable Radioxenon Releases from Medical Isotope Production Facilities and Their Effect on Monitoring Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

Fission gases such as 133Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of 99Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Saey, et al., 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5109 Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Saey, Paul R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the impact of instrumental systematic errors in interferometric measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra. We simulate interferometric CMB observations to generate mock visibilities and estimate power spectra using the statistically optimal maximum likelihood technique. We define a quadratic error measure to determine allowable levels of systematic error that does not induce power spectrum errors beyond a given tolerance. As an example, in this study we focus on differential pointing errors. The effects of other systematics can be simulated by this pipeline in a straightforward manner. We find that, in order to accurately recover the underlying B-modes for r = 0.01 at 28 < l < 384, Gaussian-distributed pointing errors must be controlled to 0. Degree-Sign 7 root mean square for an interferometer with an antenna configuration similar to QUBIC, in agreement with analytical estimates. Only the statistical uncertainty for 28 < l < 88 would be changed at {approx}10% level. With the same instrumental configuration, we find that the pointing errors would slightly bias the 2{sigma} upper limit of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by {approx}10%. We also show that the impact of pointing errors on the TB and EB measurements is negligibly small.

Zhang Le; Timbie, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sutter, Paul M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, 1110 W Green Street, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bunn, Emory F., E-mail: lzhang263@wisc.edu [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Predictors Of Java Programming Self Efficacy Among Engineering Students In A Nigerian University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study examined the relationship between Java programming self-efficacy and programming background of engineering students in a Nigerian University. One hundred and ninety two final year engineering students randomly selected from six engineering departments of the university participated in the study. Two research instruments: Programming Background Questionnaire and Java Programming Self-Efficacy Scale were used in collecting relevant information from the subjects. The resulting data were analyzed using Pearson product correlation and Multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that Java Programming self-efficacy has no significant relationship with each of the computing and programming background factors. It was additionally obtained that the number of programming courses offered and programming courses weighed scores were the only predictors of Java self-efficacy.

Jegede, Philip Olu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Trans Fats in FoodChapter 3 Safety and Efficacy of CLA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trans Fats in Food Chapter 3 Safety and Efficacy of CLA Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapt

271

An investigation of the effect of spacing of practice on the performance-efficacy relationship  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between training performance and selfefficacy using a longitudinal design (approximately 11 weeks) in the context of massed and distributed practice. Limited attention in the training performance and efficacy literature has been paid to the spacing of practice (massed and distributed). However, it is conceivable that both the spacing of practice as well as the time frames over which it operates could influence the performance and efficacy relationship. Based on the practice schedule (massed versus distributed) and longitudinal study design, it was posited that the nature of the performance and efficacy relationship is likely to be quite different during two phases of learning (acquisition and reacquisition). Data were obtained from 198 undergraduate students over an 11week training protocol using a 2 (distributed versus massed acquisition) 2 (distributed versus massed reacquisition) 16 (session) mixed design. Contrary to the first set of hypotheses, results indicated that the performance and efficacy relationship did not vary as a function of practice protocols (massed versus distributed) during acquisition and reacquisition. Also, no support was found for the hypothesis that the performance and efficacy relationship will vary as a function of whether the practice condition during acquisition is the same or different from the practice condition during reacquisition such that the relationships will be stronger when the practice condition is the same as opposed to when it is different. However, support was found for the hypothesis that when past performance is controlled the unique contribution of selfefficacy to subsequent task performance will be attenuated. Implications of these findings for research on the performance and efficacy relationship and training practice are discussed.

Bhupatkar, Alok Ashutosh

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

An analysis of maximum residential energy-efficiency in hot and humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy-efficient building design involves minimizing the energy use and optimizing the performance of individual systems and components of the building. The benefits of energyefficient design, in the residential sector, are direct and tangible, provided that design strategies with a substantial combined energy and cost-saving potential are adopted. Many studies have been performed to evaluate the energy-saving potential and the costeffectiveness of various design options, and to identify conditions for optimizing the performance of building systems and components. The results of these studies, published in various resources, were analyzed discretely using different techniques, and were reported using different bases for comparison. Considering the complex interaction of, and energy flows through various building components, it is difficult to directly compare/combine the results from various studies to determine the energy-saving potential of combination of strategies, and to select an appropriate set of strategies for making design decisions. Therefore, this thesis develops a comprehensive survey and analysis of energy-efficient design strategies and their energy-saving potential, in isolation as well as in combination, using a DOE-2 simulation model of a prototype house in the hot and humid climate of Houston, Texas. Optimized strategies that included building configuration, materials/ assembly for building envelop components, and efficient mechanical and electrical systems, equipment and appliances, were applied in combination that could minimize the annual energy use. Application of these strategies is expected to allow downsizing systems and equipment and to confirm their operation at their rated performance, resulting in additional installation and operation cost savings. The study is concluded by outlining the procedures for selecting optimized set of strategies, and by developing guidelines for achieving maximum energy-efficiency in singlefamily detached houses in hot and humid climates. Thus, this study will facilitate the selection of energy-saving measures for their individual or combined application for developing energyefficient residences in hot and humid climates.

Malhotra, Mini

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers, ?in-furnace NO x control,? which includes: staged low-NO x burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of ?in-furnace? NO x control processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum ?in-furnace? NO x control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NO x burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NO x burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NO x burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NO x control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NO x burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI?s coal combustion code to take account of recently obtained fundamental data on char reactivity during the late stages of burnout. This will improve our ability to predict carbon burnout with low-NO x firing systems.

A.F. SAROFIM; BROWN UNIVERSITY. R.A. LISAUSKAS; D.B. RILEY, INC.; E.G. EDDINGS; J. BROUWER; J.P. KLEWICKI; K.A. DAVIS; M.J. BOCKELIE; M.P. HEAP; REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL. D.W. PERSHING; UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. R.H. HURT

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Maximum Freezing Degree-Days as a Winter Severity Index for the Great Lakes, 18971977  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General regional and temporal trends in maximum freezing degree-days (FDD's) are identified for the shore zone of the Great Lakes Basin for the 80 winter periods 18971977. The cumulative frequency distribution of FDD's at cub of 25 locations is ...

Raymond A. Assel

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Maximum-Intensity Volumes for Fast Contouring of Lung Tumors Including Respiratory Motion in 4DCT Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum-intensity volumes (MIV) for fast contouring of lung tumors including respiratory motion. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) data of 10 patients were acquired. Maximum-intensity volumes were constructed by assigning the maximum Hounsfield unit in all CT volumes per geometric voxel to a new, synthetic volume. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on all CT volumes, and their union was constructed. The GTV with all its respiratory motion was contoured on the MIV as well. Union GTVs and GTVs including motion were compared visually. Furthermore, planning target volumes (PTVs) were constructed for the union of GTVs and the GTV on MIV. These PTVs were compared by centroid position, volume, geometric extent, and surface distance. Results: Visual comparison of GTVs demonstrated failure of the MIV technique for 5 of 10 patients. For adequate GTV{sub MIV}s, differences between PTVs were <1.0 mm in centroid position, 5% in volume, {+-}5 mm in geometric extent, and {+-}0.5 {+-} 2.0 mm in surface distance. These values represent the uncertainties for successful MIV contouring. Conclusion: Maximum-intensity volumes are a good first estimate for target volume definition including respiratory motion. However, it seems mandatory to validate each individual MIV by overlaying it on a movie loop displaying the 4DCT data and editing it for possible inadequate coverage of GTVs on additional 4DCT motion states.

Rietzel, Eike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Abteilung Biophysik, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: eike@rietzel.net; Liu, Arthur K.; Chen, George T.Y.; Choi, Noah C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2010 2531 Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a maximum power point track- ing algorithm that optimizes solar array performance and adapts to rapidly the natural inverter ripple is designed and tested on a simulated solar array with a grid-tied inverter-variance irradiance data gathered on a rooftop array experiment in Princeton, NJ. The ES controller achieves

Kulkarni, Sanjeev

279

Causes of Reduced North Atlantic Storm Activity in a CAM3 Simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to determine how an atmosphere with enhanced mean-state baroclinity can support weaker baroclinic wave activity than an atmosphere with weak mean-state baroclinity. As a case study, a Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) model ...

Aaron Donohoe; David S. Battisti

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

DuraCap: a Supercapacitor-Based, Power-Bootstrapping, Maximum Power Point Tracking Energy-Harvesting System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DuraCap: a Supercapacitor-Based, Power-Bootstrapping, Maximum Power Point Tracking Energy that stores harvested energy in supercapacitors and is voltage-compatible with lithium-ion batteries. The use of supercapacitors instead of batter- ies enables DuraCap to extend the operational life time from tens of months

Shinozuka, Masanobu

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281

Climate Response at the PaleoceneEocene Thermal Maximum to Greenhouse Gas ForcingA Model Study with CCSM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The PaleoceneEocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55 Ma) is of particular interest since it is regarded as a suitable analog to future climate change. In this study, the PETM climate is investigated using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) with ...

A. Winguth; C. Shellito; C. Shields; C. Winguth

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Evaluation of the Maximum Cross-Correlation Method of Estimating Sea Surface Velocities from Sequential Satellite Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluate the method of estimating sea surface velocities from sequences of AVHRR and CZCS images using the maximum cross-correlation (MCC) technique. A set of synthetic images is created by advecting an AVHRR-SST field with a QG model velocity ...

Robin Tokmakian; P. Ted Strub; Julie McClean-Padman

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

BMC Family Practice BioMed Central Study protocol The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

Nicola S Oldham; Nat Mj Wright; Clive E Adams; Laura Sheard

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Communication efficacy of South African arts festivals : the case of Klein Karoo National Arts Festival / J.A. Kriel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary objective of this study was to determine the communication efficacy at arts festivals with specific reference to the Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunstefees (KKNK). (more)

Kriel, Jaun Antonie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Influence of Agricultural Dual Credit on Student College Readiness Self-Efficacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this correlational and descriptive study was to examine the influence of an agricultural dual credit course curriculum on student self-efficacy of college readiness as students matriculate to post-secondary education. To evaluate the personal characteristics, postsecondary plans, program perceptions and college readiness self-efficacy, a quantitative survey and online instrument was used to gather data and analyze information on high school students enrolled in agricultural education in both dual credit and non-dual credit courses primarily in the Middle Tennessee Region. The target population (N = 543) for this study was defined as students at 16 schools where the dual credit course was offered with the Middle Tennessee State University, School of Agribusiness and Agriscience in the 2011-2012 academic year. A total of 245 students from 16 secondary agricultural programs in seven different school districts across Tennessee, primarily in the Middle Tennessee region, participated in the study for a response rate of approximately 45%. This study examined college readiness of student participation in an agricultural dual credit course and sought to determine the relationship between student participation in a dual credit course offering and college readiness self-efficacy as well as student perceptions of the course offering. Course self-efficacy was higher among dual credit participants versus non-dual credit participants. Social self-efficacy was also higher for dual credit participants. Females had higher Course self-efficacy, and there was a positive relationship between GPA and each construct of the college readiness self-efficacy inventory. Participant perceptions of the agricultural dual credit program were also high. This study indicates that dual credit participants can confidently approach post-secondary options, and that they are more likely to be successful in college due to level of self-efficacy as they matriculate into college. Recommendations from the study include: Using the MTSU dual credit model in future dual credit course developments and collaborations; using findings as a basis for training future agricultural education teachers on how to improve CRSE; and additional and longitudinal studies to track dual credit students success in college.

Neely, Alanna L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

Abraham, J.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A. SCOPE METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINING THEORETICAL MAXIMUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY OF HOT MIX ASPHALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This test method provides procedures for determining the theoretical maximum specific gravity (also known as Rice specific gravity) and density of uncompacted hot mix asphalt (HMA) at 77?F using the weighing in air method. A supplemental dry back procedure is provided for reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and for HMA where combined virgin aggregate water absorption is 2.0 % or more determined by California Test 206 and California Test 207. The theoretical maximum specific gravities and densities of HMA are intrinsic properties whose values are influenced by the composition of the mixtures in terms of types and amounts of aggregates and asphalt binder materials. They are: 1. Used to calculate values for percent air voids in compacted HMA. 2. Used to establish target values for the compaction of HMA. 3. Essential when calculating the amount of binder absorbed by the internal porosity of the individual aggregate particles in HMA. B. REFERENCES

C. Apparatus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Two experiments for the price of one? -- The role of the second oscillation maximum in long baseline neutrino experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the quantitative impact that data from the second oscillation maximum has on the performance of wide band beam neutrino oscillation experiments. We present results for the physics sensitivities to standard three flavor oscillation, as well as results for the sensitivity to non-standard interactions. The quantitative study is performed using an experimental setup similar to the Fermilab to DUSEL Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). We find that, with the single exception of sensitivity to the mass hierarchy, the second maximum plays only a marginal role due to the experimental difficulties to obtain a statistically significant and sufficiently background-free event sample at low energies. This conclusion is valid for both water Cherenkov and liquid argon detectors. Moreover, we confirm that non-standard neutrino interactions are very hard to distinguish experimentally from standard three-flavor effects and can lead to a considerable loss of sensitivity to \\theta_{13}, the mass hierarchy and CP violation.

Patrick Huber; Joachim Kopp

2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

289

Separation of Stochastic and Deterministic Information from Seismological Time Series with Nonlinear Dynamics and Maximum Entropy Methods  

SciTech Connect

We present a procedure developed to detect stochastic and deterministic information contained in empirical time series, useful to characterize and make models of different aspects of complex phenomena represented by such data. This procedure is applied to a seismological time series to obtain new information to study and understand geological phenomena. We use concepts and methods from nonlinear dynamics and maximum entropy. The mentioned method allows an optimal analysis of the available information.

Gutierrez, Rafael M.; Useche, Gina M.; Buitrago, Elias [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Narino, Carrera 3 Este No. 47A--15 Bogota (Colombia)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

290

Test report on the Abacus 30 kW bimode{reg_sign} inverter and maximum power tracker (MPT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories conducts the photovoltaic balance of systems (BOS) program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. Under this program, SNL lets commercialization contracts and conducts a laboratory program designed to advance BOS technology, improve BOS component reliability, and reduce the BOS life-cycle-cost. This report details the testing of the first large US manufactured hybrid inverter and its associated maximum power tracker.

Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J. [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Experimental optimal maximum-confidence discrimination and optimal unambiguous discrimination of two mixed single-photon states  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental implementation of optimum measurements for quantum state discrimination. Optimum maximum-confidence discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination of two mixed single-photon polarization states were performed. For the latter the states of rank 2 in a four-dimensional Hilbert space are prepared using both path and polarization encoding. Linear optics and single photons from a true single-photon source based on a semiconductor quantum dot are utilized.

Steudle, Gesine A.; Knauer, Sebastian; Herzog, Ulrike; Benson, Oliver [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, AG Nanooptik, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Stock, Erik; Bimberg, Dieter [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Haisler, Vladimir A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva Avenue 13, Novosibirsk RU-630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Digital discrimination of neutron and ? ray using organic scintillation detector based on wavelet transform modulus maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel algorithm for the discrimination of neutron and {\\gamma}-ray with wavelet transform modulus maximum (WTMM) in an organic scintillation has been investigated. Voltage pulses arising from a BC501A organic liquid scintillation detector in a mixed radiation field have been recorded with a fast digital sampling oscilloscope. The performances of most pulse shape discrimination methods in scintillation detection systems using time-domain features of the pulses are affected intensively by noise. However, the WTMM method using frequency-domain features exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutron and {\\gamma}-ray events based on their different asymptotic decay trend between the positive modulus maximum curve and the negative modulus maximum curve in the scale-space plane. This technique has been verified by the corresponding mixed-field data assessed by the time-of-flight (TOF) method and the frequency gradient analysis (FGA) method. It is shown that the characterization of neutron and gamma achieved by the discrimination method based on WTMM is consistent with that afforded by TOF and better than FGA. Moreover, because the WTMM method is it self presented to eliminate the noise, there is no need to make any pretreatment for the pulses.

Yang yun; Liu guofu; Yang jun; Luo xiaoliang

2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

293

Estimated Maximum Gas Retention from Uniformly Dispersed Bubbles in K Basin Sludge Stored in Large-Diameter Containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This letter report addresses the KE Basin sludge that will be retrieved and stored in large-diameter containers (LDCs.) A fraction of the hydrogen gas bubbles generated from the corrosion of uranium metal and oxides may be retained within the sludge matrix. Those entrapped bubbles will expand the sludge bed volume and, therefore, will affect how much sludge can be loaded into a container. The entrapped gas bubbles will also impact the overall thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the sludge bed. The evaluation summarized here was performed to estimate the maximum gas holdup (volume fraction gas) that could occur sludge stored in large-diameter containers, assuming uniform gas generation (i.e., uniform distribution of metallic uranium particles). This report represents an evaluation of the retention of uniformly distributed bubbles and an estimate of the maximum gas fraction that might be retained in K Basin LDCs based on existing literature data on bubble retention and Basin sludge characterization data. Existing data show that the maximum gas fraction varies, depending on physical properties and the configuration of the material or waste.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Terrones, Guillermo

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Polymeric Nanoparticles Containing Taxanes Enhance Chemoradiotherapeutic Efficacy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To reduce the side effects and improve the efficacy of chemoradiation therapy, taxanes were incorporated into polymeric nanoparticles (PNP), and their synergic effect on radiation therapy in non-small cell lung cancer was evaluated. Methods and Materials: The properties of PNP-taxanes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The chemoradiotherapeutic efficacy of PNP-taxanes was determined by clonogenic assay, cellular morphology, and flow cytometry in A549 cells. In mice bearing A549-derived tumors, the tumor growth delay was examined after the treatment of PNP-taxanes and/or ionizing radiation (IR). Results: The PNP-taxanes were found to be approximately 45 nm in average diameter and to have high solubility in water. They showed the properties of active internalization into cells and preserved the anticancer effect of free taxanes. The survival fraction of A549 cells by clonogenic assay was significantly reduced in the group receiving combined treatment of PNP-taxanes and IR. In addition, in vivo radiotherapeutic efficacy was markedly enhanced by the intravenous injection of PNP-taxanes into the xenograft mice. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of PNP-taxanes to enhance the efficacy of chemoradiation therapy. These results suggest PNP-taxanes can hold an invaluable and promising position in treating human cancers as a novel and effective chemoradiation therapy agent.

Jung, Joohee [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung-Jin [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Bioimaging Probe Development, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (Singapore); Chung, Hye Kyung [Center for Development and Commercialization of Anti-cancer Therapeutics, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Development and Commercialization of Anti-cancer Therapeutics, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye-Won; Lee, Sa-Won; Seo, Min Hyo [Department of Parenteral Delivery Program, Samyang Pharmaceuticals R and D, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Parenteral Delivery Program, Samyang Pharmaceuticals R and D, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heon Joo [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Si Yeol [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seong-Yun, E-mail: syj@amc.seoul.kr [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Kyung, E-mail: ekchoi@amc.seoul.kr [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, ASAN Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

On the increase of the isolation efficacy for the passive elastic devices by the structural configuration optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper present the main results obtained from the complex study intended for increasing the isolation efficacy on the passive elastic anti-vibrational devices, based on the rubber elements. At first, the author present the main theoretical aspects ... Keywords: isolation efficacy, passive elastic devices, rubber element

Silviu Nastac

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe K{alpha} fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe K{alpha} centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of {approx}100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

Krumpe, M.; Markowitz, A. [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Lamer, G. [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Corral, A., E-mail: mkrumpe@ucsd.ed [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, 20121 Milan (Italy)

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

297

Scalar Non-Luminous Matter in Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a candidate for dark matter in galaxies, we study an SU(3) triplet of complex scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled to gravity. In the spherically symmetric static spacetime where the flat rotational velocity curves of stars in galaxies can be explained, we find simple solutions of scalar fields with SU(3) global symmetry broken to U(1) X U(1), in an exponential scalar potential, which will be useful in a quintessence model of the late-time acceleration of the Universe.

B. J. Lee; T. H. Lee

2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

298

End-of-life destructive examinations of Zircaloy maximum depletion blanket fuel plates from the Shippingport PWR Core 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Destructive examinations were performed on four Shippingport PWR Core 2 maximum fluence and depletion blanket plates for surface integrity, corrosion oxide thickness, and hydrogen absorption of the Zircaloy-4 cladding. The Shippingport PWR Core 2 operated for 23,360 effective full power hours (EFPH) (62,235 hot hours) at an average coolant temperature of 536{degrees}F (280{degrees}C) and a peak neutron flux of 0.6{times}10{sup 14}n/cm{sup 2}/s. The end-of-life examination program included measurements on three PWR-2 beta-quenched blanket fuel plates and one alpha-annealed blanket end plate. The examinations consisted of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inspections, direct metallographic oxide thickness measurements, and hydrogen extraction analyses on a joined element pair from the peak fluence (132{times}10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}), maximum depletion (13.5{times}10{sup 20} fissions/cc)PWR-2 blanket cluster.

Clayton, J.C.; Kammenzind, B.F.; Senio, P.; Sherman, J.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The Late-Spring Maximum of Rainfall over the U.S. Central Plains and the Role of the Low-Level Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal rainfall over the U.S. central plains features a late-spring maximum. A springfall annual mode revealed from the empirical orthogonal function analysis on rainfall delineates a maximum center over the central plains that coincides ...

Shih-Yu Wang; Tsing-Chang Chen

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the fourth year of a four-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the forebay to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. This work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes).

Johnson, Robert L.; Simmons, Mary Ann; McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Carver S.; Cook, Chris B.; Brown, Richard S.; Tano, Daniel K.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Faber, Derrek M.; Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

2005-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the third year of a four-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the forebay to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. This work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes).

Simmons, Mary Ann; Johnson, Robert L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Carver S.; Cook, Chris B.; Brown, Richard S.; Tano, Daniel K.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Faber, Derrek M.; Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Study of the efficacy of aerosol versus nonaerosol laundry products. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The California Air Resources Board estimates that 6.6 tons of photochemically reactive organic compounds (PROC) are released into the environment in California every day because of the use of aerosol laundry products. The project studied the efficacy, ease of product use, and PROC content for three major brands of pre-wash stain removers in available product forms and for five starch products in their available product forms. Efficacy of pre-wash products was generally found to be limited. They were particularly useful for oil and ball point ink removal. Aerosols were found to be slightly superior. PROC content varied from 16-76% on aerosols; none was found in nonaerosols. Aerosols were found to be slightly easier to use by the laboratory investigator. For starches, on synthetic fabrics Faultless aerosol was found to be superior. For natural fabrics, results were mixed. Efficacy per unit cost was found to be high for bulk starches. PROC content for the two aerosols was 5.8% for Faultless and 8.5% for Niagra. Aerosols were easiest to use and bulk products rather difficult to use.

Boggs, R.R.; Belmont, B.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

The effect of the shape function on small-angle scattering analysis by the maximum entropy method  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of small-angle scattering data to obtain a particle size distribution is dependent upon the shape function used to model the scattering. Using a maximum entropy analysis of small-angle scattering data, the effect of shape function selection on obtained size distribution is demonstrated using three different shape functions to describe the same scattering data from each of two steels. The alloys have been revealed by electron microscopy to contain a distribution of randomly oriented and mainly non-interacting, irregular, ellipsoidal precipitates. Comparison is made between the different forms of the shape function. Effect of an incident wavelength distribution is also shown. The importance of testing appropriate shape functions and validating these against other microstructural studies is discussed.

Jemian, P.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Allen, A.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Department of Physics]|[National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

?Just-in-Time? Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life  

SciTech Connect

Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle s life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These Just-in-Time methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.

DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

306

Teacher self-efficacy in Cape Town : a bottom up approach to enhancing the quality of education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Personal teacher self-efficacy (PTE), or the belief in one's own ability to overcome a particular challenge, often acts as a catalyst for teachers to improve the effectiveness of their teaching. Gaining PTE can translate ...

Kim, YeSeul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Training Residents to Employ Self-efficacy-enhancing Interviewing Techniques: Randomized Controlled Trial of a Standardized Patient Intervention  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a single SP instructor training visit and persisted withoutour findings suggest that training primary care physiciansJ, et al. Self-efficacy training for patients with end-stage

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

EFFECTS OF THE MAXIMUM CREDIBLE ACCIDENT RELEVANT TO THE DESIGN OF THE CONTAINMENT SHELL, EXPERIMENTAL LOW-TEMPERATURE PROCESS HEAT REACTOR PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the maximum credible accident relative to the design of the containment shell are discussed. The maximum credible accident is defined. The thermal and hydraulic effects of the maximum credible accident on the reactor system were analyzed. The extent to which fuelrod cladding will melt was estimated. The amount of energy released from the reactor system by the escaping steam and water and by a possible chemical reaction was calculated along with the corresponding pressure rise inside the containment shell. The kinds, amounts, and total radioactivity of fission products released to the atmosphere of the containment shell after the core melts were predicted. (M.C.G.)

1960-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

309

A Comparison among Strategies for Interpolating Maximum and Minimum Daily Air Temperatures. Part II: The Interaction between Number of Guiding Variables and the Type of Interpolation Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a comparative experiment, the sequence of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for 1976 was interpolated over England and Wales to a resolution of 1 km using partial thin plate splines, ordinary kriging, trend surface, and an automatic ...

Claire H. Jarvis; Neil Stuart

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A Comparison among Strategies for Interpolating Maximum and Minimum Daily Air Temperatures. Part I: The Selection of Guiding Topographic and Land Cover Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the derivation and selection of a comprehensive set of continuous topographic and land coverrelated variables to guide the interpolation of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over England and Wales, for an entire annual ...

Claire H. Jarvis; Neil Stuart

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Effects of Data Gaps on the Calculated Monthly Mean Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Continental United States: A Spatial and Temporal Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaps in otherwise regularly scheduled observations are often referred to as missing data. This paper explores the spatial and temporal impacts that data gaps in the recorded daily maximum and minimum temperatures have on the calculated monthly ...

David E. Stooksbury; Craig D. Idso; Kenneth G. Hubbard

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A Model to Estimate the Time of Observation Bias Associated with Monthly Mean Maximum, Minimum and Mean Temperatures for the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly data for 79 stations in the United States are used to develop an empirical model which can be used to estimate the time of observation bias associated with different observation schedules. The model is developed for both maximum and ...

Thomas R. Karl; Claude N. Williams Jr.; Pamela J. Young; Wayne M. Wendland

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Links between Rossby Wave Breaking and the North Atlantic OscillationArctic Oscillation in Present-Day and Last Glacial Maximum Climate Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-tropospheric Rossby wavebreaking processes are examined in coupled oceanatmosphere simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and of the modern era. LGM statistics of the Northern Hemisphere in winter, computed from the Paleoclimate ...

Gwendal Rivire; Alexandre Lan; Guillaume Lapeyre; David Salas-Mlia; Masa Kageyama

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Prediction of Summer Maximum and Minimum Temperature over the Central and Western United States: The Roles of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical model based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to explore climatic associations and predictability of JuneAugust (JJA) maximum and minimum surface air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) as well as the frequency of Tmax ...

Eric J. Alfaro; Alexander Gershunov; Daniel Cayan

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Development and Testing of Canada-Wide Interpolated Spatial Models of Daily MinimumMaximum Temperature and Precipitation for 19612003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of trivariate thin-plate smoothing splines to the interpolation of daily weather data is investigated. The method was used to develop spatial models of daily minimum and maximum temperature and daily precipitation for all of ...

Michael F. Hutchinson; Dan W. McKenney; Kevin Lawrence; John H. Pedlar; Ron F. Hopkinson; Ewa Milewska; Pia Papadopol

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

CART Decision-Tree Statistical Analysis and Prediction of Summer Season Maximum Surface Ozone for the Vancouver, Montreal, and Atlantic Regions of Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prediction of daily maximum surface ozone (O3) concentration was begun by Environment Canada in the spring of 1993 for the Vancouver, Montreal, and Atlantic regions in order to advise the public of expected air quality. Forecasts have been issued ...

William R. Burrows; Mario Benjamin; Stephen Beauchamp; Edward R. Lord; Douglas McCollor; Bruce Thomson

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Understanding Superintendents' Self-Efficacy Influences on Instructional Leadership and Student Achievement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation explores public school superintendent self-efficacy influences on instructional and student achievement within three Texas public school districts. The purpose of this research study is to investigate superintendent self-efficacy and its perceived influence on instructional leadership in districts with persistent student achievement inequities for economically disadvantaged and students of color. This study specifically focused on three White male public school superintendents with varying numbers of student populations that have large percentages of economically disadvantaged students and students of color. Two research questions guided the inquiry process: 1. How do superintendents in school districts in which children of color and children from low-income homes persistently under-perform perceive their effectiveness in the area of instructional leadership? 2.What are superintendents perceptions about how their instructional leadership beliefs are influenced by the context of federal and state accountability in which they work? This study employed a qualitative method of investigation utilizing a case-study approach to examine the perceptions, beliefs, and views of participating superintendents. Two in-depth interviews with each school superintendent served as primary data collection sources, while field notes, personal observations, email, and phone conversations served as secondary and clarifying sources. Data were interpreted using a critical interpretivist lens. This inquiry contributes to the body of superintendent practice and limited research scholarship by assisting in the understanding of perceived superintendent self-efficacy influences on instructional leadership and student achievement. These understandings have additional implications for the intersection of power, privilege, and emancipatory critical constructs for superintendents with populations of economically disadvantaged students and students of color. Findings from this study serve to highlight needed calls to action and reforms in superintendent preparatory programs, research scholarship, professional organizations, and regional educational service centers.

Whitt, Kenneth Ray

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

One Possible Reason for Double-Peaked Maxima in Solar Cycles: Is a Second Maximum of Solar Cycle 24 Coming?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate solar activity by focusing on double maxima in solar cycles and try to estimate the shape of the current solar cycle (Cycle 24) during its maximum. We analyzed data for Solar Cycle 24 by using Learmonth Solar Observatory sunspot group data since 2008. All sunspot groups (SGs) recorded during this time interval were separated into two groups: The first group includes small SGs [A, B, C, H, classes by the Zurich classification], and the second group consists of large SGs [D, E, and F]. We then calculated small and large sunspot group numbers, their sunspot numbers [SSN] and Zurich numbers [Rz] from their daily mean numbers as observed on the solar disk during a given month. We found that the temporal variations for these three different separations behave similarly. We also analyzed the general shape of solar cycles from Cycle 1 to 23 by using monthly International Sunspot Number [ISSN] data and found that the durations of maxima were about 2.9 years. Finally, we used ascending time and SSN relat...

Kilcik, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Therapeutic efficacy of dimercaptosuccinic acid and thiamine/ascorbic acid on lead intoxication in rats  

SciTech Connect

Thiamine, folic acid, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid either individually or in combination have been proven to be effective in reducing the toxic manifestations of lead and in enhancing the antidotal efficacy of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA. In a recent report from the authors' laboratory, it was observed that given combination of thiamine and ascorbic acid with thiol chelators improved the ability of the animals to excrete lead thereby reducing body lead burden. In view of the beneficial effect of these two vitamins, it was considered of interest to evaluate their potential to modify the prophylactic action of DMS in lead intoxication in rat after repeated administration.

Tandon, S.K.; Flora, S.J.S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The effects of a summer science camp teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy, science content knowledge, and understanding of the nature of science.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a summer science camp teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers science teaching efficacy, (more)

Logerwell, Mollianne G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Effects of a Summer Science Camp Teaching Experience on Preservice Elementary Teachers Science Teaching Efficacy, Science Content Knowledge, and Understanding of the Nature of Science .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a summer science camp teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers science teaching efficacy, science (more)

Logerwell, Mollianne G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

HIGH LATITUDE ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE H/HE INTENSITY RATIO UNDER SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM CONDITIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We analyze measurements of the 0.5-1.0 MeV/nucleon H/He intensity ratio from the Ulysses spacecraft during its first (1992-94) and second (1999-2000) ascent to southern high latitude regions of the heliosphere. These cover a broad range of heliocentric distances (from 5.2 to 2.0 AU) and out-of-ecliptic latitudes (from 18{degree}S to 80{degree}S). During Ulysses' first southern pass, the HI-SCALE instrument measured a series of enhanced particle fluxes associated with the passage of a recurrent corotating interaction region (CIR). Low values ({approximately}6) of the H/He ratio were observed in these recurrent corotating events, with a clear minimum following the passage of the corotating reverse shock. When Ulysses reached high southern latitudes (>40{degree}S), the H/He ratio always remained below {approximately}10 except during two transient solar events that brought the ratio to high (>20) values. Ulysses' second southern pass was characterized by a higher average value of the H/He ratio. No recurrent pattern was observed in the energetic ion intensity which was dominated by the occurrence of transient events of solar origin. Numerous CIRs, many of which were bounded by forward and reverse shock pairs, were still observed in the solar wind and magnetic field data. The arrival of those CIRs at Ulysses did not always result in a decrease of the H/He ratio; on the contrary, many CIRs showed a higher H/He ratio than some transient events. Within a CIR, however, the H/He ratio usually increased around the forward shock and decreased towards the reverse shock. Throughout the second ascent to southern heliolatitudes, the H/He ratio seldom decreased below {approximately}10 even at high latitudes (>40{degree}S). We interpret these higher values of the H/He ratio in terms of the increasing level of solar activity together with the poor definition and short life that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum conditions. The global filling of the heliosphere by transient solar events and the fact that in 1999-2000 Ulysses observed only intermediate (<650 km s{sup {minus}1}) solar wind speed (whose contents in pick-up He is less energetic than in the fast solar wind streams observed in 1992-1994) favored the protons with respect to alpha particles. Hence the fact that the average values of the H/He ratio observed by Ulysses during the rising phase of the solar cycle (1999-2000) were higher than those observed during the declining phase (1992-1994).

J. GOSLING; D. LARIO; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Dosimetric comparison of treatment plans based on free breathing, maximum, and average intensity projection CTs for lung cancer SBRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether there is a CT dataset may be more favorable for planning and dose calculation by comparing dosimetric characteristics between treatment plans calculated using free breathing (FB), maximum and average intensity projection (MIP and AIP, respectively) CTs for lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Twenty lung cancer SBRT patients, treated on a linac with 2.5 mm width multileaf-collimator (MLC), were analyzed retrospectively. Both FB helical and four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for each patient. Internal target volume (ITV) was delineated based on MIP CTs and modified based on both ten-phase datasets and FB CTs. Planning target volume (PTV) was then determined by adding additional setup margin to ITV. The PTVs and beams in the optimized treatment plan based on FB CTs were copied to MIP and AIP CTs, with the same isocenters, MLC patterns and monitor units. Mean effective depth (MED) of beams, and some dosimetric parameters for both PTVs and most important organ at risk (OAR), lung minus PTV, were compared between any two datasets using two-tail paired t test. Results: The MEDs in FB and AIP plans were similar but significantly smaller (Ps < 0.001) than that in MIP plans. Minimum dose, mean dose, dose covering at least 90% and 95% of PTVs in MIP plans were slightly higher than two other plans (Ps < 0.008). The absolute volume of lung minus PTV receiving greater than 5, 10, and 20 Gy in MIP plans were significantly smaller than those in both FB and AIP plans (Ps < 0.008). Conformity index for FB plans showed a small but statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Dosimetric characteristics of AIP plans are similar to those of FB plans. Slightly better target volume coverage and significantly lower low-dose region ({<=}30 Gy) in lung was observed in MIP plans. The decrease in low-dose region in lung was mainly caused by the change of lung volume contoured on two datasets rather than the differences of dose distribution between AIP and MIP plans. Compare with AIP datasets, FB datasets were more prone to significant image artifacts and MIP datasets may overestimate or underestimate the target volume when the target is closer to the denser tissue, so AIP seems favorable for planning and dose calculation for lung SBRT.

Tian Yuan; Wang Zhiheng; Ge Hong; Zhang Tian; Cai Jing; Kelsey, Christopher; Yoo, David; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing 100021 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microorganisms that cause plant disease have been isolated in recirculated irrigation water and increase the risks of disease incidence in horticultural operations. Ozone is an effective oxidizer used to disinfect drinking water supplies and treat industrial wastewater. The objective of this research was to investigate using ozone gas as part of a strategy to reduce the incidence of Phytophthora deBary in recirculated irrigation water. An isolate of Phytophthora capsici Leonian was cultured to induce sporulation. Spore dilutions were placed in aliquots of reverse osmosis water and bubbled with ozone gas (O3) to concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mgL-1. Ozonated samples were plated and observed for colony forming units. Increasing ozone concentrations reduced the number of colony forming units to 0 at 1.5 mg L-1 03. Turbidity effects on efficacy on Phytophthora capsici were tested using bentonite clay at 0 to 2.0 nephelometric turbidity units and ozone concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mg L-1. Increasing bentonite did not affect the efficacy of increasing ozone concentrations on reducing colony formation to 0 at 1.5 mgL-1 O3. Bioassays using Phytophthora capsici on Capsicum annuum L. seedlings confirmed apparent pathogenicity. Reverse osmosis water, containing a soluble fertilizer at 0 to 300 mg L-1 N, was ozonated to concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mgL-1 O3 and used to irrigate Chrysanthemum x morifolium T. de Romatuelle. Increasing ozone concentrations did not interact with increasing fertilizer levels to affect the final growth parameters. Chrysanthemum exposed to ozone gas concentrations of 0.5 to 1.5 mgL-1 showed symptomatic ozone damage. Complete soluble fertilizer solutions with micronutrients were ozonated from 0 to 1.5 mgL-1 O3 and analysed for nutrient content. Increasing ozone levels did not interact with fertilizers to affect macronutrients. Increasing ozone interacted with iron at a high fertilizer level. Ozone did not affect the efficacy of paclobutralzol in controlling growth in Viola x wittrockiana. Ozone was effective in controlling Phytophthora capsici in recirculated irrigation water with minimum impact on plant growth. Adjustments in fertility regiemes may be needed to counteract the oxidizing affect of ozone on micronutrients.

McDonald, Garry Vernon

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

D. W. Nigg

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Efficacy of Consumer-Available Antimicrobials for the Disinfection of Pathogen Contaminated Green Bell Pepper and Efficacy of Consumer Cleaning Methods for the Decontamination of Knives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Limited information exists regarding the efficacy of consumer-available antimicrobials for the use on produce surfaces. There is a strong focus on eliminating pathogens from produce at a commercial level, but consumers can achieve pathogen reduction in a domestic setting. The objectives were to determine the ability of consumer-available antimicrobials to disinfect waxed green bell peppers, determine the efficacy of knife cleaning methods, and assess the transfer of contamination. Peppers were inoculated via immersion in a cocktail of rifampicin-resistant Salmonella serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to a final concentration of 5.6 0.5 log CFU/cm2. In study 1, samples of 3 10-cm2 pieces of inoculated pepper were excised from smooth tissue and immersed in 3% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 2.5% (v/v) acetic acid, 70% (v/v) ethyl alcohol (EtOH), or sterile distilled water (SDW) for various lengths of time. Following treatment, samples were immersed for 30 s in a neutralizer solution. For study 2, inoculated peppers were chopped into 1-cm2 pieces. Knives were treated with one cleaning method: no treatment (control), towel wipe (TW), running hot water for 5 s (5SW), running hot water for 10 s (10SW) or 1% (v/v) detergent solution followed by hot running water for 10 s (ST). After treatments, knives were used to chop cucumbers. Surviving Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 for both studies were selectively enumerated on lactose-sulfite-phenol red-rifampicin agar following aerobic incubation of plates for 24 h at 35 C. Hydrogen peroxide exposure for 5 min resulted in reductions of 1.3 0.3 log CFU/cm2 for both pathogens. Following 1 min exposure to EtOH, pathogens were reduced by 1.3 0.1 3 log CFU/cm2; exposure for >1 min did not result in additional reduction. Acetic acid exposure after 5 min resulted in a Salmonella reduction of 1.0 0.7 log CFU/cm2, but for E. coli O157:H7, exposure resulted in no significant reduction (p<0.05) of pathogens compared to SDW at the various points. For study 2, 5SW, 10SW, and ST were equally effective for knife decontamination. No significant difference (p<0.05) was found between log CFU/cm2 on knife blade and log CFU/cm2 transferred to surface of cucumber; therefore, viable organisms remaining on the knife blade were transferred onto the surface of the cucumber. Findings suggest EtOH and H2O2 may be effective consumer-deployable antimicrobials for surface decontamination of smooth produce, and contaminated produce can contaminate other produce. Further research of antimicrobial exposure on produce sensorial characteristics is also advised in order to determine how various antimicrobial exposure times will affect the quality and sensorial characteristics of the produce commodity.

Perez, Keila Lizth

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Disinfection Efficacy of Chlorine on Sulfate-reducing Bacteria and Iron Bacteria in Water Supply Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB) that widely exist in water supply networks are the main microorganisms leading to metal corrosion in pipelines. Chlorine is widely used in drinking water supply systems for sterilization. ... Keywords: Chlorine, SRB, IRB, disinfection efficacy

Qi Beimenr; Wu Chenguang; Chen Xiaoju; Yuan Yixing

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Hyperparameter estimation and plug-in kernel density estimates for maximum a posteriori land-cover classification with multiband satellite data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classifying land cover via satellite imagery is an important problem in geographical studies. This paper presents a maximum a posteriori (MAP) land-cover classifier for multiband satellite data. The method uses the Markov random field model. The MAP ... Keywords: Iterated conditional modes, Naive Bayes, Remote sensing

Jason H. Stover; Matthew C. Ulm

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

On the maximum amplitude and coherence of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations in low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study the behaviour of the maximum rms fractional amplitude, $r_{\\rm max}$ and the maximum coherence, $Q_{\\rm max}$, of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in a dozen low-mass X-ray binaries. I find that: (i) The maximum rms amplitudes of the lower and the upper kHz QPO, $r^{\\ell}_{\\rm max}$ and $r^{\\rm u}_{\\rm max}$, respectively, decrease more or less exponentially with increasing luminosity of the source; (ii) the maximum coherence of the lower kHz QPO, $Q^{\\ell}_{\\rm max}$, first increases and then decreases exponentially with luminosity, at a faster rate than both $r^{\\ell}_{\\rm max}$ and $r^{\\rm u}_{\\rm max}$; (iii) the maximum coherence of the upper kHz QPO, $Q^{\\rm u}_{\\rm max}$, is more or less independent of luminosity; and (iv) $r_{\\rm max}$ and $Q_{\\rm max}$ show the opposite behaviour with hardness of the source, consistent with the fact that there is a general anticorrelation between luminosity and spectral hardness in these sources. Both $r_{\\rm max}$ and $Q_{\\rm max}$ in the sample of sources, and the rms amplitude and coherence of the kHz QPOs in individual sources show a similar behaviour with hardness. This similarity argues against the interpretation that the drop of coherence and rms amplitude of the lower kHz QPO at high QPO frequencies in individual sources is a signature of the innermost stable circular orbit around a neutron star. I discuss possible interpretations of these results in terms of the modulation mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed variability.

Mariano Mendez

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

330

Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments  

SciTech Connect

In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methanes carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

Valentine, David

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Improvement of Stent Retriever Design and Efficacy of Mechanical Thrombectomy in a Flow Model  

SciTech Connect

In vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of mechanical intracranial thrombectomy comparing the newly developed Aperio stent retriever and standard devices for stroke treatment. The Aperio (A), with an increased working length of 4 cm and a special cell design for capturing and withholding clots, was compared to three benchmark devices: the Solitaire retrievable stent (B), the Merci X6 (C), and the Merci L5 retriever (D). In a vascular glass model with pulsatile flow, reminiscent of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery, we repeatedly induced occlusion by generating thrombi via a modified Chandler loop system. The numbers of recanalization attempts, peripheral embolizations, and recanalizations at the site of occlusion were recorded during 10 retrieval experiments with each device. Eleven devices were able to remove the blood clots from the occluded branch. In 34 of 40 experiments, restoration of flow was obtained in 1-3 attempts. The main differences between the study devices were observed in terms of clot withholding and fragmentation during retrieval. Although there was only one fragmentation recorded for device A, disengagement of the whole clot or peripheral embolization of fragments occurred more frequently (5-7 times) with devices B, C, and D. In a vascular model, the design of device A was best at capturing and withholding thrombi during retrieval. Further study will be necessary to see whether this holds true in clinical applications.

Wenger, Katharina, E-mail: kwenger@stud.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt am Main (Germany)] [Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Nagl, Frank, E-mail: fnagl@acandis.com [Acandis GmbH and Co KG (Germany)] [Acandis GmbH and Co KG (Germany); Wagner, Marlies, E-mail: Marlies.Wagner@kgu.de; Berkefeld, Joachim, E-mail: berkefeld@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt am Main (Germany)] [Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. I. THE FLOCCULENT GALAXY M 33  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass M{sub max} and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the flocculent galaxy M 33, using published gas data and a catalog of more than 600 young star clusters in its disk. By comparing the radial distributions of gas and most massive cluster masses, we find that M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 4.7{+-}0.4}{sub gas}, M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.3{+-}0.1}{sub H{sub 2}}, and M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.0{+-}0.1}{sub SFR}. We rule out that these correlations result from the size of the sample; hence, the change of the maximum cluster mass must be due to physical causes.

Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

Derivation of the Blackbody Radiation Spectrum from a Natural Maximum-Entropy Principle Involving Casimir Energies and Zero-Point Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By numerical calculation, the Planck spectrum with zero-point radiation is shown to satisfy a natural maximum-entropy principle whereas alternative choices of spectra do not. Specifically, if we consider a set of conducting-walled boxes, each with a partition placed at a different location in the box, so that across the collection of boxes the partitions are uniformly spaced across the volume, then the Planck spectrum correspond to that spectrum of random radiation (having constant energy kT per normal mode at low frequencies and zero-point energy (1/2)hw per normal mode at high frequencies) which gives maximum uniformity across the collection of boxes for the radiation energy per box. The analysis involves Casimir energies and zero-point radiation which do not usually appear in thermodynamic analyses. For simplicity, the analysis is presented for waves in one space dimension.

Timothy H. Boyer

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

Application Guide for Determining Maximum Switching Transient Overvoltages of Overhead Lines Rated 100 kV and Above Using the Electr omagnetic Transients Program (EMTP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, through attrition and in other ways, utilities have lost many of the engineers that once performed time-domain (transient) simulations of their power systems. As a result, using the electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) to perform time-domain simulations of the power system has become a lost art; and, as a consequence, such tasks as being able to easily determine the maximum transient overvoltage for a particular transmission line have become arduous for some utilities. At the same t...

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

Dental radiography: efficacy in the assessment of intraosseous lesions of the face and jaws in asymptomatic patients  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation the efficacy of dental radiography for the detection of occult intraosseous lesions of the face and jaws was evaluated. An analysis of 30 million health insurance records indicated that the period prevalence of malignant lesions was less than 5 cases/million/year, and for benign lesions approximately 100 cases/million/year. Data from a controlled observer-performance study showed that radiographic sensitivities ranged between 50% and 80%. The cost per true-positive finding was estimated to be +8.6 million per malignant case and +430,000 per benign case. An assessment of the dosimetric literature indicated that the benefits of radiographic screening as a means for early detection of a malignancy appear to be counterbalanced by the risk of causing a radiation-induced malignancy. Taken together, these data demonstrate that dental radiography is not efficacious for the purpose of detecting occult lesions.

Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Radiotherapy in Primary Mediastinal Large B-Lymphoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: We developed a controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant-involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) in patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma that achieved complete response after the patients were treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-CHOP-14). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and June 2004, 124 consecutive patients who were in complete remission after dose dense chemotherapy and rituximab administration (R-CHOP14) were randomly assigned to received IFRT (30 Gy). Sixty-three patients received IFR, and 61 patients did not (control group). Results: The study aimed to include 182 patients in each arm but was closed prematurely because in a security analysis (June 2004), progression and early relapse were more frequent in patients that did not received IFRT. Patients were followed until March 2009, at which point actuarial curves at 10 years showed that progression free-survival was 72% in patients who received IFR and 20% in the control group (p < 0.001), overall survival was 72% and 31%, respectively (p < 0.001). Acute toxicity was mild and well tolerated. Discussion: Adjuvant radiotherapy to sites of bulky disease was the only difference to have an improvement in outcome in our patients; the use of rituximab during induction did not improve complete response rates and did affect overall survival; patients who received rituximab but not IFRT had a worse prognosis. Conclusions: The use of IFRT in patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who achieved complete response remain as the best treatment available, even in patients that received rituximab during induction.

Aviles, Agustin, E-mail: agustin.aviles@imss.gob.mx [Oncology Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, IMSS, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Neri, Natividad [Department of Hematology, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, IMSS, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Fernandez, Raul [Department of Radiation Therapy, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, IMSS, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Huerta-Guzman, Judith; Nambo, Maria J. [Department of Hematology, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, IMSS, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Diacylglycerol Oil, 2nd EditionChapter 15 Efficacy and Safety of the Combined Use of Diacylglycerol Oil with Other Cholesterol-Lowering Agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diacylglycerol Oil, 2nd Edition Chapter 15 Efficacy and Safety of the Combined Use of Diacylglycerol Oil with Other Cholesterol-Lowering Agents Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nut

338

The Need for Research Programs to Provide Data Applicable to the Estimate of Maximum Permissible Exposure Values for Internally Deposited Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear age, which has been with us slightly more than 20 years, has brought with it an unusual awareness of a relatively new toxic agent--ionizing radiation. In fact, a new science, health physics, was created to give special attention to this problem. As a consequence and in spite of the unparalleled hazards associated with ionizing radiation, this new nuclear industry is growing rapidly into a benevolent giant bringing a better way of life while at the Same time maintaining radiation damage at an insignificant level. Although i n the past few decades we have learned much more about the hazards associated with ionizing radiation than those associated with some of the common industrial hazards and although maximum permissible exposure levels for the radionuclides have been established with greater reliability and confidence than have the levels for many chemical agents with which man has been familiar for many centuries, there still remains a considerable uncertainty in many of the basic assumptions and in the parameters used in the calculation of maximum permissible body burden and maximum permissible concentration of the various radionuclides in food, water and air. There is need to determine the uptake, distribution and elimination of a variety of chemical compounds of the approximately 300 common radionuclides. These data are needed for the several modes of intake by the various age groups, and differences due to race, sex, weight, eating habits, etc., should be investigated. There is need especially to obtain data from studies of human exposure and to examine the influence of the quantity and chemical form of the radionuclide and of other associated chemical elements taken into the body, both from single exposure and from continuous exposure.

Morgan, K.Z.

1964-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hardness of Maximum Constraint Satisfaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.4 Non-boolean Max-k-CSP . . . . . .Techniques 3 Preliminaries 4 Max-CSP given by a predicate 5Results for Every CSP?. In Symposium on Theory of

Chan, Siu On

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Maximum Likelihood with Estimating Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEL, but it is free of ESP; hence the name Patched Empiricalby the Empty Set Problem (ESP). We propose to return from EEquations (ML- EE) method avoids ESP In the continuous case,

Grendar, Marian; Judge, George G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

The Efficacy of Ultraviolet Radiation for Sterilizing Tools Used for Surgically Implanting Transmitters into Fish  

SciTech Connect

Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelom of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When several fish are implanted consecutively for large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. However, autoclaving tools can take a long period of time, and chemical sterilants or disinfectants can be harmful to both humans and fish and have varied effectiveness. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used to disinfect water in aquaculture facilities. However, this technology has not been widely used to sterilize tools for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish. To determine its efficacy for this application, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers used UV radiation to disinfect surgical tools (i.e., forceps, needle holder, stab scalpel, and suture) that were exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica. Surgical tools were exposed to the bacteria by dipping them into a confluent suspension of three varying concentrations (i.e., low, medium, high). After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods2, 5, or 15 min. S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV light exposures of 5 and 15 min were effective at killing all four organisms. UV light was also effective at killing Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the organism used as a biological indicator to verify effectiveness of steam sterilizers. These techniques appear to provide a quick alternative disinfection technique for some surgical tools that is less harmful to both humans and fish while not producing chemical waste. However, we do not recommend using these methods with tools that have overlapping parts or other structures that cannot be directly exposed to UV light such as needle holders.

Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Brown, Richard S.

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

342

Safety and Efficacy of Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Adjuvant Bevacizumab in Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and multiagent systemic therapies were reviewed to determine the effects of patient- and treatment-related factors on survival and toxicity. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated with salvage SRS from September 2002 to March 2010. All patients had experienced progression after treatment with temozolomide and radiotherapy. Salvage SRS was typically administered only after multiple postchemoradiation salvage systemic therapies had failed. Results: 63 patients were treated with SRS for recurrent high-grade glioma; 49 patients had World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 4 disease. Median follow-up was 31 months from primary diagnosis and 7 months from SRS. Median overall survival from primary diagnosis was 41 months for all patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival from SRS (OS-SRS) were 6 and 10 months for all patients, respectively. The 1-year OS-SRS for patients with Grade 4 glioma who received adjuvant (concurrent with or after SRS) bevacizumab was 50% vs. 22% for patients not receiving adjuvant bevacizumab (p = 0.005). Median PFS for patients with a WHO Grade 4 glioma who received adjuvant bevacizumab was 5.2 months vs. 2.1 months for patients who did not receive adjuvant bevacizumab (p = 0.014). Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and age were not significantly different between treatment groups. Treatment-related Grade 3/4 toxicity for patients receiving and not receiving adjuvant BVZ was 10% and 14%, respectively (p = 0.58).On multivariate analysis, the relative risk of death and progression with adjuvant bevacizumab was 0.37 (confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.82) and 0.45 (CI 0.21-0.97). KPS >70 and age <50 years were significantly associated with improved survival. Conclusions: The combination of salvage radiosurgery and bevacizumab to treat recurrent malignant gliomas is well tolerated and seems to be associated with improved outcomes. Prospective multiinstitutional studies are required to determine efficacy and long-term toxicity with this approach.

Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Vredenburgh, James J.; Sampson, John H.; Reardon, David A.; Desjardins, Annick; Peters, Katherine B.; Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P., E-mail: john.kirkpatrick@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

First measurement of the small-scale spatial variability of the rain drop size distribution: Results from a crucial experiment and maximum entropy modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main challenges of measuring precipitation are related to the spatio-temporal variability of the drop-size distribution, to the uncertainties that condition the modeling of that distribution, and to the instrumental errors present in the in situ estimations. This PhD dissertation proposes advances in all these questions. The relevance of the spatial variability of the drop-size distribution for remote sensing measurements and hydro-meteorology field studies is asserted by analyzing the measurement of a set of disdrometers deployed on a network of 5 squared kilometers. This study comprises the spatial variability of integral rainfall parameters, the ZR relationships, and the variations within the one moment scaling method. The modeling of the drop-size distribution is analyzed by applying the MaxEnt method and comparing it with the methods of moments and the maximum likelihood. The instrumental errors are analyzed with a compressive comparison of sampling and binning uncertainties that affect actual device...

Checa-Garcia, Ramiro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Best Practices for Planned Maintenance.......................................... 10 Best Practices for Maximum ROI...................................................... 10 Best Practices for Migrating to Sun Oracle Database Machine........ 11 Best Practic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sun Oracle Database Machine provides an optimal solution for all database workloads, ranging from scan-intensive data warehouse applications to highly concurrent OLTP applications. With its combination of smart Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software, complete and intelligent Oracle Database software, and the latest industry standard hardware components from Sun, the Database Machine delivers extreme performance in a highly available and highly secure environment. Oracle Data Guard is Oracles disaster recovery solution prescribed by the Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) to protect mission critical databases residing on Sun Oracle Database Machine and the Exadata Storage Server. Using Data Guard is also the MAA best practice for minimizing planned downtime by upgrading the Oracle Database in a rolling fashion. Data Guard is included with Oracle Database Enterprise Edition and provides the management, monitoring, and automation software to create and maintain one or more synchronized standby databases that protect data from failures, disasters, errors, and

Data Guard; Sun Oracle; Database Machine

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Evaluation of the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation technology: Direct and indirect remediation of uranium under alkaline conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field-scale technology demonstration has been conducted to optimize polyphosphate remediation technology for enhanced monitored natural attenuation of the uranium plume within the 300 Area aquifer at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington State. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of polyphosphate to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. Focused application of polyphosphate was conducted in a source or 'hot spot' area to reduce the inventory of available uranium contributing to the groundwater plume through direct precipitation of uranyl-phosphate solids and secondary containment via precipitation of apatite which can serve as a long-term sorbent for uranium. The test site consisted of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. The results indicated sequestration of uranium as insoluble phosphate phases appears to be a promising alternative for treating the uranium- contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site 300 Area. However, the formation of the apatite during the test was limited due to two separate overarching issues: (1) formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology, and (2) efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Richards, Emily L.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Edge, Ellen

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sun Protection Intervention for Highway Workers: Long-Term Efficacy of UV Photography and Skin Cancer Information on Mens Protective Cognitions and Behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

# The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Background The risk for skin cancer is increased among older males and outdoor workers who have high levels of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Purpose This study was designed to examine the long-term efficacy of UV photography interventions on male outdoor workers, the potential mediators of its impact, and the efficacy of UV photography and skin cancer vs. aging information with this population. Methods One hundred forty-eight male outdoor workers were randomly assigned to one of four intervention conditions or a control condition in a two by two plus one

Frederick X. Gibbons; Laura A. Walsh; James A. Kulik, Ph.D.; M. Gerrard; F. X. Gibbons; J. L. Dykstra; H. I. M. Mahler

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quaternary AlInGaN layers were grown on conventional GaN buffer layers on sapphire by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy at different surface temperatures and different reactor pressures with constant precursor flow conditions. A wide range in compositions within 30-62% Al, 5-29% In, and 23-53% Ga was covered, which leads to different strain states from high tensile to high compressive. From high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we determined the compositions, strain states, and crystal quality of the AlInGaN layers. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed to characterize the surface morphology. A critical strain value for maximum In incorporation near the AlInGaN/GaN interface is presented. For compressively strained layers, In incorporation is limited at the interface as residual strain cannot exceed an empirical critical value of about 1.1%. Relaxation occurs at about 15 nm thickness accompanied by strong In pulling. Tensile strained layers can be grown pseudomorphically up to 70 nm at a strain state of 0.96%. A model for relaxation in compressively strained AlInGaN with virtual discrete sub-layers, which illustrates the gradually changing lattice constant during stress reduction is presented.

Reuters, Benjamin; Finken, M.; Wille, A.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A. [RWTH Aachen University, GaN Device Technology, Sommerfeldstrasse 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-FIT, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Hollaender, B. [Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-FIT, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, PGI9-IT, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Heuken, M. [RWTH Aachen University, GaN Device Technology, Sommerfeldstrasse 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany); AIXTRON SE, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath (Germany)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Reconsideration of EPAs Approval of Vermonts 2002 Lake Champlain Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and Determination to Disapprove the TMDL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (Act) requires states to identify waters that do not or are not expected to meet applicable water quality standards after imposition of technology-based controls alone. In that event, the waters are considered impaired, and must be identified or listed under Section 303(d) of the Act. Once such waters are identified, states are to develop TMDLs for any pollutant that is causing the impairment, at a level necessary to attain and maintain the applicable state water quality standards with seasonal variations and a margin of safety that accounts for any lack of knowledge concerning the relationship between effluent limitations and water quality. The total maximum daily load that applies to a water segment is the sum of the load allocations (LA) of pollutants from nonpoint sources, the wasteload allocations (WLA) of pollutants from point sources, and a margin of safety. 1 See 40 C.F.R. 130.2(g)-(i), 130.2(c)(1). Once the public has had the opportunity to review and comment on such TMDLs, states are required to submit the TMDLs to EPA for review and approval. If EPA disapproves a TMDL, it must then establish the TMDL at the level necessary to implement the applicable water quality standards and the state must incorporate the TMDL into its continuing planning process.

A. Statutory; Regulatory Background

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph Mouse Models for Efficacy Testing of Agents against Radiation CarcinogenesisA Literature Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: As the number of cancer survivors treated with radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is constantly increasing, so is concern about radiation-induced cancers. This increases the need for therapeutic and mitigating agents against secondary neoplasias. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro assessment, but also a set of reliable animal models of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) remains one of the best animal model systems for cancer research due to its molecular and physiological similarities to man, small size, ease of breeding in captivity and a fully sequenced genome. This work reviews relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models and methodologies of induction of radiation-induced leukemia, thymic lymphoma, breast, and lung cancer in these models. Where available, the associated molecular pathologies are also included.

Leena Rivina; Robert Schiestl

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Luminal flow amplifies stent-based drug deposition in arterial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: Treatment of arterial bifurcation lesions using drug-eluting stents (DES) is now common clinical practice and yet the mechanisms governing drug distribution in these complex morphologies are incompletely ...

Levine, Evan G.

352

Late Light Curves of Normally-Luminous Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological tools has reinforced the need to better understand these objects and their light curves. The light curves of Type Ia supernovae are powered by the nuclear decay of $^{56}Ni \\to ^{56}Co \\to ^{56}Fe$. The late time light curves can provide insight into the behavior of the decay products and their effect of the shape of the curves. We present the optical light curves of six "normal" Type Ia supernovae, obtained at late times with template image subtraction, and the fits of these light curves to supernova energy deposition models.

J. C. Lair; M. D. Leising; P. A. Milne; G. G. Williams

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

353

Tumor initiating but differentiated luminal-like breast cancer ...  

... Oslo, Norway; cCancer Stem Cell Innovation Center, Oslo ... the above explanation always must be ... Fold change analysis of the miRNA microarray ...

354

Unification of Luminous Type 1 Quasars through CIV Emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a sample of 30,000 quasars from SDSS-DR7, we explore the range of properties exhibited by high-ionization, broad emission lines, such as CIV 1549. Specifically we investigate the anti-correlation between L_UV and emission line EQW (the Baldwin Effect) and the "blueshifting" of high-ionization emission lines. The blueshift of the CIV emission line is nearly ubiquitous, with a mean shift of 810 km/s for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars and 360 km/s for radio-loud (RL) quasars, and the Baldwin Effect is present in both RQ and RL samples. Composite spectra are constructed as a function of CIV emission line properties in attempt to reveal empirical relationships between different line species and the SED. Within a two-component disk+wind model of the broad emission line region (BELR), where the wind filters the continuum seen by the disk component, we find that RL quasars are consistent with being dominated by the disk component, while BALQSOs are consistent with being dominated by the wind component. Some RQ object...

Richards, Gordon T; Gallagher, S C; Hall, Patrick B; Hewett, Paul C; Leighly, Karen M; Deo, Rajesh P; Kratzer, Rachael M; Shen, Yue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

UNIFICATION OF LUMINOUS TYPE 1 QUASARS THROUGH C IV EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

Using a sample of {approx}30,000 quasars from the 7th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we explore the range of properties exhibited by high-ionization, broad emission lines, such as C IV {lambda}1549. Specifically, we investigate the anti-correlation between continuum luminosity and emission-line equivalent width (the Baldwin Effect (BEff)) and the 'blueshifting' of the high-ionization emission lines with respect to low-ionization emission lines. Employing improved redshift determinations from Hewett and Wild, the blueshift of the C IV emission line is found to be nearly ubiquitous, with a mean shift of {approx}810 km s{sup -1} for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars and {approx}360 km s{sup -1} for radio-loud (RL) quasars. The BEff is present in both RQ and RL samples. We consider these phenomena within the context of an accretion disk-wind model that is modulated by the nonlinear correlation between ultraviolet and X-ray continuum luminosity. Composite spectra are constructed as a function of C IV emission-line properties in an attempt to reveal empirical relationships between different line species and the continuum. Within a two-component disk+wind model of the broad emission-line region (BELR), where the wind filters the continuum seen by the disk component, we find that RL quasars are consistent with being dominated by the disk component, while broad absorption line quasars are consistent with being dominated by the wind component. Some RQ objects have emission-line features similar to RL quasars; they may simply have insufficient black hole (BH) spin to form radio jets. Our results suggest that there could be significant systematic errors in the determination of L{sub bol} and BH mass that make it difficult to place these findings in a more physical context. However, it is possible to classify quasars in a paradigm where the diversity of BELR parameters is due to differences in an accretion disk wind between quasars (and over time); these differences are underlain primarily by the spectral energy distribution, which ultimately must be tied to BH mass and accretion rate.

Richards, Gordon T.; Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Kratzer, Rachael M. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Hewett, Paul C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Leighly, Karen M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Do teachers differ by certification route? novice teachers' sense of self-efficacy, commitment to teaching, and preparedness to teach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alternative teacher certification (ATC) programs are one method created to help alleviate teacher shortages (Cox, Matthews, & Assoc, 2001; Hallinan & Khmelkov, 2001). While much debate has arisen over ATC programs, very few have empirically examined their impact on the teaching pool (Darling-Hammond, Berry, & Thoreson, 2001; Darling-Hammond, Chung, & Frelow, 2002; Goldhaber, 2000; Ingersoll, 1999; Shen, 1997, 1999). The present study was designed to explore differences by certification type and program characteristics based on novice teachers' demographics, educational attainment, sense of self-efficacy, and sense of preparedness to enter the classroom. Results from the present study suggest ATC programs are somewhat diversifying the teaching population by bringing in more minorities and science majors, but do not appear to be bringing in more experienced scientists and mathematicians nor do they appear to be alleviating the teacher shortage. In this sample, traditionally certified teachers felt better prepared than ATC teachers with the biggest differences on Promoting Student Learning. Regardless of certification route, prior classroom experience was a strong predictor of Overall Preparedness and a teacher's perception of his or her ability to be an effective teacher. For ATC teachers, a positive mentoring experience was a strong predictor of Overall Preparedness. The discussion of whether or not ATC programs should exist should now be replaced with a discussion of how to ensure that these programs produce better teachers and improve student learning. The underlying theme from the present study was that, in order to feel prepared and have high self-efficacy, novice teachers needed instruction in the majority of the components identified by research and by the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (1996), including positive mentoring experiences, field based experiences, and curriculum based on child development, learning theory, cognition, motivation, and subject matter pedagogy. Results from the present study support the assertion that teacher preparation programs, program components, mentoring experiences, and field-based experiences do impact teacher effectiveness in the classroom.

Zientek, Linda Reichwein

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Longitudinal study to assess the safety and efficacy of a live-attenuated SHIV vaccine in long term immunized rhesus macaques  

SciTech Connect

Live-attenuated viruses derived from SIV and SHIV have provided the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic viruses, but concerns regarding their long-term safety and efficacy have hampered their clinical usefulness. We report a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of {delta}vpuSHIV{sub PPC}, a live virus vaccine derived from SHIV{sub PPC}. Macaques were administered two inoculations of {delta}vpuSHIV{sub PPC}, three years apart, and followed for eight years. None of the five vaccinated macaques developed an AIDS-like disease from the vaccine. At eight years, macaques were challenged with pathogenic SIV and SHIV. None of the four macaques with detectable cellular-mediated immunity prior to challenge had detectable viral RNA in the plasma. This study demonstrates that multiple inoculations of a live vaccine virus can be used safely and can significantly extend the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared to a single inoculation, which is efficacious for approximately three years.

Yankee, Thomas M. [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)], E-mail: tyankee@kumc.edu; Sheffer, Darlene; Liu Zhengian; Dhillon, Sukhbir; Jia Fenglan; Chebloune, Yahia [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Stephens, Edward B. [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Narayan, Opendra [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

359

A virtual reality system for the treatment of stress-related disorders: A preliminary analysis of efficacy compared to a standard cognitive behavioral program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary efficacy data in a controlled study of the use of a virtual reality (VR) system for treating stress-related disorders (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD; Pathological Grief, or PG; and Adjustment Disorders, or AD). ... Keywords: Adjustment Disorder, Pathological Grief, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Psychological treatments, Stress-related disorders, Virtual reality

R. M. Baos; V. Guillen; S. Quero; A. Garca-Palacios; M. Alcaniz; C. Botella

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the first use of a beta-eliminating cut based on a maximum-likelihood characterization described above.

Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Toward a Methodology to Investigate the Downstream Flood Hazards on the American River due to Changes in Probable Maximum Flood due to Effects of Artificial Reservoir Size and Land-Use/Land-Cover Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research in mesoscale hydrology suggests that the size of the reservoirs and the land-use/land-cover (LULC) patterns near them impact the extreme weather [e.g., probable maximum flood (PMF)]. A key question was addressed by W. Yigzaw et al.:...

Alfred J. Kalyanapu; A. K. M. Azad Hossain; Jinwoo Kim; Wondmagegn Yigzaw; Faisal Hossain; C. K. Shum

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Towards methodology to investigate the downstream flood hazards on American River due to changes in Probable Maximum Flood due to effects of Artificial Reservoir Size and Land Use/Land Cover Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research in mesoscale hydrology suggests that the size of the reservoirs and the land use/land cover (LULC) patterns near them impact the extreme weather (such as probable maximum flood or PMF). A key question was addressed by Yigzaw et al.,...

Alfred J. Kalyanapu; A. K. M. Azad Hossain; Jinwoo Kim; Wondmagegn Yigzaw; Faisal Hossain; C. K. Shum

363

D i i f S t i bilit i th B ilt E i tDesigning for Sustainability in the Built Environment Exterior Facade Design for Maximum Daylighting and Solar Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to downsize the air conditioning system. The resulting cost reduction helps pay for daylighting improvements Facade Design for Maximum Daylighting and Solar Power GenerationGeneration A frank assessment of issues "...the art and science of daylighting is not so much about how to provide enough daylighting as how to do

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

364

Efficacy of Single-Session Percutaneous Drainage and 50% Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of Simple Renal Cysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of single-session 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts, and to compare the therapeutic results of 5 and 20 min sclerosant dwell techniques. Methods. During the past 9 years, 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy was performed on 67 cysts in 66 patients. An acetic acid volume corresponding to a mean of 23% of the aspirated cyst volume was injected into the cysts. A 20 min dwell time with position changes was performed in 32 cysts (31 patients; group I) and 8% of volume for a 5 min dwell time in 35 cysts (35 patients; group II). Three- and 6-month sonographic or CT follow-up was performed for a minimum of 1 year. Complete regression was defined as no remaining cyst measurable on sonography with or without a scar at the renal cortex. Partial regression was defined as a decreased cyst volume compared with that before sclerotherapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the therapeutic results between the two groups. Results. For 67 simple renal cysts, complete regression on follow-up was observed in 21 of 32 cysts (66%; group I) and 22 of 35 cysts (63%; group II); the remaining 24 cysts all showed partial regression. The partial reduction rate of the cyst's volume was 97.4% (91.3-99.4%) in group I and 96.9% (90.8-99.5 %) in group II. There were no procedure-related major complications, and no statistically significant differences in the complete regression and partial volume reduction rates between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Fifty percent acetic acid is an effective and safe sclerosing agent for simple renal cysts. Fifty percent acetic acid sclerotherapy with a 5 min sclerosant dwell time, using a volume of about 10% of the aspirated volume, is sufficient for satisfactory results of simple renal cyst sclerotherapy.

Kwon, Se Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ohjh6108@hanmail.net; Seo, Tae-Seok [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ho Chul [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

The Efficacy of Profile Matching as a Means of Controlling for the Effects of Response Distortion on Personality Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners continue to be concerned about the magnitude, extent, and effects of response distortion when self-report personality measures are used in high-stakes testing. One method for mitigating response distortion that has not received much empirical attention is profile matching. Profile matching assesses the fit between test-takers predictor profiles and a standard profile which represents an ideal or high performing employees profile. Since profile matching assesses fit, it can capture nonlinear effects. Furthermore, high predictor scores are not necessarily associated with higher criterion scores. Testtakers who distort their responses by choosing inaccurately extreme response options may improve their chances of being hired if a linear model is used, but this approach is unlikely to be effective if a profile matching strategy is used as long as the standard profile is unknown to the test-takers. As such, the primary objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which profile matching may alleviate concerns about response distortion. A secondary objective was to examine characteristics of the standard profile that are associated with the efficacy of this approach. The present study compared the effects of response distortion on personality test scores, and their criterion-related validity in predicting tenure, based on a linear composite and a profile fit score. The present study used data from 996 applicants who completed a personality test in a high-stakes testing context. Missing data were imputed for a subset of applicants who did not complete two response distortion scales. As such, the results provided an initial proof-of-concept of the effectiveness of profile matching as a personnel decision-making strategy using a blend of real and simulated data. The results suggest that profile fit scores are less related to response distortion and display higher criterion-related validity than linear composite scores. However, the difference in criterion-related validity could not be attributed to response distortion. The results further suggest that the amount of scatter in the standard profile is negatively associated with the profile fit scores susceptibility to response distortion and positively related to criterion-related validity.

Glaze, Ryan 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project -- Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the work conducted during the first year of a long-term study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system in eliciting a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The strobe light system is being evaluated as a means to prevent entrainment (and subsequent loss) of fish at the entrance to the forebay adjacent to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Colville Confederated Tribes are collaborating on the three-year study being conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest Power Planning Council.

Simmons, Mary Ann; Johnson, Robert L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Anglea, Steven M.; Simmons, Carver S.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Lecaire, R; Francis, S

2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.6 Lighting  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

9 9 Typical Efficacies and Lifetimes of Lamps (1) Current Technology CRI (2) Incandescent 10 - 19 97 Halogen 14 - 20 99 Fluorescent - T5 25 - 55 52 - 75 Fluorescent - T8 35 - 87 7,500 - 20,000 52 - 90 Fluorescent - T12 35 - 92 7,500 - 20,000 50 - 92 Compact Fluorescent 40 - 70 82 Mercury Vapor 25 - 50 15 - 50 Metal Halide 65 - 70 High-Pressure Sodium 22 Low-Pressure Sodium 0 Solid State Lighting 33-97 Note(s): Source(s): 18 - 180 18,000 20 - 100 15,000 - 50,000 1) Theoretical maximum luminous efficacy of white light is 220 lumens/Watt. 2) CRI = Color Rendering Index, which indicates a lamp's ability to show natural colors. 3) The DOE Solid State Lighting program has set an efficacy goal twice that of fluorescent lights (160 lumen per Watt). DOE, EERE, Building Technology Program/Navigant Consulting, U.S. Lighting Market Characterization, Volume I: National Lighting Inventory and Energy

368

Sparse Covariance Selection via Robust Maximum Likelihood ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 8, 2005 ... Consider a data set with n variables, drawn from a multivariate Gaussian distribution N(0, ?), where the covariance matrix ? is unknown.

369

Approximate Maximum Principle for Discrete Approximations of ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detroit, MI 48202. Email: boris@math.wayne.edu. ILYA SHVARTSMAN. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Penn State University - Harrisburg.

370

Hurricane Maximum Intensity: Past and Present  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hurricane intensity forecasting has lagged far behind the forecasting of hurricane track. In an effort to improve the understanding of the hurricane intensity dilemma, several attempts have been made to compute an upper bound on the intensity of ...

J. Parks Camp; Michael T. Montgomery

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

ON SEMIDEFINITE PROGRAMMING RELAXATIONS OF MAXIMUM ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

k-section [2] (see also [12]), where c is some (unknown) absolute constant. We also ... The ith row of a matrix C we denote by C(i, :). ...... Ellis Horwood Lim-.

372

Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Solar Concentrator ...  

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) relies on thermodynamic processes to convert concentrated light into useful forms of energy. Accurate sun tracking ...

373

Maximum entropy distribution of stock price fluctuations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities allows obtaining the distribution of stock price fluctuations by maximizing its information entropy. This leads to a physical description of the underlying dynamics as a random walk characterized by a stochastic diffusion coefficient and constrained to a given value of the expected volatility, taking in this way into account the information provided by the existence of an option market. This model is validated by a comprehensive comparison with observed distributions of both price return and diffusion coefficient. Expected volatility is the only parameter in the model and can be obtained by analysing option prices. We give an analytic formulation of the probability density function for price returns which can be used to extract expected volatility from stock option data. This distribution is of high practical interest since it should be preferred to a Gaussian when dealing with the problem of pricing derivative financial contracts.

Bartiromo, Rosario

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Maximum entropy based semantic role labeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The semantic role labeling (SRL) refers to finding the semantic relation (e.g. Agent, Patient, etc.) between a predicate and syntactic constituents in the sentences. Especially, with the argument information of the predicate, we can derive the ...

Kyung-Mi Park; Hae-Chang Rim

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Maximum Entropy - CECM - Simon Fraser University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

problem. Convert to dual optimization problem with two-. point boundary value problem ... A general \\Inverse Problem" ... norm: Measures energy in the function.

376

Parallel Maximum-Likelihood Inversion for Estimating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Computation and Graphical Statistics, 1(3), 1992.[9] HM Jones and G ... POC96, pages 25-27, Versailles, France, March 1996.[10] K. Lange and R ...

2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

377

Parallel Maximum-Likelihood Inversion for Estimating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Journal of Computation and Graphical Statistics, 1(3), 1992. [9] HM Jones and G. Mitra. A ... 1996. [10] K. Lange and R. Carson. ...

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 21, 2013 ... [4] B.J. Kim, W. Kim, and B.H. Song. Sequencing ... is given by a collection S of 3-

379

Flour moisture control for maximum water addition.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis examines flour moisture control and how this control can be an effective tool for cost minimization in a flour mill. Specifically, this thesis (more)

Bontrager, Chad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

Hogden, John E. (Santa Fe, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Maximum Empirical Likelihood: Empty Set Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resulted in the extension of ESP into aESP A feedback fromand therefore may be subject to the empty set problem (ESP).In other words, ESP introduces the possibility that for the

Grendar, Marian; Judge, George G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Uniaxial Compression Experiments on Lead Zirconate Titanate 95/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, ''Maximum Compressive Stress'' Criterion for Onset of the Ferroelectric - Antiferroelectric Polymorphic Transformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some time ago we presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F{sub R1} {r_arrow} A{sub O} polymorphic transformation of unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb (PNZT) ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydro-static pressure at which the transformation otherwise took place. Recently we showed that this simple criterion did not apply to nonhydrostatically compressed, poled ceramic. However, unpoled ceramic is isotropic, whereas poled ceramic has a preferred crystallographic orientation and is mechanically anisotropic. If we further assume that the transformation depends not only on the magnitude of the compressive stress, but also its orientation relative to some feature(s) of PNZT's crystallography, then these disparate results can be qualitatively resolved. It has long been known that this transformation can be triggered in uniaxial compression. Our modified hypothesis makes two predictions for transformation of unpoled polycrystals under uniaxial stress: (i) the transformation should begin when the maximum compressive stress, {sigma}{sub 1}, equals the hydrostatic pressure for transformation, and (ii) a steadily increasing axial stress should be required to drive the transformation.

Zeuch, D.H.; Montgomery, S.T.; Holcomb, D.J.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

383

Transient Climate Response in a Two-Layer Energy-Balance Model. Part II: Representation of the Efficacy of Deep-Ocean Heat Uptake and Validation for CMIP5 AOGCMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this second part of a series of two articles analyzing the global thermal properties of atmosphereocean coupled general circulation models (AOGCMs) within the framework of a two-layer energy-balance model (EBM), the role of the efficacy of ...

O. Geoffroy; D. Saint-Martin; G. Bellon; A. Voldoire; D. J. L. Olivi; S. Tytca

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Controls for Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect

This study predicts new hybrid lighting applications for LEDs. In hybrid lighting, LEDs provide a low-energy 'standby' light level while another, more powerful, efficient light source provides light for occupied periods. Lighting controls will allow the two light sources to work together through an appropriate control strategy, typically motion-sensing. There are no technical barriers preventing the use of low through high CRI LEDs for standby lighting in many interior and exterior applications today. The total luminous efficacy of LED systems could be raised by increasing the electrical efficiency of LED drivers to the maximum practically achievable level (94%). This would increase system luminous efficacy by 20-25%. The expected market volumes for many types of LEDs should justify the evolution of new LED drivers that use highly efficient ICs and reduce parts count by means of ASICs. Reducing their electronics parts count by offloading discrete components onto integrated circuits (IC) will allow manufacturers to reduce the cost of LED driver electronics. LED luminaire manufacturers will increasingly integrate the LED driver and thermal management directly in the LED fixture. LED luminaires of the future will likely have no need for separable lamp and ballast because the equipment life of all the LED luminaire components will all be about the same (50,000 hours). The controls and communications techniques used for communicating with conventional light sources, such as dimmable fluorescent lighting, are appropriate for LED illumination for energy management purposes. DALI has been used to control LED systems in new applications and the emerging ZigBee protocol could be used for LEDs as well. Major lighting companies are already moving in this direction. The most significant finding is that there is a significant opportunity to use LEDs today for standby lighting purposes. Conventional lighting systems can be made more efficient still by using LEDs to provide a low-energy standby state when lower light levels are acceptable.

Rubinstein, Francis

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Controls for Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect

This study predicts new hybrid lighting applications for LEDs. In hybrid lighting, LEDs provide a low-energy 'standby' light level while another, more powerful, efficient light source provides light for occupied periods. Lighting controls will allow the two light sources to work together through an appropriate control strategy, typically motion-sensing. There are no technical barriers preventing the use of low through high CRI LEDs for standby lighting in many interior and exterior applications today. The total luminous efficacy of LED systems could be raised by increasing the electrical efficiency of LED drivers to the maximum practically achievable level (94%). This would increase system luminous efficacy by 20-25%. The expected market volumes for many types of LEDs should justify the evolution of new LED drivers that use highly efficient ICs and reduce parts count by means of ASICs. Reducing their electronics parts count by offloading discrete components onto integrated circuits (IC) will allow manufacturers to reduce the cost of LED driver electronics. LED luminaire manufacturers will increasingly integrate the LED driver and thermal management directly in the LED fixture. LED luminaires of the future will likely have no need for separable lamp and ballast because the equipment life of all the LED luminaire components will all be about the same (50,000 hours). The controls and communications techniques used for communicating with conventional light sources, such as dimmable fluorescent lighting, are appropriate for LED illumination for energy management purposes. DALI has been used to control LED systems in new applications and the emerging ZigBee protocol could be used for LEDs as well. Major lighting companies are already moving in this direction. The most significant finding is that there is a significant opportunity to use LEDs today for standby lighting purposes. Conventional lighting systems can be made more efficient still by using LEDs to provide a low-energy standby state when lower light levels are acceptable.

Rubinstein, Francis

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

386

Probing local structure in the yellow phosphor LaSr[subscript 2]AlO[subscript 5]:Ce[superscript 3+], by the maximum entropy method and pair distribution function analysis  

SciTech Connect

The compound LaSr{sub 2}AlO{sub 5} was recently introduced as a competitive Ce{sup 3+} host material for blue-pumped yellow phosphors for use in white light emitting diodes. A crucial feature of the crystal structure of LaSr{sub 2}AlO{sub 5} is that La, which is the host site for Ce{sup 3+}, is located in the 8h positions of the I4/mcm crystal structure, a site equally shared with Sr. While the average crystal structure of LaSr{sub 2}AlO{sub 5} as revealed by Rietveld analysis of laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggests nothing untoward, maximum entropy method analysis of the synchrotron X-ray data reveals the existence of conspicuous non-sphericity of the electron density. Pair distribution function analysis of the data suggests that despite their occupying the same crystallographic site, La and Sr possess distinct coordination environments, and the environment around La is more compact and regular than the environment suggested by the Rietveld refinement of the average structure. The absorption and emission from Ce{sup 3+} centers is controlled by the local coordination and symmetry, and the use of powerful new tools in unraveling details of these strengthens the rational search for new phosphors for solid state white lighting.

Im, Won Bin; Page, Katharine; DenBaars, Steven P.; Seshadri, Ram (UCSB); (LANL)

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

387

Open Quantum to classical phases transition in the stochastic hydrodynamic analogy: the explanation of the Lindemann relation and the analogies between the maximum of density at He lambda point and that one at water-ice phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present paper the gas, liquid and solid phases made of structureless particles, are visited to the light of the quantum stochastic hydrodynamic analogy (SQHA). The SQHA shows that the open quantum mechanical behavior is maintained on a distance shorter than the theory-defined quantum correlation length (lc). When, the physical length of the problem is larger than lc, the model shows that the quantum (potential) interactions may have a finite range of interaction maintaining the non-local behavior on a finite distance quantum non-locality length lq. The present work shows that when the mean molecular distance is larger than the quantum non-locality length we have a classical phases (gas and van der Waals liquids) while when the mean molecular distance becomes smaller than lq or than lc we have phases such as the solid crystal or the superfluid one, respectively, that show quantum characteristics. The model agrees with Lindemann empirical law (and explains it), for the mean square deviation of atom from the equilibrium position at melting point of crystal, and shows a connection between the maximum density at the He lambda point and that one near the water-ice solidification point.

Piero Chiarelli

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Habitat reclamation plan to mitigate for the loss of habitat due to oil and gas production activities under maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activities associated with oil and gas development under the Maximum Efficiency Rate (MER) from 1975 to 2025 will disturb approximately 3,354 acres. Based on 1976 aerial photographs and using a dot grid methodology, the amount of land disturbed prior to MER is estimated to be 3,603 acres. Disturbances on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) were mapped using 1988 aerial photography and a geographical information system. A total of 6,079 acres were classified as disturbed as of June, 1988. The overall objective of this document is to provide specific information relating to the on-site habitat restoration program at NPRC. The specific objectives, which relate to the terms and conditions that must be met by DOE as a means of protecting the San Joaquin kit fox from incidental take are to: (1) determine the amount and location of disturbed lands on NPR-1 and the number of acres disturbed as a result of MER activities, (2) develop a long term (10 year) program to restore an equivalent on-site acres to that lost from prior project-related actions, and (3) examine alternative means to offset kit fox habitat loss.

Anderson, D.C.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Efficacy and treatment-related toxicity of radiotherapy for early-stage primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the parotid gland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the parotid gland. Methods and materials: Data on 35 consecutive patients seen at Mayo Clinic between 1974 and 2000 with Ann Arbor Stage I and II NHL of the parotid gland were reviewed retrospectively. Radiotherapy was given to 23 patients, and 12 patients were observed. Eight patients received RT to local fields only. In addition to local fields, 9 patients received ipsilateral neck irradiation, and 6 patients received both ipsilateral and contralateral neck irradiation. Results: Median follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 2 months-24 years). Local control was significantly improved in the RT group compared with the observation group (p = 0.03). Both overall survival and disease-specific survival were 90% at 5 years and 71% at 10 years. There was no significant difference in disease-specific survival or overall survival between the RT and observation groups. Conclusions: The overall prognosis for this rare presentation of NHL is excellent. Radiotherapy provided significant improvement in local control with minimal morbidity and should be considered in the treatment of these patients.

Olivier, Kenneth R. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: kolivier@ufl.edu; Brown, Paul D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stafford, Scott L. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ansell, Stephen M. [Division of Hematology and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Martenson, James A. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Reirradiation With Cetuximab in Locoregional Recurrent and Inoperable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Feasibility and First Efficacy Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To report our experience with a prospective protocol of external beam reirradiation (Re-RT) combined with cetuximab for patients with inoperable, recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods: Between August 2008 and June 2010, 18 patients with inoperable recurrence of SCCHN after adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy (RT) and simultaneous or sequential cisplatin-based chemotherapy for primary SCCHN were enrolled. Acute and late toxicity from the experimental regimen were recorded every week during RT and every 3 months thereafter. Efficacy was assessed with repeated imaging using response evaluation criteria in solid tumors and clinical examinations 8-12 weeks after completion of the treatment and every 3 months thereafter. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 9.4 (range: 3.85-31.7) months and for patients alive 30.4 (range: 15.7-31.7) months. Acute toxicity was generally mild or moderate. Five patients developed a grade 3 acneiform rash related to cetuximab. Late toxicity occurred as grade 3 trismus in five and as grade 3 abacterial salivary gland inflammation in one patient, respectively. Overall response rate was 47%. Median overall and progression-free survival for all patients was 8.38 months and 7.33 months, respectively. The overall survival rate was 44% at 1 year, with a 1 year local control rate of 33%. Conclusion: Notwithstanding the limitations of our preliminary data Re-RT combined with cetuximab for recurrent and inoperable SCCHN is feasible and the integration of newer targeted agents seems to be less toxic compared to conventional chemotherapy with encouraging response rates at least for a subset of patients.

Balermpas, Panagiotis; Keller, Christian [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hambek, Markus; Wagenblast, Jens [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Seitz, Oliver [Department of Oral Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Roedel, Claus [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Weiss, Christian, E-mail: christian.weiss@kgu.de [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam hydroacoustic system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the strobe lights in eliciting a negative phototactic response in fish. The transducers were deployed so they tracked fish entering and within the region illuminated by the strobe lights. Two of the seven transducers were mounted to the frame containing the strobe lights and were oriented horizontally. The remaining five transducers were spaced approximately 4 m apart on individual floating frames upstream of the barge, with the transducers looking vertically downward.

Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Extremely Luminous Water Vapor Emission from a Type 2 Quasar at Redshift z = 0.66  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search for water masers in 47 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Type 2 quasars using the Green Bank Telescope has yielded a detection at a redshift of z = 0.660. This maser is more than an order of magnitude higher in redshift than any previously known and, with a total isotropic luminosity of 23,000 L_sun, also the most powerful. The presence and detectability of water masers in quasars at z ~ 0.3-0.8 may provide a better understanding of quasar molecular tori and disks, as well as fundamental quasar and galaxy properties such as black hole masses. Water masers at cosmologically interesting distances may also eventually provide, via direct distance determinations, a new cosmological observable for testing the reality and properties of dark energy, currently inferred primarily through Type 1a supernova measurements.

Richard Barvainis; Robert Antonucci

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

393

PKS 0743$-$67: An Ultra-luminous Accretion Disk and a High Kinetic Luminosity Jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter, deep radio observations of the quasar PKS 0743$-$67 are presented that reveal a central engine capable of driving jets with enormous kinetic luminosity, $Q>4.1 \\times 10^{46}\\mathrm{ergs/s}$. This result is significant because archival optical spectral data indicates that the accretion disk has a thermal luminosity, $L_{bol}>2\\times 10^{47}\\mathrm{ergs/s}$. Furthermore, estimates of the central black hole mass from line widths indicate that $L_{bol}/L_{Edd}\\approx 1$. This suggests that neither a large $L_{bol}$ nor $L_{bol}/L_{Edd}$ suppresses jet power in quasars, despite claims that they do in the recent literature. Earlier studies have found $L_{bol}$ and $Q$ are correlated in blazars. However, by removing the BL-Lacs and leaving only the quasars in the sample, we found that $Q$ is very weakly correlated with $L_{bol}$ in the subsample.

Brian Punsly; Steven Tingay

2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

On the X-ray spectra of luminous, inhomogeneous accretion flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the expected X-ray spectral and variability properties of black hole accretion discs at high luminosity, under the hypothesis that radiation pressure dominated discs are subject to violent clumping instabilities and, as a result, have a highly inhomogeneous two-phase structure. After deriving the full accretion disc solutions explicitly in terms of the parameters of the model, we study their radiative properties both with a simple two-zones model, treatable analytically, and with radiative transfer simulations which account simultaneously for energy balance and Comptonisation in the hot phase, together with reflection, reprocessing, ionization and thermal balance in the cold phase. We show that, if not only the density, but also the heating rate within these flows is inhomogeneous, then complex reflection-dominated spectra can be obtained for a high enough covering fraction of the cold phase. In general, large reflection components in the observed X-ray spectra should be associated with strong soft excesses, resulting from the combined emission of ionized atomic emission lines. The variability properties of such systems are such that, even when contributing to a large fraction of the hard X-ray spectrum, the reflection component is less variable than the power-law like emission originating from the hot Comptonising phase, in agreement with what is observed in many Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies and bright Seyfert 1. Our model falls within the family of those trying to explain the complex X-ray spectra of bright AGN with ionized reflection, but presents an alternative, specific, physically motivated, geometrical setup for the complex multi-phase structure of the inner regions of near-Eddington accretion flows.

A. Merloni; J. Malzac; A. C. Fabian; R. R. Ross

2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

395

HVS-DBS: human visual system-aware dynamic luminance backlight scaling for video streaming applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the advances in Liquid Crystal Display's (LCD) technology, LCD power consumption is still one of the major limiters of battery lifetime for handheld devices. The main contribution to LCD subsystem power consumption comes from the backlight. This ... Keywords: LCD, backlight scaling, display, power management, video streaming

Andrea Bartolini; Martino Ruggiero; Luca Benini

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

LuminAR : a compact and kinetic projected augmented reality interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For quite some time, researchers and designers in the field of human computer interaction have strived to better integrate information interfaces into our physical environment. They envisioned a future where computing and ...

Linder, Natan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Parametric tools and digital fabrication for the design of luminous ceilings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The digital phenomena constitute a fundamental change in how designers accomplish a wide range of the complex processes of design. This thesis investigates the use of computation in the context of architectural lighting ...

Saad, Rita, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Nonselective Losses in Foveal Chromatic and Luminance Sensitivity in Multiple Sclerosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

perimeter. To control the overall state of retinal ad- aptation of the subject, a circular white background (ElectroencephalogrClin Neurophysiol 56:16P, 1983). t Part of the work reported in this paper was carried out while thresholds for a sharp-edged, 1-deg spectral test flash presented on a large, bright (1000-Td) white

Foster, David H.

399

Acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of SDSS-III DR8 photometric luminous galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872,921 galaxies over ~ 10,000 deg^2 between 0.45~ 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS (Percival et al. 2010) and WiggleZ (Blake et al. 2011). We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al. 2011; de Putter et al. 2011) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.

Seo, Hee-Jong; White, Martin; Cuesta, Antonio; Ross, Ashley; Saito, Shun; Reid, Beth; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Percival, Will J; de Putter, Roland; Schlegel, David; Eisenstein, Daniel; Xu, Xiaoying; Schneider, Donald; Skibba, Ramin; Verde, Licia; Nichol, Robert; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J; Costa, Luiz; Gott, J; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Prada, Francisco; Ross, Nicholas; Simmons, Audrey; Simoni, Fernando; Shelden, Alaina; Snedden, Stephanie; Zehavi, Idit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Bulk Compton motion in the luminous quasar 4C04.42?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the broadband analysis of the powerful quasar 4C04.42 (z=0.965) observed by XMM and INTEGRAL. The 0.2--200 keV spectrum is well reproduced with a hard power-law component ($\\Gamma\\sim$1.2), augmented by a soft component below 2 keV (observer frame), which is described by a thermal blackbody with temperature kT$\\backsimeq$ 0.15 keV. Alternatively, a broken power-law with E$_{break}$=2 keV and $\\Delta\\Gamma$=0.4 can equally well describe the data. Using archival data we compile the not-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distribution of the source from radio to gamma-ray frequencies. The SED shows two main components: the low frequency one produced by Synchrotron radiation from the electrons moving in the jet and the high energy one produced through external Compton scattering of the electrons with the photon field of the Broad Line Region. Within this scenario the excess emission in the soft-X ray band can be interpreted as due to Bulk Compton radiation of cold electrons. However, some other processes, briefly discussed in the text, can also reproduce the observed bump.

A. De Rosa; L. Bassani; P. Ubertini; A. Malizia; A. J. Dean

2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Bulk Compton motion in the luminous quasar 4C04.42?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the broadband analysis of the powerful quasar 4C04.42 (z=0.965) observed by XMM and INTEGRAL. The 0.2--200 keV spectrum is well reproduced with a hard power-law component ($\\Gamma\\sim$1.2), augmented by a soft component below 2 keV (observer frame), which is described by a thermal blackbody with temperature kT$\\backsimeq$ 0.15 keV. Alternatively, a broken power-law with E$_{break}$=2 keV and $\\Delta\\Gamma$=0.4 can equally well describe the data. Using archival data we compile the not-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distribution of the source from radio to gamma-ray frequencies. The SED shows two main components: the low frequency one produced by Synchrotron radiation from the electrons moving in the jet and the high energy one produced through external Compton scattering of the electrons with the photon field of the Broad Line Region. Within this scenario the excess emission in the soft-X ray band can be interpreted as due to Bulk Compton radiation of cold electrons. However, some other processes, bri...

De Rosa, A; Ubertini, P; Malizia, A; Dean, A J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Atmospheric optical measurements during high altitude balloon flight, Part II: Sky luminances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Eglin AFB, Florida Browne, Mr. R.N. Division 5224. SandiaCorporation Sandia Base Albuquerque, New Mexico -E- Cahalan,Defense Atomic Support Agency Sandia Sase, New Mexico U.S.

Boileau, Almerian R

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grond Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay.  

SciTech Connect

Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC's Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the first year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on the distribution (numbers) and behavior of kokanee and rainbow trout was based on 51, 683 fish targets detected during the study period (June 30 through August 1, 2001). Study findings include the following: (1) Analysis of the count data indicated that significantly more fish were present when the lights were on compared to off. This was true for both the 24-hr tests as well as the 1-hr tests. Powerplant discharge, distance from lights, and date were significant factors in the analysis. (2) Behavioral results indicated that fish within 14 m of the lights were trying to avoid the lights by swimming across the lighted region or upstream. Fish were also swimming faster and straighter when the lights were on compared to off. (3) The behavioral results were most pronounced for medium- and large-sized fish at night. Medium-sized fish, based on acoustic target strength, were similar to the size of kokanee and rainbow trout released upstream of Grand Coulee Dam. Based on this study and general review of strobe lights, the researchers recommend several modifications and enhancements to the follow-on study in 2002. The recommendations include: (1) modifying the study design to include only the 24-hr on/off treatments, and controlling the discharge at the third powerplant, so it can be included as a design variable; and (2) providing additional data by beginning the study earlier (mid-May) to better capture the kokanee population, deploying an additional splitbeam transducer to sample the region close to the lights, and increasing the number of lights to provide better definition of the lit and unlit region.

Simmons, M.A.; McKinstry, C.A.; Simmons, C.S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the entrainment data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the third year of the strobe light study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout under field conditions. The prototype system consists of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended 15 m vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, illuminate a region directly upstream of the barge. The 2003 study period extended from June 16 through August 1. Three light treatments were used: all six lights on for 24 hours, all lights off for 24 hours, and three of six lights cycled on and off every hour for 24 hours. These three treatment conditions were assigned randomly within a 3-day block throughout the study period. Hydroacoustic technology was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the strobe lights in eliciting a negative phototactic response in fish. The hydroacoustic system in 2003 comprised seven splitbeam transducers arrayed in front of the strobe lights, two multibeam transducers behind the lights, and a mobile splitbeam system. The seven splitbeam transducers were deployed so they tracked fish entering and within the region illuminated by the strobe lights. These transducers were spaced approximately 4 m apart on an aluminum frame floating upstream of the barge and looked vertically downward. The multibeam transducers monitored the distribution of fish directly behind and to both sides of the lights, while the mobile splitbeam system looked at the distribution of fish within the third powerplant forebay. To augment the hydroacoustic data, additional studies were conducted. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the third powerplant forebay were measured, and acoustically tagged juvenile kokanee were released upstream of the strobe lights and tracked within the forebay and downstream of the dam. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on kokanee and rainbow trout focused on the number of fish detected in each of the areas covered by one of the downlooking transducers, the timing of fish arrivals after the status of the strobe lights changed, fish swimming effort (detected velocity minus flow velocity), and fish swimming direction. Water velocity measurements were used to determine fish swimming effort. The tracking of tagged kokanee provided data on fish movements into and out of the third powerplant forebay, including entrainment.

Simmons, M.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

"Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program (specifically, planting eyed eggs, fall and smolt releases into the lake) appear to be appropriate for successful homing of sockeye in Redfish Lake. Also, our findings indicated that sockeye salmon were capable of olfactory imprinting at multiple life stages and over varying exposure durations. Fish exposed to odors just prior to smolting showed the strongest attraction to the imprinting odor arginine and this period corresponds to the period of highest plasma thyroxine levels and increased BAAR receptor mRNA in juveniles. Objective 3: Spring Chinook salmon were exposed to three different photoperiods and three feed rations at the button-up stage of development. Both photoperiod at emergence and ration post-ponding affected the number of males maturing at age one. Nearly 70% of the males in the early emergence and satiation fed group matured after the first year of rearing, while none of the fish reared on late emergence photoperiod (equivalent to emergence on May 1) matured during this time irrespective of ration treatment. Within the early emergence groups, reducing growth using ration (low or high) appeared to reduce the number of males maturing at age one from 70% to 40-50%. Maturation rates of fish that emerged in a photoperiod equivalent to mid-February (middle emergence) ranged from 10-25%. Together these data indicate that the seasonal timing of fry emergence and growth after ponding can alter life history patterns in spring Chinook salmon. The results imply that hatchery rearing practices that alter seasonal timing of fry emergence can have drastic effects on life history patterns in juvenile Chinook salmon. All three objectives are on-going and will result in recommendations (at the end of the FY 2009 performance period) to advance hatchery reforms in conventional and captive broodstock programs.

Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

"Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory epithelium increased dramatically during final maturation in both Stanley Basin and Okanogan River sockeye. These increases appeared to be independent of odor exposure history, rising significantly in both arginine-naive and arginine-exposed fish. However, sockeye exposed to arginine during smolting demonstrated a larger increase in BAAR mRNA than arginine-naive fish. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that odorant receptors sensitive to home stream waters may be upregulated at the time of the homing migration and may afford opportunities to exploit this system to experimentally characterize imprinting success and ultimately identify hatchery practices that will minimize straying of artificially produced salmonids. Additional analysis of Sockeye salmon imprinting and further implications of these findings will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 3: Photoperiod at emergence and ration after ponding were varied in Yakima River spring Chinook salmon to test the hypothesis that seasonal timing of emergence and growth during early stages of development alter seasonal timing of smoltification and age of male maturation. Fish reared under conditions to advance fry emergence and accelerate growth had the greatest variation in seasonal timing of smolting (fall, spring and summer) and highest rates of early male maturation with most males maturing at age 1 (35-40%). In contrast, fish with delayed emergence and slow growth had the least variation in phenotypes with most fish smolting as yearlings in the spring and no age-1 male maturation. Growth (not emergence timing) altered rates of age-2 male maturation. Results of this study demonstrate that altering fry development, as is often done in hatcheries, can profoundly affect later life history transitions and the range of phenotypes within a spring Chinook salmon population. Additional work in the next funding period will determine if these rearing regimes affected other aspects of smolt quality, which may affect ultimate survival upon ocean entry.

Berejikian, Barry A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

407

Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

2011-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

408

Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes Koichi Okamoto,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for conventional incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs.5 However, luminous efficacies of commercial white LEDsConfocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes Koichi Okamoto,a Akio Kaneta-well-structured light-emitting diodes LEDs with a yellow-green light 530 nm and an amber light 600 nm was measured

Okamoto, Koichi

409

Light production metrics of radiation sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light production by a radiation source is evaluated and reviewed as an important concept of physics from the Black-Body point of view. The mechanical equivalent of the lumen, the unit of perceived light, is explained and evaluated using radiation physics arguments. The existence of an upper limit of luminous efficacy is illustrated for various sources and implications are highlighted.

C. Tannous

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

410

CGI 2008 Conference Proceedings Carles Bosch Gonzalo Besuievsky Ignacio Martin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and humid climate A. H. Fakra, H. Boyer, F. Miranville, D. Bigot Building Physics and Systems Laboratory illuminance 1. Introduction Daylighting is recognized as an important and useful strategy in the design. Literature review The luminous efficacy of daylight (in lm/W) is defined as the ratio of daylight illuminance

Bosch, Carles

411

High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion <10%. Two styles of downlights using the LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential Uses for Depleted Uranium Oxide. 2009, DOE. p.15. WNA. Uranium and Depleted Uranium. 2009 [cited 2010R. , Direct Use of Depleted Uranium As Fuel in a Traveling-

Heidet, Florent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction in quantum homodyne tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I propose an iterative expectation maximization algorithm for reconstructing a quantum optical ensemble from a set of balanced homodyne measurements performed on an optical state. The algorithm applies directly to the acquired data, bypassing the intermediate step of calculating marginal distributions. The advantages of the new method are made manifest by comparing it with the traditional inverse Radon transformation technique.

A. I. Lvovsky

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Maximum Flow Network Interdiction Problem: Valid Inequalities ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications in identifying critical infrastructure in supply (e.g., food, energy, medicine), domestic service (e.g., police, fire, EMS) and communication networks [6].

416

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

Don Augenstein

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

417

Probabilistic fatigue damage prognosis using maximum entropy approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al., 1979). Therefore, fatigue damage accumulation is stochastic in nature. Several physical models, parameter estimation and future inspection and maintenance need to be carefully included for risk assessment studies have been reported to combine the information obtained from inspection with the physical model

Liu, Yongming

418

Optimized Maximum Power Point Tracker for Fast Changing Environmental Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

working point to the optimum, following the weather (i.e. solar irradiance and temperature) conditions Tracking, Photovoltaic, Solar I. INTRODUCTION The worldwide installed PV power capacity today shows topologies, which provide high performance tracking during 'nice' weather conditions, i.e. at strong

Sera, Dezso

419

Automatic Minimum and Maximum Alarm Thresholds for Quality Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated quality control is a necessity for meteorological measurement networks because of an ever-increasing number of measurements. One of the basic quality control tests is to check that the observations fall into a range of acceptable ...

Vesa Hasu; Ari Aaltonen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

IBM Research Report Solving Maximum-Entropy Sampling ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2005 ... This fundamental problem in the design of experiments was introduced in [18] and first used .... An alternative to Algorithm 1 that we experimented with (referred to as ... a path along the feasible set of normalized matrices. Even if .... Unfortunately, we have found it difficult to provide any guidelines on which.

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Estimates of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

report presents three alternative ... All facilities have a design ... Some facilities are not operated at design capacity because of operational guidelines ...

422

Probabilistic models of maximum precipitation for designing sewerage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pluviographic measurement results from the IMGW Wroc?aw-Strachowice meteorological station from years 1960-2009 constitute the basis for this paper. While conducting the statistical analysis of precipitation occurrence frequency own criterion of ...

Andrzej Kotowski; Bartosz Ka?mierczak

423

Popularity vs maximum cardinality in the stable marriage setting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given a bipartite graph G = (A ? B, E) where each vertex ranks its neighbors in a strict order of preference, we consider the problem of computing a largest matching in the set of popular matchings in G. A matching M is ...

Telikepalli Kavitha

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

The Hybrid Maximum Principle is a consequence of Pontryagin ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ous and discrete variables. In recent years, optimization problems for hybrid systems ...... The car starts from the point (x0,y0) = (0,0) and the state variables x and.

425

Table 10.1 Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

50 percent." " NANot available." " Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. Totals may not...

426

A Continuous Characterization of the Maximum-Edge Biclique ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 20, 2012 ... https://sites.google.com/site/nicolasgillis/code. 4.2 Other Algorithms in O(|E|) Operations. We briefly present here two other algorithms designed...

427

Optimal control for maximum power in thermal and chemical systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research treats power optimization for energy converters, such like thermal, solar and chemical engines. Thermodynamic analyses lead to converter's efficiency and limiting power. Steady and dynamic systems are investigated. Static optimization of ...

Stanislaw Sieniutycz

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Adaptive Statistical Language Modeling: A Maximum Entropy Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s´ecurit´e pour laquelle elles ont ´et´e install´ees, et des accidents peuvent se produire. Dans ce Technologies : from Theory to Applications (ICTTA'08), Damascus, Syria. BERGMANN R. & STAHL A. (1998

Rosenfeld, Roni

429

Adaptive Statistical Language Modeling: A Maximum Entropy Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Jordan and Syria · Explore ancient Aleppo, bustling Damascus and the desert city of Palmyra · Enjoy

430

MAXIMUM ENERGY HARVESTING CONTROL FOROSCILLATING ENERGY HARVESTING SYSTEMS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents an optimal method of designing and controlling an oscillating energy harvesting system. Many new and emerging energy harvesting systems, such as the (more)

Elmes, John

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Asymptotic properties of the maximum pseudo-likelihood estimator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes including the Lennard-Jones model Jean-Fran¸cois Coeurjolly1,2 and R´emy Drouilhet1 1 LJK:283­322, 2000. E. Bertin, J.-M. Billiot, and R. Drouilhet. Existence of"Nearest-Neighbour"Gibbs Point Models. Ann. Appl. Probab., 31:895­909, 1999a. E. Bertin, J.-M. Billiot, and R. Drouilhet. Spatial Delaunay

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Maximum expected utility principle: The case study of information retrieval  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amati,G. Ubaldini,F. van Rijsbergen,C.J. Proceedings of Information, Statistics and Induction in Science Conference, Melbourne pp 129-140

Amati, G.; Ubaldini, F.; van Rijsbergen, C.J.

433

Maximum Rate of Pulverized Coal Injection into Blast Furnace with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulverized coal consumption efficiency is determined by means of microscopic and chemical analysis. The carbon structure of coke fines in the blast furnace...

434

Maximum Utility Product Pricing Models and Algorithms Based on ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 15, 2007 ... Let Cj be the set of customer segments who buy Product j, i.e.,. Cj = {i : ?ij = 1} and let Mj be the total number of customers buying Product j, i.e.,.

435

A Note On the Maximum Peirce Skill Score  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Binary classifiers are obtained from a continuous predictor using a threshold to dichotomize the predictor value into event occurrence and nonoccurrence classes. A contingency table is associated with each threshold, and from this table many ...

Agostino Manzato

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

without need for uranium enrichment capability or actinidesfor expanding the uranium enrichment capacity and withoutleft over from the uranium enrichment process: (1) Per unit

Heidet, Florent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Rapidly Solving an Online Sequence of Maximum Flow Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the set of all arcs entering v is known as the reverse star and will be denoted by RS(v) ... The distance label is a lower bound on the shortest distance, in terms of the .... flow in the previous network are removed with breadth-first search, which is.

438

Last Glacial Maximum East Asian Monsoon: Results of PMIP Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During glacial periods, the East Asian monsoon is typically thought to have been stronger in boreal winters and weaker in boreal summers. It is unclear, however, whether this view is true at larger scales and to what extent the East Asian monsoon ...

Dabang Jiang; Xianmei Lang

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

BRANCH-CUT-AND-PROPAGATE FOR THE MAXIMUM k ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to (IPk(G)) does not change the optimal value. Proof. .... v3. 1 21011. 33. 33 (20, 234) wa712. 237. 4458. >21013. 35. 35 (20, 236) .... F. Rossi, P. van Beek, and T. Walsh, editors, Handbook of Constraint Programming,.

440

GRASP with path-relinking for the weighted maximum satisfiability ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 17, 2005 ... gorithm which finds a truth assignment to the variables that results in a total ..... Table 4 shows test problem dimensions, target values, and how.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Maximum power point tracker for solar arrays using controlled rectifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??M.S. Solar energy offers a large potential as a source of energy and in light of financial and ethical reasons, people are looking to harvest (more)

Manadan, Anvin Joe, 1987-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

if(tvar~/^102/)rxName="SNG" else if(tvar~/^16/)rxName="SN2N"=NR&&c1==2&&$1~/^SNA$/{sna[iso]=$2} FNR==NR&&c1==2&&$1~/^SNG$/{sng[iso]=$2} FNR==NR&&c1==2&&$1~/^SNAB$/{snab[iso]=$2}

Heidet, Florent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Albright, D. , Plutonium and highly enriched uranium, 1996 :and swelling in uranium-plutonium mixed nitride fuels.products and to extract plutonium or any other actinide from

Heidet, Florent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Parameterization of the Sedimentation of Raindrops with Finite Maximum Diameter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In common cloud microphysics parameterization models, the prognostic variables are one to three moments of the drop size distribution function. They are defined as integrals of the distribution function over a drop diameter ranging from zero to ...

Corinna Ziemer; Ulrike Wacker

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood, Completely automated nuclear reactors for long- termhandbook: Nuclear physics and reactor theory. 1993. (121 p).The analysis of any nuclear reactor system is closely

Heidet, Florent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

PNNL: a supervised maximum entropy approach to word sense disambiguation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English all-word task in SemEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. ...

Stephen Tratz; Antonio Sanfilippo; Michelle Gregory; Alan Chappell; Christian Posse; Paul Whitney

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the DOE handbook [57], a shutdown margin largerp. 812. Not, A. , DOE fundamentals handbook: Nuclear physics

Heidet, Florent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Maximum Photosynthetic Yield of Green Microalgae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

# The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The biomass yield on light energy of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlorella sorokiniana was investigated in a 1.25- and 2.15-cm light path panel photobioreactor at constant ingoing photon flux density (930 mol photons m ?2 s ?1). At the optimal combination of biomass density and dilution rate, equal biomass yields on light energy were observed for both light paths for both microalgae. The observed biomass yield on light energy appeared to be based on a constant intrinsic biomass yield and a constant maintenance energy requirement per gram biomass. Using the model of Pirt (New Phytol 102:337, 1986), a biomass yield on light energy of 0.78 and 0.75 gmol photons ?1 and a maintenance requirement of 0.0133 and 0.0068 mol photons g ?1 h ?1 were found for D. tertiolecta and C. sorokiniana, respectively. The observed yield decreases steeply at low light supply rates, and according to this model, this is related to the increase of the amount of useable light energy diverted to biomass maintenance. With this study, we demonstrated that the observed biomass yield on light in short light path bioreactors at high biomass densities decreases because maintenance requirements are relatively high at these conditions. All our experimental data for the two strains tested could be described by the physiological models of Pirt (New Phytol 102:337, 1986). Consequently, for the design of a photobioreactor, we should maintain a relatively high specific light supply rate. A process with high biomass densities and high yields at high light intensities can only be obtained in short light path photobioreactors.

In Photobioreactors; Jan-willem F. Zijffers; Ke Zheng; Marcel Janssen; Johannes Tramper; Ren H. Wijffels

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Facets for the Maximum Common Induced Subgraph Problem ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 21:11051120, 1999. [14] J. W. Raymond, E. J. Gardiner, and P. Willett. Heuristics for similarity...

450

Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Information Technology Solutions ...  

Technology Readiness Level: Sandia estimates the TRL at approximately 3-4. First generation and advanced prototypes have been successfully tested.

451

Retrocommissioning Case Study - Applying Building Selection Criteria for Maximum Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commissioning of existing buildings, or retrocommissioning is a systematic process to identify operational and maintenance (O&M) improvements that optimize building performance and ensure that building systems function together efficiently and effectively (Haasl, Sharp 1999). This paper presents a case study of a utility-funded retrocommissioning evaluation on a 125,000 SF office facility in La Mesa, California. The commissioning process consisted of site visits, interviews with facility staff, data collection and analysis, recommendation of energy conservation measures, and verification of savings. The study identified 13 deficiencies and recommended a suite of three O&M measures, one capital improvement measure and five other measures. The measures selected and implemented by the owner resulted in annual projected savings of 238,000 kWh (9.9%) and utility cost savings of $20,000 (6.9%)1, with a simple payback of 0.7 years. The project also demonstrated the value of applying rigorous building selection criteria to obtain cost-effective results. This paper profiles the project and discusses lesson learned.

Luskay, L.; Haasl, T.; Irvine, L.; Frey, D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

IEEE Communications Magazine June 2001138 Maximum Battery Life Routing to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and disaster relief operations are often carried out in situations with no preexisting network infrastructure- age, this results in a single point of failure in a hostile environment, and is therefore undesir. Since most mobile hosts today are powered by batter- ies, efficient utilization of battery power is more

Toh, C-K.

453

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential sector (50% of the electricity consumption and 80% of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings...

454

Geomagnetic activity and its sources during modern solar maximum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Geomagnetic storms and auroral substorms are manifestations of space weather. They are disturbances in the geomagnetic field caused by solar activity that consists of flare (more)

Hynnen, Reko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

United States Record-Maximum/Minimum Daily Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Map...

456

Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

1999-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

457

Photocatalytic Efficacy of 1-Dimensional Nanocomposite Electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Solid State Thermoelectric Power Generator Prototype Designed to Recover Radiant Waste Heat ... An Overview of Energy Consumption and Waste Generation in the Recovery ... Global Primary Aluminium Industry 2010 Life Cycle Inventory.

458

Biphasic Dose-efficacy in Antiangiogenic Therapy.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Antiangiogenic Therapy. Judah Folkman, M.D., Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Biology Program, Karp Family Research Laboratories, 12.129, 300...

459

The risks and efficacy of solar geoengineering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar geoengineering may enable a significant reduction in climate risks by partially offsetting climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases, however this emerging technology entails novel risks and uncertainties along with serious challenges to global governance. I will attempt a rough summary of the physics of solar geoengineering and present recent findings regarding (a) the climate's response to radiative forcing by stratospheric aerosols, (b) methods of producing appropriate aerosol distributions, and (c) risks. In closing I will discuss the trade-off between solar geoengineering, emissions reductions and adaptation in climate policy.

Keith, David [Harvard University

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

460

TALONNAGE EN LUMINANCE SPECTRALE NERGTIQUE DANS L'ULTRAVIOLET A L'AIDE D'UN PLASMA D'HYDROGNE (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transfert. Abstract. 2014 We describe spectral radiance measurements between 200 and 360 nm with a hydro développements à l'Institut National de Métrologie (I. N. M.). 2. Principe de l'expérience. - Le plasma d'hydro. L'hydrogène a été choisi car ses probabilités de transition et ses facteurs de Gaunt sont exactement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum luminous efficacy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. II. REWRITING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z {approx}history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to increase the temperature of the mean density IGM by nearly an order of magnitude, and at low densities by substantially more. It also naturally produces the inverted temperature-density relation inferred by recent observations of the high-redshift Ly{alpha} forest, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with standard reionization models. Finally, we close with a discussion on the possibility of detecting this hot low-density IGM suggested by our model either directly or indirectly via the local Ly{alpha} forest, the Comptonized CMB, or free-free emission, but we find that such measurements are currently not feasible.

Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph, E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: christoph.pfrommer@h-its.org [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

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Do herbivorous minnows have plug-flow reactor guts? Evidence from digestive enzyme activities, gastrointestinal fermentation, and luminal nutrient concentrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

minnows have plug-Xow reactor guts? Evidence fromin the context of chemical reactor models. In this study,function as plug-Xow reactors (PFRs). Four of the species,

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z