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1

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Undergraduate Research at Jefferson Lab - Analysis of Contamination Levels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compton Scattering Chamber Compton Scattering Chamber Previous Project (Compton Scattering Chamber) Undergraduate Research Main Index Next Project (Non-linear Multidimensional Optimization) Non-linear Multidimensional Optimization Analysis of Contamination Levels of Jefferson Laboratory SRF Clean Room Facilities during Power Outage Using FE-SEM/EDX Studies of Copper Coupons Student: Kaitlyn M. Fields School: College of William and Mary Mentored By: Ari D. Palczewski and Charles E. Reece Superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerating cavities at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility support high surface electric and magnetic fields with minimal energy dissipation and resistance. The performance of these cavities can be limited by particulate contamination, which can become a source of enhanced field emission. Clean cavity assembly

3

Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

Lee, Hom-Ti [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Contaminant levels and source strengths in U.S. retail stores A pilot study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contaminant levels and source strengths in U.S. retail stores A pilot study Contaminant levels and source strengths in U.S. retail stores A pilot study Title Contaminant levels and source strengths in U.S. retail stores A pilot study Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2012 Authors Chan, Wanyu R., Meera A. Sidheswaran, Douglas P. Sullivan, Sebastian Cohn, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Healthy Buildings 2012 - 10th International Conference Date Published 2012 Conference Location Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, Brisbane, Queensland Keywords air-exchange rate, building ventilation, indoor-outdoor ratio, particles, vocs Abstract Retail stores have many sources of indoor air contaminants that can cause potential health and odor concerns. One way to control exposure to these contaminants is to provide adequate ventilation. This study aims to characterize the whole-building emission rates of contaminants in certain retail types. The pilot study included two grocery stores and three furniture stores in northern California. We measured simultaneously the building ventilation rates by SF6 decay and contaminant concentrations in each store for one to two days. Contaminants were measured at multiple indoor locations and at one outdoor location near the building. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are three compounds with concentrations above health guidelines in some stores. In several cases, indoor concentrations of certain VOCs and PM were higher indoors than outdoors, suggesting potential indoor sources. Our goal is to characterize the range of contaminant source strengths in 25 to 30 stores in California.

5

ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

6

Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the first use of a beta-eliminating cut based on a maximum-likelihood characterization described above.

Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Dose coefficients and derived guidance and clinical decision levels for contaminated wounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NCRP Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their uptake into the transfer compartment has been combined with the ICRP element-specific systemic models for those radionuclides to derive dose coefficients for intakes via contaminated wounds. Those coefficients have been used to generate derived guidance levels (i.e., the activity in a wound that would result in an effective dose of 20 or 50 mSv, or in some cases, a committed organ equivalent dose of 500 mSv), and clinical decision levels (i.e., activity levels that would indicate the need for consideration of medical intervention to remove activity from the wound site or administration of decorporation therapy or both), typically set at 5 times the derived guidance levels. Data are provided for the radionuclides commonly encountered at nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons, fuel fabrication or recycling, waste disposal, medical and research facilities. These include: {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 210}Po, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 228,232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242,244}Cm, and {sup 252}Cf.

Bertelli, Luiz [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toohey, Richard E [ORISE/ORAU; Sugarman, Steven A [ORISE/ORAU; Christensen, Doran R [ORISE/ORAU

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Control levels for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support joint efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232); by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop radiological control criteria for the recycle and reuse of scrap materials and equipment that contain residual radioactive contamination. The initial radiological control levels are the concentrations in or on materials considered for recycle or reuse that meet the individual (human) or industrial (electronics/film) dose criteria. The analysis identifies relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and methods to determine possible non-health-related impacts from residual radioactive contamination in materials considered for recycle or reuse. The generic methodology and scenarios described here provide a basic framework for numerically deriving radiological control criteria for recycle or reuse. These will be adequately conservative for most situations.

Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors  

SciTech Connect

Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritizing individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

Palmer, R.C. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Hertel, Nolan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ansari, A. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL; Freibert, E.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

Reimann, G.A.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes for treating low-level radioactive contaminated liquid waste  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed on Waste Disposal Facility (WD) influent using Romicon hollow fiber ultrafiltration modules with molecular weight cutoffs ranging from 2000 to 80,000. The rejection of conductivity was low in most cases. The rejection of radioactivity ranged from 90 to 98%, depending on the membrane type and on the feed concentration. Typical product activity ranged from 7 to 100 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Experiments were also performed on alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater. Results ranged from 98 to >99.8%, depending on the membrane type. This yielded a product concentration of less than 0.1 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Tests on PP-Building decontamination water yielded rejections of 85 to 88% alpha radiation depending on the membrane type. These experiments show that the ability to remove radioactivity by membrane is a function of the contents of the waste stream because the radioactivity in the wastewater is in various forms: ionic, polymeric, colloidal, and absorbed onto suspended solids. Although removal of suspended or colloidal material is very high, removal of ionic material is not as effective. Alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater proved to be the easiest to decontaminate, whereas the low-level PP-Building decontamination water proved to be the most difficult to decontaminate. Decontamination of the WD influent, a combined waste stream, varied considerably from day to day because of its constantly changing makeup. The WD influent was also treated with various substances, such as polyelectrolytes, complexing agents, and coagulants, to determine if these additives would aid in the removal of radioactive material from the various wastewaters by complexing the ionic species. At the present time, none of the additives evaluated has had much effect; but experiments are continuing.

Koenst, J.W.; Roberts, R.C.

1978-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

A Bayesian Method for Identifying Contaminated Detectors in Low-Level Alpha Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Analyses used for radiobioassay and other radiochemical tests are normally designed to meet specified quality objectives, such relative bias, precision, and minimum detectable activity (MDA). In the case of radiobioassay analyses for alpha emitting radionuclides, a major determiner of the process MDA is the instrument background. Alpha spectrometry detectors are often restricted to only a few counts over multi-day periods in order to meet required MDAs for nuclides such as plutonium-239 and americium-241. A detector background criterion is often set empirically based on experience, or frequentist or classical statistics are applied to the calculated background count necessary to meet a required MDA. An acceptance criterion for the detector background is set at the multiple of the estimated background standard deviation above the assumed mean that provides an acceptably small probability of observation if the mean and standard deviation estimate are correct. The major problem with this method is that the observed background counts used to estimate the mean, and thereby the standard deviation when a Poisson distribution is assumed, are often in the range of zero to three counts. At those expected count levels it is impossible to obtain a good estimate of the true mean from a single measurement. As an alternative, Bayesian statistical methods allow calculation of the expected detector background count distribution based on historical counts from new, uncontaminated detectors. This distribution can then be used to identify detectors showing an increased probability of contamination. The effect of varying the assumed range of background counts (i.e., the prior probability distribution) from new, uncontaminated detectors will be is discussed.

Maclellan, Jay A.; Strom, Daniel J.; Joyce, Kevin E.

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

15

Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

MAXIMUM HUMIDITY INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect

Moisture-sensitive systems to measure and indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure are discussed. A chemical indicator utilizing deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. To provide indication of the time at which the exposure occurs, a circuit employing a resistive-type sensor was developed. A small, commercially available sensor is used in a portable probe to detect humidity leaks into controlled areas.

Abel, W B

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

The Late-Spring Maximum of Rainfall over the U.S. Central Plains and the Role of the Low-Level Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal rainfall over the U.S. central plains features a late-spring maximum. A spring–fall annual mode revealed from the empirical orthogonal function analysis on rainfall delineates a maximum center over the central plains that coincides ...

Shih-Yu Wang; Tsing-Chang Chen

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean  

SciTech Connect

We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review shows that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. In the years 1956-1958, considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies have largely been confined to a few selected radionuclides, and by far most of this work has been done in the northern hemisphere. We participated in Operation Deepfreeze 1981, collecting 32 plankton samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Glacier on its Antarctic cruise, while Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories concurrently sampled air, water, rain and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K and the U and th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. There is a definite association between the radionuclide content of plankton and air filters, suggesting that aerosol resuspension of marine radioactivity may be occurring. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and foraminifera content of the samples. 38 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

A system dynamics model for the screening-level long-term assessment of human health risks at contaminated sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the design of sustainable and cost-effective management strategies for contaminated sites, decision makers need appropriate tools, i.e. environmental decision support systems to assist them in the planning, assessment, selection and optimisation ... Keywords: Contaminated sites, EDSS, Human health risk assessment, Monitored natural attenuation, Risk-based land management, System dynamics, Uncertainty, Vensim

Ursula S. Mcknight; Michael Finkel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

MaximumLetThrough.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Maximum Let-Through Currents in the APS Storage Ring Quadrupole, Sextupole, and Corrector Magnets J. Carwardine, D. McGhee, G. Markovich May 18, 1999 Abstract Limits are described for the maximum magnet currents, under specified fault conditions, for the storage ring quadrupole, sextupole, and corrector magnets. Introduction In computing the maximum let-through current for the magnets for the storage ring, several factors must be considered. In general, the maximum current likely to occur even under fault conditions is less than the maximum theoretical DC current given the magnet resistance and the maximum available DC voltage. The first level of protection against magnet current overloads is the over-current interlock that is built into the converter electronics package. The threshold is set to approximately 110% of

22

Caged Gammarus fossarum (crustacea) as a robust tool for the characterization of bioavailable contamination levels in continental waters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, priority substances Author-produced version of the article published in Water Research, 2013, Vol. 47; Andral Author-produced version of the article published in Water Research, 2013, Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp contamination at Author-produced version of the article published in Water Research, 2013, Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp

23

Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that Type IV Glycogen Storage disease is occurring. GSD IV is caused by either a deficiency or inactivation of the glycogen branching enzyme that results in the synthesis of an abnormal glycogen molecule that is insoluble and has decreased branch points and increased chain length. These results show that the effects of mine waste contaminants can be expressed at all levels of organization from molecular to ecosystem-level responses.

Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Advanced Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

Programme Csad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Tritium Surface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Glovebox wipe surveys were conducted to correlate surface tritium contamination with atmospheric tritium levels. Surface contamination was examined as a function of tritium concentration and of tritium form, HT/T2 and HTO. The relationship between atmospheric HTO concentration and cleanup time was also investigated.

Sienkiewicz, Charles J.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project  

SciTech Connect

This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

Hutchinson, D.P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

A preliminary parametric performance assessment for the disposal of alpha-contaminated mixed low-level waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) has been performed of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated mixed low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The radionuclide-confinement performance of treated ALLW in various final waste forms, in various disposal locations, and under various assumptions was evaluated. Compliance with performance objectives was assessed for the undisturbed waste scenario and for intrusion scenarios. Some combinations of final waste form, disposal site, and environmental transport assumptions lead to calculated does that comply with the performance objectives, while others do not. The results will help determine the optimum degree of ALLW immobilization to satisfy the performance objectives while minimizing cost.

Smith, T.H.; Anderson, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, J. [IT Corp. (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 180 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip in Advanced Computer Science with

Programme Csci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Milk is a common ingredient in many fried foods. Allergen cross contact can occur through the use of shared frying oil. Analytical methods are needed to determine the level of protein contamination in re-used oil. This study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the use of shared frying oil. Analytical methods are needed to determine the level of protein contamination in re-used oil. This study evaluated the performance of four ELISA test kits in comparison with a total protein assay for detection of milk protein residues in spiked oils that have been subjected

Heller, Barbara

32

Estimation of Radionuclide Content in Contaminated Laundry  

SciTech Connect

Radioactively contaminated laundry is normally sent off site for processing. Laundry is defined as radiologically contaminated anti-cs and respirators. This laundry is shipped as "limited quantity," in accordance with 49CFR173.421. This requires that 95% of the radionuclides shipped are characterized and quantified. In addition, the total quantity must be 10(-3) below the A2 limits specified in 49CFR173. In any facility evaluated, the most conservative (highest activity) waste stream was used as the source term. If a new waste stream is established for a facility, its normalized activity should be compared to the evaluated waste stream to ensure the limits are not exceeded. This article documents a method used for estimating the radionuclide content in contaminated laundry. The maximum values were compared to 49CFR173. Itwas determined that if the contaminated laundry/respirators are shipped in an Interstate Nuclear Services (INS), L-59, limited quantity shipping container and the highest contact radiation level on any side, as measured with an ion chamber, does not exceed 0.5 mR h(-1), the container complies with the requirements of 49CFR173 and could be shipped "limited quantity" from any of the facilities evaluated.

Schrader, Bradley J

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to achieve safe levels in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and White Oak Creek (WOC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EFPC by 85 %. Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WOC are an order of magnitude lower than in EFPC. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations, fish fillet concentrations in WOC have also been above the AWQC, making the most recent aqueous Hg target of 200 ng/L in EFPC seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WOC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EFPC and in other point-source contaminated streams.

Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Valentine, Charles S [ORNL; Gregory, Scott M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Removal to Maximum Extent Practical  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Summary Notes from 1 November 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Removal of Highly Radioactive Radionuclides/Key Radionuclides to the Maximum Extent Practical

35

Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E. (CLS-CI); (Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University); (ECHA Microbiology Ltd.); (Josephine Bay Paul Centre for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

The Maximum Intensity of Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An exact equation governing the maximum possible pressure fall in steady tropical cyclones is developed, accounting for the full effects of gaseous and condensed water on density and thermodynamics. The equation is also derived from Carnot's ...

Kerry A. Emanuel

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Hardness of Maximum Constraint Satisfaction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We show optimal (up to a constant factor) NP-hardness for maximum constraint satisfaction problem with k variables per constraint (Max-k-CSP), whenever k is larger than… (more)

Chan, Siu On

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Estimating Maximum Surface Winds from Hurricane Reconnaissance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radial profiles of surface winds measured by the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) are compared to radial profiles of flight-level winds to determine the slant ratio of the maximum surface wind speed to the maximum flight-level wind ...

Mark D. Powell; Eric W. Uhlhorn; Jeffrey D. Kepert

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°–70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a ...

J. R. Garratt

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Maximum order of planar digraphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the degree/diameter problem for directed planar graphs. We show that planar digraphs with diameter 2 and maximum out-degree and in-degree d, d ? 41, cannot have more than 2d vertices. We show that 2d ...

Rinovia Simanjuntak; Mirka Miller

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Subsurface Contamination Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

42

Subsurface Contamination Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

43

Discontinuities in the Maximum-Entropy Inference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit the maximum-entropy inference of the state of a finite-level quantum system under linear constraints. The constraints are specified by the expected values of a set of fixed observables. We point out the existence of discontinuities in this inference method. This is a pure quantum phenomenon since the maximum-entropy inference is continuous for mutually commuting observables. The question arises why some sets of observables are distinguished by a discontinuity in an inference method which is still discussed as a universal inference method. In this paper we make an example of a discontinuity and we explain a characterization of the discontinuities in terms of the openness of the (restricted) linear map that assigns expected values to states.

Stephan Weis

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

44

Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, with lesser amounts of {sup 6O}Co, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 239,240}Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the {sup 137}Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 239,240}Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500{degrees}C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dunbar, N.W. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Resources Process Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General Information on process contaminants(3-MCPD). Reference list included. Resources Process Contaminants 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certified chemists chloropropanediol contaminants dete

47

Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General information on process contaminants(3-MCPD). Reference list included. Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certified chemists chloropropanediol contaminants deter

48

Maximum containment : the most controversial labs in the world  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2002, following the September 11th attacks and the anthrax letters, the United States allocated money to build two maximum containment biology labs. Called Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) facilities, these labs were built to ...

Bruzek, Alison K. (Allison Kim)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Maximum Building Energy Efficiency Research Laboratory secures...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Network - Maximum Building Energy Efficiency Research Laboratory secures LEED Gold July 01, 2013 The recently completed 14.3m Maximum Building Energy Efficiency...

50

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

51

Resources for Process Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed information regarding 3-MCPD esters and a reference list by topic. Resources for Process Contaminants 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certified chemists chloropropanediol contaminants de

52

Recovery from Mercury Contamination in the Second Songhua River, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K. , & Rubin, J. R. (2005). Mercury levels and relationshipsJ. , et al. (1999). Mercury in contaminated coastalEnvironmental costs of mercury pollution. Science of the

Zhang, Z. S.; Sun, X. J.; Wang, Q. C.; Zheng, D. M.; Zheng, N.; Lv, X. G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent concerns regarding environmental contamination have necessitated the development of appropriate technologies to assess the presence and mobility of metals in soil and estimate possible ways to decrease the level of soil metal contamination. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that may be used to cleanup contaminated soils. Successful application of phytoremediation, however, depends upon various factors that must be carefully investigated and properly considered for specific site conditions. To efficiently affect the metal removal from contaminated soils we used the ability of plants to accumulate different metals and agricultural practices to improve soil quality and enhance plant biomass. Pot experiments were conducted to study metal transport through bulk soil to the rhizosphere and stimulate transfer of the metals to be more available for plants' form. The aim of the experimental study was also to find fertilizers that could enhance uptake of metals and their removal from contaminated soil.

Shtangeeva, I.; Laiho, J.V-P.; Kahelin, H.; Gobran, G.R.

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Contaminated Outdoor High Voltage Insulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The external insulation of power lines and outdoor substations is a weak point in transmission systems. The insulation is particularly susceptible to failure if proper attention has not been given to its design, condition monitoring, and maintenance. In regions with high contamination levels, regular maintenance and the application of palliative measures can be critical to ensure that the system meets its outage performance targets. This can involve pure maintenance measures such as cleaning the insulato...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

55

GENII dose calculations for offsite maximum individual and populations from Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Document describes the potential dose consequences to the offsite maximum individual and population for ground and stack level releases at the offsite receptors from the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

Nguyen, L.V.

1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

56

Chemical maximum humidity indicator update report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Raw materials and manufactured parts sometimes must be kept in a controlled-humidity environment. The use of moisture-sensitive systems to indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure is discussed. A chemical indicator made from deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. The performance and long-term-stability characteristics of the indicator are described.

Abel, W.B.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973–96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and ...

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Contamination Control Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

EBY, J.L.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

59

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The Maximum Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermodynamic approach to estimating maximum potential intensity (MPI) of tropical cyclones is described and compared with observations and previous studies. The approach requires an atmospheric temperature sounding, SST, and surface pressure; ...

Greg J. Holland

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter: Theoretical Aspects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new ensemble-based data assimilation method, named the maximum likelihood ensemble filter (MLEF), is presented. The analysis solution maximizes the likelihood of the posterior probability distribution, obtained by minimization of a cost ...

Milija Zupanski

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

SAIC

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10{sup -6} torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non-volatile components. Equilibrium is lost, and the surface builds up a layer of carbon-based gunk.

Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Modeling for Airborne Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms.

F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In particular, the invention relates to remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by the injection of nutrients to stimulate growth of pollutant-degrading microorganisms. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Mobilization of trace elements in aquifers by biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants. Master Thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study had two objectives: (1) to determine the extent of metal mobility within petroleum-contaminated aquifers, (2) to determine if biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons can explain metal mobility. The approach reviewed analytical results from 2305 groundwater sampling events, taken from 958 wells, located at 136 sites found at 53 Air Force installations. The study showed that high levels of metals are present at petroleum hydrocarbon sites where metals would not generally be expected. Of the metals with drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), mercury and silver were detected the least frequently. Barium and copper were detected at the sites, but fewer than 2.5 percent of the samples exceeded their MCLs. All other metals exceeded their MCLs in at least 2.5 percent of the samples, with antimony and lead exceeding their MCLs in 19 percent and 10 percent of samples, respectively. Higher concentrations of barium and manganese were most strongly correlated with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and relatively strong correlations also existed for aluminum, arsenic, iron, and lead. Major cations such as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were least affected by petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations.

Kearney, S.L.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Maximum Entropy Production in Climate Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R. D. Lorenz et al. claim that recent data on Mars and Titan show that planetary atmospheres are in unconstrained states of maximum entropy production (MEP). Their model as it applies to Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan is reexamined, and it is ...

Richard Goody

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Modeling Maximum Hail Size in Alberta Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional steady-state cloud model was combined with a time-dependent hail growth model to predict the maximum hailstone size on the ground. Model runs were based on 160 proximity soundings recorded within the Alberta Hail Project area ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Eugene R. Poolman

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Integrating Correlated Bayesian Networks Using Maximum Entropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of generating a joint distribution for a pair of Bayesian networks that preserves the multivariate marginal distribution of each network and satisfies prescribed correlation between pairs of nodes taken from both networks. We derive the maximum entropy distribution for any pair of multivariate random vectors and prescribed correlations and demonstrate numerical results for an example integration of Bayesian networks.

Jarman, Kenneth D.; Whitney, Paul D.

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

HTO Contamination on Polymeric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contamination and Waste / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology

Yasunori Iwai; Kazuhiro Kobayashi; Toshihiko Yamanishi

71

Methods to quantify contamination effects on silica gel samples  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a study to establish methods for measuring sorption degradation of contaminated solid desiccants and determining the identity and nature of the contaminants. A literature search was conducted to determine how contaminants affect the sorption properties of silica gel and advanced solid desiccant materials; the search yielded 73 papers. Silica gel was chosen for the contamination study; nine samples from various batches and suppliers were tested. Methods were established (1) to measure the degradation of desiccant adsorption capacity caused by regeneration processes and/or exposure to contaminants and (2) to determine the nature of these contaminants. Sorption measurements on a limited number of fresh silica gel samples showed that the water adsorption capacity varied about +-10%. The silica gel sample regenerated with electric heaters exhibited a maximum capacity degradation of 7%. Silica gel samples processed in other ways lost between 20% and 47% capacity, depending on the age and cycle of regeneration. The contaminants found were silicon, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Contamination can degrade the water sorption capacity of desiccants.

Pesaran, A.A.; Thomas, T.M.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Mildly Context Sensitive Grammars For Estimating Maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction The maximum-entropy framework provides great flexibility in specifying what features a model may take into account, making it e#ective for a wide range of natural language processing tasks. But because parameter estimation in this framework involves computations over the whole space of possible labelings, it is unwieldy for the parsing problem, where this space is very large. Researchers have tried several strategies for e#ciently training parsing models in the maximum-entropy framework. Ratnaparkhi's parser (1997) models the probabilities of actions of a pushdown automaton instead of the probabilities of entire parses, but for this reason is susceptible to the label-bias problem (La#erty et al. 2001). Abney (1997) proposes random sampling of the parse space. Johnson et al. (1999) propose using conditional estimation instead of joint estimation. This reduces the space to the possible parses of a single sentence, which is much smaller but can still be unmanageably large f

David Chiang

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

LITERATURE REVIEW ON MAXIMUM LOADING OF RADIONUCLIDES ON CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE  

SciTech Connect

Plans are underway to use small column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions at Savannah River Site. The ion exchange material slated for the SCIX project is engineered or granular crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Information on the maximum loading of radionuclides on CST is needed by Savannah River Remediation for safety evaluations. A literature review has been conducted that culminated in the estimation of the maximum loading of all but one of the radionuclides of interest (Cs-137, Sr-90, Ba-137m, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241, and Cm-244). No data was found for Cm-244.

Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

74

Areawide chemical contamination  

SciTech Connect

Nine case histories illustrate the mounting problems owing to chemical contamination that often extends beyond the workplace into the community. The effects include not only carcinogenesis and teratogenesis, so much in the public's mind, but also severe neurological and gonadal disabilities immediately after exposure. Recognition of causal relationships is often made by astute clinicians. The experience of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in studying Japanese survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki serves as a model for future studies of communities exposed to unusual environmental contamination.

Miller, R.W.

1981-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Environmental geochemistry of radioactive contamination.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report attempts to describe the geochemical foundations of the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. The information is obtained and applied in three interacting spheres of inquiry and analysis: (1) experimental studies and theoretical calculations, (2) field studies of contaminated and natural analog sites and (3) model predictions of radionuclide behavior in remediation and waste disposal. Analyses of the risks from radioactive contamination require estimation of the rates of release and dispersion of the radionuclides through potential exposure pathways. These processes are controlled by solubility, speciation, sorption, and colloidal transport, which are strong functions of the compositions of the groundwater and geomedia as well as the atomic structure of the radionuclides. The chemistry of the fission products is relatively simple compared to the actinides. Because of their relatively short half-lives, fission products account for a large fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear waste for the first several hundred years but do not represent a long-term hazard in the environment. The chemistry of the longer-lived actinides is complex; however, some trends in their behavior can be described. Actinide elements of a given oxidation state have either similar or systematically varying chemical properties due to similarities in ionic size, coordination number, valence, and electron structure. In dilute aqueous systems at neutral to basic pH, the dominant actinide species are hydroxy- and carbonato-complexes, and the solubility-limiting solid phases are commonly oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. In general, actinide sorption will decrease in the presence of ligands that complex with the radionuclide; sorption of the (IV) species of actinides (Np, Pu, U) is generally greater than of the (V) species. The geochemistry of key radionuclides in three different environments is described in this report. These include: (1) low ionic strength reducing waters from crystalline rocks at nuclear waste research sites in Sweden; (2) oxic water from the J-13 well at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in tuffaceous rocks; and (3) reference brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The transport behaviors of radionuclides associated with the Chernobyl reactor accident and the Oklo Natural Reactor are described. These examples span wide temporal and spatial scales and include the rapid geochemical and physical processes important to nuclear reactor accidents or industrial discharges as well as the slower processes important to the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Application of geochemical information to remediating or assessing the risk posed by radioactive contamination is the final subject of this report. After radioactive source terms have been removed, large volumes of soil and water with low but potentially hazardous levels of contamination may remain. For poorly-sorbing radionuclides, capture of contaminated water and removal of radionuclides may be possible using permeable reactive barriers and bioremediation. For strongly sorbing radionuclides, contaminant plumes will move very slowly. Through a combination of monitoring, regulations and modeling, it may be possible to have confidence that they will not be a hazard to current or future populations. Abstraction of the hydrogeochemical properties of real systems into simple models is required for probabilistic risk assessment. Simplifications in solubility and sorption models used in performance assessment calculations for the WIPP and the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain are briefly described.

Bryan, Charles R.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Mercury contamination extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

The Use of Polar-orbiting Satellite Sounding Data to Estimate Rural Maximum and Minimum Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with ...

Gregory L. Johnson; Jerry M. Davis; Thomas R. Karl; Alan L. McNab; J. Dan Tarpley; Peter Bloomfield

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

79

Purifying contaminated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.

Murphy, T W

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

82

Contamination control device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A contamination control device for use in a gas-insulated transmission bus consisting of a cylindrical center conductor coaxially mounted within a grounded cylindrical enclosure. The contamination control device is electrically connected to the interior surface of the grounded outer shell and positioned along an axial line at the lowest vertical position thereon. The contamination control device comprises an elongated metallic member having a generally curved cross-section in a first plane perpendicular to the axis of the bus and having an arcuate cross-section in a second plane lying along the axis of the bus. Each opposed end of the metallic member and its opposing sides are tapered to form a pair of generally converging and downward sloping surfaces to trap randomly moving conductive particles in the relatively field-free region between the metallic member and the interior surface of the grounded outer shell. The device may have projecting legs to enable the device to be spot welded to the interior of the grounded housing. The control device provides a high capture probability and prevents subsequent release of the charged particles after the capture thereof.

Clark, Robert M. (Ligonier, PA); Cronin, John C. (Greensburg, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Predicting the solar maximum with the rising rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth rate of solar activity in the early phase of a solar cycle has been known to be well correlated with the subsequent amplitude (solar maximum). It provides very useful information for a new solar cycle as its variation reflects the temporal evolution of the dynamic process of solar magnetic activities from the initial phase to the peak phase of the cycle. The correlation coefficient between the solar maximum (Rmax) and the rising rate ({\\beta}a) at {\\Delta}m months after the solar minimum (Rmin) is studied and shown to increase as the cycle progresses with an inflection point (r = 0.83) at about {\\Delta}m = 20 months. The prediction error of Rmax based on {\\beta}a is found within estimation at the 90% level of confidence and the relative prediction error will be less than 20% when {\\Delta}m \\geq 20. From the above relationship, the current cycle (24) is preliminarily predicted to peak around October 2013 with a size of Rmax =84 \\pm 33 at the 90% level of confidence.

Du, Z L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the contaminant/substrate with the particular decontamination technology is also very important. Results of decontamination testing from hundreds of contaminated coupons have lead to certain conclusions about the contamination and the type of decontamination methods being deployed. A recent addition to the DARPA initiated methodology simulates the deposition of nuclear fallout. This contamination differs from previous tests in that it has been developed and validated purely to simulate a 'loose' type of contamination. This may represent the first time that a radiologically contaminated 'fallout' stimulant has been developed to reproducibly test decontamination methods. While no contaminant/methodology may serve as a complete example of all aspects that could be seen in the field, the study of this family of simulation methods provides insight into the nature of radiological contamination.

Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Maximum Error Modeling for Fault-Tolerant Computation using Maximum a posteriori (MAP) Hypothesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of current generation computing machines in safety-centric applications like implantable biomedical chips and automobile safety has immensely increased the need for reviewing the worst-case error behavior of computing devices for fault-tolerant computation. In this work, we propose an exact probabilistic error model that can compute the maximum error over all possible input space in a circuit specific manner and can handle various types of structural dependencies in the circuit. We also provide the worst-case input vector, which has the highest probability to generate an erroneous output, for any given logic circuit. We also present a study of circuit-specific error bounds for fault-tolerant computation in heterogeneous circuits using the maximum error computed for each circuit. We model the error estimation problem as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, over the joint error probability function of the entire circuit, calculated efficiently through an intelligent search of the entire input space using probabilistic traversal of a binary join tree using Shenoy-Shafer algorithm. We demonstrate this model using MCNC and ISCAS benchmark circuits and validate it using an equivalent HSpice model. Both results yield the same worst-case input vectors and the highest % difference of our error model over HSpice is just 1.23%. We observe that the maximum error probabilities are significantly larger than the average error probabilities, and provides a much tighter error bounds for fault-tolerant computation. We also find that the error estimates depend on the specific circuit structure and the maximum error probabilities are sensitive to the individual gate failure probabilities.

Karthikeyan Lingasubramanian; Syed M. Alam; Sanjukta Bhanja

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

86

ESTIMATES FOR RELEASE OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED CONCRETE AT THE HADDAM NECK NUCLEAR PLANT.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning of the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant operated by Connecticut Yankee is in progress. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the Containment Building and Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) Building. Consideration is being given to leaving some subsurface concrete from the Containment, Spent Fuel and certain other buildings in place following NRC license termination. Characterization data of most of these structures show small amounts of residual contamination. The In-Core Sump area of the Containment Building has shown elevated levels of tritium, Co-60, Fe-55, and Eu-152 and lesser quantities of other radionuclides due to neutron activation of the concrete in this area. This analysis is provided to determine levels of residual contamination that will not cause releases to the groundwater in excess of the acceptable dose limits. The objective is to calculate a conservative relationship between the radionuclide concentration of subsurface concrete and the maximum groundwater concentration (pCi/L) for the concrete that may remain following license termination at Connecticut Yankee.

SULLIVAN, T.

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

89

Apparatus for removing oil and other floating contaminants from a moving body of water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The patent describes a process in which floating contaminants such as oil and solid debris are removed from a moving body of water by employing a skimming system which uses the natural gravitational flow of the water. A boom diagonally positioned across the body of water diverts the floating contaminants over a floating weir and into a retention pond where an underflow weir is used to return contaminant-free water to the moving body of water. The floating weir is ballasted to maintain the contaminant-receiving opening therein slightly below the surface of the water during fluctuations in the water level for skimming the contaminants with minimal water removal.

Strohecker, J.W.

1973-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

90

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: February 6, 0: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on AddThis.com...

92

Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Schuler, C.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

NETL: Gasification Systems - Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Project Number: DE-SC00008243 TDA Research, Inc. is developing a high-capacity, low-cost sorbent that removes anhydrous ammonia (NH3), mercury (Hg), and trace contaminants from coal- and coal/biomass-derived syngas. The clean-up system will be used after the bulk warm gas sulfur removal step, and remove NH3 and Hg in a regenerable manner while irreversibly capturing all other trace metals (e.g., Arsenic, Selenium) reducing their concentrations to sub parts per million (ppm) levels. Current project plans include identifying optimum chemical composition and structure that provide the best sorbent performance for removing trace contaminants, determining the effect of operating parameters, conducting multiple-cycle experiments to test the life of the sorbent for NH3 and Hg removal, and conducting a preliminary design of the sorbent reactor.

94

Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Us Department Contacts Media Contacts Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study Title Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study Publication Type...

95

Concerns Regarding Lead Contamination and Radiological Controls...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Concerns Regarding Lead Contamination and Radiological Controls at the Nevada Test Site, INS-O-06-02 Concerns Regarding Lead Contamination and Radiological Controls at...

96

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Characterization of Contaminant Levels in the P-Area Wetland...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the DAPW. The makeup of CCW at the two sites may vary due to differences in parent coal composition, combustion technology, and disposal method. As a consequence, the CCW in...

98

Fast Local Search for the Maximum Independent Set Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 29, 2008 ... Fast Local Search for the Maximum Independent Set Problem. Diogo V. Andrade (diogo ***at*** google.com) Mauricio G. C. Resende (mgcr ...

99

THE MAXIMUM k-COLORABLE SUBGRAPH PROBLEM AND ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goal of this paper is to investigate the polyhedral con- .... The resulting graph with a maximum (black,white,crossed)-colorable ...... Due to the ad-.

100

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States: 2007 Update This report provides an update to an estimate for U.S. aggregate ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining radionuclides would exceed the maximum contaminant levels for either site location. The predicted cumulative effective dose equivalent from all 13 radionuclides also was less than the dose criteria set forth in Department of Energy Order 435.1 for each site location. An evaluation of composite impacts showed one site is preferable over the other based on the potential for commingling of groundwater contamination with other facilities.

Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

102

CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry Axis: Alignment with Other Cosmic Asymmetries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a global pixel based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4 degrees-15 degrees and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large scale Healpix resolutions (N_{side}=16 (3.7 degrees), N_{side}=8 (7.3 degrees) and N_{side}=4 (14.7 degrees)). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (\\alpha dipole, Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 10^4 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on LCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduces the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed \\alpha dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5%$ (depending on the resolution chosen for the CMB map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.

Antonio Mariano; Leandros Perivolaropoulos

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

103

Maximum a posteriori based kernel classifier trained by linear programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new approach for classification problem based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. The necessary and sufficient condition for the cost function to estimate a posteriori probability was obtained. It was clarified by the condition ... Keywords: cost function, kernel function, linear programming, maximum a posteriori

Nopriadi Nopriadi; Yukihiko Yamashita

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Maximum likelihood estimation of Gaussian mixture models using stochastic search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaussian mixture models (GMM), commonly used in pattern recognition and machine learning, provide a flexible probabilistic model for the data. The conventional expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters ... Keywords: Covariance parametrization, Expectation-maximization, Gaussian mixture models, Identifiability, Maximum likelihood estimation, Particle swarm optimization, Stochastic search

Ça?lar Ar?; Selim Aksoy; Orhan Ar?kan

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION Seungjin on the variance of decon­ volved signal. We also consider the maximum negen­ tropy principle and show that the CME version, without any prior knowledge (such as channel impulse response, training data). As the demand

Choi, Seungjin

106

Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart VAMSI K. MOOTHA, ANDREW E. ARAI, AND ROBERT S. BALABAN Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ

Mootha, Vamsi K.

107

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

108

JGI - Why Sequence Contaminated Groundwater?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contaminated Groundwater? Contaminated Groundwater? Because the majority of microorganisms in nature have never been cultured, little is known about their genetic properties, biochemical functions, and metabolic characteristics. Although the sequence of the microbial community "genome" can now be determined with high-throughput sequencing technology, the complexity and magnitude of most microbial communities make meaningful data acquisition and interpretation difficult. Thus, the sequence determination of a groundwater microbial community with manageable diversity and complexity (~20 phylotypes) is a timely challenge. The samples for this project come from the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Well FW-010. The overall objective is to provide a fundamental and comprehensive

109

Trends of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in Northern South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of testing the homogeneity of the basic data used in this study, that is, the mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature (as derived from daily observations) of several long-term climatological stations of ...

Ramon A. Quintana-Gomez

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A maximum likelihood approach towards aggregating partial orders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many of the possible applications as well as the theoretical models of computational social choice, the agents' preferences are represented as partial orders. In this paper, we extend the maximum likelihood approach for defining "optimal" voting rules ...

Lirong Xia; Vincent Conitzer

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Synoptic Reorganization of Atmospheric Flow during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global atmosphere–ocean model of intermediate complexity is used to study the influence of glacial boundary conditions on the atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum in a systematical manner. A web of atmospheric ...

Flávio Justino; Axel Timmermann; Ute Merkel; Enio P. Souza

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

On Determinations of Maximum Hailstone Sizes from Hallpad Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reports of hailstones larger than those indicated by hailpad observations being found on the ground around the hailpad sites raise questions about the validity of maximum-size determinations. Data from the Grossversuch IV hailpad network ...

Paul L. Smith; Albert Waldvogel

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Characteristics of Maximum Concentrations from Multiple Point Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple quasi-Newton numerical scheme is applied to determine the hypothetical worst-case meteorology that will result in the maximum combined concentrations at any receptor location in air quality modeling over short distances for multiple ...

N. M. Zoumakis

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Effects of Tides on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights: Probability Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical study was carried out to understand how the probability distribution for maximum wave heights (?m) during tsunamis depends on the initial tsunami amplitude (A) and the tides. It was assumed that the total wave height is the linear ...

Harold O. Mofjeld; Frank I. González; Vasily V. Titov; Angie J. Venturato; Jean C. Newman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Normalized Maximum-Likelihood Estimators of the Directional Wave Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of data-adaptative directional wave spectrum estimators is proposed. These estimators may be considered as an improvement over the well-known extended maximum-likelihood method (EMLM). The normalization is based on the idea of ...

M. A. Arribas; J. J. Egozcue

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Maximum likelihood sequence estimation from the lattice viewpoint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considers the problem of data detection in multilevel lattice-type modulation systems in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive white Gaussian noise. The conventional maximum likelihood sequence estimator using the Viterbi algorithm has ...

Wai Ho Mow

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Humidity Profile Retrieval Using a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite data inversion method based on a maximum entropy principle is presented. The method is both physical since a radiative transfer model with its adjoint is needed, and also statistical since errors of the observed radiances and of a ...

Bernard Urban

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Maximum Likelihood Estimation Using Parallel Computing: An Introduction to MPI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The computational difficulty of econometric problems has increased dramatically in recent years as econometricians examine more complicated models and utilize more sophisticated estimation techniques. Many problems in econometrics are `embarrassingly ... Keywords: MPI, maximum likelihood estimation, parallel computing, parallel programming

Christopher A. Swann

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Computing maximum non-crossing matching in convex bipartite graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider computing a maximum non-crossing matching in convex bipartite graphs. For a convex bipartite graph of n vertices and m edges, we present an O (n logn ...

Danny Z. Chen; Xiaomin Liu; Haitao Wang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Sidelobe Contamination in Bistatic Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of sidelobe contamination in a bistatic network is explored. The McGill bistatic network consists of one S-band Doppler radar and two low-gain passive receivers at remote sites. Operational experience with the bistatic network ...

Ramón de Elía; Isztar Zawadzki

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Method for refining contaminated iridium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

Heshmatpour, Bahman (Waltham, MA); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks The stack characterization system (SCS) is a tele-operated remote system that collects samples and data to characterize the quantitative and qualitative levels of contamination inside off-gas stacks protecting workers from the physical, radiological and chemical hazards of deteriorating contaminated stacks. Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks More Documents & Publications Uranium Downblending and Disposition Project Technology Readiness Assessment Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - November 2013 EA-1488: Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical

124

Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks The stack characterization system (SCS) is a tele-operated remote system that collects samples and data to characterize the quantitative and qualitative levels of contamination inside off-gas stacks protecting workers from the physical, radiological and chemical hazards of deteriorating contaminated stacks. Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks More Documents & Publications Uranium Downblending and Disposition Project Technology Readiness Assessment EA-1488: Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge

125

UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

THE RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RECOVERY OF CONTAMINATED AREAS  

SciTech Connect

The Civil Effects Test Operation Exercise CEX-57.1 following Operation Plumbbob was carried out to obtain information on decontamination procedures that could be used as radiological countermeasures. The test was conducted on D + 1 and D + 2 days after shot Coulomb C. Data were obtained on reclamation of land areas by scraping with a motorgrader, on fire-hosing and scrubbing a concrete- slab roof, and on fire-hosing a composition roof. In addition, some shielding data were obtained for a small building with 6-in.-thick concrete walls and roof. The conceptual nature of a radiological defense system and the role of decontamination or reclamation in such a system are discussed. Most of the report deals with methods for reducing the observed data to interpretive form because the data were taken within a large contaminated area. The decontamination effectiveness in terms of the fraction of contamination remaining was computed. It is concluded that low levels of contamination at the Nevada Test Site could be utilized to advantage to obtain data on gamma -radiation properties, such as the effects of materials and source geometries on the attenuation of fission-product gamma rays. However, higher levels of fall-out in terms of the fall-out particle mass, are required to obtain useful information and training on decontamination techniques; therefore the use of low levels of contamination to conduct studies in this area is not recommended. (auth)

Miller, C.F.

1958-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Estimating the Observed Atmospheric Response to SST Anomalies: Maximum Covariance Analysis, Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Assessment, and Maximum Response Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three multivariate statistical methods to estimate the influence of SST or boundary forcing on the atmosphere are discussed. Lagged maximum covariance analysis (MCA) maximizes the covariance between the atmosphere and prior SST, thus favoring ...

Claude Frankignoul; Nadine Chouaib; Zhengyu Liu

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys  

SciTech Connect

The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot's motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot's motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs.

Dudar, E.; Teese, G.; Wagner, D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys  

SciTech Connect

The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot`s motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot`s motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs.

Dudar, E.; Teese, G.; Wagner, D.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

Driver, C.J.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Analytical Requirements for Petroleum Contaminated Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical Requirements for Petroleum Contaminated Soils According to 20 NMAC 9.1.704 704. REQUIRED), or other applicable statutes. Page 1 of 1Analytical Requirements for Petroleum Contaminated Soils 4

133

Regulatory Resources for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulatory information and references for 3-MCPD(3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol )process contaminants. Regulatory Resources for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles certifi

134

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

135

Identifying Doppler Velocity Contamination Caused by Migrating Birds. Part II: Bayes Identification and Probability Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the Bayesian statistical decision theory, a probabilistic quality control (QC) technique is developed to identify and flag migrating-bird-contaminated sweeps of level II velocity scans at the lowest elevation angle using the QC ...

Shun Liu; Qin Xu; Pengfei Zhang

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Natural Contamination from the Mancos...

137

Measurements and Standards for Contaminants in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements and Standards for Contaminants in Environmental Samples. ... Kelly, WR, Long, SE, and Seiber, JR, Standard Reference Materials ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

138

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 of 3) 3 of 3) RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH Student's Guide Office of Environment, Safety & Health U.S. Department of Energy February 1997 DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This page intentionally left blank. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Table of Contents Page TERMINAL OBJECTIVE............................................................................1 ENABLING OBJECTIVES...........................................................................1 I. RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION................................................. 2 A. Comparison of Radiation and Radioactive Contamination ..................... 2 B. Types of Contamination.............................................................. 2

139

Google Earth Tour: How Contaminants Got There  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Google Earth Tour: How Contaminants Got There Click here to load the tour...then click the play button below...

140

Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Height(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Height(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 0.6 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + A Alden Large Flume + 0.0 + Alden Small Flume + 0.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 0.3 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.0 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 0.6 +

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

CLEANING OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED OCCUPATIONAL CLOTHING  

SciTech Connect

The soiling and contamination of work clothing and ways of removing this contamination are discussed. Means of disinfection, washing tests with radioactive-contaminated cotton clothing, construction of the laundry, and cleaning protective clothing of plastic and other materials with the help of washing methods and polyphosphates are described. (M.C.G.)

Siewert, G.; Schikora, Th.

1963-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE January 2010 Prepared for the Interagency DE-AC05-76RL01830 Waste Disposal Workshops: Anthrax-Contaminated Waste AM Lesperance JF Upton SL #12;#12;PNNL-SA-69994 Waste Disposal Workshops: Anthrax- Contaminated Waste AM Lesperance JF Upton SL

143

Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

Chee Leong Ching; Wei Khim Ng

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: · Be easy to apply · Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest · Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity · Not be hazardous in final applied form · Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to be applied by divers after scrubbing loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuuming up the sludge. A special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pool with no airborne contamination problems.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Modeling of contaminant transport in underground coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study and discuss the impact of contaminants produced from underground coal gasification on groundwater, a coupled seepage-thermodynamics-transport model for underground gasification was developed on the basis of mass and energy conservation and pollutant-transport mechanisms, the mathematical model was solved by the upstream weighted multisell balance method, and the model was calibrated and verified against the experimental site data. The experiment showed that because of the effects of temperature on the surrounding rock of the gasification panel the measured pore-water-pressure was higher than the simulated one; except for in the high temperature zone where the simulation errors of temperature, pore water pressure, and contaminant concentration were relatively high, the simulation values of the overall gasification panel were well fitted with the measured values. As the gasification experiment progressed, the influence range of temperature field expanded, the gradient of groundwater pressure decreased, and the migration velocity of pollutant increased. Eleven months and twenty months after the test, the differences between maximum and minimum water pressure were 2.4 and 1.8 MPa, respectively, and the migration velocities of contaminants were 0.24-0.38 m/d and 0.27-0.46 m/d, respectively. It was concluded that the numerical simulation of the transport process for pollutants from underground coal gasification was valid. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geosciences

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An effective heuristic algorithm for the maximum satisfiability problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic local search algorithms (SLS) have been increasingly applied to approximate solutions of the weighted maximum satisfiability problem (MAXSAT), a model for solutions of major problems in AI and combinatorial optimization. While MAXSAT instances ... Keywords: Bose-Einstein distribution, Extremal Optimization, Heuristic search, MAXSAT, Problem solving

Mohamed El Menaď; Mohamed Batouche

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

An electromagnetism metaheuristic for solving the Maximum Betweenness Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an electromagnetism (EM) metaheuristic for solving NP hard Maximum Betweenness Problem (MBP). A new encoding scheme with appropriate objective functions is implemented. Specific representation of the individuals enables the EM ... Keywords: Betweenness problem, Combinatorial optimization, Electromagnetism-like mechanism

Vladimir Filipovi?; Aleksandar Kartelj; Dragan Mati?

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Mixed Integer Linear Programming for Maximum-Parsimony Phylogeny Inference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue ... Keywords: Computational Biology, Algorithms, Integer Linear Programming, Steiner tree problem, Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, Maximum parsimony

Srinath Sridhar; Fumei Lam; Guy E. Blelloch; R. Ravi; Russell Schwartz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Global Increasing Trends in Annual Maximum Daily Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. ...

Seth Westra; Lisa V. Alexander; Francis W. Zwiers

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Probable Maximum Precipitation Study for Wisconsin and Michigan: Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study provides maps and supporting information on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for Wisconsin and Michigan. The refinement of PMP for the study area has typically lowered the PMP from the generalized values in Hydrometeorological Report (HMR) 51. The study followed HMR 51 procedures with some minor changes that apply to other regions.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Feature Extraction Based on Maximum Nearest Subspace Margin Criterion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the classification rule of sparse representation-based classification (SRC) and linear regression classification (LRC), we propose the maximum nearest subspace margin criterion for feature extraction. The proposed method can be seen as a preprocessing ... Keywords: Dimensionality reduction, Face recognition, Feature extraction, Finger knuckle print recognition, Linear regression classification

Yi Chen; Zhenzhen Li; Zhong Jin

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Maximum Fuel Energy Saving of a Brayton Cogeneration Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An endoreversible Joule-Brayton cogeneration cycle has been optimized with fuel energy saving as an assessment criterion. The effects of power-to-heat ratio, cycle temperature ratio, and user temperature ratio on maximum fuel energy saving and efficiency ... Keywords: cogeneration cycle, fuel energy saving, thermodynamic optimization

Xiaoli Hao; Guoqiang Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Maximum Potential Intensities of Tropical Cyclones near Isla Socorro, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum potential intensity (MPI) of a tropical cyclone represents a theoretical upper limit to the strength of the storm imposed by the laws of physics and the energy available to the system in the atmosphere and the ocean. The MPI in this ...

Jay S. Hobgood

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The Summer Cyclone Maximum over the Central Arctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fascinating feature of the northern high-latitude circulation is a prominent summer maximum in cyclone activity over the Arctic Ocean, centered near the North Pole in the long-term mean. This pattern is associated with the influx of lows ...

Mark C. Serreze; Andrew P. Barrett

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor speed measurements as control variable inputs. The dependence on the accuracy of the measurement devices makes the controller less reliable. The proposed control scheme is based on the stiff system concept and provides a fast response and a dynamic solution to the complicated aerodynamic system. This control scheme provides a response to the wind changes without the knowledge of wind speed and turbine parameters. The system consists of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), a passive rectifier, a dc/dc boost converter, a current controlled voltage source inverter, and a microcontroller that commands the dc/dc converter to control the generator for maximum power extraction. The microcontroller will also be able to control the current output of the three-phase inverter. In this work, the aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbines and the power conversion system topology are explained. The maximum power tracking control algorithm with a variable step estimator is introduced and the modeling and simulation of the wind turbine generator system using the MATLAB/SIMULINK® software is presented and its results show, at least in principle, that the maximum power tracking algorithm developed is suitable for wind turbine generation systems.

Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene Climate in CCSM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) is studied for two past climate forcings, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene. The LGM, approximately 21 000 yr ago, is a glacial period with large ...

Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Esther C. Brady; Gabriel Clauzet; Robert Tomas; Samuel Levis; Zav Kothavala

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical The employment of the renewable energy source has grown from long-established concepts into devices for powering--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel

Greenberg, Albert

159

MCMR: Maximum coverage and minimum redundant text summarization model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In paper, we propose an unsupervised text summarization model which generates a summary by extracting salient sentences in given document(s). In particular, we model text summarization as an integer linear programming problem. One of the advantages of ... Keywords: Branch-and-bound, Integer linear programming, Less redundancy, Maximum coverage, Particle swarm optimization, Text summarization

Rasim M. Alguliev; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Makrufa S. Hajirahimova; Chingiz A. Mehdiyev

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hedgehog™ Contaminant Removal Information Technology ...  

Technology Readiness Level: Sandia estimates this technology’s TRL at approximately a level 6/7. Prototypes have been tested and shown to work in an ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Doffing Procedures for Firefighters' Contaminated Turnout Gear: Documentation for Videotape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Firefighting in an area contaminated by radioactive materials can result in contaminated clothing that requires careful handling. This report documents a videotape that provides simple how-to procedures for doffing contaminated or potentially contaminated firefighter turnout gear.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicated good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and industrial waters, including Hg{sup 2+}, elemental mercury, methyl mercury, and colloidal mercury. The process possesses very fast kinetics, which allows for higher flow rates and smaller treatment units. These sorbent technologies, used in tandem or individually depending on the treatment needs, can provide DOE sites with a cost-effective method for reducing mercury concentrations to very low levels mandated by the regulatory community. In addition, the technologies do not generate significant amounts of secondary wastes for disposal. Furthermore, the need for improved water treatment technologies is not unique to the DOE. The new, stringent requirements on mercury concentrations impact other government agencies as well as the private sector. Some of the private-sector industries needing improved methods for removing mercury from water include mining, chloralkali production, chemical processing, and medical waste treatment. The next logical step is to deploy one or more of these sorbents at a contaminated DOE site or at a commercial facility needing improved mercury treatment technologies. A full-scale deployment is planned in fiscal year 2000.

Robin M. Stewart

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

163

Seismic Imaging of UXO-Contaminated Underwater Sites (Interim Report)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imaging of UXO-Contaminated Underwater Sites” Roland GrittoImaging of UXO-Contaminated Underwater Sites” over the first

Gritto, Roland; Korneev, Valeri; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Lane

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility  

SciTech Connect

The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

‘Supergel’ System Cleans Radioactively Contaminated ...  

Reduce radiation levels to allow resumption of emergency operations; Decontaminate structures for unrestricted access;

167

Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study  

SciTech Connect

Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE standards. However, concentration were still above the levels measured in data centers that do not use economizers (3) Current filtration in data centers is minimal (ASHRAE 40%) since most air is typically recycled. When using economizers, modest improvements in filtration (ASHRAE 85%) can reduce particle concentrations to nearly match the level found in data centers that do not use economizers. The extra cost associated with improve filters was not determined in this study. (4) Humidity was consistent and within the ASHRAE recommended levels for all data centers without economizers. Results show that, while slightly less steady, humidity in data centers with economizers can also be controlled within the ASHRAE recommended levels. However, this control of humidity reduces energy savings by limiting the hours the economizer vents are open. (5) The potential energy savings from economizer use has been measured in one data center. When economizers were active, mechanical cooling power dropped by approximately 30%. Annual savings at this center is estimated within the range of 60-80 MWh/year, representing approximately a 5% savings off the mechanical energy load of the data center. Incoming temperatures and humidity at this data center were conservative relative to the ASHRAE acceptable temperature and humidity ranges. Greater savings may be available if higher temperature humidity levels in the data center area were permitted. The average particle concentrations measured at each of the eight data center locations are shown in Table 1. The data centers ranged in size from approximately 5,000 ft{sup 2} to 20,000 ft{sup 2}. The indoor concentrations and humidity in Table 1 represents measurements taken at the server rack. Temperature measurements at the server rack consistently fell between 65-70 F. The Findings section contains a discussion of the individual findings from each center. Data centers currently operate under very low contamination levels. Economizers can be expected to increase the particle concentration in data centers, but the increase appears to still be

Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

168

Property:Maximum Velocity(m/s) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Velocity(m/s) Velocity(m/s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Velocity(m/s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Velocity(m/s)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alden Large Flume + 0.9 + B Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 2.7 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 7.2 + Carderock Rotating Arm Tow Tank + 25.8 + Carderock Tow Tank 1 + 9.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 10.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 25.8 + Chase Tow Tank + 2.5 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 18.3 + H Haynes Tow Tank + 1.8 + I Ice Towing Tank + 0.5 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 2.7 + M MHL Free Surface Channel + 2 + MHL High Speed Cavitation + 25.9 + MHL Tow Tank + 6.7 + MIT Tow Tank + 1.5 + MMA Tugboat/ Barge/ Vessel + 5.1 + Maine Tow Tank + 3 +

169

Minimum/maximum excitation limiter performance goals for small generation  

SciTech Connect

Small generators connected to the utility system often act as followers as they tend to follow system bus voltage variations. For the lack of kVA capacity, small machines tend to be susceptible to becoming over or under excited (excessive Vars in or Vars out of the generator) as the voltage regulator tries to maintain its setpoint with variations in system bus voltage. Minimum and maximum excitation limiters are utilized to limit the voltage regulator characteristic response to system bus voltage changes, that can otherwise result in machine overheating and/or pulling out of synchronization. This paper reviews the operating performance of minimum and maximum excitation limiters used on small machines, and provides the user typical performance expectations. The examples will highlight both main field and exciter field applications. Lastly, conditions will be reviewed that may occur during excitation limiter initial startup that can affect their ability to be initially tuned.

Eberly, T.W.; Schaefer, R.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

JV Task 99-Integrated Risk Analysis and Contaminant Reduction, Watford City, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a limited site investigation and risk analyses for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a Construction Services, Inc., site in Watford City, North Dakota. Site investigation confirmed the presence of free product and high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants in several wells, the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane, and extremely high levels of electrical conductivity indicative of brine residuals in the tank area south of the facility. The risk analysis was based on compilation of information from the site-specific geotechnical investigation, including multiphase extraction pilot test, laser induced fluorescence probing, evaluation of contaminant properties, receptor survey, capture zone analysis and evaluation of well head protection area for municipal well field. The project results indicate that the risks associated with contaminant occurrence at the Construction Services, Inc. site are low and, under current conditions, there is no direct or indirect exposure pathway between the contaminated groundwater and soils and potential receptors.

Jaroslav Solc; Barry W. Botnen

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Unification of Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Inference via Plausible Reasoning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper modifies Jaynes's axioms of plausible reasoning and derives the minimum relative entropy principle as well as Bayes's rule from first principles. The new axioms, which I call the Optimum Information Principle, is applicable whenever the decision maker is given the data and the relevant background information. Given that the maximum entropy principle and Bayesian inference are useful methods, the Optimum Information Principle is at least as useful.

Toda, Alexis Akira

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Dimensioning Guidelines for Applying Insulators in Contaminated Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A particular weakness of outdoor substations is the external insulation. The insulation is particularly susceptible to failure if proper attention has not been given to its design, condition monitoring, and maintenance. In regions characterized by high contamination levels, appropriate dimensioning, regular maintenance, and the application of palliative measures can be critical to ensure that the system meets its outage performance targets. This can involve pure maintenance measures such as ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Impact of Contaminated Environment on Insulator Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A particular weakness of outdoor substations is the external insulation. The insulation is particularly susceptible to failure if proper attention has not been given to its design, condition monitoring, and maintenance. In regions characterized by high contamination levels, regular maintenance and the application of palliative measures can be critical to ensure that the system meets its outage performance targets. This can involve pure maintenance measures such as insulator cleaning or performance-enhanc...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

174

Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Property:Maximum Wave Length(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Length(m) Wave Length(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Length(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Length(m)" Showing 18 pages using this property. A Alden Small Flume + Variable + Alden Wave Basin + 1.8 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 12.2 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 15.2 + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + 64 + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + 30 + H Haynes Wave Basin + 10.7 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 22 + M MIT Tow Tank + 4.6 + O OTRC Wave Basin + 25 + Ohmsett Tow Tank + 18 + R Richmond Field Station Tow Tank + 2 + S SAFL Channel + 6.6 + Sandia Lake Facility + 4.57 + Sheets Wave Basin + 10 + Ship Towing Tank + 6 + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:Maximum_Wave_Length(m)&oldid=597351

176

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Total Maximum Daily Load Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) The overall goal of the Clean Water Act is to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the NationÂ’s waters." In 1999, EPA proposed changes to Section 303(d), to establish Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for watersheds that do not meet this goal. The TMDL is the highest amount of a given pollutant that is permissible in that body of water over a given period of time. TMDLs include both waste load allocation (WLA) for point sources and load allocations for non-point sources. In Appalachia, acid mine drainage (AMD) is the single most damaging non-point source. There is also particular concern of the atmospheric deposition of airborne sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury compounds. States are currently in the process of developing comprehensive lists of impaired waters and establishing TMDLs for those waters. EPA has recently proposed a final rule that will require states to develop TMDLs and implement plans for improving water quality within the next 10 years. Under the new rule, TMDL credits could be traded within a watershed.

177

Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation & decommissioning (D&D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination) instead of focusing on long-term cleanup requirements. An acknowledgement of the long timeframe for complete restoration and the need for long-term management can also help a site transition from the process of pilot testing different remedial strategies to selecting a final remedy and establishing a long-term management and monitoring approach. This approach has led to cost savings and the more efficient use of resources across the Department of Defense complex and at numerous industrial sites across the U.S. Defensible end states provide numerous benefits for the DOE environmental remediation programs including cost-effective, sustainable long-term monitoring strategies, remediation and site transition decision support, and long-term management of closure sites.

Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

178

Risk associated with hospital rooms contaminated with 131I by patients being treated for thyroid carcinoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iodine-131 contamination is known to be present in hospital rooms that are used to confine patients being treated with quantities of 1311 in excess of 1. 1 GBq. These activities of 13 'I are used as a post-surgical follow-up procedure to a thyroidectomy as a means of treating thyroid cancer. Previous studies have indicated the extent of contamination in hospital rooms being used during these procedures. However, contamination has not been related to risk. This paper quantifies the risk in terms of effective dose equivalent to members of the public and personnel from 1311 contamination when only minimal precautions are taken to contain the contamination during the 1311 thyroid cancer treatment procedure. Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) calculations using the NRC published dose models for surface contamination results in public exposures of less than 2.7 uSv per patient and personnel exposures of less than 2.1 uSv yr-1. Maximum TEDE to the public considering the detectable limits of portable area survey equipment indicated a worst case exposure of 340 uSv per patient. As a result, conservative protective measures utilized by many institutions, such a lining the room with plastic, appear not to be warranted.

Jones, David Maurice

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

Crockett, A.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Craig, H.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR (United States). Oregon Operations Office; Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Sisk, W.E. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

POSSIBLE HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LAUNDERING OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING  

SciTech Connect

An engineering study was made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate the possible health hazards to laundry personnel and the public connected with the operation of a decontamination laundry. Laboratory clothing was separated into eight groups, ranging from only slight amounts to rather large amounts of contamination. The groups contained from nineteen to thirtyone coveralls each, with all of the garments in the same group containing about the same amount of radioactive contamination. Each group was washed as a separate batch. Air samples were taken at various breathing zones and at various times during the operation to determine the air-borne dust hazard. The waste water was assayed for actlvity, the dryer effluent was monitored and the equipment, building, etc., were checked for contamination during the laundry operation of the eight groups. The data show that the greatest hazard lies in the inhalation of airbonne radioactive dusts. Washwater, laundry equipment, surfaces and floors became contaminated. Clean clothes showed cross contamination if washed with even slightly contaminated clothing. The dryer effluent was invariably contaminated with radioactive lint. It was evident that below 1 to 2 mu c of contamination per garment, one could send radioactive clothing to a commercial laundry without hazard to the laundry operators or to the public. Higher levels can be handled safely by a commercial laundry if the loading and sorting operations are carefully managed. (auth)

Pearsall, S.G.; Gemmell, L.; Breslin, A.

1958-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Process for reducing radioactive contamination in phosphogypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process of two crystallization stages for reducing radioactive contamination of phosphogypsum is disclosed. In the process anhydrite crystals are obtained through dehydration of the radiation containing phosphogypsum in strong sulfuric acid; a portion of the anhydrite crystals containing the radioactive contamination is converted to substantially radiation free gypsum by crystallizing out on a large solids concentration of radiation free gypsum seed crystals; and coarse radiation free gypsum crystals are separated from small anhydrite crystal relics containing substantially all of the radioactive contamination.

Gaynor, J.C.; Palmer, J.W.

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

Radiological Worker Training - Radiological Contamination Control...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B December 2008 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL WORKER TRAINING RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C....

184

Accident Investigation Report Plutonium Contamination in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accident Investigation Report Plutonium Contamination in the Zero Power Physics Reactor Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory, November 8, 2011 January 2012 Disclaimer...

185

Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Hybrid energy storage systems based on compressed air and supercapacitors with maximum efficiency point tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system based on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), where the charging and discharging is done within maximum efficiency conditions. As the maximum efficiency conditions impose the level of converted power, an intermittent time-modulated operation mode is applied to the thermodynamic converter to obtain a variable converted power. A smoothly variable output power is achieved with the help of a supercapacitive auxiliary storage device used as a filter. The paper describes the concept of the system, the power-electronic interface circuits and especially the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) algorithm and the strategy used to vary the output power. In addition, the paper will present the characteristics of a high efficiency storage device where the pure pneumatic machine is replaced by an oil-hydraulics and pneumatics converter, used under isothermal conditions. Practical results are also presented, recorded from a low-power pneumatic motor coupled to a small DC generator, as well as from a first prototype of the final hydraulic/pneumatic system.

Sylvain Lemofouet; Alfred Rufer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A novel maximum power point tracker for PV panels using switching frequency modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A novel technique for efficiently extracting maximum power from photovoltaic (PV) panels is presented. The power conversion stage, which is connected between a PV panel and a load or bus, is a SEPIC or Cuk converter or their derived circuits operating in discontinuous inductor–current or capacitor–voltage mode. Method of locating the maximum power point (MPP) is based on injecting a small-signal sinusoidal perturbation into the switching frequency and comparing the ac component and the average value of the panel terminal voltage. Apart from not requiring any sophisticated digital computation of the panel power, the proposed technique does not approximate the panel characteristics and can globally locate the MPP under wide insolation conditions. The tracking capability has been verified experimentally with a 10 W solar panel under a controlled experimental setup. Performances under the steady state and in the large-signal change of the insolation level will be given. Index Terms—DC–DC power conversion, maximum-powerpoint tracking, photovoltaic. I.

K. K. Tse; M. T. Ho; Student Member; Henry S. -h. Chung; S. Y. (ron Hui; Senior Member

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Information Technology Solutions ...  

Technology Readiness Level: Sandia estimates the TRL at approximately 3-4. First generation and advanced prototypes have been successfully tested.

189

An integrated maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- This paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for a photovoltaic panel, that is to be integrated with the panel during manufacturing. The MPPT is inexpensive, efficient and has few components that serve to increase the MPPT’s mean time between failures (MTBF). The MPPT uses an inexpensive micro-controller to perform all of its functions. This includes maximum power point tracking, series battery voltage regulation, sensorless short circuit protection of the MPPT’s converter and intelligent shutdown and wakeup at dusk and dawn. The MPPT can source 10 A to a 6 V- 36 V lead-acid storage battery and can be connected in parallel or series with other MPPTs. The MPPT may be easily configured to perform output voltage regulation on passive and water pumping loads. It could also control the actuation of a diesel generator in a hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS). Energy transfer enhancements of up to 26%, compared to solar panels without MPPTs, have been measured. The complete component and materials cost of the MPPT is approximately 2’8 % of the cost of photovoltaic panels with a peak power rating of 154 W. The integrated MPPT also consumes no stored energy at night. 1.

Wernher Swiegers

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Dismantling an alpha-contaminated facility  

SciTech Connect

The difficult task of removing large pieces of highly contaminated equipment from an obsolete plutonium-239 facility was completed in a seven-month operation that included structural alteration of the process building. Detailed job planning, job execution and contamination control were major factors in accomplishing the task. (auth)

Caldwell, R.D.; Harper, R.M.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

CONTAMINATION CONTROL AT THE HANFORD LAUNDRY  

SciTech Connect

The laundry operation consists of a decontamination laundry, non- regulated laundry service, and a central mask cleaning station. Control of radioactive contamination is accomplished by presorting at the point of use, minimizing handling of contaminated articles, and the discharge of waste effluents under controlled conditions. Procedures are described in detail. (C.H.)

Linderoth, C.E.; Little, G.A.

1962-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

193

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

196

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

Amonette, James E. (Richland, WA); Fruchter, Jonathan S. (Richland, WA); Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA); Cole, Charles R. (West Richmond, WA); Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richmond, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Qualms concerning Tsallis ’ Use of the Maximum Entropy Formalism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tsallis ’ ‘statistical thermodynamic ’ formulation of the nonadditive entropy of degree-? is neither correct nor self-consistent. It is well known that the maximum entropy formalism [1], the minimum discrimination information [2], and Gauss ’ principle [3, 4] all lead to the same results when a certain condition on the prior probability distribution is imposed [5]. All these methods lead to the same form of the posterior probability distribution; namely, the exponential family of distributions. Tsallis and collaborators [6] have tried to adapt the maximum entropy formalism that uses the Shannon entropy to one that uses a nonadditive entropy of degree-?. In order to come out with analytic expressions for the probabilities that maximize the nonadditive entropy they found it necessary to use ‘escort probabilities’[7] of the same power as the nonadditive entropy. If the procedure they use is correct then it follows that Gauss ’ principle should give the same optimum probabilities. Yet, we will find that the Tsallis result requires that the prior probability distribution be given by the same unphysical condition as the maximum entropy formalism and, what is worse, the potential of the error law be required to vanish. The potential of the error law is what information theory refers to as the error [8]; that is, the difference between the inaccuracy and the entropy. Unless the ‘true ’ probability distribution, P = (p(x1), p(x2)...,p(xm)) coincides with the estimated probability distribution, Q = (q(x1), q(x2),...q(xm)), the error does not vanish. Moreover, we shall show that two procedures of averaging, one using the escort probabilities explicitly, do not give the same result, and the relation between the potential of the error law and the nonadditive entropy requires the latter to vanish when the former vanishes. Let X be a random variable whose values x1, x2,..., xm are obtained at m independent trials. Prior to the observations the distribution is Q, and after the observations the unknown probability distribution is P. The observer has 1 at his disposal the statistic â = 1

B. H. Lavenda; J. Dunning-davies

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Mercury contamination in non-fish-eating birds from a polluted watershed  

SciTech Connect

Mercury levels in birds collected along the mercury-contaminated Cheyenne river system in South Dakota were analyzed. The study dealt with small birds which feed mainly on insects, aquatic insect larvae and seeds. The levels found are not lethal, but may be hindering reproduction.

Brown, R.L.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites and facilities. Note that Riley and Zachara analyzed the data from only 18 sites/facilities including 91 plumes. In this paper, we present the results of statistical analyses of the data in the GWD as guidance for planning future basic and applied research of groundwater contaminants within the DOE complex. Our analyses include the evaluation of a frequency and ranking of specific contaminants and contaminant groups, contaminant concentrations/activities and total contaminant masses and activities. We also compared the results from analyses of the GWD with those from the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The difference between our results and those summarized in the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara could be caused by not only additional releases, but also by the use of modern site characterization methods, which more accurately reveal the extent of groundwater contamination. Contaminated sites within the DOE complex are located in all major geographic regions of the United States, with highly variable geologic, hydrogeologic, soil, and climatic conditions. We assume that the information from the 60 DOE sites included in the GWD are representative for the whole DOE complex. These 60 sites include the major DOE sites and facilities, such as Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Savannah River Site, South Carolina; Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. These five sites alone ccount for 71% of the value of the remediation work.

Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

202

Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides.

Imrich, K.J.; Leader, D.R.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacityseems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. Thereport presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

Information Center

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

204

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research...

205

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance to EMS care providers for properly handling and packaging potentially radiologically contaminated patients. This procedure applies to Emergency Medical Service care providers who respond to a radioactive material transportation incident that involves potentially contaminated injuries. Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient.docx More Documents & Publications Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Medical Examiner/Coroner on the Handling of a Body/Human Remains that are Potentially Radiologically Contaminated

206

Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals June 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The...

207

Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site...

208

Multithreaded Algorithms for Maximum Matching in Bipartite Graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract—We design, implement, and evaluate algorithms for computing a matching of maximum cardinality in a bipartite graph on multi-core and massively multithreaded computers. As computers with larger number of slower cores dominate the commodity processor market, the design of multithreaded algorithms to solve large matching problems becomes a necessity. Recent work on serial algorithms based on searching for augmenting paths for this problem have shown that their performance is sensitive to the order in which the vertices are processed for matching. In a multithreaded environment, imposing a serial order in which vertices are considered for matching would lead to loss of concurrency and performance. But this raises the question: Would parallel matching algorithms on multithreaded machines improve performance over a serial algorithm? We answer this question in the affirmative. We report efficient multithreaded implementations of two key algorithms (Hopcroft- Karp based on breadth-first-search, and Pothen-Fan based on depth-first-search) and their variants, combined with the Karp- Sipser initialization algorithm. We report extensive results and insights using three shared-memory platforms (a 48-core AMD Opteron, a 32-core Intel Nehalem, and a 128-processor Cray XMT) on a representative set of real-world and synthetic graphs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of augmentation-based parallel algorithms for bipartite cardinality matching.

Azad, Md Ariful; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Rajamanickam, Siva; Boman, Erik G.; Khan, Arif; Pothen, Alex

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The shallow alluvial aquifer at Fry Canyon, Utah, is contaminated with up to 17 mgL uranium leached from processed tailings at an ore upgrader processing plant that was operated...

210

The Effects of Contamination on HVDC Insulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is currently documenting the various issues that should be considered when converting existing AC lines to high voltage DC (HVDC) lines. One issue that has not yet been dealt with properly is the selection of external DC insulation with respect to contamination. Since the beginning of overhead power transmission, it has been recognized that the performance of external insulation is adversely affected when the insulating surface is contaminated with airborne deposits such as marine salt or industrial...

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

211

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

212

METHOD FOR REMOVING CONTAMINATION FROM PRECIPITATES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate, amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium. The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. since this solution has been found to be uniquely effective in washing fission production contamination from the bismuth phosphate precipitate.

Stahl, G.W.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The Source of Airborne Lead: Recycling Pb-Contaminated Soils  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Source of Airborne Lead: Recycling The Source of Airborne Lead: Recycling Pb-Contaminated Soils Starting in the 1970s, federal regulatory control and eventual elimination of lead-based "anti-knock" additives in gasoline decreased the level of airborne Pb in the USA by two orders-of-magnitude [1]. Blood lead levels of the USA figure 1 Figure 1. The good, the bad, and the ugly. Ambient airborne particulate matter captured on filters of woven silica fiber (large strips) and TeflonTM (round). Clean fiber filter at bottom for comparison. Take a deep breath? population decreased correspondingly [2,3]. Despite this dramatic improvement in both exposure risk and body burden of Pb, the sources and health threat of the low levels of lead in our "unleaded" air remain topics

214

Uranium-contaminated soils: Ultramicrotomy and electron beam analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium contaminated soils from the Fernald Operation Site, Ohio, have been examined by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). A method is described for preparing of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections by ultramicrotomy. By using these thin sections, SEM and TEM images can be compared directly. Uranium was found in iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite. Little uranium was associated with clays. The distribution of uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Contaminants, Water and Human Health: New Lessons from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminants, Water and Human Health: New Lessons from Alligators. Purpose: Many chemicals introduced into the environment ...

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

217

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

Don Augenstein

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

218

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance to EMS care providers for properly handling and packaging potentially radiologically contaminated patients. This procedure applies to Emergency Medical Service care providers who respond to a radioactive material transportation incident that involves potentially contaminated injuries. Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient.docx More Documents & Publications Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Emergency Response to a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response

219

Comparison of multiple ecogenomics methods for determining ecosystem function in uranium-contaminated environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to attenuate nletal and radionuclide contamination.problem of metal and radionuclide contamination of soil and

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING A MULTI-LAYERED SOIL COLUMN AND THREE-PHASE EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING MODEL  

SciTech Connect

Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and contaminate drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminates. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: contaminant decay, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use.

Rucker, G

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminate or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. The objective was to selectively extract uranium using a soil washing/extraction process without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating a secondary waste form that would be difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. One of the soils is from near the Plant 1 storage pad and the other soil was taken from near a waste incinerator used to burn low-level contaminated trash. The third soil was a surface soil from an area formally used as a landfarm for the treatment of spent oils at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The sediment sample was material sampled from a storm sewer sediment trap at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Uranium concentrations in the Fernald soils ranged from 450 to 550 {mu}g U/g of soil while the samples from the Y-12 Plant ranged from 150 to 200 {mu}g U/g of soil.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Elless, M.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that <0.5 ppm sulfur can be achieved. Removal of HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

225

Spatial Forecasts of Maximum Hail Size Using Prognostic Model Soundings and HAILCAST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasting the occurrence of hail and the maximum hail size is a challenging problem. This paper investigates the feasibility of producing maps of the forecast maximum hail size over the Canadian prairies using 12-h prognostic soundings from an ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Ron Goodson; Terrence W. Krauss

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A Dynamical Interpretation of the Tritium Maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tropical tritium distribution between 1974 and 1981 is characterized by a maximum along the equator centered between 125° and 145°W. It signifies that this region has received the maximum input of high northern latitude water. A dynamical ...

Michael J. McPhaden; Rana A. Fine

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE FOR THE NFSS CENTRAL DRAINAGE DITCH DECEMBER 1986 Prepared for UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS OFFICE Under Contract No. DE-AC05-81OR20722 By Bechtel National, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bechtel Job No. 14501 I 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1.1 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used for establishing a supplemental residual contamination guideline for the NFSS vicinity property known as the Central Drainage Ditch (CDD). Supplemental guidelines may exceed authorized guidelines if the resultant dose will not exceed the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr (Ref. 1). This evaluation is based on realistic exposure pathways that were

228

Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

Ganguli, Partha S. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Three Dimensional, Integrated Characterization and Archival System for Remote Facility Contaminant Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The largest problem facing the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is the cleanup of the Cold War legacy nuclear production plants that were built and operated from the mid-forties through the late eighties. EM is now responsible for the remediation of no less than 353 projects at 53 sites across the country at, an estimated cost of $147 billion over the next 72 years. One of the keys to accomplishing a thorough cleanup of any site is a rigorous but quick contaminant characterization capability. If the contaminants present in a facility can be mapped accurately, the cleanup can proceed with surgical precision, using appropriate techniques for each contaminant type and location. The three dimensional, integrated characterization and archival system (3D-ICAS) was developed for the purpose of rapid, field level identification, mapping, and archiving of contaminant data. The system consists of three subsystems, an integrated work and operating station, a 3-D coherent laser radar, and a contaminant analysis unit. Target contaminants that can be identified include chemical (currently organic only), radiological, and base materials (asbestos). In operation, two steps are required. First, the remotely operable 3-D laser radar maps an area of interest in the spatial domain. Second, the remotely operable contaminant analysis unit maps the area of interest in the chemical, radiological, and base material domains. The resultant information is formatted for display and archived using an integrated workstation. A 3-D model of the merged spatial and contaminant domains cart be displayed along with a color-coded contaminant tag at each analysis point. In addition, all of the supporting detailed data are archived for subsequent QC checks. The 3D-ICAS system is capable of performing all contaminant characterization in a dwell time of 6 seconds. The radiological and chemical sensors operate at US Environmental Protection Agency regulatory levels. Base materials identification is accomplished using a molecular vibrational spectroscopy, which can identify materials such as asbestos, concrete, wood, or transite. The multipurpose sensor head is positioned robotically using a small CRS Robotics A465 arm, which is registered to the environment map by the 3-D laser radar.

Barry, R.E.; Gallman, P.; Jarvis, G.; Griffiths, P.

1999-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

230

On the Vertical Decay Rate of the Maximum Tangential Winds in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, it is shown that the maximum tangential winds within tropical cyclones decrease with height at a percentage rate that is nearly independent of both the maximum wind speed and the radius of maximum winds (RMW). This can be seen by ...

Daniel P. Stern; David S. Nolan

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

MaxSolver: An efficient exact algorithm for (weighted) maximum satisfiability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximum Boolean satisfiability (max-SAT) is the optimization counterpart of Boolean satisfiability (SAT), in which a variable assignment is sought to satisfy the maximum number of clauses in a Boolean formula. A branch and bound algorithm based on the ... Keywords: DPLL, Linear programming, Nonlinear programming, Unit propagation, Variable ordering, Weighted maximum satisfiability

Zhao Xing; Weixiong Zhang

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

1994-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

233

System for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Melioration of the radiocesium contaminated land  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method is described of radiocesium fixation in soils contaminated by this radionuclide. To immobilize radiocesium, the soil surface is treated with aqueous hexacyanoferrate solution of alkaline metals. It has been experimentally shown that application of K4 [Fe(CN)6]{\\bullet}3H2O at a rate of 1,3g/kg soil reduces the fraction of exchangeable 137Cs 100-fold (100 times). The method is effective for the plots where contamination is concentrated in the top 1 - 2 cm soil layer.

I. E. Epifanova; E. G. Tertyshnik

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

235

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the impact of instrumental systematic errors in interferometric measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra. We simulate interferometric CMB observations to generate mock visibilities and estimate power spectra using the statistically optimal maximum likelihood technique. We define a quadratic error measure to determine allowable levels of systematic error that does not induce power spectrum errors beyond a given tolerance. As an example, in this study we focus on differential pointing errors. The effects of other systematics can be simulated by this pipeline in a straightforward manner. We find that, in order to accurately recover the underlying B-modes for r = 0.01 at 28 < l < 384, Gaussian-distributed pointing errors must be controlled to 0. Degree-Sign 7 root mean square for an interferometer with an antenna configuration similar to QUBIC, in agreement with analytical estimates. Only the statistical uncertainty for 28 < l < 88 would be changed at {approx}10% level. With the same instrumental configuration, we find that the pointing errors would slightly bias the 2{sigma} upper limit of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by {approx}10%. We also show that the impact of pointing errors on the TB and EB measurements is negligibly small.

Zhang Le; Timbie, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sutter, Paul M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, 1110 W Green Street, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bunn, Emory F., E-mail: lzhang263@wisc.edu [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

Thomas, L.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

Phifer, Mark A. (N. Augusta, SC); Sappington, Frank C. (Dahlonega, GA); Millings, Margaret R. (N. Augusta, SC); Turick, Charles E. (Aiken, SC); McKinsey, Pamela C. (Aiken, SC)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

238

Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

Garten, C.T. Jr.

1992-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

240

Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer`s diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

Garten, C.T. Jr.

1992-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

CONTAMINATION OF THE CENTRAL SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH DECREMENTS IN AMiBA GALAXY CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the contamination of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for six galaxy clusters, A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390, observed by the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy in 2007. With the range of baselines used, we find that the largest effect (of order 13%-50% of the central SZ flux density) comes from primary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and exceeds the thermal noise in all six cases. Contamination from discrete radio sources is estimated to be at a level of 3%-60% of the central SZ flux density. We use the statistics of these contaminating sources to estimate and correct the errors in the measured SZ effects of these clusters.

Liu, Guo-Chin; Ho, Paul T. P.; Lin, Kai-Yang; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Koch, Patrick M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Birkinshaw, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Ave, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Wang, Fu-Cheng [Department of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the subregion. Both conceptual models extend approximately 25 miles to the southwest of the INEEL, a distance sufficient to include known concentrations of contaminant tracers. Several hypotheses have been developed concerning the effective thickness of the SRPA at the INEEL. The USGS model has defined the effective thickness from electrical resistivity and borehole data to be as much as 2,500 ft in the eastern part of the subregion and as much as 4,000 ft in the southwestern part. The WAG-10 model has developed two alternatives using aquifer-temperature and electrical resistivity data. The ''thick'' aquifer interpretation utilizes colder temperature data and includes a northtrending zone in which the thickness exceeds 1,300 ft and with a maximum thickness of 1,700 ft. The ''thin'' aquifer interpretation minimizes aquifer thickness, with thickness ranging from 328 to 1,300 ft. Facility-specific models generally have focused efforts on the upper 250 ft of saturation. Conceptual models have utilized a stratigraphic data set to define geohydrologic units within the INEEL subregion. This data set, compiled from geophysical logs and cores from boreholes, correlates the thick, complex stack of basalt flows across the subregion. Conceptual models generally concur that the upper geohydrologic unit consists of a section of highly fractured, multiple, thin basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. Beneath this unit is an areally extensive, thick, unfractured basalt flow that rises above the water table southwest of the INEEL. The bottom unit consists of a thick section of slightly- to moderately-altered basalt. A key objective of the DOE water-integration project at the INEEL is to coordinate development of a subregional conceptual model of groundwater flow and contaminant transport that is based on the best available understanding of geologic and hydrologic features. The first step in this process is to compile and summarize the current conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL that have been developed from extensive geohydrologic studies con

Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Natsis, M.E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Walker, J.S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Natsis, M.E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Walker, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and...

246

Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City,...

247

Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

248

Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

Metzler, Donald R. (DeBeque, CO); Morrison, Stanley (Grand Junction, CO)

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

249

Analytical Electron Microscopy examination of uranium contamination at the DOE Fernald operation site  

SciTech Connect

Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) has been used to identify uranium-bearing phases present in contaminated soils from the DOE Fernald operation site. A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and AEM was used in isolating and characterizing uranium-rich regions of the contaminated soils. Soil samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by ultramicrotomy using an embedding resin previously employed for aquatic colloids and biological samples. This preparation method allowed direct comparison between SEM and TEM images. At the macroscopic level much of the uranium appears to be associated with clays in the soils; however, electron beam analysis revealed that the uranium is present as discrete phases, including iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite. Only low levels of uranium were actually within the clay minerals. The distribution of uranium phases was inhomogeneous at the submicron level.

Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a result of severe cattle grazing along riparian areas and deltas. Groundwater and springs also feed the lake, and are likely critical for oxygen supply during winter stratification. During the winter of 1991, Henrys Lake experienced low dissolved oxygen levels resulting in large fish kills. It is thought that thick ice cover combined with an increase in nutrient loads created conditions resulting in poor water quality. The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, DEQ is currently conducting a study to determine the water quality of Henrys Lake, the sources contributing to its deterioration, and potential remedial actions to correct problem areas.

John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ in contaminated soils plays a crucial role in determining the long term fate of toxic metal pollutants speciation in laboratory contaminated soils with thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of precipitate stability

Sparks, Donald L.

252

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

06-97 06-97 February 1997 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 March 2002 Reaffirmation with Errata August 2002 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Reaffirmation with Errata DOE-HDBK-1106-97 Radiological Contamination Control for Laboratory Research

253

Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants Speaker(s): Mathew MacLeod Date: June 29, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone Chemical products pervade modern society, and furnish unprecedented wealth and comfort to citizens of countries with industrialized economies. Demand for products such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, flame-retardants and additives for consumer products requires large scale production and distribution of these chemicals, and they are inevitably released into the environment. Responsible management of chemicals therefore requires a quantitative understanding of amounts released, how the chemicals partition and travel in the environment, and how they might expose and thus adversely affect human and ecological populations. This

254

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

Cicero, C.A.

1996-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

255

Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 of 3) 2 of 3) Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research Instructor's Guide Office of Environment, Safety & Health U.S. Department of Energy February 1997 DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This page intentionally left blank. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Table of Contents Page DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - Course/Lesson Plan.............................. 1 Standardized Core Course Materials................................................... 1 Course Goal.........................................................................1 Target Audience.................................................................. 1 Course Description............................................................... 1 Prerequisites...................................................................... 1

257

Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

Rick Demmer

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

259

Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

Francis, A.J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Desiccant contamination in desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a desiccant contamination experiment and the impact of the obtained silica gel degradation data on the performance of a desiccant cooling system. A test apparatus was used to thermally cycle several desiccant samples and expose them to ambient'' humid air or contaminated'' humid air. The source of contamination was cigarette smoke. The exposed desiccant samples were removed after 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 months of exposure and their moisture capacities were measured. The silica get samples thermally cycled with ambient air showed a 5% to 30% to 70% of their moisture capacity. Using the obtained degradation data in a system, the impact of desiccant degradation on the performance of a desiccant cooling cycle was estimated. Depending on the degree of desiccant degradation, the decrease in thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity of the system was 10% to 35%. It was found that the COP and the cooling capacity of a system after desiccant degradation can be improved by increasing the rotational speed of the dehumidifier. This indicates that a simple engineering solution may exist to alleviate some type of degradations. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Pesaran, A.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Final Project Report: Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport  

SciTech Connect

Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided detailed characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, PCO2, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions.

Jon Chorover, University of Arizona; Peggy O' €  ™ Day, University of California, Merced; Karl Mueller, Penn State University; Wooyong Um, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Carl Steefel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results & Policy Implications Title Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results & Policy Implications Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2009 Authors Mathieu, Johanna L., Ashok J. Gadgil, Kristin Kowolik, and Susan E. Addy Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more thanhalf of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing anarsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages

263

Using Downhole Probes to Locate and Characterize Buried Transuranic and Mixed Low Level Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Borehole logging probes were developed and tested to locate and quantify transuranic elements in subsurface disposal areas and in contaminated sites at USDOE Weapons Complex sites. A new method of measuring very high levels of chlroine in the subsurface was developed using pulsed neutron technology from oilfield applications. The probes were demonstrated at the Hanford site in wells containing plutonium and other contaminants.

Steinman, Donald K; Bramblett, Richard L; Hertzog, Russel C

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Multispecies toxicity assessment of compost produced in bioremediation of an explosives-contaminated sediment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multispecies terrestrial test system was used to assess the environmental effectiveness of composting for bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soils. The assessment involved comparing biological responses, from the individual to the community level, in remediated and reference composts. A 6-month greenhouse study incorporated two soil invertebrate species, three plant species and an associated symbiont, and the naturally occurring complement of soil microorganisms. Measured parameters included growth and reproduction of earthworms and isopods; soil mote diversity; soil lipid class composition as an indicator of soil microbial community structure; plant growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction; and root nodulation and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. Additional short-term toxicity tests of seed germination and earthworm survival were performed to supplement the mesocosm data. Compost prepared from the explosives-contaminated soil inhibited several aspects of plant growth and physiology, but few adverse effects on soil invertebrates were detected. An initial lag in earthworm and isopod reproduction occurred in the reference compost, reflecting some inherent compost differences not associated with contamination, and highlighting the importance and the difficulty of finding appropriate reference soils for assessing hazardous waste sites or remediation technologies. Nonetheless, the results from this study suggested some nonlethal effects from the contaminated-soil compost, primarily to plants. The mesocosm methodology used in this study can bridge the gap between traditional short-term toxicity testing and longer term field assessments, and provide information on ecological effects by explicitly including measurements of multiple species across several levels of ecological organization.

Gunderson, C.A.; Napolitano, G.E.; Wicker, L.F.; Richmond, J.E.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Kostuk, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences; Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

The evaluation of sorghum contaminated with ergot on broiler chicken performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of these four experiments was to conduct an evaluation of the performance of broiler chickens fed sorghum contaminated with ergot sphacelia/sclerotia of Claviceps africana present in tailings removed by conditioning of seed from grain sorghum hybrid seed production gelds near Uvalde (Experiments 1 and 2) and Dumas (Experiments 3 and 4), Texas. Percentage of sphacelia/sclerotia and total alkaloid content, respectively, in the sorghum contaminated with ergot tailings were 8% and 11.3 ppm for Uvalde, and 75% and 235 ppm for Dumas in Experiment 3. Total alkaloid content in the extracted Dumas sample in Experiment 4 was 266.9 ppm. All diets were based on the NRC (1994) requirements for broilers. Hatch to 3-week-old male broilers in Experiment 1 fed sorghum contaminated with ergot showed significant reduction in growth at week three. Relative liver weights in ergot fed birds were significantly greater than control. Hatch to 6-week-old straight-run broilers in Experiment 2 were raised on a three-phase feeding program. Sorghum contaminated with ergot significantly reduced growth in broilers at Weeks 4, 5, and 6. Feed conversion was significantly reduced during all three phases of feeding. In Experiment 3, control sorghum and the 75% ergot tailings were added to corn-soy basal diets at 2.5, 5, and 10% by weight. These male chicks were fed from hatch to 3-weeks of age. Sorghum contaminated with ergot did not significantly reduce growth, but, during Weeks 2 and 3, feed conversions were significantly higher. Neither type nor concentration of sorghum contaminated with ergot significantly affected relative liver weights. In Experiment 4, alkaloids were extracted from ergot sphacelia/sclerotia, added to a corn-soy basal diet, and fed from hatch to 4-week-old male broilers. Sorghum contaminated with ergot significantly increased feed conversion in Week 2. Significantly higher levels of glucose and triglycerides were found in broilers fed sorghum contaminated with ergot. We did not observe significant mortality or obvious signs of ergot toxicity, such as necrotic lesions of the feet or comb, in any of the four experiments. We can conclude that the effects of sorghum contaminated with ergot on broilers will be negligible to broiler production operations.

Fazzino, Johnny Joseph

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may be much greater than previously demonstrated and they have numerous applications to environmental restoration. Twelve of the isolates were subsequently added to the bioreactor to enhance bioremediation. In this study we showed that a bioreactor could be bioaugmented with select bacteria to enhance bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils under radiological conditions.

BRIGMON, ROBINL.

2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

268

Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

Mullen, Lisa K. [Bluegrass Concrete Cutting Inc., 107 Mildred Street PO Box 427, Greenville, Alabama 36037 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Maximum likelihood blind image separation using nonsymmetrical half-plane Markov random fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a maximum likelihood approach for blindly separating linear instantaneous mixtures of images. The spatial autocorrelation within each image is described using non-symmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields in order to simplify ... Keywords: blind source separation (BSS), maximum likelihood approach, nonstationary sources, nonsymmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields

Rima Guidara; Shahram Hosseini; Yannick Deville

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The greedy algorithm for domination in graphs of maximum degree 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that for a connected graph with n nodes and e edges and maximum degree at most 3, the size of the dominating set found by the greedy algorithm is at most 10n - 2e/13 if e ? 11/10n, 11n - ... Keywords: algorithms, dominating set, maximum size

Suzanne M. Seager

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Note on the Parameterized Complexity of Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Note on the Parameterized Complexity of Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation Sebastian B University, 41296 G¨oteborg, Sweden ptr@chalmers.se Abstract In the Unordered Maximum Tree Orientation problem, a set P of paths in a tree and a parameter k is given, and we want to orient the edges

Damaschke, Peter

273

Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Using Only Single Current Sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is proportional to its short current. One of them has a monitor photovoltaic cell to detect its shortMaximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Using Only Single Current Sensor Toshihiko» «Solar cell systems» Abstract This paper describes a novel strategy of maximum-power-point tracking

Fujimoto, Hiroshi

274

Original article: Comparison of maximum peak power tracking algorithms for a small wind turbine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms dedicated for small wind turbines (SWTs). Many control strategies with different features are available and it is very important to select proper one in order to achieve best performance ... Keywords: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), PMSG, Small wind turbine (SWT)

R. Kot, M. Rolak, M. Malinowski

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Effect of immiscible liquid contaminants on P-wave transmission through natural aquifer samples  

SciTech Connect

We performed core-scale laboratory experiments to examine the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation in heterogeneous media. This work is part of a larger project to develop crosswell seismic methods for minimally invasive NAPL detection. The test site is the former DOE Pinellas Plant in Florida, which has known NAPL contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic attenuation, which may be due to lithology and/or contaminants (NAPL or gas phase). Intact core was obtained from the field site, and P-wave transmission was measured by the pulse-transmission technique with a 500 kHz transducer. Two types of samples were tested: a clean fine sand from the upper portion of the surficial aquifer, and clayey-silty sand with shell fragments and phosphate nodules from the lower portion. Either NAPL trichloroethene or toluene was injected into the initially water-saturated sample. Maximum NAPL saturations ranged from 30 to 50% of the pore space. P-wave velocity varied by approximately 4% among the water-saturated samples, while velocities decreased by 5 to 9% in samples at maximum NAPL saturation compared to water-saturated conditions. The clay and silt fraction as well as the larger scatterers in the clayey-silty sands apparently caused greater P-wave attenuation compared to the clean sand. The presence of NAPLs caused a 34 to 54% decrease in amplitudes of the first arrival. The central frequency of the transmitted energy ranged from 85 to 200 kHz, and was sensitive to both grain texture and presence of NAPL. The results are consistent with previous trends observed in homogeneous sand packs. More data will be acquired to interpret P-wave tomograms from crosswell field measurements, determine the cause of high attenuation observed in the field data and evaluate the sensitivity of seismic methods for NAPL detection.

Geller, Jil T.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An aerial view of Hanford’s D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. An aerial view of Hanford's D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River.

277

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An aerial view of Hanford’s D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. An aerial view of Hanford's D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River.

278

Decontamination of high-level waste canisters  

SciTech Connect

This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Contaminated Variance-Mean mixing model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Generalised Normal Variance-Mean (GNVM) model in which the mixing random variable is Gamma distributed is considered. This model generalises the popular Variance-Gamma (VG) distribution. This GNVM model can be interpreted as the addition of noise ... Keywords: DIC, JAGS, Maximum likelihood estimation, Mixing representation, Normal Variance-Mean distribution, Variance-Gamma distribution

Thomas Fung, Joanna J. J. Wang, Eugene Seneta

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Bayesian based design of real-time sensor systems for high-risk indoor contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardousto building occupants. To respond effectively, the contaminant release must be quicklydetected and characterized to determine unobserved parameters, such as release locationand strength. Characterizing the release requires solving an inverse problem. Designinga robust real-time sensor system that solves the inverse problem is challenging becausethe fate and transport of contaminants is complex, sensor information is limited andimperfect, and real-time estimation is computationally constrained.This dissertation uses a system-level approach, based on a Bayes Monte Carloframework, to develop sensor-system design concepts and methods. I describe threeinvestigations that explore complex relationships among sensors, network architecture,interpretation algorithms, and system performance. The investigations use data obtainedfrom tracer gas experiments conducted in a real building. The influence of individual sensor characteristics on the sensor-system performance for binary-type contaminant sensors is analyzed. Performance tradeoffs among sensor accuracy, threshold level and response time are identified; these attributes could not be inferred without a system-level analysis. For example, more accurate but slower sensors are found to outperform less accurate but faster sensors. Secondly, I investigate how the sensor-system performance can be understood in terms of contaminant transport processes and the model representation that is used to solve the inverse problem. The determination of release location and mass are shown to be related to and constrained by transport and mixing time scales. These time scales explain performance differences among different sensor networks. For example, the effect of longer sensor response times is comparably less for releases with longer mixing time scales. The third investigation explores how information fusion from heterogeneous sensors may improve the sensor-system performance and offset the need for more contaminant sensors. Physics- and algorithm-based frameworks are presented for selecting and fusing information from noncontaminant sensors. The frameworks are demonstrated with door-position sensors, which are found to be more useful in natural airflow conditions, but which cannot compensate for poor placement of contaminant sensors. The concepts and empirical findings have the potential to help in the design of sensor systems for more complex building systems. The research has broader relevance to additional environmental monitoring problems, fault detection and diagnostics, and system design.

Sreedharan, Priya; Sreedharan, Priya

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

New Challenges in Contamination Control: The Leadership Role of IEST in Shaping Future Research and Practices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

updated.. WG–CC902: MIL-HDBK-406: Contamination Controland Clean Work Stations; MIL-HDBK-407: Contamination Control

Xu, Tengfang; Eudy, Jane; Berndt, Charles

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Mating Dynamics and Population Viability in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding how anthropogenic activity impacts the health and viability of wildlife populations is one of the most important tasks of environmental biology. A key concern related to bi-products of human activity is the accumulation of environmental pollutants within aquatic environments. Pollutants such as endocrine disruptors and heavy metals have the potential to impact both human and wildlife populations in contaminated areas. While much research has focused on how these compounds impact natural selection processes, such as viability and reproduction, their effect on sexual selection processes is not as clear. The goal of this dissertation was to address how environmental contaminants impact sexual selection processes in a sex-role reversed pipefish and evaluate how these effects may impact long-term population viability. Here we show that short periods of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a synthetic estrogen result in male pipefish with female-like secondary sexual traits. While these males are capable of reproduction, exposed males are discriminated against by females in mate choice tests. In natural populations, this type of discrimination could reduce male mating opportunities, potentially reducing their reproductive success. In an additional component of this dissertation, it was discovered that pipefish populations around Mobile Bay, specifically Weeks Bay, are currently being exposed to significantly elevated levels of mercury. These populations are genetically distinct from coastal populations but moderate levels of gene flow occur among sites, and gene flow between contaminated and non-contaminated population may be influencing how environmental contaminants are impacting genetic diversity and population viability. In the case of endocrine disruptors, migration between contaminated and non-contaminated sites may negatively impact population viability. Morphological traits induced with exposure to contaminants may be maintained for extended periods of time, therefore, the effect the exposed phenotype has on mating dynamics and sexual selection could be carried to non-contaminated sites if exposed individuals move to new populations. On the other hand, immigration of individuals from non-contaminated sites into contaminated areas may help maintain genetic diversity within exposed populations. In conclusion, the work presented in this dissertation shows that the presence of environmental toxins can significantly impact sexual selection processes, which in turn can have profound effects on the viability and future evolutionary trajectory of populations. Future work in this area should not only address how these toxins impact individual fitness, but should also address how population structure may be influencing the severity of these compounds on natural populations.

Partridge, Charlyn G.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

FRANCIS,A.J.

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

285

Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles.

1998-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

286

Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

Schuresko, Daniel D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

THE DESIGN OF A RADIOACTIVITY CONTAMINATION METER  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the design and performance of a portable instrument for measurement of radiation from small quantities of radioactive contamination. The device weighs 4 lb 2 oz, operates on a single flashlight battery for 200 hr, and operates at low temperatures with the proper battery. The most novel feature is a clockworkdriven chopper for a-c. The circuit includes cold cathode tubes and a halogen-quenched G-M tube. Reliability was emphasized in the design. (T.R.H.)

Goulding, F.S.

1954-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

288

Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site  

SciTech Connect

As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size from friction of the soil mixing, which creates more surface area for chemical conversion. This was corroborated by the fact that the same waste loading pre-treated by ball milling to reduce particle size prior to SPSS processing yielded TCLP concentrations almost 30 times lower, and at 8.5 ppb Hg was well below EPA limits. Pre-treatment by ball milling also allowed a reduction in the time required for stabilization, thus potentially reducing total process times by 30%.Additional performance testing was conducted including measurement of compressive strength to confirm mechanical integrity and immersion testing to determine the potential impacts of storage or disposal under saturated conditions. For both surrogate and actual Y-12 treated soils, waste form compressive strengths ranged between 2,300 and 6,500 psi, indicating very strong mechanical integrity (a minimum of greater than 40 times greater than the NRC guidance for low-level radioactive waste). In general, compressive strength increases with waste loading as the soil acts as an aggregate in the sulfur concrete waste forms. No statistically significant loss in strength was recorded for the 30 and 40 wt% surrogate waste samples and only a minor reduction in strength was measured for the 43 wt% waste forms. The 30 wt% Y-12 soil did not show a significant loss in strength but the 50 wt% samples were severely degraded in immersion due to swelling of the clay soil. The impact on Hg leaching, if any, was not determined.

Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

289

IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

290

Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the claimed invention to combine chemical treatment with microfiltration process to treat groundwater, leachate from contaminated soil washing, surface and run-off waters contaminated with toxic metals, radionuclides and trace amounts of organics from variety of sources. The process can also be used to treat effluents from industrial processes such as discharges associated with smelting, mining and refining operations. Influent contaminants amenable to treatment are from a few mg/L to hundreds of mg/L. By selecting appropriate precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption agents and conditions, efficiencies greater than 99.9 percent can be achieved for removal of contaminants. The filtered water for discharge can be targeted with either an order of magnitude greater or lower than contaminant levels for drinking water.

Vijayan, S.; Wong, Chi Fun; Buckley, L.P.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 16 weight percent CaCO{sub 3}. Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na{sub 2}S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na{sub 2}S, where it would be converted to Hg{sub 2}S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na{sub 2}S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

"Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" 2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" " Potential by Census Region, 1991" " (Estimates in Physical Units)" ,,,,"RSE" ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum","Row" "Type of Energy","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)","Factors" "RSE Column Factors:",1,1.2,0.8 ," Total United States" ,"-","-","-" "Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthours)",718480,701478,766887,2 "Natural Gas (billion cubic feet)",5345,3485,5887,2 "Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",23885,19113,201081,3.7 "Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",65837,36488,201921,2.6

293

HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Need for a contamination control textbook  

SciTech Connect

Since the authors have become associated with contamination control technology they have repeatedly found themselves searching for technical information that was either never documented and therefore never reached a technical journal or was too specific to appear in a technical article. On countless occasions they have found other workers frustrated over the same lack of concise and up to date information in the relatively broad and interdisciplinary field of surface science, surface cleaning, and clean room operation and design. It is for these reasons that the authors wish to suggest formally that those engineers, chemists, technicians, and surface scientists working in this field collectively create a textbook that they may use as their first reference and teaching book. The text of this paper suggests a topical outline for a book and gives examples of the kinds of information that it should contain and the types of questions it should address. Included is an extensive bibliography recently collected showing the diversity of disciplines that those working in contamination control must be knowledgeable of and the variety of publications and journals in which these reports and articles are generally found.

Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Guntrum, S.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Final work plan : phase II investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri (Figure 1.1). During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of statewide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]) described as being approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. The identified concentrations in these two wells were above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the Missouri risk-based corrective action default target level (MRBCA DTL) values of 5.0 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride in water used for domestic purposes (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b, 2006). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an investigation to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the potential risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment posed by the contamination. This work is being performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and the MoDNR, to address carbon tetrachloride contamination potentially associated with a number of former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. The site characterization at Savannah is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The investigation at Savannah is being conducted in phases. This approach is being used by the CCC/USDA and Argonne, with the approval of the MoDNR, so that information obtained and interpretations developed during each incremental stage of the investigation can be used most effectively to guide subsequent phases of the program. Phase I of the Savannah program was conducted in October-November 2007 and January 2008 (Argonne 2007a, 2008). This site-specific Work Plan provides a brief summary of the Phase I findings and the results of groundwater level monitoring that has been ongoing since completion of the Phase I study and also outlines technical objectives, investigation tasks, and investigation methods for Phase II of the site characterization at Savannah.

LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

296

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The Oak Ridge Field Research Center : Advancing Scientific Understanding of the Transportation, Fate, and Remediation of Subsurface Contamination Sources and Plumes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical research, development, and testing of nuclear materials across this country resulted in subsurface contamination that has been identified at over 7,000 discrete sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. With the end of the Cold War threat, DOE has shifted its emphasis to remediation, decommissioning, and decontamination of the immense volumes of contaminated groundwater, sediments, and structures at its sites. DOE currently is responsible for remediating 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to approximately four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of contaminated soil, enough to fill approximately 17 professional sports stadiums.* DOE also sponsors research intended to improve or develop remediation technologies, especially for difficult, currently intractable contaminants or conditions. The Oak Ridge FRC is representative of some difficult sites, contaminants, and conditions. Buried wastes in contact with a shallow water table have created huge reservoirs of contamination. Rainfall patterns affect the water table level seasonally and over time. Further, the hydrogeology of the area, with its fractures and karst geology, affects the movement of contaminant plumes. Plumes have migrated long distances and to surface discharge points through ill-defined preferred flowpaths created by the fractures and karst conditions. From the standpoint of technical effectiveness, remediation options are limited, especially for contaminated groundwater. Moreover, current remediation practices for the source areas, such as capping, can affect coupled processes that, in turn, may affect the movement of subsurface contaminants in unknown ways. Research conducted at the FRC or with FRC samples therefore promotes understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of extant remediation options, and the development of improved remediation strategies.

David Watson

2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

298

Risk of Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of cattle during transport to slaughter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study evaluated the effect of typical production practices during transport of cattle on the resulting incidence of pathogenic bacteria in cattle and their resulting carcasses. Various factors, including type of animal, body condition score, breed, age, time of feed/water withdrawal, contamination level of transport vehicle at the feedlot/farm, transport time/distance, contamination level of the holding pen, and time held in holding pen, were evaluated for their effect on the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in feedlot cattle and adult beef cattle. Four groups of feedlot cattle and four groups of adult cattle were sampled on different days. Samples were collected from the cattle both prior to transport and after transport (rectal and hide swabs) as well as from the carcasses derived from these cattle. Furthermore, environmental samples were collected from the transport vehicles, holding pens, and knock boxes at the slaughter facility. Following sample collection, microbiological examination was conducted to provide a characterization of the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter within the segment of the farm-to-table continuum in Texas related to the transport of cattle from feedlots/farms to the slaughter plants. The intestinal carriage rate of Salmonella for feedlot cattle decreased from 5.0% prior to transport to 3.0% after transport whereas the intestinal carriage rate for adult cattle increased from 1.0% prior to transport to 20.8% after transport. Although the adult cattle were shedding more Salmonella overall, hide contamination with Salmonella was very similar for both feedlot and adult cattle (an increase from approximately 19.0% prior to transport to 55.0% after transport). Carcass contamination with Salmonella was 19.0% for feedlot cattle and 54.2% for adult cattle. The intestinal carriage rate of Campylobacter for feedlot cattle increased from 64.0% prior to transport to 68.0% after transport whereas the intestinal carriage rate for adult cattle increased from 6.3% prior to transport to 7.3% after transport. Campylobacter contamination of hides and carcasses in both feedlot and adult cattle was minimal. Regression analysis indicated that there were no relationships between the aforementioned risk factors and subsequent fecal shedding, hide contamination, and carcass contamination.

Beach, John Charles

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overall objective of this project was to develop a technology platform for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system at elevated temperatures (500-1,000 F) and gasifier pressures to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants, including H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCl, Hg, and As. This technology development effort involved progressive development and testing of sorbent/catalytic materials and associated processes through laboratory, bench, pilot, and demonstration testing phases, coupled with a comprehensive systems analysis at various stages of development. The development of the regenerable RTI-3 desulfurization sorbent - a highly attrition-resistant, supported ZnO-based material - was the key discovery in this project. RTI-3's high attrition resistance, coupled with its high reactivity, effectively allowed its application in a high-velocity transport reactor system. Production of the RTI-3 sorbent was successfully scaled up to an 8,000-lb batch by Sued-Chemie. In October 2005, RTI obtained U.S Patent 6,951,635 to protect the RTI-3 sorbent technology and won the 2004 R&D 100 Award for development of this material. The RTI-3 sorbent formed the basis for the development of the High-Temperature Desulfurization System (HTDS), a dual-loop transport reactor system for removing the reduced sulfur species from syngas. An 83-foot-tall, pilot HTDS unit was constructed and commissioned first at ChevronTexaco's gasification site and later at Eastman's gasification plant. At Eastman, the HTDS technology was successfully operated with coal-derived syngas for a total of 3,017 hrs over a 12-month period and consistently reduced the sulfur level to <10 ppmv. The sorbent attrition rate averaged {approx}31 lb/MM lb of circulation. To complement the HTDS technology, which extracts the sulfur from syngas as SO{sub 2}, RTI developed the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP, operating at high pressure and high temperature, uses a small slipstream of syngas to catalytically reduce the SO{sub 2} produced in the warm syngas desulfurization process to elemental sulfur. To demonstrate this process at Eastman, RTI constructed and commissioned a skid-mounted pilot DSRP unit. During its 117-h operation, the DSRP system achieved 90% to 98% removal of the inlet sulfur. The DSRP catalyst proved very robust, demonstrating consistent reaction rates in multiple experiments over a 3-year period. Sorbent materials for removing trace NH{sub 3}, Hg, and As impurities from syngas at high temperature and high pressure were developed and tested with real syngas. A Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} sorbent for removal of CO{sub 2} from syngas at high temperature was also developed and tested. The Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} material demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} removal, but its regeneration was found to be technically challenging. Additionally, reverse-selective polymer membrane materials were investigated for the bulk removal of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from syngas. These materials exhibited adequate separation at ambient conditions for these acid gases. Field testing of these membrane modules with real syngas demonstrated potential use for acid-gas separation from syngas. The HTDS/DSRP technologies are estimated to have a significant economic advantage over conventional gas cleanup technologies such as Selexol{trademark} and Rectisol. From a number of system studies, use of HTDS/DSRP is expected to give a 2-3 percentage point increase in the overall IGCC thermal efficiency and a significant reduction in capital cost. Thus, there is significant economic incentive for adaptation of these warm gas cleanup technologies due to significantly increased thermal efficiency and reduction in capital and operating costs. RTI and Eastman are currently in discussions with a number of companies to commercialize this technology.

B. S. Turk; R. P. Gupta; S. Gangwal; L. G. Toy; J. R. Albritton; G. Henningsen; P. Presler-Jur; J. Trembly

2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

300

Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided thorough characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions. In this final report, we provide detailed descriptions of our results from this three-year study, completed in 2012 following a one-year no cost extension.

Chorover, Jon; Perdrial, Nico; Mueller, Karl; Strepka, Caleb; OĂƒ ƒ Ă‚ Â˘Ăƒ ‚ Ă‚ € Ăƒ ‚ Ă‚ ™ Day, Peggy; Rivera, Nelson; Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Steefel, Carl; Thompson, Aaron

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative has partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to bring together a special section of the recent issue (November 2012). The section was prepared in association with the Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative-led symposium at the annual American Chemical Society meeting on "Understanding Behavior and Fate of Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments." The section consists of 12 papers which present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments, many of which highlight recent work at the Hanford site. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

302

Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study Schematic of soil-gas and contaminant transport into a slab-on-grade building at a former service station site. Three effects are illustrated that can contribute to reducing the amount of contaminant available for entry into the building: biodegradation by soil microorganisms; a layer of soil that limits diffusive movement of the contaminant; and wind-driven ventilation of the soil below the building. Not illustrated are the effects of ventilation on contaminant concentrations inside the building. The transport of soil-gas-borne contaminants into buildings has been documented as a significant source of human exposure to some pollutants indoors; one example is radon, which has received widespread public

303

In-situ remediation system for contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume is described. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Corey, J.C.; Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

1988-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

304

In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like.

Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC); Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Kaback, Dawn S. (Aiken, SC)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the RoMIC-AFRI was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination. The initiative at Oak Ridge is a collaborative effort that leverages DOE investments in basic science and applied research and the work of site contractors to address the complex challenges in the remediation of legacy waste at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants

306

Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals Hanford Groundwater Contamination Areas Shrink as EM Exceeds Cleanup Goals June 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The 200 West Pump and Treat System is Hanford’s largest facility for treating contaminated groundwater. The 200 West Pump and Treat System is Hanford's largest facility for treating contaminated groundwater. A graphic showing the 200 West Pump and Treat plumes and well network. A graphic showing the 200 West Pump and Treat plumes and well network. The 200 West Pump and Treat System is Hanford's largest facility for treating contaminated groundwater. A graphic showing the 200 West Pump and Treat plumes and well network. RICHLAND, Wash. - Workers supporting groundwater cleanup for EM's

307

Microscopic characterization of radionuclide contaminated soils to assist remediation efforts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of optical, scanning, and analytical electron microscopies have been used to describe the nature of radionuclide contamination at several sites. These investigations were conducted to provide information for remediation efforts. This technique has been used successfully with uranium-contaminated soils from Fernald, OH, and Portsmouth, OH, thorium-contaminated soil from a plant in Tennessee, plutonium-contamination sand from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and incinerator ash from Los Alamos, NM. Selecting the most suitable method for cleaning a particular site is difficult if the nature of the contamination is not understood. Microscopic characterization allows the most appropriate method to be selected for removing the contamination and can show the effect a particular method is having on the soil. A method of sample preparation has been developed that allows direct comparison of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, enabling characterization of TEM samples to be more representative of the bulk sample.

Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like. 3 figs.

Corey, J.C.; Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

309

Recent Trends of Minimum and Maximum Surface Temperatures over Eastern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated recent trends in the mean surface minimum and maximum air temperatures over eastern Africa by use of both graphical and statistical techniques. Daily records for 71 stations for the period 1939–92 were used.

S. M. King’uyu; L. A. Ogallo; E. K. Anyamba

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Inertial measurement unit calibration using Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The robustness of Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering (FIMLOF) for inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration in high-g centrifuge environments is considered. FIMLOF uses an approximate Newton's Method ...

Thompson, Gordon A. (Gordon Alexander)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Wind Mixing and Restratification in a Lake near the Temperature of Maximum Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cooling of a freshwater take provides an opportunity for studying wind mixing and restratification under the peculiar conditions associated with a density maximum. The concepts are explored using a mixing-layer model that incorporates both ...

David M. Farmer; Eddy Carmack

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Tropical Cyclone Genesis Factors in Simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale environmental factors that favor tropical cyclogenesis are calculated and examined in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PMIP2). Despite universally colder ...

Robert L. Korty; Suzana J. Camargo; Joseph Galewsky

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks in a Vertical Energy-Balance Model with Maximum Entropy Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vertically one-dimensional model is developed with cloud fraction constrained by the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. The model reasonably reproduces the global mean climate with its surface temperature, radiation and heat fluxes, ...

Biao Wang; Teruyuki Nakajima; Guangyu Shi

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Energy and Enstrophy Spectra of Geostrophic Turbulent Flows Derived from a Maximum Entropy Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principle of maximum entropy is used to obtain energy and enstrophy spectra as well as average relative vorticity fields in the context of geostrophic turbulence on a rotating sphere. In the unforced-undamped (inviscid) case, the maximization ...

W. T. M. Verkley; Peter Lynch

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that ...

Thomas R. Karl; Richard W. Knight; Kevin P. Gallo; Thomas C. Peterson; Philip D. Jones; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Recent Maximum Temperature Anomalies at Albany, New York: Fact or Fiction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis has been conducted of a suspected daily maximum temperature (DMT) bias introduced by the replacement of the National Weather Service (NWS) HO-63 bygrothermograph with a modernized HO-83 instrument at Albany, New York, on 6 February ...

Ronald W. Kessler; Lance F. Bosart; Robert S. Gaza

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Predicting Daily Maximum Temperatures Using Linear Regression and Eta Geopotential Thickness Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between forecast geopotential thickness and observed maximum temperature is investigated, and regression equations are calculated using numerical model thickness forecasts for Nashville. Model thickness forecast accuracy is shown ...

Darrell R. Massie; Mark A. Rose

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Maximum Intensity of Tropical Cyclones in Axisymmetric Numerical Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An axisymmetric numerical model is used to evaluate the maximum possible intensity of tropical cyclones. As compared with traditionally formulated nonhydrostatic models, this new model has improved mass and energy conservation in saturated ...

George H. Bryan; Richard Rotunno

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Observational Evidence for Reduction of Daily Maximum Temperature by Croplands in the Midwest United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate model simulations have shown that conversion of natural forest vegetation to croplands in the United States cooled climate. The cooling was greater for daily maximum temperature than for daily minimum temperature, resulting in a reduced ...

Gordon B. Bonan

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Estimating Summer Design Temperatures from Daily Maximum Temperatures in New Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many climatological locations report only maximum and minimum temperatures. However, in certain applications, such as estimation of design temperatures, the frequency distribution of hourly temperatures is required. For this reason, a method is ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A mechanism for explaining the maximum intraseasonal oscillation center over the western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During late boreal summer (July through October), the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) exhibits maximum variability over the western North Pacific (WNP) centered in the South China Sea and Philippine Sea, while many numerical models have difficulty ...

Fei Liu; Bin Wang

322

Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...

Dahl, Kristina Ariel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Tropical Cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum: An Atmosphere–Mixed Layer Ocean Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of tropical temperature to glacial forcing is examined by using an atmosphere–mixed layer ocean (A–MLO) model to simulate the climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) following specifications established by the Paleoclimate ...

Anthony J. Broccoli

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

On the Maximum Exospheric Temperature of Hydrogen-Dominated Planetary Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that under static conditions the maximum temperature attainable in the exospheres of hydrogen-dominated planetary atmospheres is of order 105 K when gravitational separation between hydrogen and other elements has occurred, and 104 K ...

G. P. Horedt

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Recent Trends in Maximum and Minimum Temperature Threshold Exceedences in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the annual number of daily maximum and minimum temperature threshold exceedences between 1951 and 1993 are assessed at a network of 22 primarily rural sites in the northeastern United States. After adjusting the annual time series for ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Wavenumber Analysis of Azimuthally Distributed Data: Assessing Maximum Allowable Gap Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performing wavenumber decomposition on azimuthally distributed data such as those in tropical cyclones can be challenging when data gaps exist in the signal. In the literature, ad hoc approaches are found to determine maximum gap size beyond which ...

Sylvie Lorsolo; Altu? Aksoy

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

An Interactive Method for Estimating Maximum Hailstone Size from Forecast Soundings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic/prognostic sounding analysis package is presented to aid operational forecasters. First, a diagnostic sounding analysis is shown which computes standard thermodynamic parameters while including a scheme to estimate the maximum hail ...

James T. Moore; John P. Pino

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Systematic Biases in Manual Observations of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate that manual observations of daily maximum and minimum temperature are strongly biased toward temperatures ending in certain digits. The nature and severity of these biases are quantified using standard statistical methods. ...

Jon M. Nese

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Performance of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

algorithms for stand- alone photovoltaic systems," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 11 of a maximum power point tracker," in IEEE Photovolatic Specialists Conference, 2008, pp. 1­3. [10] W. Wu, N

Odam, Kofi

330

Optimising maximum power output and minimum entropy generation of Atkinson cycle using mutable smart bees algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is optimising maximum power output (MPO) and minimum entropy generation (MEG) of an Atkinson cycle as a multi-objective constraint thermodynamic problem by a new improved artificial bee colony algorithm which utilises 'mutable ...

Mofid Gorji; Ahmad Mozaffari; Sina Mohammadrezaei Noudeh

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Combining Lagrangian decomposition with an evolutionary algorithm for the knapsack constrained maximum spanning tree problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a Lagrangian decomposition approach for the Knapsack Constrained Maximum Spanning Tree problem yielding upper bounds as well as heuristic solutions. This method is further combined with an evolutionary algorithm to a sequential hybrid approach. ...

Sandro Pirkwieser; Günther R. Raidl; Jakob Puchinger

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

A Method to Estimate Missing Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to estimate missing daily maximum and minimum temperatures is presented. Temperature estimates are based on departures from daily temperature normals at the three closest stations with similar observation times. Although applied to ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Keith L. Eggleston; Warren W. Knapp

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Atlantic Ocean circulation at the last glacial maximum : inferences from data and models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO? ...

Dail, Holly Janine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The Influence of Large-Scale Climate Variability on Winter Maximum Daily Precipitation over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is fitted to winter season daily maximum precipitation over North America, with indices representing El Nińo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the North ...

Xuebin Zhang; Jiafeng Wang; Francis W. Zwiers; Pavel Ya Groisman

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

336

Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

337

Hedgehog™ Water Contaminant Removal System - Energy Innovation ...  

The in-tank recirculating treatment system reduces the levels of ... Energy Innovation ... laboratory environment which includes the integration and ...

338

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cell System Contaminants...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell System Contaminants Material Screening Data NREL designed this interactive material selector tool to help fuel cell developers and material suppliers explore the results...

340

EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site, Sweetwater County, Wyoming EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ellipsometric Measurement of Contamination in an Oil Pumped uhv System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determinations have been made of oil contamination on a surface in an oil pumped uhv system for DC702 and DC705 oil

R. M. Rollason; R. W. Fane; W. E. J. Neal

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

RESRAD Computer Code- Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989.

343

Bioremediation of Diesel Contaminated Soil Using Spent Mushroom Compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting has been shown to be an effective bioremediation technique for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In this research, spent mushroom compost (SMC), a sustainable,… (more)

Eramo, Alessia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Roadsides, contaminated fields could be unlikely solutions to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory considered a new idea: using contaminated and unused land to grow crops for biofuel. Negri and Gopalakrishnan knew that hardy, inedible plants like switchgrass or poplar...

345

The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Institute www.hnei.hawaii.edu The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability Richard Rocheleau Trent Molter William Collins Silvia Wessel Hawaii...

346

T.G. Hinton: Remediation of Radioactively Contaminated Ecosystems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Knox and R. Sharitz. 2005. Phytoremediation potential of native trees in a uranium and thorium contaminated wetland. J. Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chem. 264:417-422. Whicker, F....

347

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

2011 Vittorio de Nora Award Winner: Recycling of Contaminated ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Removal of contaminants such as the coat and organic materials- applied for protection and appearance- are the tail that wags the recycling dog. Successful ...

349

Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined.

Gmur, N.F.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2008 ... heavy metals was found using factor analysis. Keywords Heavy metals Á Roadside soils Á. Transportation period Á Contamination index Á.

352

Effect of System Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

liquid-based contaminants derived from structural plastics and assembly aid materials (lubricant, grease, adhesive, seal). A minor part of our efforts is focused on an in situ...

353

Conventional methods for removing sulfur and other contaminants...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conventional methods for removing sulfur and other contaminants from syngas typically rely on chemical or physical absorption processes operating at low temperatures. When cooled...

354

NREL: Energy Analysis - Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands Map of U.S. Map of Potential Limbo Land Sites for Consideration for Renewable Energy Technology Development. Enlarge image NREL's...

355

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can… (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Change Notice 2 Change Notice 2 with Reaffirmation January 2007 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Page/Section Change

357

Radiological Contamination Control Training for Laboratory Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reaffirmation Reaffirmation August 2002 Change Notice 1 December 2004 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL TRAINING FOR LABORATORY RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1106-97 ii This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-HDBK-1106-97 iii Page/Section Change

358

Cleaning oil contaminated beaches with chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Oil-dispersing chemicals were treated for cleaning persistent-type crude oil from experimentally contaminated New Jersey coastal beaches and were found to be generally ineffective. Although they completely cleaned the surface of the oiled sand, they removed little of the total oil. Instead they caused the oil to penetrate more deeply into the underlying sand, thereby compounding the pollution problem by expanding the zone of pollution, complicating any subsequent mechanical removal and, possibly, causing the oil to persist longer. Chemical treatment failed to induce quicksand or cause perceptible erosion of beach sand. A decrease in the cohesiveness of the sand was observed, but this also occurred in the presence of oil alone and could not be attributed to the presence of chemical.

1969-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Third Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on July 7, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

Reigel, M.

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 12, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

Bannochie, C.

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R&D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved.

Winter, M.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment  

SciTech Connect

At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R&D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage < 10{sup -7} cc/seconds at 2500 psia. The bell jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved.

Winter, M.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Cranbury, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Investigation of contamination bearing algae in the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Recent discussions in the group have given rise to the problem of determining whether the beta contamination found in the Columbia River is carried by the algae which are found in the retention basin. The algae accumulate in the basin and apparently remain there longer than the retained water, and thus may be contaminated to a greater extent than the water itself.

Paas, H.J.

1947-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

A transportable fluorescence imagining system for detecting fecal contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feces are the primary source of many pathogenic organisms that can potentially contaminate agricultural commodities. Feces generally contain chlorophyll a and related compounds due to ingestion of plant materials. Fluorescent responses of these compounds ... Keywords: Fecal contamination, Fluorescence, Food safety, Multispectral imaging

Alan M. Lefcourt; Moon S. Kim; Yud-Ren Chen

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Guide for Characterization of Sites Contaminated with Energetic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the remediation of federal facility sites contaminated with explosives or radioactive wastes. EPA/625/R-93 be contaminated by EM: · Firing ranges - Small-arms ranges - Artillery ranges - Anti-tank ranges - Tank/013. EPA Method (1994) Nitroaromatics and nitramines by HPLC. In Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste

368

Toxicology and Risk Assessment for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Toxicology and Risk Assessment references for 3-MCPD (3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol )or process contaminants. Toxicology and Risk Assessment for Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs apri

369

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers by Tom Myers Abstract Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential and preferential flow through fractures--could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale

370

Estimating Maximum Droplet Size that can Evaporate to a Respirable Size Droplet  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of slurries and solutions containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools and dissolved contaminants such as cesium. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal.

Schmitt, Bruce E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Ryan, Grant W.

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

371

ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose coefficients for 38 radionuclides based on NCRP Wound Model and ICRP biokinetic models This report is intended to assist health physics and medical staff in more rapidly assessing the potential dosimetric consequences of a contaminated wound. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their uptake into the transfer compartment has been combined with the International Commission on Radiological Protection element-specific systemic models for those radionuclides to derive dose coefficients for intakes via contaminated wounds. Examples are also provided on using the dose coefficients to generate derived reference

372

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments April 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue. DVZ-AFRI conducted a symposium at the annual American Chemical Society meeting on "Understanding Behavior and Fate of Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments." They produced 12 papers that present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments, many of which highlight recent work at the Hanford site. The publications can be accessed here. For more information, contact Skip Chamberlain with the EM's Office of Soil

373

Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Pre-Hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this User's Guide is to provide instructors with an overview of the key points covered in the video. The Student Handout portion of this Guide is designed to assist the instructor in reviewing those points with students. The Student Handout should be distributed to students after the video is shown and the instructor should use the Guide to facilitate a discussion on key activities and duties at the scene. PRE-HOSPITAL PRACTICES FOR HANDLING A RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED PATIENT More Documents & Publications Emergency Response to a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient

374

Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT); Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

375

System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Between 1950 and 1970 the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant generated transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste, which was buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste must now be retrieved and sent to a permanent disposal site. During retrieval the main contaminates to be controlled are compounds of plutonium and americium. Since these substances are small sized, and extremely mobile, airborne concentrations must be kept to a minimum to effectively eliminate personnel uptake during retrieval operations. This report describes an invention that relates to a system to control contamination due to TRU airborne particles and was developed consisting of an outer containment building, an inner containment area, a dust suppression system including an electrostatic contaminate capture subsystem, a contamination control system including a moisture control subsystem, a rapid monitoring subsystem, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems.

Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Feldman, E.M.; Scott, D.W.; Mullen, C.K.; Meyer, L.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination.

CONNELL, D.J.

1999-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

377

PRE-HOSPITAL PRACTICES FOR HANDLING A RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED PATIENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Pre-hospital Practices for Handling a Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient Radiologically Contaminated Patient DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER DISCLAIMER Viewing this video and completing the enclosed printed study material do not by themselves provide sufficient skills to safely engage in or perform duties related to emergency response to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. Meeting that goal is beyond the scope of this video and requires either additional specific areas of competency or more hours of training

378

Tanpopo cosmic dust collector: Silica aerogel production and bacterial DNA contamination analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrophobic silica aerogels with ultra-low densities have been designed and developed as cosmic dust capture media for the Tanpopo mission which is proposed to be carried out on the International Space Station. Glass particles as a simulated cosmic dust with 30 \\mu m in diameter and 2.4 g/cm^3 in density were successfully captured by the novel aerogel at a velocity of 6 km/s. Background levels of contaminated DNA in the ultra-low density aerogel were lower than the detection limit of a polymerase chain reaction assay. These results show that the manufactured aerogel has good performance as a cosmic dust collector and sufficient quality in respect of DNA contamination. The aerogel is feasible for the biological analyses of captured cosmic dust particles in the astrobiological studies.

Tabata, Makoto; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Yano, Hajime; Yamagishi, Akihiko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Microcontroller Servomotor for Maximum Effective Power Point for Solar Cell System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper a Maximum Power point (MPP) tracking algorithm is developed using dual-axis servomotor feedback tracking control system. An efficient and accurate servomotor system is used to increase the system efficiency and reduces the solar cell system coast. The proposed automatic servo control system based on PIC microcontroller which is used to control the photovoltaic (PV) modules. This servo system will track the sun rays in order to get MPP during the day using direct radiation. A photo cell is used to sense the direct sun radiation and feedback a signal to the PIC microcontroller, and then the decisions are made through the microcontroller and send a command to the servomotor system to achieve maximum power generation. The proposed system is demonstrated through simulation results. Finally, using the proposed system based on PIC microcontroller, the system will be more efficient, minimum cost, and maximum power transfer is obtained.

Al-Khalidy, M.; Al-Rawi, O.; Noaman, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Spectral Modeling of SNe Ia Near Maximum Light: Probing the Characteristics of Hydro Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed detailed NLTE spectral synthesis modeling of 2 types of 1-D hydro models: the very highly parameterized deflagration model W7, and two delayed detonation models. We find that overall both models do about equally well at fitting well observed SNe Ia near to maximum light. However, the Si II 6150 feature of W7 is systematically too fast, whereas for the delayed detonation models it is also somewhat too fast, but significantly better than that of W7. We find that a parameterized mixed model does the best job of reproducing the Si II 6150 line near maximum light and we study the differences in the models that lead to better fits to normal SNe Ia. We discuss what is required of a hydro model to fit the spectra of observed SNe Ia near maximum light.

E. Baron; S. Bongard; David Branch; Peter H. Hauschildt

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation. Research at Rensselaer focused on the development of haloalkane dehalogenase as a critical enzyme in the dehalogenation of contaminated materials (ultimately trichloroethylene and related pollutants). A combination of bioinformatic investigation and experimental work was performed. The bioinformatics was focused on identifying a range of dehalogenase enzymes that could be obtained from the known proteomes of major microorganisms. This work identified several candidate enzymes that could be obtained through relatively straightforward gene cloning and expression approaches. The experimental work focused on the isolation of haloalkane dehalogenase from a Xanthobacter species followed by incorporating the enzyme into silicates to form biocatalytic silicates. These are the precursors of SENs. At the conclusion of the study, dehalogenase was incorporated into SENs, although the loading was low. This work supported a single Ph.D. student (Ms. Philippa Reeder) for two years. The project ended prior to her being able to perform substantive bioinformatics efforts that would identify more promising dehalogenase enzymes. The SEN synthesis, however, was demonstrated to be partially successful with dehalogenases. Further work would provide optimized dehalogenases in SENs for use in pollution remission.

Jonathan S. Dordick; Jay Grate; Jungbae Kim

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

383

Scientific highlights of the Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena (STIP) intervals during the SMY/SMA (Solar Maximum Year/Solar Maximum Analysis)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The STIP Project was instrumental in the coordination of multi-disciplinary ground-and -space-based synoptic observations and analysis of solar/interplanetary events during the period covered by the Solar Maximum Year and Solar Maximum Analysis. Eight STIP Intervals for coordinated studies were conducted during the SMY/SMA period starting with STIP Interval VII (August 1979) and ending with Interval XIV (20 May - 20 July 1982). These results increased our understanding and knowledge of a variety of phenomena including coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their in situ shock wave detections within 1 AU; shock physics; acceleration of particles at variously classified shocks by V x B drift and Fermi mechanisms; magnetic clouds; interplanetary disturbances; x-ray imaging of preflare and flare-generated CMEs, and white light imaging of CMEs during SMY by both spacecraft and ground-based instruments. In addition, scientific progress was made on the tracking of disturbances (initiated by flares, eruptive prominences, and coronal holes) into interplanetary space as well as some of their consequences as observed at 1 AU and throughout the heliosphere.

Dryer, M.; Shea, M.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Aging tests of ethylene contaminated argon/ethane  

SciTech Connect

We report on aging tests of argon/ethane gas with a minor (1800 ppM) component of ethylene. The measurements were first conducted with the addition of alcohol to test the suppression of aging by this additive, with exposure up to {approx}1.5 C/cm. Tests have included: a proportional tube with ethanol, another with isopropyl alcohol, and for comparison a tube has also been run with ethanol and argon/ethane from CDF`s old (ethylene-free) ethane supply. The aging test with ethanol showed no difference between the ethylene-free and the ethylene tube. Furthermore, raw aging rates of argon/ethane and argon/ethane/ethylene were measured by exposing tubes without the addition of alcohol to about 0.1 C/cm. Again, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, we see no evidence that ethylene contamination up to 1800 ppM has any adverse effect on wire aging. However, this level of ethylene does seem to significantly suppress the gas gain.

Atac, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Bauer, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Disposal of low-level and low-level mixed waste: audit report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (Department) is faced with the legacy of thousands of contaminated areas and buildings and large volumes of `backlog` waste requiring disposal. Waste management and environmental restoration activities have become central to the Department`s mission. One of the Department`s priorities is to clean up former nuclear weapons sites and find more effective and timely methods for disposing of nuclear waste. This audit focused on determining if the Department was disposing of low-level and low-level mixed waste in the most cost-effective manner.

NONE

1998-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

386

Applying synchrotron phase measurement to the estimation of maximum beam intensity in the Fermilab Booster  

SciTech Connect

It is important to have experimental methods to estimate the maximum beam intensity for the Fermilab Booster as objective input into long term program commitments. An important existing limit is set by the available rf power. This limit is difficult to set a priori, because the real longitudinal impedance is not well known. The synchrotron phase at transition crossing was measured using both the mountain range plot and the direct phase measurement of the RF accelerating voltage relative to the beam, and results were consistent. They were applied to predict 6 x 10{sup 12} maximum Booster beam intensity with present running conditions.

Xi Yang; James MacLachlan

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

387

What is the maximum rate at which entropy of a string can increase?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to Susskind, a string falling toward a black hole spreads exponentially over the stretched horizon due to repulsive interactions of the string bits. In this paper such a string is modeled as a self-avoiding walk and the string entropy is found. It is shown that the rate at which information/entropy contained in the string spreads is the maximum rate allowed by quantum theory. The maximum rate at which the black hole entropy can increase when a string falls into a black hole is also discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostyantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste  

SciTech Connect

Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE`s mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements.

Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bechtold, T.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Credit portfolio management using two-level particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a novel Two-level Particle Swarm Optimization (TLPSO) to solve the credit portfolio management problem. A two-date credit portfolio management model is considered. The objective of the manager is to minimize the maximum expected ... Keywords: Credit portfolio management, Genetic algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, Two-level particle swarm optimization

Fu-Qiang Lu, Min Huang, Wai-Ki Ching, Tak Kuen Siu

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Mixed low-level waste form evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance.

Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Transuranic contaminated waste functional definition and implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to examine the problem(s) of TRU waste classification and to document the development of an easy-to-apply standard(s) to determine whether or not this waste package should be emplaced in a geologic repository for final disposition. Transuranic wastes are especially significant because they have long half-lives and some are rather radiotoxic. Transuranic radionuclides are primarily produced by single or multiple neutron capture by U-238 in fuel elements during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Reprocessing of spent fuel elements attempts to remove plutonium, but since the separation is not complete, the resulting high-activity liquids still contain some plutonium as well as other transuranics. Likewise, transuranic contamination of low-activity wastes also occurs when the transuranic materials are handled or processed, which is primarily at federal facilities involved in R and D and nuclear weapons production. Transuranics are persistent in the environment and, as a general rule, are strongly retained by soils. They are not easily transported through most food chains, although some reconcentration does take place in the aquatic food chain. They pose no special biological hazard to humans upon ingestion because they are weakly absorbed from the gastrointestional tract. A greater hazard results from inhalation since they behave like normal dust and fractionate accordingly.

Kniazewycz, B.G.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Assessment of hot gas contaminant control  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 January 2013 Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 This paper presents average levelized costs for generating technologies that are brought on line in 2018 1 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) Early Release Reference case. 2 Both national values and the minimum and maximum values across the 22 U.S. regions of the NEMS electricity market module are presented. Levelized cost is often cited as a convenient summary measure of the overall competiveness of different generating technologies. It represents the per-kilowatthour cost (in real dollars) of building and operating a generating plant over an assumed financial life and duty cycle. Key

394

System-level max power (SYMPO): a systematic approach for escalating system-level power consumption using synthetic benchmarks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To effectively design a computer system for the worst case power consumption scenario, system architects often use hand-crafted maximum power consuming benchmarks at the assembly language level. These stressmarks, also called power viruses, are very ... Keywords: synthetic benchmark, system-level power virus, thermal design point

Karthik Ganesan; Jungho Jo; W. Lloyd Bircher; Dimitris Kaseridis; Zhibin Yu; Lizy K. John

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Achieving maximum spatial diversity with decouple-and-forward relaying in dual-hop OSTBC transmissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this letter, we prove that decouple-and-forward (DCF) relaying for dual-hop orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) transmissions achieves the maximum diversity order attainable by dual-hop MIMO relaying systems. Decoupling at the relay transforms ... Keywords: OSTBC, decouple-and-forward relaying, diversity order, dual-hop MIMO system, rayleigh fading channels

In-Ho Lee; Dongwoo Kim

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

GenDocSum+MCLR: Generic document summarization based on maximum coverage and less redundancy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rapid growth of information on the Internet and electronic government recently, automatic multi-document summarization has become an important task. Multi-document summarization is an optimization problem requiring simultaneous optimization ... Keywords: Differential evolution algorithm, Generic document summarization, Less redundancy, Maximum coverage, Optimization model

Rasim M. Alguliev; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Makrufa S. Hajirahimova

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum: Influence of Model Horizontal Resolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate at the last glacial maximum (LGM) has been simulated using the U.K. Universities Global Atmospheric Modeling Programme (UGAMP) general circulation model (GCM) truncated at total wavenumbers 21, 42, and 63 (T21, T42, and T63) with ...

Buwen Dong; Paul J. Valdes

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Some further investigation on maximum throughput: does network coding really help?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Network coding has been shown to be the solution that allows to reach the theoretical maximum throughput in a capacitated telecommunication network [1]. It has also been shown to be a very appealing and practical alternative to routing-based approaches ...

Eric Gourdin; Yuhui Wang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

The Maximum-Likelihood Property of Estimators of Wave Parameters from Heave, Pitch, and Roll Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that ocean-wave spectrum parameters obtained from spectra of time series measured with heave, pitch, and roll data buoys are maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators under certain assumptions about the wave field. A modified set of ML ...

Ingrid K. Glad; Harald E. Krogstad

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Why Is There a Tritium Maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific Thermocline?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is suggested that the tritium maximum in the central Pacific is caused by two water pathways across the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), one from the central Pacific and the other from the Mindanao Current. It is argued that an interior ...

Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Exact algorithms for maximum acyclic subgraph on a superclass of cubic graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding a maximum acyclic subgraph is on the list of problems that seem to be hard to tackle from a parameterized perspective. We develop two quite efficient algorithms (one is exact, the other parameterized) for (1, n)-graphs, a class containing ...

Henning Fernau; Daniel Raible

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

A Technique to Determine the Radius of Maximum Wind of a Tropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple technique is developed that enables the radius of maximum wind of a tropical cyclone to be estimated from satellite cloud data. It is based on the characteristic cloud and wind structure of the eyewall of a tropical cyclone, after the ...

France Lajoie; Kevin Walsh

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

A variable speed wind generator maximum power tracking based on adaptative neuro-fuzzy inference system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power from wind varies depending on the environmental factors. Many methods have been proposed to locate and track the maximum power point (MPPT) of the wind, such as the fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy. In this ... Keywords: ANFIS, MPPT, Power generation, Variable speed wind generator, Wind energy

A. Meharrar; M. Tioursi; M. Hatti; A. Boudghčne Stambouli

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Probable Maximum Precipitation Study for Wisconsin and Michigan: Volume 2: Workbook and User's Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study provides maps and supporting information on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for Wisconsin and Michigan. The refinement of PMP for the study area has typically lowered the PMP from the generalized values in Hydrometeorological Report (HMR) 51. The study followed HMR 51 procedures with some minor changes that apply to other regions.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the power comes from a renewable source such a solar cell (photovoltaic, or PV for short) or a windmillMaximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System Younghyun Kim optimization from an energy generation source (e.g., a solar cell array) to an energy storage element (e

Pedram, Massoud

406

Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

converter. II. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL A PV cell can be represented by an equivalentMaximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy "ANFIS availability and vast potential, world has turned to solar photovoltaic energy to meet out its ever increasing

Recanati, Catherine

407

Dynamical Reconstruction of Upper-ocean Conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proxies indicate that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Ocean was marked by increased meridional and zonal near-sea-surface temperature gradients relative to today. Using a least-squares fit of a full general circulation and sea-ice model to ...

Holly Dail; Carl Wunsch

408

Deployment guidelines for achieving maximum lifetime and avoiding energy holes in sensor network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for maximum network lifetime in many mission-critical applications of wireless sensor networks motivates the great significance to deploy as few sensors as possible to achieve the expected network performance. In this paper, we first characterize ... Keywords: Adjustable transmission range, Energy-hole, Network lifetime, Node deployment, Wireless sensor network

Anfeng Liu; Xin Jin; Guohua Cui; Zhigang Chen

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

New Techniques and Data Sources for Probable Maximum Precipitation: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety review of new and existing dams under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) requires evaluation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) at the site of the dam. This report shows how weather radar, satellite data sources, and paleohydrology analysis techniques can improve the estimation of PMP for regions or individual basins.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

New Techniques and Data Sources for Probable Maximum Precipitation: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety review of new and existing dams under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) requires evaluation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) at the site of the dam. This report shows how weather radar, satellite data sources, and paleohydrology analysis techniques can improve the estimation of PMP for regions or individual basins.

1993-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

411

Towards a frequency-dependent discrete maximum principle for the implicit Monte Carlo equations  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that temperature solutions of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations can exceed the external boundary temperatures, a so-called violation of the 'maximum principle.' Previous attempts at prescribing a maximum value of the time-step size {Delta}{sub t} that is sufficient to eliminate these violations have recommended a {Delta}{sub t} that is typically too small to be used in practice and that appeared to be much too conservative when compared to numerical solutions of the IMC equations for practical problems. In this paper, we derive a new estimator for the maximum time-step size that includes the spatial-grid size {Delta}{sub x}. This explicitly demonstrates that the effect of coarsening {Delta}{sub x} is to reduce the limitation on {Delta}{sub t}, which helps explain the overly conservative nature of the earlier, grid-independent results. We demonstrate that our new time-step restriction is a much more accurate means of predicting violations of the maximum principle. We discuss how the implications of the new, grid-dependent timestep restriction can impact IMC solution algorithms.

Wollaber, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Larsen, Edward W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Cosmic Ray Hits in the Central Nervous System at Solar Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that a manned mission to Mars be launched at solar maximum rather than at solar minimum to minimize the radiation exposure to galactic cosmic rays. It is true that the number of hits from highly ionizing particles to critical regions ...

Curtis S. B.; Vazquez M. E.; Wilson J. W.; Kim M.-H. Y.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Maximum power point tracking and optimal Li-ion battery charging control for photovoltaic charging system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the severity of the global energy crisis and environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one kind of important renewable energy source. Solar energy has the advantages of maximum reserve, inexhaustibleness, and is free from ... Keywords: Genetic algorithms (GA), Photovoltaic (PV), Variable Step Size Incremental Conductance method

Her-Terng Yau; Qin-Cheng Liang; Chin-Tsung Hsieh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Bayesian Changepoint Analysis of the Annual Maximum of Daily and Subdaily Precipitation over South Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian changepoint analysis is applied to detect a change point in the 30-year (1976–2005) time series of the area-averaged annual maximum precipitation (A3MP) for the six accumulated time periods (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) over South Korea. ...

Chansoo Kim; Myoung-Seok Suh; Ki-Ok Hong

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Review article: Achieving maximum reliability in fault tolerant network design for variable networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to present a novel method to achieve maximum reliability for fault tolerant optimal network design when network has variable size. Reliability calculation is most important and critical component when fault tolerant optimal ... Keywords: Fault tolerant optimal design, Fixed and varying link reliability, Maximizing reliability, Neural networks, Variable network size

B. Kaushik, N. Kaur, A. K. Kohli

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR on geomagnetic activity, quantified by the maximum hourly Dst and tri-hourly ap indices, in a period of 3 days after the shock, are evaluated. Correlations between shock parameters and Dst and ap geomagnetic indices

417

Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities , V.B. Yurchyshyn1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities A. Kilcik1 , V.B. Yurchyshyn1 maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN) and the geomagnetic indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activity. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because

418

Impact of Aligning Climatological Day on Gridding Daily Maximum–Minimum Temperature and Precipitation over Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 1 July 1961, the climatological day was redefined to end at 0600 UTC at all principal climate stations in Canada. Prior to that, the climatological day at principal stations ended at 1200 UTC for maximum temperature and precipitation and 0000 ...

Ron F. Hopkinson; Daniel W. McKenney; Ewa J. Milewska; Michael F. Hutchinson; Pia Papadopol; Lucie A. Vincent

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song Intelligent sources of alternative energy. The construction of wind farms is destined to grow in the U.S., possibly twenty-fold by the year 2030. To maximize the wind energy capture, this paper presents a model for wind

Kusiak, Andrew

420

Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background  

SciTech Connect

The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite`s t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set).

Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Numerical maximum likelihood estimation for the g-and-k and generalized g-and-h distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuing increases in computing power and availability mean that many maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) problems previously thought intractable or too computationally difficult can now be tackled numerically. However, ML parameter estimation for ... Keywords: g-and-k distribution, generalized g-and-h distribution, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), numerical maximum likelihood estimation (NMLE), quantile distributions

G. D. Rayner; H. L. MacGillivray

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Mercury Contamination in the Northeastern United States: Science-Based Decision Making About Fish Consumption .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mercury contamination poses a known threat to human health, yet the degree of contamination and resulting human exposure remains unknown in many regions. Assessments of… (more)

Shayler, Hannah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

A Comparison of Popular Remedial Technologies for Petroleum Contaminated Soils from Leaking Underground Storage Tanks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1992. Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. BocaApplied Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Columbus:Eve. 1998. Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils. Boca

Kujat, Jonathon D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

LLOYD, E.R.

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

426

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

427

Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts  

SciTech Connect

To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

428

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

429

Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater July 15, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE (509) 376-4171 Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov Tania Reyes, CHPRC (509) 373-6828 Tania_Reyes@rl.gov Department of Energy goal for fiscal year 2013 met early Note: Photos and graphics are available for downloading on our website link: http://ow.ly/mO5cT RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has exceeded this year's goal for treating 1.4 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Washington state. "In the last few years, DOE built three new groundwater treatment facilities, and now we are seeing the results," said Briant Charboneau,

430

Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S, and Flegal AR 2008. Mercury in the San Francisco Estuary.may 2010 Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in Sancontaminants such as ele- mental mercury and cyanide used in

Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people.

Jannik, G.T.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

Clark, E.A.

1995-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

433

Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at 331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site, Sweetwater County, Wyoming EA-1331: Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site, Sweetwater County, Wyoming SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal for the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Test Site remediation that would be performed at the Rock Springs site in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 31, 2000 EA-1331: Finding of No Significant Impact Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site July 31, 2000 EA-1331: Final Environmental Assessment

435

Categorical Exclusion for Pinnacle Peak Substation PCB contaminated Electrical  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion for Pinnacle Peak Substation PCB contaminated Electrical Equipment Removal Project located north of Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION A. Proposed Action: Western proposes drain and dispose of PCB contaminated oil from two bushings, and decontaminate one· bushing and rack, break apart PCB contaminated concrete and excavate PCB contaminated soil at Pinnacle Peak Substation. Western will be use existing access roads and vehicles such as cranes, backhoes, dozers, bucket trucks, crew trucks and pickup trucks to bring personnel and equipment to the work area. This work is necessary to maintain the safety and reliability of the bulk electrical system. The project is located in Maricopa County, Arizona. The attached map shows the

436

Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater Hanford Site Treating Record Amount of Contaminated Groundwater July 15, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE (509) 376-4171 Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov Tania Reyes, CHPRC (509) 373-6828 Tania_Reyes@rl.gov Department of Energy goal for fiscal year 2013 met early Note: Photos and graphics are available for downloading on our website link: http://ow.ly/mO5cT RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has exceeded this year's goal for treating 1.4 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Washington state. "In the last few years, DOE built three new groundwater treatment facilities, and now we are seeing the results," said Briant Charboneau,

437

EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located 99: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications Summary This EA was being prepared to evaluate potential environmental impacts of a proposal to dispose of nickel scrap that is volumetrically contaminated with radioactive materials and that DOE recovered from equipment it had used in uranium enrichment. This EA is on hold. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities at this time.

438

Groundwater Contamination and Treatment at Department of Energy Sites – 2008  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this document is to provide DOE Program/Project Managers, upper management, and other interested parties with a snapshot in time of the status of major groundwater contamination and...

439

Groundwater Contamination and Treatment at Department of Energy Sites – 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document provides DOE Program/Project Managers, senior management, and other interested parties with a snapshot in time of the status of major groundwater contamination and remedial approaches...

440

Presentations and Papers on Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentations and papers 3-MCPD EFL, ILSI World Conference on Oilseed Processing, Fats & Oils Processing, Biofuels & Applications Presentations and Papers on Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid anal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximum contaminant level" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Influence of Ground Clutter Contamination on Polarimetric Radar Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of ground clutter contamination on the estimation of polarimetric radar parameters, horizontal reflectivity (Zh), differential reflectivity (Zdr), correlation coefficient (?h?), and differential propagation phase (dp) was examined. ...

Katja Friedrich; Urs Germann; Pierre Tabary

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may 2010 Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in SanCA 94025 Abstract The hydraulic gold-mining process usedsediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra

Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Rapid and Robust Detection Methods for Poison and Microbial Contamination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for ...

Lu, Peter J.

444

Mechanisms of metal release from contaminated coastal sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fate of trace metals in contaminated coastal sediments is poorly understood, yet critical for effective coastal management. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and quantify the mechanisms leading to the release ...

Kalnejais, Linda H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Contaminant Fate and Transport in North America: From Emission...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contaminant Fate and Transport in North America: From Emission to Human Exposure Speaker(s): Mathew MacLeod Date: March 1, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of...

446

Effect of water contamination on aging of hydraulic oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A. Rozenberg, Influence of Lubricating Oils on Reliability and Life of ... Oil samples were contaminated with water by mixing with 0.I, 0.5 ... The reserve of antioxi-.

447

Groundwater Contamination and Treatment at Department of Energy Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this document is to provide DOE Program/Project Managers, upper management, and other interested parties with a snapshot in time of the status of major groundwater contamination and...

448

Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fuzzy one-class classification model using contamination neighborhoods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuzzy classification model is studied in the paper. It is based on the contaminated (robust) model which produces fuzzy expected risk measures characterizing classification errors. Optimal classification parameters of the models are derived by minimizing ...

Lev V. Utkin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Fault