National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for maximum cell size

  1. Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

    2014-04-29

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

  2. The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, James H.

    The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals Felisa A. Smith,1 * Alison G. Boyer,2 the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches extracted from the Paleobiology Database (12), using the range- through option for each interval of time. We

  3. Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamhane, Ajit C.

    Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose This paper addresses the problem of power and sample size calculation for a stepwise multiple test procedure of a compound. A general expression for the power of this procedure is derived. It is used to find the minimum

  4. Maximum size of drops levitated by an air cushion Jacco H. Snoeijer,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggers, Jens

    , kept aloft by a stream of water vapor. We investigate the limit of small flow rates, for which the size for the manipulation of corrosive sub- stances 10 or the frictionless displacement of drops 6 . Of particular interest is the maximum drop size that can be sus- tained, and the limit of very small flow rates. The drop con- tinues

  5. Predicting Whole Forest Structure, Primary Productivity, and Biomass Density From Maximum Tree Size and Resource Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempes, Christopher P; Dooris, William; West, Geoffrey B

    2015-01-01

    In the face of uncertain biological response to climate change and the many critiques concerning model complexity it is increasingly important to develop predictive mechanistic frameworks that capture the dominant features of ecological communities and their dependencies on environmental factors. This is particularly important for critical global processes such as biomass changes, carbon export, and biogenic climate feedback. Past efforts have successfully understood a broad spectrum of plant and community traits across a range of biological diversity and body size, including tree size distributions and maximum tree height, from mechanical, hydrodynamic, and resource constraints. Recently it was shown that global scaling relationships for net primary productivity are correlated with local meteorology and the overall biomass density within a forest. Along with previous efforts, this highlights the connection between widely observed allometric relationships and predictive ecology. An emerging goal of ecological...

  6. Control of gene expression by cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chia-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidy, increased copy number of whole chromosome sets in the genome, is a common cellular state in evolution, development and disease. Polyploidy enlarges cell size and alters gene expression, producing novel phenotypes ...

  7. Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Yongjin

    The coupling of the rate of cell growth to the rate of cell division determines cell size, a defining characteristic that is central to cell function and, ultimately, to tissue architecture. The physiology of size homeostasis ...

  8. Fuel Cells Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Cells Market Size Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(100) Contributor 15 May, 2015 - 02:14 Global Fuel Cells Market to Value USD910.3 million by 2018 Fuel Cells...

  9. Simultaneous regulation of cell size and chromosome replication in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Po-Yi Ho; Ariel Amir

    2015-07-24

    Bacteria are able to maintain a narrow distribution of cell sizes by regulating the timing of cell divisions. In rich nutrient conditions, cells divide much faster than their chromosomes replicate. This implies that cells maintain multiple rounds of chromosome replication per cell division by regulating the timing of chromosome replications. Here, we show that both cell size and chromosome replication may be simultaneously regulated by the long-standing initiator accumulation strategy. The strategy proposes that initiators are produced in proportion to the volume increase and is accumulated at each origin of replication, and chromosome replication is initiated when a critical amount per origin has accumulated. We show that this model maps to the incremental model of size control, which was previously shown to reproduce experimentally observed correlations between various events in the cell cycle and explains the exponential dependence of cell size on the growth rate of the cell. Furthermore, we show that this model also leads to the efficient regulation of the timing of initiation and the number of origins consistent with existing experimental results.

  10. Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vaudrey; P. Baucour; F. Lanzetta; R. Glises

    2010-08-30

    Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

  11. Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaudrey, A; Lanzetta, F; Glises, R

    2009-01-01

    Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

  12. Analytical determination of critical crack size in solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.P.

    1988-05-01

    Although solar cells usually have chips and cracks, no material specifications concerning the allowable crack size on solar cells are available for quality assurance and engineering design usage. Any material specifications that the cell manufacturers use were developed for cosmetic reasons that have no technical basis. Therefore, the Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) has sponsored a continuing program for the fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs. Fracture mechanics concepts were utilized to develop an analytical model that can predict the critical crack size of solar cells. This model indicates that the edge cracks of a solar cell are more critical than its surface cracks. In addition, the model suggests that the material specifications on the allowable crack size used for Si solar cells should not be applied to GaAs solar cells. The analytical model was applied to Si and GaAs solar cells, but it would also be applicable to the semiconductor wafers of other materials, such as a GaAs thin film on a Ge substrate, using appropriate input data.

  13. Simulation of Cell Adhesion to Bioreactive Surfaces in Shear: The Effect of Cell Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tees, David F.J.

    Simulation of Cell Adhesion to Bioreactive Surfaces in Shear: The Effect of Cell Size David F. J Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 Leukocyte adhesion under flow in the microvasculature is a multistep process in which rolling adhesion is followed by firm arrest. These interactions are mediated

  14. Microcontroller Servomotor for Maximum Effective Power Point for Solar Cell System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khalidy, M.; Al-Rawi, O.; Noaman, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a Maximum Power point (MPP) tracking algorithm is developed using dual-axis servomotor feedback tracking control system. An efficient and accurate servomotor system is used to increase the system efficiency ...

  15. A p-cell approach to integer gate sizing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddannagari, Uday

    2009-05-15

    Standard-Cell-library-based design ow is widely followed in the Application Specific Integrated Circuit(ASIC) industry. Most of the realistic cell libraries are geometrically spaced introducing significant sparseness in the library. This is because...

  16. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Differential cell size structure of desmids and diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as nutrients, temperature, or water transparency. This study focused on the community cell size of desmids@natur.cuni.cz 123 Hydrobiologia (2013) 709:159­171 DOI 10.1007/s10750-013-1446-4 #12;transparency (Finkel et al documented (Round et al., 1990). Passy (2007) argued that cell sizes of phytoplankton species of diatoms were

  17. Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for hydrogen fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for hydrogen fuel cells Eric N. Coker Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  18. Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godin, Michel; Bryan, Andrea K.; Burg, Thomas P.; Babcock, Ken; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-09-17

    We demonstrate the measurement of mass, density, and size of cells and nanoparticles using suspended microchannel resonators. The masses of individual particles are quantified as transient frequency shifts, while the particles transit a microfluidic channel embedded in the resonating cantilever. Mass histograms resulting from these data reveal the distribution of a population of heterogeneously sized particles. Particle density is inferred from measurements made in different carrier fluids since the frequency shift for a particle is proportional to the mass difference relative to the displaced solution. We have characterized the density of polystyrene particles, Escherichia coli, and human red blood cells with a resolution down to 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 3}.

  19. Molecular behavior of DNA in a cell-sized compartment coated by lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Hamada; R. Fujimoto; S. F. Shimobayashi; M. Ichikawa; M. Takagi

    2015-04-13

    The behavior of long DNA molecules in a cell-sized confined space was investigated. We prepared water-in-oil droplets covered by phospholipids, which mimic the inner space of a cell, following the encapsulation of DNA molecules with unfolded coil and folded globule conformations. Microscopic observation revealed that the adsorption of coiled DNA onto the membrane surface depended on the size of the vesicular space. Globular DNA showed a cell-size-dependent unfolding transition after adsorption on the membrane. Furthermore, when DNA interacted with a two-phase membrane surface, DNA selectively adsorbed on the membrane phase, such as an ordered or disordered phase, depending on its conformation. We discuss the mechanism of these trends by considering the free energy of DNA together with a polyamine in the solution. The free energy of our model was consistent with the present experimental data. The cooperative interaction of DNA and polyamines with a membrane surface leads to the size-dependent behavior of molecular systems in a small space. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the physical mechanism of molecular events and reactions inside a cell.

  20. Molecular behavior of DNA in a cell-sized compartment coated by lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamada, T; Shimobayashi, S F; Ichikawa, M; Takagi, M

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of long DNA molecules in a cell-sized confined space was investigated. We prepared water-in-oil droplets covered by phospholipids, which mimic the inner space of a cell, following the encapsulation of DNA molecules with unfolded coil and folded globule conformations. Microscopic observation revealed that the adsorption of coiled DNA onto the membrane surface depended on the size of the vesicular space. Globular DNA showed a cell-size-dependent unfolding transition after adsorption on the membrane. Furthermore, when DNA interacted with a two-phase membrane surface, DNA selectively adsorbed on the membrane phase, such as an ordered or disordered phase, depending on its conformation. We discuss the mechanism of these trends by considering the free energy of DNA together with a polyamine in the solution. The free energy of our model was consistent with the present experimental data. The cooperative interaction of DNA and polyamines with a membrane surface leads to the size-dependent behavior of molec...

  1. Single-cell analysis of growth in budding yeast and bacteria reveals a common size regulation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilya Soifer; Lydia Robert; Naama Barkai; Ariel Amir

    2014-10-23

    Unicellular organism from various kingdoms of life face the challenge of regulating their size. Despite decades of research, we still do not have a good understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation, and how cells coordinate the different events of the cell cycle, such as growth, division and DNA replication is still unclear. Here, we report on experimental results for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the bacterium Escherichia coli, showing that, remarkably, they share a common strategy for cell size control. We collected data on single-cell growth and cell cycle progression in S. cerevisiae in several growth media and estimated the distributions of size at birth and interdivision time as well as their correlations throughout cell lineages. We also performed the same analysis on previously collected data on single-cell growth and division in E. coli. The results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the incremental model, which leads to the addition of a constant volume (up to fluctuations), independent of size at birth, between birth and division; we show that in both organisms size at birth and size at division exhibit a linear relationship with slope one. This result, together with extended additional analysis supporting the incremental model, argues against the existing "critical size" paradigm for cell size control in bacteria and yeast.

  2. Maximum Weight Matching Dispatching Scheme in Buffered Clos-Network Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jonathan

    Maximum Weight Matching Dispatching Scheme in Buffered Clos-Network Packet Switches Roberto Rojas of Clos-network switches make them an alternative to single-stages switches for implementing large- size packet switches. This paper introduces a cell dispatching scheme, called maximum weight matching

  3. Adipose-Derived Perivascular Stem Cells Heal Critical Size Mouse Calvarial Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megerdichian, Silva

    2013-01-01

    stromal  cells  derived  from  the  infrapatellar  fat  C.  M.   et  al.  Adipose-­?derived  adult  stromal  cells  Human  bone  marrow-­? derived  mesenchymal  stem  cells  

  4. TUNING OF SIZE AND SHAPE OF AU-PT NANOCATALYST FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this paper, we report the precise control of the size, shape and surface morphology of Au-Pt nanocatalysts (cubes, blocks, octahedrons and dogbones) synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. Gold 'seeds' of different aspect ratios (1 to 4.2), grown by a silver-assisted approach, were used as templates for high-yield production of novel Au-Pt nanocatalysts at a low temperature (40 C). Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential (surface charge), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to better understand their physico-chemical properties, preferred reactivities and underlying nanoparticle growth mechanism. A rotating disk electrode was used to evaluate the Au-Pt nanocatalysts electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of direct methanol fuel cells. The results indicate the Au-Pt dogbones are partially and in some cases completely unaffected by methanol poisoning during the evaluation of the ORR. The ORR performance of the octahedron particles in the absence of MeOH is superior to that of the Au-Pt dogbones and Pt-black, however its performance is affected by the presence of MeOH.

  5. Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water 2010 Keywords: AMD Energy Iron oxide Microbial fuel cell Particles a b s t r a c t Acid mine drainage rights reserved. 1. Introduction Acid-mine drainage (AMD) and acid rock drainage (ARD) are caused

  6. Increased burst size in multiply infected cells can alter basic virus dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Kara W; Levy, David N; Wodarz, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    cells can alter basic virus dynamics. Biology Direct 2012 7:References 1. Nowak MA, May RM: Virus dynamics. Mathematicalin Human- Immunodeficiency-Virus Type-1 Infection. Nature

  7. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murali, R. V.; Fathi, Khalid [Faculty Members, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Caledonian College of Engineering (Oman); Puri, A. B. [Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Durgapur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-10-26

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs and conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  8. Improved dye sensitized solar cell performance in larger cell size by using TiO This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Paul H.

    Improved dye sensitized solar cell performance in larger cell size by using TiO 2 nanotubes.1088/0957-4484/24/4/045401 Improved dye sensitized solar cell performance in larger cell size by using TiO2 nanotubes Yanyan Zhang1 the use of anodized TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil in combination with the standard TiO2 nanoparticle paste

  9. PHYS 101 Supplement 1 -Cell sizes and structures 1 2002 by David Boal, Simon Fraser University. All rights reserved; further copying or resale is strictly prohibited.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boal, David

    PHYS 101 Supplement 1 - Cell sizes and structures 1 ©2002 by David Boal, Simon Fraser University. All rights reserved; further copying or resale is strictly prohibited. PHYS 101 Supplement #1 - Cell synaptic cleft Schematic representation of a nerve cell, with its extended axon. #12;PHYS 101 Supplement 1

  10. Kinetic (particle-in-cell) simulation of nonlinear laser absorption in a finite-size plasma with a background inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdian, H. Kargarian, A.; Hajisharifi, K.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, the effect of an external inhomogeneous magnetic field on the high intensity laser absorption rate in a sub-critical plasma has been investigated by employing a relativistic electromagnetic 1.5 dimensional particle-in-cell code. Relying on the effective nonlinear phenomena such as phase-mixing and scattering, this study shows that in a finite-size plasma the laser absorption increases with inhomogeneity of the magnetic field (i.e., reduction of characteristic length of inhomogeneous magnetic field, ?{sub p}) before exiting a considerable amount of laser energy from the plasma due to scattering process. On the other hand, the presence of the external inhomogeneous magnetic field causes the maximum absorption of laser to occur at a shorter time. Moreover, study of the kinetic results associated with the distribution function of plasma particles shows that, in a special range of the plasma density and the characteristic length of inhomogeneous magnetic field, a considerable amount of laser energy is transferred to the particles producing a population of electrons with kinetic energy along the laser direction.

  11. Maximum-likelihood

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By Sarah Schlieder *8MatthewMaximum-likelihood fitting

  12. Heat engines and heat pumps in a hydrostatic atmosphere: How surface pressure and temperature control wind power output and circulation cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Shearman, P L; Li, B -L

    2015-01-01

    The gross spatial features of the atmospheric kinetic energy budget are analytically investigated. Kinetic energy generation is evaluated in a hydrostatic atmosphere where the axisymmetric circulation cells are represented by Carnot cycles. The condition that kinetic energy generation is positive in the lower atmosphere is shown to limit the poleward cell extension via a relationship between the meridional differences in surface pressure and temperature $\\Delta p_s$ and $\\Delta T_s$: an upper limit to cell size exists when $\\Delta p_s$ increases sublinearly with $\\Delta T_s$. This is the case for the Hadley cells as demonstrated here using data from MERRA re-analysis. The limited cell size necessitates the appearance of heat pumps -- circulation cells with negative work output where the low-level air moves towards colder areas. These cells consume the positive work output of heat engines -- cells where the low-level air moves towards the warmer areas -- and can in principle drive the global efficiency of atmo...

  13. Decoupling nutrient signaling from growth rate causes aerobic glycolysis and deregulation of cell size and gene expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slavov, Nikolai G.

    To survive and proliferate, cells need to coordinate their metabolism, gene expression, and cell division. To understand this coordination and the consequences of its failure, we uncoupled biomass synthesis from nutrient ...

  14. Convenient fabrication of three-dimensional cell-culture substrates through introduction of micrometer-size pores on polyallyldiglycol carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    of micrometer-size pores on polyallyldiglycol carbonate polymer films C.K.M. Ng a , J.P. Cheng b , S.H. Cheng b micrometer-size pores on polyallyldiglycol carbonate (or PADC) polymer films through irradiation of the film

  15. Nano-biolistics: a method of biolistic transfection of cells and tissues using a gene gun with novel nanometer-sized projectiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, John A; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2011-06-10

    -biolistics: a method of biolistic transfection of cells and tissues using a gene gun with novel nanometer-sized projectiles John A O’Brien1 and Sarah CR Lummis1,2* Abstract Background: Biolistic transfection is proving an increasingly popular method... gene gun (Bio- Rad, Hercules, CA) is one of the most widely used. This gene gun, which delivers particles superficially over a relatively wide area, has proved useful for cultured cells or thin tissue sections, and the use of a modified barrel has...

  16. Maximum output at minimum cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Gamesa G90-2.0 MW #12;Maximum output at minimum cost per kWh for low wind sites ®® Class IIIA mast and the electrical substation. This innovative modular design based on TCP/IP architecture has

  17. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

  18. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  19. Efficiency of autonomous soft nano-machines at maximum power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udo Seifert

    2010-11-11

    We consider nano-sized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing non-equilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall in three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient", "strong and inefficient", and "balanced". For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.

  20. AMINO ACID SYNTHESIS IN PHOTO-SYNTHESIZING SPINACH CELLS. EFFECTS OF AMMONIA ON POOL SIZES AND RATES OF LABELING FROM 14co2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsen, Peder Olesen

    2013-01-01

    EFFECTS OF AMMONIA ON POOL SIZES AND RATES OF LABELING FROMmetabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids.of added ammonia on ing, pool sizes, and specific activi pro

  1. Striatins as plaque molecules of zonulae adhaerentes in simple epithelia, of tessellate junctions in stratified epithelia, of cardiac composite junctions and of various size classes of lateral adherens junctions in cultures of epithelia- and carcinoma-derived cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Werner W.

    Proteins of the striatin family (striatins 1–4; sizes ranging from 90 to 110 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) are highly homologous in their amino acid sequences but can differ in their cell-type-specific ...

  2. The maximum multiflow problems with bounded fractionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirai, Hiroshi

    (Karzanov 98) frac(| ) = frac(K2 + Kn) = 4 (Lomonsov 04) frac( ) =? Hiroshi Hirai The maximum multiflow

  3. Maximum-likelihood density modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2000-08-01

    A likelihood-based density modification approach is developed that can incorporate expected electron-density information from a wide variety of sources. A likelihood-based approach to density modification is developed that can be applied to a wide variety of cases where some information about the electron density at various points in the unit cell is available. The key to the approach consists of developing likelihood functions that represent the probability that a particular value of electron density is consistent with prior expectations for the electron density at that point in the unit cell. These likelihood functions are then combined with likelihood functions based on experimental observations and with others containing any prior knowledge about structure factors to form a combined likelihood function for each structure factor. A simple and general approach to maximizing the combined likelihood function is developed. It is found that this likelihood-based approach yields greater phase improvement in model and real test cases than either conventional solvent flattening and histogram matching or a recent reciprocal-space solvent-flattening procedure [Terwilliger (1999 ?), Acta Cryst. D55, 1863–1871].

  4. Cogeneration System Size Optimization Constant Capacity and Constant Demand Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Kcomt, J. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    is made up by auxiliary boilers. 2. Isolated Operation, Thermal Load Following: the system is sized to match or exceed the maximum thermal load. Any electrical load deficit is made up by auxiliary generator. 3. Electrically Baseloaded, the system... is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum electrical demand. 4. Thermally Baseloaded, the system is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum thermal demand. 5. Maximum Legal System Size, as determined by the Public Utilities...

  5. Size dependence of cubic to trigonal structural distortion in silver micro- and nanocrystals under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Qixum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zin, Zhijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhongwu [CORNELL UNIV; Skrabalak, Sara E [INDIANA UNIV; Xia, Younan [WASHINGTON UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Silver micro- and nanocrystals with sizes of {approx}2--3.5 {mu}m and {approx}50--100 nm were uniaxially compressed under nonhydrostatic pressures (strong deviatoric stress) up to {approx}30 GPa at room temperature in a symmetric diamond-anvil cell and studied in situ using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A cubic to trigonal structural distortion along a 3-fold rotational axis was discovered by careful and comprehensive analysis of the apparent lattice parameter and full width at half-maximum, which are strongly dependent upon the Miller index and crystal size.

  6. Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, W. James

    Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field Programmable Gate Arrays Siraj Sabihuddin & W. James MacLean Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario be performed using a maximum- likelihood formulation. One such formulation has been presented by Cox [1], who

  7. MAXIMUM ENTROPY APPROACH TO OPTIMAL SENSOR PLACEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    MAXIMUM ENTROPY APPROACH TO OPTIMAL SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR AEROSPACE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING R discussed for space struc- tures. Key words: Non-destructive testing, maximum entropy, aerospace structures not have a sufficient number of them, so additional sensors must be placed to test the structural integrity

  8. 20% (AM1.5) efficiency GaAs solar cells on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge and its transition to low-cost substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; O`Quinn, B.C.; Siivola, E.; Keyes, B.; Ahrenkiel, R.

    1997-12-31

    Some of the key material and device issues related to the development of GaAs solar cells on poly-Ge substrates, including the dark-current reduction mechanism with an undoped spacer at the p{sup +}-n depletion layer, are discussed. Device-structure optimization studies that have led the authors to achieve an AM1.5 efficiency of {approximately}20% for a 4-cm{sup 2}-area GaAs cell on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge and an efficiency of {approximately}21% for a 0.25-cm{sup 2}-area cell are presented. This successful demonstration of high-efficiency GaAs cells on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge substrates have motivated us to consider the development of high-quality GaAs materials on significantly lower-cost substrates such as glass and moly foils. To date, the authors have achieved a best minority-carrier lifetime of 0.41 nsec in an n-GaAs thin-film on moly. The role of Group-VI dopant in the possible passivation of grain-boundaries in poly-GaAs is discussed. Development of PV-quality GaAs material, with minority-carrier lifetime of 1 to 2 nsec, on los-cost moly foils can significantly impact both the terrestrial and the space PV applications.

  9. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6.4.07.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 344770 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6....4.07.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 TR-341 2009 Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report By C. Allan Jones and Kevin Wagner, Texas Water Resources...

  10. Gravid Mosquito Trap P462 -Trap The ChemTica GMT operates on 4 size D cell batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan at dusk. Manual shutoff is required at dawn to prevent at dawn to prevent loss of trapped mosquitoes. Power is supplied by four D cell batteries. The upper case

  11. Simulation of quantum dots size and spacing effect for intermediate band solar cell application based on InAs quantum dots arrangement in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendra, P. I. B. Rahayu, F. Darma, Y.

    2014-03-24

    Intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) has become a promising technology in increasing solar cell efficiency. In this work we compare absorption coefficient profile between InAs quantum dots with GaAs bulk. We calculate the efficiency of GaAs bulk and GaAs doped with 2, 5, and 10 nm InAs quantum dot. Effective distances in quantum dot arrangement based on electron tunneling consideration were also calculated. We presented a simple calculation method with low computing power demand. Results showed that arrangement of quantum dot InAs in GaAs can increase solar cell efficiency from 23.9 % initially up to 60.4%. The effective distance between two quantum dots was found 2 nm in order to give adequate distance to prevent electron tunneling and wave functions overlap.

  12. Mechanical tugging force regulates the size of cellcell junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Mechanical tugging force regulates the size of cell­cell junctions Zhijun Liua,1 , John L. Tanb,1 through the generation of mechanical forces at sites of cell­matrix and cell­cell contact. While increased mechanical load- ing at cell­matrix adhesions results in focal adhesion growth, whether forces drive changes

  13. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks Finn A ffi rup Nielsen Section for Digital Signal, linear output, Gaussian distribution ] \\Gamma 1;+1[ ffl Binary (binary classification), tanh on output, bino­ mial distribution. ] \\Gamma 1; +1[ ffl Classification, softmax function on outputs [Bridle, 1990

  14. Partitioned algorithms for maximum likelihood and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    Partitioned algorithms for maximum likelihood and other nonlinear estimation Gordon K. Smyth There are a variety of methods in the literature which seek to make iterative estimation algorithms more manageable by breaking the iterations into a greater number of simpler or faster steps. Those algorithms which deal

  15. On maximum matching width Jisu Jeong (KAIST)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Jung

    ;Graph width parameters · tree-width (Halin 1976, Robertson and Seymour 1984) · branch-width (Robertson and Seymour 1991) · carving-width (Seymour and Thomas 1994) · clique-width (Courcelle and Olariu 2000) · rank-width (Oum and Seymour 2006) · maximum matching-width (Vatshelle 2012) #12;a b c d e fg hi j A tree

  16. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-570 ESTIMATION OF EFFORT, MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD, AND MAXIMUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , AND MAXIMUM ECONOMIC YIELD IN THE SHRIMP FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO BY JAMES NANCE, WALTER KEITHLY, JR YIELD, AND MAXIMUM ECONOMIC YIELD IN THE SHRIMP FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO BY JAMES NANCE, WALTER in the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-570, 71P. Copies may

  17. Title 43 CFR 3206.12 What are the Minimum and Maximum Lease Sizes? | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)Open EnergyTinoxOpen Energy InformationLease Lease

  18. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  19. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  20. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávní?ek, Petr; Nosková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...

  1. Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooyberghs, Hans; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O; Broeck, Christian Van den

    2013-01-01

    A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power $\\eta$ takes the form 1/2+c\\Delta \\mu + O(\\Delta \\mu^2), with 1/2 a universal constant and $\\Delta \\mu$ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in $\\eta$ is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model we obtain \\eta = 1/(\\theta +1), with \\theta >0 the power of $\\Delta \\mu$ in the transport equation

  2. The probable value of the Lovasz-Schrijver relaxations for maximum independent set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krauthgamer, Robert

    Introduction Let G(V, E) be a graph on n vertices. An independent set (a.k.a. stable set) in G is a subset an independent set of maximum size in an input graph G. The independence number (a.k.a. stability number) of G

  3. The probable value of the LovaszSchrijver relaxations for maximum independent set #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krauthgamer, Robert

    Introduction Let G(V, E) be a graph on n vertices. An independent set (a.k.a. stable set) in G is a subset an independent set of maximum size in an input graph G. The independence number (a.k.a. stability number) of G

  4. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th...

  5. Pretreatment [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography Maximum Standardized Uptake Value as Predictor of Distant Metastasis in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy: Rethinking the Role of Positron Emission Tomography in Personalizing Treatment Based on Risk Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, Vimoj J.; MacRae, Robert; Sirisegaram, Abby; Pantarotto, Jason R.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether the preradiation maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor for [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has a prognostic significance in patients with Stage T1 or T2N0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative radiation therapy, whether conventional or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2007 and December 2011, a total of 163 patients (180 tumors) with medically inoperable histologically proven Stage T1 or T2N0 NSCLC and treated with radiation therapy (both conventional and SBRT) were entered in a research ethics board approved database. All patients received pretreatment FDG-PET / computed tomography (CT) at 1 institution with consistent acquisition technique. The medical records and radiologic images of these patients were analyzed. Results: The overall survival at 2 years and 3 years for the whole group was 76% and 67%, respectively. The mean and median SUV{sub max} were 8.1 and 7, respectively. Progression-free survival at 2 years with SUV{sub max} <7 was better than that of the patients with tumor SUV{sub max} ?7 (67% vs 51%; P=.0096). Tumors with SUV{sub max} ?7 were associated with a worse regional recurrence-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival. In the multivariate analysis, SUV{sub max} ?7 was an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusion: In early-stage NSCLC managed with radiation alone, patients with SUV{sub max} ?7 on FDG-PET / CT scan have poorer outcomes and high risk of progression, possibly because of aggressive biology. There is a potential role for adjuvant therapies for these high-risk patients with intent to improve outcomes.

  6. Maximum Performance Group MPG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, searchScotland JumpPlantation Elec Co JumpIAEAOpenMaximum

  7. Modulation of ATP/ADP Concentration at the Endothelial Cell Surface by Flow: Effect of Cell Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyo Won; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2009-01-01

    is the maximum enzyme reaction velocity for ATP hydrolysis,et al. 10 Maximum reaction velocity per area assumes a cell

  8. Evaluation of Powertrain Options and Component Sizing for MD...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sizing for MD and HD Applications on Real World Drive Cycles 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  9. Study of Different Implementation Approaches for a Maximum Power Point Florent Boico Brad Lehman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    of solar panels has limited their use. As the efficiency is limited, harvesting the maximum amount no other source is available. However, these solar panels have lower efficiency than average solar cells in suddenly changing illumination conditions. Solar Panels have been used for decades to generate electricity

  10. Statistical optimization for passive scalar transport: maximum entropy production vs maximum Kolmogorov-Sinay entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Mihelich; Berengere Dubrulle; Didier Paillard; Davide Faranda

    2015-05-26

    We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at _rst order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP (N) tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS (N) tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N_ such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium uxes imposed to the boundaries.

  11. Does size matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreras, B. A.; Physics Department, College of Natural Science and Mathematics and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775; Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, Ian

    2014-06-15

    Failures of the complex infrastructures society depends on having enormous human and economic cost that poses the question: Are there ways to optimize these systems to reduce the risks of failure? A dynamic model of one such system, the power transmission grid, is used to investigate the risk from failure as a function of the system size. It is found that there appears to be optimal sizes for such networks where the risk of failure is balanced by the benefit given by the size.

  12. Fire Size in Tunnels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O

    In recent years, a number of high profile accidental fires have occurred in several road and rail tunnels throughout the world. Many of these fires grew rapidly to catastrophic size and claimed many lives. The processes ...

  13. Maximum entropy generation in open systems: the Fourth Law?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umberto Lucia

    2010-11-17

    This paper develops an analytical and rigorous formulation of the maximum entropy generation principle. The result is suggested as the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics.

  14. Maximum-principle-satisfying second order discontinuous Galerkin ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-05-05

    Notice that the CFL conditions in Table 2.1 are sufficient but not necessary to achieve maximum principle. A more efficient implementation would be enforcing

  15. EERE Takes Important Steps to Ensure Maximum Impact of Technology...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in wind, solar and other programs is essential to achieve maximum return for taxpayer investment. | Photos courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tracking...

  16. Predicting Customer Behavior using Naive Bayes and Maximum Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keysers, Daniel

    of returned goods, we additionally generated two binary features for zero and missing values. The remaining Naive Bayes, Maximum Entropy, Neural Networks and Logistic Regression for classification of cus- tomer classifiers won the Data-Mining-Cup in 2004. Combining Logistic Regression, Neural Networks, and Maximum

  17. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart VAMSI K. MOOTHA, ANDREW E. ARAI, AND ROBERT S. BALABAN Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ

  18. Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fipps, Guy

    1995-09-05

    between 2 and 3 ft/s in order to prevent cavitation. Table 5 lists the maximum flow rates recommended for different ID (internal diameter) pipe sizes using the 5 ft/s rule. Many friction loss tables give both the friction loss and velocity for any given...

  19. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  20. Maximum Instantaneous Power Estimation by Subgraph Coloring UCSD CSE Dept.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Bao

    cycle helps in building a maximum envelope currents waveform for each net and providing a MIP upper process technology advancement integrates millions of gates on a single chip and introduces increasing

  1. Multi-Class Classification with Maximum Margin Multiple Kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohri, Mehryar

    (named OBSCURE and UFO-MKL, respectively) are used to optimize primal versions of equivalent problems), the OBSCURE and UFO-MKL algorithms are compared against MCMKL #12;Multi-Class Classification with Maximum

  2. A magmatic trigger for the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubin, Andrea Rose

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-six million years ago Earth experienced rapid global warming (~6°C) that was caused by the release of large amounts of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. This Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is often ...

  3. Maximum likelihood analysis of low energy CDMS II germanium data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnese, R.

    We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is ...

  4. Maximum containment : the most controversial labs in the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruzek, Alison K. (Allison Kim)

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, following the September 11th attacks and the anthrax letters, the United States allocated money to build two maximum containment biology labs. Called Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) facilities, these labs were built to ...

  5. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  6. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  7. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  8. Filtering Additive Measurement Noise with Maximum Entropy in the Mean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henryk Gzyl; Enrique ter Horst

    2007-09-04

    The purpose of this note is to show how the method of maximum entropy in the mean (MEM) may be used to improve parametric estimation when the measurements are corrupted by large level of noise. The method is developed in the context on a concrete example: that of estimation of the parameter in an exponential distribution. We compare the performance of our method with the bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches.

  9. Abstract--Low power dissipation and maximum battery runtime are crucial in portable electronics. With accurate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    cell phones, PDAs, digital cameras, and laptop computers has propelled battery technologies battery technologies cannot yet meet the progressive energy demands and size limi- tations of today designs and simula- tions. With minor modifications, this model can be extended to fuel cells and other

  10. Contrasting size evolution in marine and freshwater diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon cycle and most aquatic ecosystems. Their cell sizes impact carbon sequestration and en- ergy carbon cycle and the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. evolutionarily stable strategy and forming the basis of many aquatic food webs (6). Diatom size distributions greatly influence carbon

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnosticOPEN ORIGINAL ARTICLE Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells Justine E Mink1,2, Ramy M Qaisi1, Bruce E Logan3 and Muhammad M Hussain1 Micro-sized microbial fuel cells

  12. Energy range of hadronic calorimeter towers and cells for high-pT jets at a 100 TeV collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Chekanov; J. Dull

    2015-12-28

    This paper discusses a study of tower and cell energy ranges of a hadronic calorimeter for a 100 TeV pp collider. The dynamic energy ranges were estimated using Standard Model jets with transverse momenta above 20 TeV. The simulations were performed using the PYTHIA Monte Carlo model after a fast detector simulation tuned to the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. We estimate the maximum energy range of towers and cells as a function of lateral cell sizes for several extreme cases of jet transverse energy.

  13. Energy range of hadronic calorimeter towers and cells for high-pT jets at a 100 TeV collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Chekanov; J. Dull

    2015-11-04

    This paper discusses a study of tower and cell energy ranges of a hadronic calorimeter for a 100 TeV pp collider. The dynamic energy ranges were estimated using Standard Model jets with transverse momenta above 20 TeV. The simulations were performed using the PYTHIA Monte Carlo model after a fast detector simulation tuned to the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. We estimate the maximum energy range of towers and cells as a function of lateral cell sizes for several extreme cases of jet transverse energy.

  14. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science Network RequirementsEdison ElectrifiesJob Size Charts

  15. A Fast Parallel Maximum Clique Algorithm for Large Sparse Graphs and Temporal Strong Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Ryan A; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Patwary, Md Mostofa Ali

    2013-01-01

    We propose a fast, parallel, maximum clique algorithm for large, sparse graphs that is designed to exploit characteristics of social and information networks. We observe roughly linear runtime scaling over graphs between 1000 vertices and 100M vertices. In a test with a 1.8 billion-edge social network, the algorithm finds the largest clique in about 20 minutes. For social networks, in particular, we found that using the core number of a vertex in combination with a good heuristic clique finder efficiently removes the vast majority of the search space. In addition, we parallelize the exploration of the search tree. In the algorithm, processes immediately communicate changes to upper and lower bounds on the size of maximum clique, which occasionally results in a super-linear speedup because vertices with especially large search spaces can be pruned by other processes. We use this clique finder to investigate the size of the largest temporal strong components in dynamic networks, which requires finding the large...

  16. Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Wenchao

    Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

  17. CELL CLINICS FOR BLOELECTRONIC INTERFACE WITH SINGLE CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    CELL CLINICS FOR BLOELECTRONIC INTERFACE WITH SINGLE CELLS P. Abshiret, J.-M Lauensteid Y.L i d E for capture and characterization of large numbers of individual cells. Each of these "cell clinics" consists of a cell-sized cavity and a lid that can be opened and closed by hinges constructed from polypyrrole

  18. Heat rate and maximum load capability improvements through cycle isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coons, K. [Coronado Generating Station, Saint Johns, AZ (United States); Dimmick, J.G. [Leak Detection Services, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Major improvements in maximum load capability and gross turbine heat rate were obtained at Salt River Project`s Coronado Unit 1, resulting from work done during the Spring 1993 overhaul. Corrected maximum load increased by 13.1 MW -- from 403.8 MW prior to the overhaul compared to 416.9 MW after the overhaul. Corrected gross turbine heat rate was reduced 270 BTU/kWH -- from 7,920 BTU/kWH before the overhaul to 7,650 BTU/kWH after the overhaul. Of the work done, the repair of leaking valves had the largest impact on cycle performance. The reduction of cycle leakage accounted for an increase of 9.9 MW in maximum load capability and a reduction to gross turbine heat rate of 190 BTU. Weekly maximum load tests, which started in August 1992 with the installation of an on-line monitoring system, show that maximum load had decreased approximately 4 MW during the six months prior to the overhaul. During this time there were no significant changes in HP or IP efficiencies, or any other directly-measured cycle parameters. Therefore, this degradation was attributed to cycle isolation valve leakage. Acoustic emission leak detection methods were used to identify leaking valves prior to the outage. Of the 138 valves tested for leakage, 31 valves had medium to very large leaks. Of these 31 leaking valves identified, 30 were repaired or replaced.

  19. Library Efficiency Cat. No. 18262-014 Size: 1 ml

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    Library Efficiency DH5 Cells Cat. No. 18262-014 Size: 1 ml Store at -70°C. Do not store in liquid nitrogen. Description: Library Efficiency® DH5® Competent Cells have been prepared by a patented amounts of DNA. DH5® is capable of being transformed efficiently with large plasmids, and can also serve

  20. Maximum-Entropy Inference with a Programmable Annealer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chancellor, Nicholas; Vinci, Walter; Aeppli, Gabriel; Warburton, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Optimisation problems in science and engineering typically involve finding the ground state (i.e. the minimum energy configuration) of a cost function with respect to many variables. If the variables are corrupted by noise then this approach maximises the likelihood that the solution found is correct. An alternative approach is to make use of prior statistical information about the noise in conjunction with Bayes's theorem. The maximum entropy solution to the problem then takes the form of a Boltzmann distribution over the ground and excited states of the cost function. Here we use a programmable Josephson junction array for the information decoding problem which we simulate as a random Ising model in a field. We show experimentally that maximum entropy decoding at finite temperature can in certain cases give competitive and even slightly better bit-error-rates than the maximum likelihood approach at zero temperature, confirming that useful information can be extracted from the excited states of the annealing...

  1. NGC2613, 3198, 6503, 7184: Case studies against `maximum' disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Fuchs

    1998-12-02

    Decompositions of the rotation curves of NGC2613, 3198, 6505, and 7184 are analysed. For these galaxies the radial velocity dispersions of the stars have been measured and their morphology is clearly discernible. If the parameters of the decompositions are chosen according to the `maximum' disk hypothesis, the Toomre Q stability parameter is systematically less than one and the multiplicities of the spiral arms as expected from density wave theory are inconsitent with the observed morphologies of the galaxies. The apparent Q<1 instability, in particular, is a strong argument against the `maximum' disk hypothesis.

  2. Hardware Sizing for Software Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Ganesh

    2009-05-15

    Hardware sizing is an approximation of the hardware resources required to support a software implementation. Just like any theoretical model, hardware sizing model is an approximation of the reality. Depending on the infrastructure needs, workload...

  3. Distributed Computation of Maximum Lifetime Spanning Subgraphs in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 5400, FI-02015 TKK, Finland Harri.Haanpaa@tkk.fi, Andre levels to the battery-operated nodes so that under a uniform traffic load the net- work remains connected for a maximum length of time [2]. We consider the case where the nodes are non-mobile and the power levels, once

  4. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  5. Tree-ring reconstruction of maximum and minimum temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -width (RW) and maximum density (MXD) series from treeline sites across Interior British Columbia. Multi- ple at these temperature-limited sites may be more closely related to Tmax than Tmean or Tmin; (3) recently reported in the relationships between ring-width (RW), maxi- mum latewood density (MXD) and May-August Tmean were observed

  6. Maximization of Recursive Utilities: A Dynamic Maximum Principle Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Girolami, Cristina

    Maximization of Recursive Utilities: A Dynamic Maximum Principle Approach Wahid FAIDI LAMSIN, ENIT for a class of robust utility function introduced in Bordigoni, Matoussi et Schweizer (2005). Our method-investment strategy which is characterized as the unique solution of a forward-backward system. Key words : Utility

  7. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Pyramids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    to wavelet splatting, the main differences being that (i) linear summation of voxel values is replaced by maximum computation, and (ii) linear wavelet filters are replaced by (nonlinear) morphological filters. 1 on wavelets [4, 12, 18]. Recent methods for X-ray rendering include wavelet splatting [7, 8], which extends

  8. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    to wavelet splatting, the main differences being that (i) linear summation of voxel values is replaced by maximum computation, and (ii) linear wavelet filters are replaced by (nonlinear) morphological filters wavelet splatting [11,12], which extends splatting [27] by using wavelets as reconstruction filters

  9. Maximum likelihood estimation of the equity Efstathios Avdis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahana, Michael J.

    premium is usually estimated by taking the sample mean of stock returns and subtracting a measure the expected return on the aggregate stock market less the government bill rate, is of central importance an alternative esti- mator, based on maximum likelihood, that takes into account informa- tion contained

  10. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2008-10-10

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  11. "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    lack of Waste-to-Energy capacity. #12;9 Austria As Germany, but Ban in force already in 2002. Landfill1 "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling" "A Sustainable Solution" Håkan in "Recycling". "Waste-to-Energy" is now defined as Recycling, when energy efficiency is > 0,65 Prevention Reuse

  12. Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel with energy harvesting. We assume that the side information of both the channel states and energy harvesting

  13. The Entropy of the Universe and the Maximum Entropy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    Chapter 22 The Entropy of the Universe and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle Charles H. Lineweaver Abstract If the universe had been born in a high entropy, equilibrium state, there would be no stars, no planets and no life. Thus, the initial low entropy of the universe is the fundamental reason

  14. What is a Hurricane? Tropical system with maximum sustained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Hurricane 101 #12;What is a Hurricane? · Tropical system with maximum sustained surface wind of 74 mph or greater. A hurricane is the worst and the strongest of all tropical systems. · Also known as a tropical cyclone. #12;Hurricanes in Florida · 1851-2004 Florida's Hurricane Total: 110 Southwest Florida

  15. Ultrahigh Efficiency Multiband Solar Cells Final Report for Director's Innovation Initiative Project DII-2005-1221

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, Kin Man

    2006-01-01

    triple junction (3J) cells under maximum concentration [2,3] and cells of this design are used in high-efficiency solar

  16. Finite-size behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Behringer; M. Pleimling; A. Hueller

    2004-11-05

    For models which exhibit a continuous phase transition in the thermodynamic limit a numerical study of small systems reveals a non-monotonic behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat as a function of the system size. This is in contrast to a treatment in the canonical ensemble where the maximum of the specific heat increases monotonically with the size of the system. A phenomenological theory is developed which permits to describe this peculiar behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat and allows in principle the determination of microcanonical critical exponents.

  17. Multistage polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on nonuniform cell potential distribution functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    ; Optimization; PEM fuel cell; Multistage; Segmented 1. Introduction Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have applications require that fuel cells be continu- ously optimized with respect to maximum electric powerMultistage polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on nonuniform cell potential distribution functions

  18. Maximum Entropy Principle and the Higgs Boson Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alves, Alexandre; da Silva, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A successful connection between Higgs boson decays and the Maximum Entropy Principle is presented. Based on the information theory inference approach we determine the Higgs boson mass as $M_H= 125.04\\pm 0.25$ GeV, a value fully compatible to the LHC measurement. This is straightforwardly obtained by taking the Higgs boson branching ratios as the target probability distributions of the inference, without any extra assumptions beyond the Standard Model. Yet, the principle can be a powerful tool in the construction of any model affecting the Higgs sector. We give, as an example, the case where the Higgs boson has an extra invisible decay channel. Our findings suggest that a system of Higgs bosons undergoing a collective decay to Standard Model particles is among the most fundamental ones where the Maximum Entropy Principle applies.

  19. Maximum Entropy Principle and the Higgs Boson Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre Alves; Alex G. Dias; Roberto da Silva

    2014-11-18

    A successful connection between Higgs boson decays and the Maximum Entropy Principle is presented. Based on the information theory inference approach we determine the Higgs boson mass as $M_H= 125.04\\pm 0.25$ GeV, a value fully compatible to the LHC measurement. This is straightforwardly obtained by taking the Higgs boson branching ratios as the target probability distributions of the inference, without any extra assumptions beyond the Standard Model. Yet, the principle can be a powerful tool in the construction of any model affecting the Higgs sector. We give, as an example, the case where the Higgs boson has an extra invisible decay channel. Our findings suggest that a system of Higgs bosons undergoing a collective decay to Standard Model particles is among the most fundamental ones where the Maximum Entropy Principle applies.

  20. The Prediction of the Maximum Modes of Decay of Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanna, R

    1999-01-01

    In an earlier work, several properties of fundamental particles were brought together by a simple equation based on continuity and discreteness. It is shown here, that the maximum modes of decay of all fundamental particles can also be predicted without any arbitrary parameters. The method used is to break up the mean lifetimes of particles to obtain the maximum modes of decay. This is done by using a binary expansion of $\\hbar/MT$ where M is the mass of the particle and T is the mean lifetime. The agreements between that obtained from theory and experiment are remarkable. The ordering of the flavours plays an important part in understanding the reasons for this agreement. It is shown that the Zeno effect in Quantum mechanics is connected with use of the binary series.

  1. The Prediction of the Maximum Modes of Decay of Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja Ramanna

    1999-04-27

    In an earlier work, several properties of fundamental particles were brought together by a simple equation based on continuity and discreteness. It is shown here, that the maximum modes of decay of all fundamental particles can also be predicted without any arbitrary parameters. The method used is to break up the mean lifetimes of particles to obtain the maximum modes of decay. This is done by using a binary expansion of $\\hbar/MT$ where M is the mass of the particle and T is the mean lifetime. The agreements between that obtained from theory and experiment are remarkable. The ordering of the flavours plays an important part in understanding the reasons for this agreement. It is shown that the Zeno effect in Quantum mechanics is connected with use of the binary series.

  2. A microfluidic “baby machine” for cell synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Josephine

    Common techniques used to synchronize eukaryotic cells in the cell cycle often impose metabolic stress on the cells or physically select for size rather than age. To address these deficiencies, a minimally perturbing method ...

  3. Maximum entropy method for reconstruction of the CMB images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Bajkova

    2002-05-21

    We propose a new approach for the accurate reconstruction of cosmic microwave background distributions from observations containing in addition to the primary fluctuations the radiation from unresolved extragalactic point sources and pixel noise. The approach uses some effective realizations of the well-known maximum entropy method and principally takes into account {\\it a priori} information about finiteness and spherical symmetry of the power spectrum of the CMB satisfying the Gaussian statistics.

  4. Maximum-Entropy Inference with a Programmable Annealer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Chancellor; Szilard Szoke; Walter Vinci; Gabriel Aeppli; Paul A. Warburton

    2015-06-26

    Optimisation problems in science and engineering typically involve finding the ground state (i.e. the minimum energy configuration) of a cost function with respect to many variables. If the variables are corrupted by noise then this approach maximises the likelihood that the solution found is correct. An alternative approach is to make use of prior statistical information about the noise in conjunction with Bayes's theorem. The maximum entropy solution to the problem then takes the form of a Boltzmann distribution over the ground and excited states of the cost function. Here we use a programmable Josephson junction array for the information decoding problem which we simulate as a random Ising model in a field. We show experimentally that maximum entropy decoding at finite temperature can in certain cases give competitive and even slightly better bit-error-rates than the maximum likelihood approach at zero temperature, confirming that useful information can be extracted from the excited states of the annealing device. Furthermore we introduce a microscopic bit-by-bit analytical method which is agnostic to the specific application and use it to show that the annealing device samples from a highly Boltzmann-like distribution. Machines of this kind are therefore candidates for use in a wide variety of machine learning applications which exploit maximum entropy inference, including natural language processing and image recognition. We further show that the limiting factor for performance in our experiments is likely to be control errors rather than failure to reach equilibrium. Our work also provides a method for determining if a system is in equilibrium which can be easily generalized. We discuss possible applications of this method to spin glasses and probing the performance of the quantum annealing algorithm.

  5. Max '91: flare research at the next solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, B.; Canfield, R.; Bruner, M.; Emslie, G.; Hildner, E.; Hudson, H.; Hurford, G.; Lin, R.; Novick, R.; Tarbell, T.

    1988-01-01

    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided.

  6. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  7. Maximum Entry and Mandatory Separation Ages for Certain Security Employees

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-10-11

    The policy establishes the DOE policy on maximum entry and mandatory separation ages for primary or secondary positions covered under special statutory retirement provisions and for those employees whose primary duties are the protection of officials of the United States against threats to personal safety or the investigation, apprehension, and detention of individuals suspected or convicted of offenses against the criminal laws of the United States. Admin Chg 1, dated 12-1-11, supersedes DOE P 310.1.

  8. Maximum patch method for directional dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Shawn; Monroe, Jocelyn; Fisher, Peter [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Laboratory for Nuclear Science, MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Present and planned dark matter detection experiments search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoils in poorly known background conditions. In this environment, the maximum gap statistical method provides a way of setting more sensitive cross section upper limits by incorporating known signal information. We give a recipe for the numerical calculation of upper limits for planned directional dark matter detection experiments, that will measure both recoil energy and angle, based on the gaps between events in two-dimensional phase space.

  9. Maximum entanglement in squeezed boson and fermion states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, F. C. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Malbouisson, J. M. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Santana, A. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Santos, E. S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia, 40030-010, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2007-08-15

    A class of squeezed boson and fermion states is studied with particular emphasis on the nature of entanglement. We first investigate the case of bosons, considering two-mode squeezed states. Then we construct the fermion version to show that such states are maximum entangled, for both bosons and fermions. To achieve these results, we demonstrate some relations involving squeezed boson states. The generalization to the case of fermions is made by using Grassmann variables.

  10. PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.

    2007-06-23

    In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.

  11. Collective dynamics of actomyosin cortex endow cells with intrinsic mechanosensing properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jocelyn Étienne; Jonathan Fouchard; Démosthène Mitrossilis; Nathalie Bufi; Pauline Durand-Smet; Atef Asnacios

    2014-12-30

    Living cells adapt and respond actively to the mechanical properties of their environment. In addition to biochemical mechanotransduction, evidence exists for a myosin-dependent, purely mechanical sensitivity to the stiffness of the surroundings at the scale of the whole cell. Using a minimal model of the dynamics of actomyosin cortex, we show that the interplay of myosin power strokes with the rapidly remodelling actin network results in a regulation of force and cell shape that adapts to the stiffness of the environment. Instantaneous changes of the environment stiffness are found to trigger an intrinsic mechanical response of the actomyosin cortex. Cortical retrograde flow resulting from actin polymerisation at the edges is shown to be modulated by the stress resulting from myosin contractility, which in turn regulates the cell size in a force-dependent manner. The model describes the maximum force that cells can exert and the maximum speed at which they can contract, which are measured experimentally. These limiting cases are found to be associated with energy dissipation phenomena which are of the same nature as those taking place during the contraction of a whole muscle. This explains the fact that single nonmuscle cell and whole muscle contraction both follow a Hill-like force-velocity relationship.

  12. Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System Younghyun KimPconverter Ppv Pcharge Varying Pleak PV array Supercapacitor Figure 1: Photovoltaic-supercapacitor energy system Keywords Maximum power transfer tracking, Photovoltaic, Supercapacitor 1. INTRODUCTION Maximum energy

  13. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert Paul; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inches-typically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  14. Fluctuating fitness shapes the clone size distribution of immune repertoires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desponds, Jonathan; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive immune system relies on the diversity of receptors expressed on the surface of B and T-cells to protect the organism from a vast amount of pathogenic threats. The proliferation and degradation dynamics of different cell types (B cells, T cells, naive, memory) is governed by a variety of antigenic and environmental signals, yet the observed clone sizes follow a universal power law distribution. Guided by this reproducibility we propose effective models of somatic evolution where cell fate depends on an effective fitness. This fitness is determined by growth factors acting either on clones of cells with the same receptor responding to specific antigens, or directly on single cells with no regards for clones. We identify fluctuations in the fitness acting specifically on clones as the essential ingredient leading to the observed distributions. Combining our models with experiments we characterize the scale of fluctuations in antigenic environments and we provide tools to identify the relevant growth...

  15. Maximum likelihood method for cross-correlations with astrophysical sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R, E-mail: rj486@nyu.edu, E-mail: gf25@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We generalize the maximum likelihood-type method used to study cross-correlations between a catalog of candidate astrophysical sources and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), to allow for differing source luminosities. The new method is applicable to any sparse dataset such as UHE gamma rays or astrophysical neutrinos. Performance of the original and generalized techniques is evaluated in simulations of various scenarios. Applying the new technique to data, we find an excess correlation of about nine events between HiRes UHECRs and known BLLacs, with a 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} probability of such a correlation arising by chance.

  16. Generalized Maximum Likelihood Method for Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar

    2008-10-01

    The Maximum Likelihood Method is generalized to include effects important for UHECR applications. The new approach can incorporate source distance constraints implied by the observed CR energy and can allow for energy uncertainties, possible deflection in magnetic fields, multiple source types, and a spectrum of CR composition. It can be efficiently implemented and does not require the unphysical "isotropic" assumption for unidentified sources. The approach optimizes the utility of UHECR data to discriminate between source classes and can help constrain galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. Aspects of the method are directly applicable in other contexts, such as TeV gamma ray astrophysics.

  17. Maximum Likelihood Method for Cross Correlations with Astrophysical Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronnie Jansson; Glennys R. Farrar

    2008-06-18

    We generalize the Maximum Likelihood-type method used to study cross correlations between a catalog of candidate astrophysical sources and Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), to allow for differing source luminosities. The new method is applicable to any sparse data set such as UHE gamma rays or astrophysical neutrinos. Performance of the original and generalized techniques is evaluated in simulations of various scenarios. Applying the new technique to data, we find an excess correlation of about 9 events between HiRes UHECRs and known BLLacs, with a 6*10^-5 probability of such a correlation arising by chance.

  18. Maximum Tension: with and without a cosmological constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrow, John D.; Gibbons, G. W.

    2014-12-04

    and the absence of any speed limit for information transmission. This unusual Newtonian behaviour has no general relativistic counterpart: two particles of mass M whose centres approach closer than d = 4GM=c2 will ?nd themselves inside a black hole horizon... , Ann. d Physik 11, 69 (1900); English translation in M. Planck, 1959, The Theory of Heat Radiation, transl. M. Masius, Dover, New York (1959). 11 Schiller C., 1997-2004, Maximum force a simple principle encompassing general relativity in C. Schiller...

  19. Better Nonlinear Models from Noisy Data: Attractors with Maximum Likelihood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick E. McSharry; Leonard A. Smith

    1999-11-30

    A new approach to nonlinear modelling is presented which, by incorporating the global behaviour of the model, lifts shortcomings of both least squares and total least squares parameter estimates. Although ubiquitous in practice, a least squares approach is fundamentally flawed in that it assumes independent, normally distributed (IND) forecast errors: nonlinear models will not yield IND errors even if the noise is IND. A new cost function is obtained via the maximum likelihood principle; superior results are illustrated both for small data sets and infinitely long data streams.

  20. The Maximum Value Method. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofThe Maximum Value Method. Citation Details

  1. Scientific excellence with MaxiMuM iMpact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to understand Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. This industrial process generates gasoline and diesel from a range, academics and scientists and to create environments where innovative companies can flourish. The 2011 Survey in companies significantly outperforming the typical UK average of companies of a similar size in terms

  2. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models...

  3. Photonic crystal enhanced silicon cell based thermophotovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeng, Yi Xiang [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); ; Chan, Walker R. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rinnerbauer, Veronika [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria); Stelmakh, Veronika [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Senkevich, Jay J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Joannopoulos, John D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Soljacic, Marin [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); ?elanovi?, Ivan [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We report the design, optimization, and experimental results of large area commercial silicon solar cell based thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems. Using global non-linear optimization tools, we demonstrate theoretically a maximum radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency of 6.4% and a corresponding output electrical power density of 0.39 W cm?² at temperature T = 1660 K when implementing both the optimized two-dimensional (2D) tantalum photonic crystal (PhC) selective emitter, and the optimized 1D tantalum pentoxide – silicon dioxide PhC cold-side selective filter. In addition, we have developed an experimental large area TPV test setup that enables accurate measurement of radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency for any emitter-filter-TPV cell combination of interest. In fact, the experimental results match extremely well with predictions of our numerical models. Our experimental setup achieved a maximum output electrical power density of 0.10W cm?² and radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency of 1.18% at T = 1380 K using commercial wafer size back-contacted silicon solar cells.

  4. Photonic crystal enhanced silicon cell based thermophotovoltaic systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yeng, Yi Xiang; ; Chan, Walker R.; Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Stelmakh, Veronika; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin; ?elanovi?, Ivan

    2015-01-30

    We report the design, optimization, and experimental results of large area commercial silicon solar cell based thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems. Using global non-linear optimization tools, we demonstrate theoretically a maximum radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency of 6.4% and a corresponding output electrical power density of 0.39 W cm?² at temperature T = 1660 K when implementing both the optimized two-dimensional (2D) tantalum photonic crystal (PhC) selective emitter, and the optimized 1D tantalum pentoxide – silicon dioxide PhC cold-side selective filter. In addition, we have developed an experimental large area TPV test setup that enables accurate measurement of radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency formore »any emitter-filter-TPV cell combination of interest. In fact, the experimental results match extremely well with predictions of our numerical models. Our experimental setup achieved a maximum output electrical power density of 0.10W cm?² and radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency of 1.18% at T = 1380 K using commercial wafer size back-contacted silicon solar cells.« less

  5. Thermodynamics of Maximum Transition Entropy for Quantum Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Rogers

    2015-03-27

    This work presents a general unifying theoretical framework for quantum non-equilibrium systems. It is based on a re-statement of the dynamical problem as one of inferring the distribution of collision events that move a system toward thermal equilibrium from an arbitrary starting distribution. Using a form based on maximum entropy for this transition distribution leads to a statistical description of open quantum systems with strong parallels to the conventional, maximum-entropy, equilibrium thermostatics. A precise form of the second law of thermodynamics can be stated for this dynamics at every time-point in a trajectory. Numerical results are presented for low-dimensional systems interacting with cavity fields. The dynamics and stationary state are compared to a reference model of a weakly coupled oscillator plus cavity supersystem thermostatted by periodic partial measurements. Despite the absence of an explicit cavity in the present model of open quantum dynamics, both the relaxation rates and stationary state properties closely match the reference. Additionally, the time-course of energy exchange and entropy increase is given throughout an entire measurement process for a single spin system. The results show the process to be capable of initially absorbing heat when starting from a superposition state, but not from an isotropic distribution. Based on these results, it is argued that logical inference in the presence of environmental noise is sufficient to resolve the paradox of wavefunction collapse.

  6. Does semantic size affect size constancy scaling using lexical stimuli? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beveridge, Madeleine

    2010-11-24

    Binocular disparity allows us to perceive the world in 3-dimensions through the process of stereopsis. In this study, we used binocular disparity to induce the size constancy illusion in lexical stimuli. 47 undergraduate ...

  7. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter H. Colberg; Raymond Kapral

    2015-01-13

    Chemically-powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors that propel themselves in solution are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. Recent experiments have shown that, even on the molecular scale, small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to self-propulsion. Simulations of very small {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic motors in bulk solution have shown similar effects. Applications of such small motors in the cell or in microfluidic devices require knowledge of how these motors interact with boundaries. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic chemically-powered motors confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent exclusion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research presents information needed for potential applications that use these motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

  8. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  9. Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesoderm and Cardiac Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    ARTICLE Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesoderm and Cardiac Cells Using Size pluripotent stem cell-derived cell types at sufficiently high numbers and in a reproducible manner for the differentiation of pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) rely on the generation

  10. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  11. Improved Maximum Entropy Analysis with an Extended Search Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Rothkopf

    2013-01-07

    The standard implementation of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) follows Bryan and deploys a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to limit the dimensionality of the underlying solution space apriori. Here we present arguments based on the shape of the SVD basis functions and numerical evidence from a mock data analysis, which show that the correct Bayesian solution is not in general recovered with this approach. As a remedy we propose to extend the search basis systematically, which will eventually recover the full solution space and the correct solution. In order to adequately approach problems where an exponentially damped kernel is used, we provide an open-source implementation, using the C/C++ language that utilizes high precision arithmetic adjustable at run-time. The LBFGS algorithm is included in the code in order to attack problems without the need to resort to a particular search space restriction.

  12. Fracture Toughness and Maximum Stress in a Disordered Lattice System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiyori Urabe; Shinji Takesue

    2008-12-29

    Fracture in a disordered lattice system is studied. In our system, particles are initially arranged on the triangular lattice and each nearest-neighbor pair is connected with a randomly chosen soft or hard Hookean spring. Every spring has the common threshold of stress at which it is cut. We make an initial crack and expand the system perpendicularly to the crack. We find that the maximum stress in the stress-strain curve is larger than those in the systems with soft or hard springs only (uniform systems). Energy required to advance fracture is also larger in some disordered systems, which indicates that the fracture toughness improves. The increase of the energy is caused by the following two factors. One is that the soft spring is able to hold larger energy than the hard one. The other is that the number of cut springs increases as the fracture surface becomes tortuous in disordered systems.

  13. Speech processing using conditional observable maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hogden, John; Nix, David

    2004-01-13

    A computer implemented method enables the recognition of speech and speech characteristics. Parameters are initialized of first probability density functions that map between the symbols in the vocabulary of one or more sequences of speech codes that represent speech sounds and a continuity map. Parameters are also initialized of second probability density functions that map between the elements in the vocabulary of one or more desired sequences of speech transcription symbols and the continuity map. The parameters of the probability density functions are then trained to maximize the probabilities of the desired sequences of speech-transcription symbols. A new sequence of speech codes is then input to the continuity map having the trained first and second probability function parameters. A smooth path is identified on the continuity map that has the maximum probability for the new sequence of speech codes. The probability of each speech transcription symbol for each input speech code can then be output.

  14. Children's Clothes - Size and Selection. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderpoorten, Ann; Kerbel, Claudia

    1980-01-01

    , children's clothing should fit well, allow for growth and be durable and easy to care for. Children's Sizes The age of a child does not determine size. Chil dren of the same age may vary greatly in height, weight and body measurements. Clothing... and pants provide room for growth. Durability Because growing children are active and vigorous in play, select clothing that will withstand stress and strain. Clothing that wears out or falls apart before the child outgrows it is frustrating as well...

  15. How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinner, Aaron

    How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,, Ying Li,, and Aaron R. Dinner the thermodynamics and kinetics of integrin receptor binding and clustering impact the formation of focal adhesions in their environment. Cells on chemically well-defined surfaces were observed to have distributions of focal adhesions

  16. Concentration of measures via size biased couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Subhankar

    2009-01-01

    Let $Y$ be a nonnegative random variable with mean $\\mu$ and finite positive variance $\\sigma^2$, and let $Y^s$, defined on the same space as $Y$, have the $Y$ size biased distribution, that is, the distribution characterized by E[Yf(Y)]=\\mu E f(Y^s) for all functions $f$ for which these expectations exist. Under a variety of conditions on the coupling of Y and $Y^s$, including combinations of boundedness and monotonicity, concentration of measure inequalities hold. Examples include the number of relatively ordered subsequences of a random permutation, sliding window statistics including the number of m-runs in a sequence of coin tosses, the number of local maximum of a random function on a lattice, the number of urns containing exactly one ball in an urn allocation model, the volume covered by the union of $n$ balls placed uniformly over a volume n subset of d diml Euclidean space, the number of bulbs switched on at the terminal time in the so called lightbulb process, the number of isolated vertices in the ...

  17. Compatibility and toxicity of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles on mammalian cell systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kral, Kelly M., 1979-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) produced normal growth curves in the presence of particles. However, the particles do still exhibit some toxicity towards the cells, as the maximum cell density of cells cultured with particles does not reach that ...

  18. Maximum Entropy Analysis of the Spectral Functions in Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Asakawa; T. Hatsuda; Y. Nakahara

    2001-02-26

    First principle calculation of the QCD spectral functions (SPFs) based on the lattice QCD simulations is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the Bayesian inference theory and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM), which is a useful tool to extract SPFs from the imaginary-time correlation functions numerically obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Three important aspects of MEM are (i) it does not require a priori assumptions or parametrizations of SPFs, (ii) for given data, a unique solution is obtained if it exists, and (iii) the statistical significance of the solution can be quantitatively analyzed. The ability of MEM is explicitly demonstrated by using mock data as well as lattice QCD data. When applied to lattice data, MEM correctly reproduces the low-energy resonances and shows the existence of high-energy continuum in hadronic correlation functions. This opens up various possibilities for studying hadronic properties in QCD beyond the conventional way of analyzing the lattice data. Future problems to be studied by MEM in lattice QCD are also summarized.

  19. Improved Maximum Entropy Method with an Extended Search Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Rothkopf

    2012-08-25

    We report on an improvement to the implementation of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM). It amounts to departing from the search space obtained through a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Kernel. Based on the shape of the SVD basis functions we argue that the MEM spectrum for given $N_\\tau$ data-points $D(\\tau)$ and prior information $m(\\omega)$ does not in general lie in this $N_\\tau$ dimensional singular subspace. Systematically extending the search basis will eventually recover the full search space and the correct extremum. We illustrate this idea through a mock data analysis inspired by actual lattice spectra, to show where our improvement becomes essential for the success of the MEM. To remedy the shortcomings of Bryan's SVD prescription we propose to use the real Fourier basis, which consists of trigonometric functions. Not only does our approach lead to more stable numerical behavior, as the SVD is not required for the determination of the basis functions, but also the resolution of the MEM becomes independent from the position of the reconstructed peaks.

  20. The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vianello, Giacomo; Younk, Patrick; Tibaldo, Luigi; Burgess, James M; Ayala, Hugo; Harding, Patrick; Hui, Michelle; Omodei, Nicola; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical sources are now observed by many different instruments at different wavelengths, from radio to high-energy gamma-rays, with an unprecedented quality. Putting all these data together to form a coherent view, however, is a very difficult task. Each instrument has its own data format, software and analysis procedure, which are difficult to combine. It is for example very challenging to perform a broadband fit of the energy spectrum of the source. The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML) aims to solve this issue, providing a common framework which allows for a coherent modeling of sources using all the available data, independent of their origin. At the same time, thanks to its architecture based on plug-ins, 3ML uses the existing official software of each instrument for the corresponding data in a way which is transparent to the user. 3ML is based on the likelihood formalism, in which a model summarizing our knowledge about a particular region of the sky is convolved with the instrument...

  1. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandra Corsi; Benjamin J. Owen

    2011-02-16

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave (GW) data raise the question of what maximum GW energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (\\sim 10^{49} erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001)] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10^{48}-10^{49} erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  2. The AGN tori sizes: a remark on astro-ph/0512025 by Moshe Elitzur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Luigi Granato; Luigi Danese

    2005-12-05

    We point out that in Granato & Danese 1994 and Granato et al. 1997 we predicted maximum observable sizes for the putative torus in NGC1068 of 10-20 pc, not "hundreds of parsecs" as stated by M. Elitzur in astro-ph/0512025.

  3. ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distributionconcentrationdroplet size

  4. 2011-07 "Maximum Utilization of WIPP by Increasing MDA G TRU...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 "Maximum Utilization of WIPP by Increasing MDA G TRU Shipments" 2011-07 "Maximum Utilization of WIPP by Increasing MDA G TRU Shipments" The intent of this recommendation is to...

  5. Pyroelectric response of ferroelectric nanowires: Size effect and electric energy harvesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2010-01-01

    The size effect on pyroelectric response of ferroelectric nanowires is analyzed. The pyroelectric coefficient strongly increases with the wire radius decrease and diverges at critical radius Rcr corresponding to the size-driven transition into paraelectric phase. Size-driven enhancement of pyroelectric coupling leads to the giant pyroelectric current and voltage generation by the polarized ferroelectric nanoparticles in response to the temperature fluctuation. The maximum efficiency of the pyroelectric energy harvesting and bolometric detection is derived, and is shown to approach the Carnot limit for low temperatures.

  6. Laboratory-Based Maximum Slip Rates in Earthquake Rupture Zones and Radiated Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Laboratory-Based Maximum Slip Rates in Earthquake Rupture Zones and Radiated Energy by A. McGarr, J. B. Fletcher, M. Boettcher, N. Beeler, and J. Boatwright Abstract Laboratory stick-slip friction and the maximum slip rate. From laboratory results, the maximum slip rate for any crustal earthquake, as well

  7. Search for Point Sources of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Above 40 EeV Using a Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye Collaboration; G. R. Farrar

    2004-12-23

    We present the results of a search for cosmic ray point sources at energies above 40 EeV in the combined data sets recorded by the AGASA and HiRes stereo experiments. The analysis is based on a maximum likelihood ratio test using the probability density function for each event rather than requiring an a priori choice of a fixed angular bin size. No statistically significant clustering of events consistent with a point source is found.

  8. OpenEI Community - Fuel Cells Market Size

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNewSt.Information OlindaOnslow County,OpTICOpenBarter Jump

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Stratocumulus cell size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds, Aerosols,Comparisonatvariability: empiricalCO2,and emittance

  10. Cell State Identication by Mass, Density, and volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan, Andrea K. (Andrea Kristine)

    2011-01-01

    Cell size is often overlooked in the drive to define molecular mechanisms, but as a basic physical property it is an integrator of the cell's metabolic rate and indicator of cell fate. Development of the Suspended Microchannel ...

  11. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) ?-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakagemore »assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM ?-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.« less

  12. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells approaching the two-dimensional limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerman, K., E-mail: kkerman@fas.harvard.edu; Ramanathan, S. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We model electrochemical kinetics and physical conduction mechanisms for carrier transport in electrolyte membranes to determine the limits of dimensionality reduction (down to 1?nm) on maximum power output of solid oxide fuel cells with symmetric Pt electrodes. Using Y-doped ZrO{sub 2}, we find a minimum thickness of ?6?nm to realize near ideal chemical potential in such fuel cells, which is limited by electronic breakdown when approaching the dielectric breakdown strength. For larger electrolyte thicknesses, the greatest source of electronic leakage influencing power loss is from Ohmic transport of minority carriers and emission of trapped carriers. For porous metallic electrodes, an ideal microstructure with the particle size comparable to particle spacing dimensions is found to accurately model experimental results. The role of electronic trap states in the electrolyte band gap on power density characteristics is highlighted.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle sizefraction ARMGeometry ARM DataSize

  14. Distribution of maximal clique size of the vertices for theoretical small-world networks and real-world networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meghanathan, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Our primary objective in this paper is to study the distribution of the maximal clique size of the vertices in complex networks. We define the maximal clique size for a vertex as the maximum size of the clique that the vertex is part of and such a clique need not be the maximum size clique for the entire network. We determine the maximal clique size of the vertices using a modified version of a branch-and-bound based exact algorithm that has been originally proposed to determine the maximum size clique for an entire network graph. We then run this algorithm on two categories of complex networks: One category of networks capture the evolution of small-world networks from regular network (according to the wellknown Watts-Strogatz model) and their subsequent evolution to random networks; we show that the distribution of the maximal clique size of the vertices follows a Poisson-style distribution at different stages of the evolution of the small-world network to a random network; on the other hand, the maximal cl...

  15. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough, component sizing, and utility needs. These data, along with process efficiency results from the model, were subsequently used to calculate the cost of electricity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to correlate the concentrations of key impurities in the fuel gas feedstock to the cost of electricity.

  16. Maximum allowable hydraulic ram force for heel jet removal Tank 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAULSEN, S.S.

    2003-01-10

    This document contains an evaluation of the maximum force that can be used to actuate the hydraulic ram assembly without causing permanent damage to the riser or pit.

  17. Hydrocracking process using disparate catalyst particle sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukes, S.G.; Miller, J.T.; Gutberlet, L.C.; Kelterboro, J.C

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a process for the hydrocracking of a hydrocarbon feedstock which comprises reacting the feedstock with hydrogen at hydrocracking conversion conditions in a plurality of reaction zones in series containing hydrocracking catalyst wherein at least one of the reaction zones contains a small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst wherein the small nominal size catalyst has a U.S. sieve mesh size ranging from about 10 to about 16, and wherein at least one reaction zone upstream of the reaction zone containing the small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst having a particle size greater than the small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst.

  18. Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells Z June 2011 Available online 14 June 2011 Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell Temperature effects Air) fuel cells is investi- gated using polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Three active area sizes

  19. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Optical sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    mining operation, from the drilling and blasting to the final product; the material size dictates all downstream operating costs. Previously, the only way to measure a size distribution was to stop production

  20. Grain size dependence of barchan dune dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Groh; N. Aksel; I. Rehberg; C. Kruelle

    2008-11-28

    The dependence of the barchan dune dynamics on the size of the grains involved is investigated experimentally. Downsized barchan dune slices are observed in a narrow water flow tube. The relaxation time from an initial symmetric triangular heap towards an asymmetric shape attractor increases with dune mass and decreases with grain size. The dune velocity increases with grain size. In contrast, the velocity scaling and the shape of the barchan dune is independent of the size of the grains.

  1. Tsallis distribution as a standard maximum entropy solution with `tail' constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bercher, Jean-François

    Tsallis distribution as a standard maximum entropy solution with `tail' constraint J.-F. Bercher 1 that Tsallis' distributions can be derived from the standard (Shannon) maximum entropy setting, by incorporating a con- straint on the divergence between the distribution and another distribution imagined as its

  2. MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS on the maximum deliverable power is essential to protect lithium-ion batteries from over- charge Terminal voltage Voc Open circuit voltage of a battery 1 INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries have been used

  3. Maximum Power Transfer Tracking in a Solar USB Charger for Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Maximum Power Transfer Tracking in a Solar USB Charger for Smartphones Abstract--Battery life of commercial chargers using solar power have been developed. They focus on correct functionality, but system chargers do not perform the maximum power point tracking [2], [3] of the solar panel. We exclude

  4. Analysis and Optimization of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odam, Kofi

    characteristic. This perturbation reduces the power obtained from the solar panel because the panel is no longerAnalysis and Optimization of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for photovoltaic systems. Noise is an essential

  5. GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR during solar minimum (1995-1996) and solar maximum (2000) periods are obtained. It is observed that solar significant correlations during both solar maximum and solar minimum. The dynamic pressure variation, however

  6. LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ). The top three panels correspond to the southern segment of the solar minimum orbit; repeated passesLANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes

  7. Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Dylan

    Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain- posphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Enhanced CO is observed over the Zagros mountains of Iran), Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting

  8. Moving Forward Moving Backward: Directional Sorting of Chemotactic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Moving Forward Moving Backward: Directional Sorting of Chemotactic Cells due to Size and Adhesion, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands Differential movement of individual cells within tissues of cell sorting caused by a combination of cell adhesion and chemotaxis, where we assume that all cells

  9. Semicontinuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    , and classical applications are total correctness and termination of partial evaluation. In languagesSemi­continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel # Institut für Informatik Ludwig to termination uses sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored in its type

  10. Analyticity, Convergence and Convergence Rate of Recursive Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Hidden Markov Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tadi?, Vladislav B

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the asymptotic properties of the recursive maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models. The paper is focused on the asymptotic behavior of the log-likelihood function and on the point-convergence and convergence rate of the recursive maximum likelihood estimator. Using the principle of analytical continuation, the analyticity of the asymptotic log-likelihood function is shown for analytically parameterized hidden Markov models. Relying on this fact and some results from differential geometry (Lojasiewicz inequality), the almost sure point-convergence of the recursive maximum likelihood algorithm is demonstrated, and relatively tight bounds on the convergence rate are derived. As opposed to the existing result on the asymptotic behavior of maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models, the results of this paper are obtained without assuming that the log-likelihood function has an isolated maximum at which the Hessian is strictly negative definite.

  11. Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrauth, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

  12. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  13. Finite time analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell A. Vaudrey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    characterized by a maximum-power efficiency. Keywords : Fuel cell ; Heat engine ; Efficiency ; Finite time's thermodynamical efficiency limitation for fuel cells, i. e. the fundamental difference beetween an electrochemical-validity of the Carnot efficiency to analyse fuel cell performances do not prevent us to com- pare it with heat engine

  14. Experimental comparison of various techniques for spot size measurement of high-energy x-ray source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Nan; Cheng, Jinming; Li, Chenggang; Dai, Wenhua; Li, Hong; Long, Quanhong; Shi, Jinshui; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In the experiment of flash-radiography, the quality of acquired image strongly depends on the focal size of the x-ray source spot. A variety of techniques based on imaging of pinhole, slit and rollbar are adopted to measure the focal spot size of the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator. The image of pinhole provides a two-dimensional distribution of the x-ray spot, while those of slit and rollbar give a line-spread distribution and an edge-spread distribution, respectively. The spot size characterized by full-width at half-maximum and that characterized by the LANL definition are calculated for comparison.

  15. The maximum efficiency of nano heat engines depends on more than temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mischa P. Woods; Nelly Ng; Stephanie Wehner

    2015-06-07

    Sadi Carnot's theorem regarding the maximum efficiency of heat engines is considered to be of fundamental importance in the theory of heat engines and thermodynamics. Here, we show that at the nano and quantum scale, this law needs to be revised in the sense that more information about the bath other than its temperature is required to decide whether maximum efficiency can be achieved. In particular, we derive new fundamental limitations of the efficiency of heat engines at the nano and quantum scale that show that the Carnot efficiency can only be achieved under special circumstances, and we derive a new maximum efficiency for others.

  16. Sex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    , John L. Gittleman and Kate E. Jones 3. Sexual Size Dimorphism in Birds , Tamás Székely, Terje Lislevand in the Hartebeest, Isabella Capellini 13. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Offspring Vulnerability in Birds, EllenSex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism Edited by Daphne J

  17. Size distribution of particle systems analyzed with organic photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sentis, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As part of a consortium between academic and industry, this PhD work investigates the interest and capabilities of organic photo-sensors (OPS) for the optical characterization of suspensions and two-phase flows. The principle of new optical particle sizing instruments is proposed to characterize particle systems confined in a cylinder glass (standard configuration for Process Analytical Technologies). To evaluate and optimize the performance of these systems, a Monte-Carlo model has been specifically developed. This model accounts for the numerous parameters of the system: laser beam profile, mirrors, lenses, sample cell, particle medium properties (concentration, mean & standard deviation, refractive indices), OPS shape and positions, etc. Light scattering by particles is treated either by using Lorenz-Mie theory, Debye, or a hybrid model (that takes into account the geometrical and physical contributions). For diluted media (single scattering), particle size analysis is based on the inversion of scatter...

  18. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  19. MA 222 - Exam 3 Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-12-04

    Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum): Section. 031. 061. # Entered. 30. 29. Average. 64.46 60.55. Max. 94. 91. Min. 39. 21. Standard Deviation 15.3.

  20. MA 222 - Exam 1 Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-09-26

    Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum): Section. 031. 061. # Entered. 30. 34. Average. 64.47 66.74. Max. 99. 94. Min. 18. 14. Standard Deviation 19.65

  1. Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, Kristina Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...

  2. Computation of the maximum loadability of a power system using nonlinear optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khabirov, Abdufarrukh

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, power systems have undergone radical changes by becoming deregulated. Many electric companies have met new requirements and found ways to keep up with the changes in power systems. Issues of transfer capability and maximum...

  3. Submodule Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.

    This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use of submodule integrated maximum power point trackers (MPPT). We propose a system architecture that provides ...

  4. Atlantic Ocean circulation at the last glacial maximum : inferences from data and models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dail, Holly Janine

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO? ...

  5. Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Cornelius

    Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity PhD Thesis by Cornelius Weber, Berlin, July 31, 2000

  6. Models for estimating saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanduri, Sreelata

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes models for saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections. The effects of queue interaction between these two intersections are taken into account in both models. The saturation flow model is based...

  7. Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane the current study and the previous measurements in similar flames with methane, ethane, and propane flames

  8. What if CLIQUE were fast? Maximum Cliques in Information Networks and Strong Components in Temporal Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Ryan A; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Patwary, Md Mostofa Ali

    2012-01-01

    Exact maximum clique finders have progressed to the point where we can investigate cliques in million-node social and information networks, as well as find strongly connected components in temporal networks. We use one such finder to study a large collection of modern networks emanating from biological, social, and technological domains. We show inter-relationships between maximum cliques and several other common network properties, including network density, maximum core, and number of triangles. In temporal networks, we find that the largest temporal strong components have around 20-30% of the vertices of the entire network. These components represent groups of highly communicative individuals. In addition, we discuss and improve the performance and utility of the maximum clique finder itself.

  9. Maximum Likelihood Estimation for the Proportional Odds Model with Random Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Donglin

    Maximum Likelihood Estimation for the Proportional Odds Model with Random Effects DONGLIN ZENG, D. Y. LIN, and GUOSHENG YIN In this article, we study the semiparametric proportional odds model; Frailty model; Linear transformation model; Proportional hazards; Semiparametric efficiency; Survival data

  10. A Maximum Likelihood Method with Penalty to Estimate Link Travel Time Based on Trip Itinerary Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Chujun

    2014-12-15

    Travel time is an important network performance measure. It is a challenging subject due to the fluctuations in traffic characteristics, such as traffic flow. This study proposes a maximum likelihood method with penalty ...

  11. Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamwo, Isaac K. (Murrysville, PA); Gidaspow, Dimitri (Northbrook, IL); Jung, Jonghwun (Naperville, IL)

    2009-11-17

    A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

  12. THE MASSIVE SATELLITE POPULATION OF MILKY-WAY-SIZED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Drory, Niv, E-mail: apuebla@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2013-08-20

    Several occupational distributions for satellite galaxies more massive than m{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} around Milky-Way (MW)-sized hosts are presented and used to predict the internal dynamics of these satellites as a function of m{sub *}. For the analysis, a large galaxy group mock catalog is constructed on the basis of (sub)halo-to-stellar mass relations fully constrained with currently available observations, namely the galaxy stellar mass function decomposed into centrals and satellites, and the two-point correlation functions at different masses. We find that 6.6% of MW-sized galaxies host two satellites in the mass range of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively). The probabilities of the MW-sized galaxies having one satellite equal to or larger than the LMC, two satellites equal to or larger than the SMC, or three satellites equal to or larger than Sagittarius (Sgr) are Almost-Equal-To 0.26, 0.14, and 0.14, respectively. The cumulative satellite mass function of the MW, N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}) , down to the mass of the Fornax dwarf is within the 1{sigma} distribution of all the MW-sized galaxies. We find that MW-sized hosts with three satellites more massive than Sgr (as the MW) are among the most common cases. However, the most and second most massive satellites in these systems are smaller than the LMC and SMC by roughly 0.7 and 0.8 dex, respectively. We conclude that the distribution N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}) for MW-sized galaxies is quite broad, the particular case of the MW being of low frequency but not an outlier. The halo mass of MW-sized galaxies correlates only weakly with N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}). Then, it is not possible to accurately determine the MW halo mass by means of its N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}); from our catalog, we constrain a lower limit of 1.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at the 1{sigma} level. Our analysis strongly suggests that the abundance of massive subhalos should agree with the abundance of massive satellites in all MW-sized hosts, i.e., there is not a missing (massive) satellite problem for the {Lambda}CDM cosmology. However, we confirm that the maximum circular velocity, v{sub max}, of the subhalos of satellites smaller than m{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is systematically larger than the v{sub max} inferred from current observational studies of the MW bright dwarf satellites; different from previous works, this conclusion is based on an analysis of the overall population of MW-sized galaxies. Some pieces of evidence suggest that the issue could refer only to satellite dwarfs but not to central dwarfs, then environmental processes associated with dwarfs inside host halos combined with supernova-driven core expansion should be on the basis of the lowering of v{sub max}.

  13. On measures of size for convex cones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-18

    Section 2 presents a battery of examples of size indices disseminated in the literature. For each ...... ferent measures of conditioning for conic linear systems.

  14. Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A. [Nanomaterials Program, Advance Materials Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000, Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2010-03-11

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

  15. Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: A design principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Lin Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Sato, Shintaroh; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-20

    To develop a realistic design principle, we calculated the maximum conversion efficiency ?{sub sc} and optimized sub-cell band-gap energies E{sub g} in double-junction tandem solar cells via a detailed-balance theory, paying particular attention to their dependence on internal luminescence quantum yields y{sub int} of the top and bottom sub-cell materials. A strong drop in the maximum ?{sub sc} occurs when y{sub int} slightly drops from 1 to 0.9, where the drop in y{sub int} of the bottom cell causes a stronger effect than that of the top cell. For low values of y{sub int}, the maximum ?{sub sc} has a simple logarithmic dependence on the geometric mean of the two sub-cells'y{sub int}.

  16. Effects of Compressive Force, Particle Size and Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Biomass Grinds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope Jr.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2006-03-01

    Chemical composition, moisture content, bulk and particle densities, and geometric mean particle size were determined to characterize grinds from wheat and barley straws, corn stover and switchgrass. The biomass grinds were compressed for five levels of compressive forces (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 4400 N) and three levels of particle sizes (3.2, 1.6 and 0.8 mm) at two levels of moisture contents (12% and 15% (wb) to establish the compression and relaxation data. Corn stover grind produced the highest compact density at low pressure during compression. Compressive force, particle size and moisture content of grinds significantly affected the compact density of barley straw, corn stover and switchgrass grinds. However, different particle sizes of wheat straw grind did not produce any significant difference on compact density. Barley straw grind had the highest asymptotic modulus among all other biomass grinds indicating that compact from barley straw grind were more rigid than those of other compacts. Asymptotic modulus increased with an increase in maximum compressive pressure. The trend of increase in asymptotic modulus (EA) with the maximum compressive pressure ( 0) was fitted to a second order polynomial equation. Keywords: Biomass grinds, chemical composition, compact density and asymptotic modulus

  17. Effects of aneuploidy on growth and cell cycle progression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González Rubio, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In budding yeast, aneuploidy has a detrimental effect in cell growth and proliferation. The work presented here shows that most aneuploid yeast strains delay cell cycle entry by increasing the critical size for budding and ...

  18. Effect of age and concentration of sperm on conception rate and litter size in swine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licon Quintero, Mario Alberto

    1971-01-01

    Effect of parity on conception rate and litter size Analysis of variance for conception rate Analysis of variance for litter size 22 23 24 INTRODUCTION The artificial insemination of swine evolved, in Norway, Japan, England, The Netherlands... artificial insemination. Most of the researchers dealing with artificial insemination of swine recommend that approximately five billion live sperm cells be used per insemination. However, other investigators have suggested that with two billion...

  19. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Diatom cell division in an environmental context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cytokinesis combined with centrifugal cell wall neosynthesis, and the role of sex in relation to cell size. Notwithstanding, diatoms were one of the most advanced models of cell division in the late 19th century

  20. High precision mass-based assay to examine growth regulation of the cell cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulati, Amneet

    2014-01-01

    Studying biophysical properties of cells can provide insight into the metabolic mechanisms and regulation of cell cycle processes. Though size is considered to be a fundamental property of cell state, its measurement on a ...

  1. Cell Adhesion on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces with Varying Topographies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ilsoon

    Cell Adhesion on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces with Varying to the pattern size and pitch influences cell adhesion and proliferation. Extensive research has shown substrate for cell ad- hesion. To improve adhesion, we built polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) on PDMS

  2. Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    H. Peng, Control of Fuel Cell Power Systems, Springer, 2004an arbitrary size (power) fuel cell. Finally, the model ison the rated fuel cell stack power. The rated stack power is

  3. Squibs and Discussions Pipelines and Size Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squibs and Discussions Pipelines and Size Constraints Ehud Reiter* University of Aberdeen Some. This can be a difficult constraint to enforce in a pipelined natural language generation (NLG) system of the pipeline, but size cannot be accurately measured until the document has been completely processed

  4. On the "viscosity maximum" during the uniaxial extension of a low density polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodor I. Burghelea; Zdenek Stary; Helmut Muenstedt

    2010-01-13

    An experimental investigation of the viscosity overshoot phenomenon observed during uniaxial extension of a low density polyethylene is pre- sented. For this purpose, traditional integral viscosity measurements on a Muenstedt type extensional rheometer are combined with local mea- surements based on the in-situ visualization of the sample under exten- sion. For elongational experiments at constant strain rates within a wide range of Weissenberg numbers (Wi), three distinct deformation regimes are identified. Corresponding to low values of Wi (regime I), the tensile stress displays a broad maximum. This maximum can be explained by simple mathematical arguments as a result of low deformation rates and it should not be confused with the viscosity overshoot phenomenon. Corre- sponding to intermediate values of Wi (regime II), a local maximum of the integral extensional viscosity is systematically observed. However, within this regime, the local viscosity measurements reveal no maximum, but a plateau. Careful inspection of the images of samples within this regime shows that, corresponding to the maximum of the integral viscosity, sec- ondary necks develop along the sample. The emergence of a maximum of the integral elongational viscosity is thus related to the distinct in- homogeneity of deformation states and is not related to the rheological properties of the material. In the fast stretching limit (high Wi, regime III), the overall geometric uniformity of the sample is well preserved, no secondary necks are observed and both the integral and the local transient elongational viscosity show no maximum. A detailed comparison of the experimental findings with results from literature is presented.

  5. Spot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tung-Chang, E-mail: tcliu@umd.edu; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Eliasson, Bengt [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); SUPA, Department of Physics, Strathclyde University, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Wang, Jyhpyng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Hung [Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-15

    We present a numerical study of the effect of the laser spot size of a circularly polarized laser beam on the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons in laser proton acceleration using a thin carbon-hydrogen foil. The used proton acceleration scheme is a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion due to the carbon ions. We observe that the spot size plays a crucial role in determining the net charge of the electron-shielded carbon ion foil and consequently the efficiency of proton acceleration. Using a laser pulse with fixed input energy and pulse length impinging on a carbon-hydrogen foil, a laser beam with smaller spot sizes can generate higher energy but fewer quasi-monoenergetic protons. We studied the scaling of the proton energy with respect to the laser spot size and obtained an optimal spot size for maximum proton energy flux. Using the optimal spot size, we can generate an 80?MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam containing more than 10{sup 8} protons using a laser beam with power 250?TW and energy 10?J and a target of thickness 0.15 wavelength and 49 critical density made of 90% carbon and 10% hydrogen.

  6. Elastic Interactions of Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Schwarz; S. A. Safran

    2002-01-08

    Biological cells in soft materials can be modeled as anisotropic force contraction dipoles. The corresponding elastic interaction potentials are long-ranged ($\\sim 1/r^3$ with distance $r$) and depend sensitively on elastic constants, geometry and cellular orientations. On elastic substrates, the elastic interaction is similar to that of electric quadrupoles in two dimensions and for dense systems leads to aggregation with herringbone order on a cellular scale. Free and clamped surfaces of samples of finite size introduce attractive and repulsive corrections, respectively, which vary on the macroscopic scale. Our theory predicts cell reorientation on stretched elastic substrates.

  7. Series cell light extinction monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for using the light extinction measurements from two or more light cells positioned along a gasflow chamber in which the gas volumetric rate is known to determine particle number concentration and mass concentration of an aerosol independent of extinction coefficient and to determine estimates for particle size and mass concentrations. The invention is independent of particle size. This invention has application to measurements made during a severe nuclear reactor fuel damage test.

  8. Conglomeration of kilometre-sized planetesimals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon, Andrew; Wu, Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-02-25

    out of ? 104M? of primordial solids. The total disk mass, if supplemented with the missing hydro- gen gas, would then reach of order a solar mass. This is very surprising and, in our view, invalidates the low-efficiency conglomeration model. Moreover... . This corresponds to a dis- ruption velocity of v ? 100 cm/ s, or e ? 10?3 at 40 AU. When bodies of size s1 are catastrophically disrupted, we re-distribute their masses to smaller size bins with a number distribution that is power-law in size, dn/ds ? sq? for s < s...

  9. Finite size scaling analysis of compact QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Arnold; Th. Lippert; Th. Neuhaus; K. Schilling

    2000-11-13

    We describe results of a high-statistics finite size scaling analysis of 4d compact U(1) lattice gauge theory with Wilson action at the phase transition point. Using a multicanonical hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm we generate data samples with more than 150 tunneling events between the metastable states of the system, on lattice sizes up to 18^4. We performed a first analysis within the Borgs-Kotecky finite size scaling scheme. As a result, we report evidence for a first-order phase transition with a plaquette energy gap, G=0.02667(20), at a transition coupling, beta_T=1.011128(11).

  10. Spectral Modeling of SNe Ia Near Maximum Light: Probing the Characteristics of Hydro Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Baron; S. Bongard; David Branch; Peter H. Hauschildt

    2006-03-03

    We have performed detailed NLTE spectral synthesis modeling of 2 types of 1-D hydro models: the very highly parameterized deflagration model W7, and two delayed detonation models. We find that overall both models do about equally well at fitting well observed SNe Ia near to maximum light. However, the Si II 6150 feature of W7 is systematically too fast, whereas for the delayed detonation models it is also somewhat too fast, but significantly better than that of W7. We find that a parameterized mixed model does the best job of reproducing the Si II 6150 line near maximum light and we study the differences in the models that lead to better fits to normal SNe Ia. We discuss what is required of a hydro model to fit the spectra of observed SNe Ia near maximum light.

  11. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

  12. Characterizing the DNA damage response by cell tracking algorithms and cell features classification using high-content time-lapse analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Georgescu, Walter; Osseiran, Alma; Rojec, Maria; Liu, Yueyong; Bombrun, Maxime; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V.; Huen, Michael Shing-Yan

    2015-06-24

    Traditionally, the kinetics of DNA repair have been estimated using immunocytochemistry by labeling proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR) with fluorescent markers in a fixed cell assay. However, detailed knowledge of DDR dynamics across multiple cell generations cannot be obtained using a limited number of fixed cell time-points. Here we report on the dynamics of 53BP1 radiation induced foci (RIF) across multiple cell generations using live cell imaging of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) expressing histone H2B-GFP and the DNA repair protein 53BP1-mCherry. Using automatic extraction of RIF imaging features and linear programming techniques, we were ablemore »to characterize detailed RIF kinetics for 24 hours before and 24 hours after exposure to low and high doses of ionizing radiation. High-content-analysis at the single cell level over hundreds of cells allows us to quantify precisely the dose dependence of 53BP1 protein production, RIF nuclear localization and RIF movement after exposure to X-ray. Using elastic registration techniques based on the nuclear pattern of individual cells, we could describe the motion of individual RIF precisely within the nucleus. We show that DNA repair occurs in a limited number of large domains, within which multiple small RIFs form, merge and/or resolve with random motion following normal diffusion law. Large foci formation is shown to be mainly happening through the merging of smaller RIF rather than through growth of an individual focus. We estimate repair domain sizes of 7.5 to 11 µm2 with a maximum number of ~15 domains per MCF10A cell. This work also highlights DDR which are specific to doses larger than 1 Gy such as rapid 53BP1 protein increase in the nucleus and foci diffusion rates that are significantly faster than for spontaneous foci movement. We hypothesize that RIF merging reflects a "stressed" DNA repair process that has been taken outside physiological conditions when too many DSB occur at once. High doses of ionizing radiation lead to RIF merging into repair domains which in turn increases DSB proximity and misrepair. Such finding may therefore be critical to explain the supralinear dose dependence for chromosomal rearrangement and cell death measured after exposure to ionizing radiation.« less

  13. Characterizing the DNA damage response by cell tracking algorithms and cell features classification using high-content time-lapse analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgescu, Walter; Osseiran, Alma; Rojec, Maria; Liu, Yueyong; Bombrun, Maxime; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V.; Huen, Michael Shing-Yan

    2015-06-24

    Traditionally, the kinetics of DNA repair have been estimated using immunocytochemistry by labeling proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR) with fluorescent markers in a fixed cell assay. However, detailed knowledge of DDR dynamics across multiple cell generations cannot be obtained using a limited number of fixed cell time-points. Here we report on the dynamics of 53BP1 radiation induced foci (RIF) across multiple cell generations using live cell imaging of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) expressing histone H2B-GFP and the DNA repair protein 53BP1-mCherry. Using automatic extraction of RIF imaging features and linear programming techniques, we were able to characterize detailed RIF kinetics for 24 hours before and 24 hours after exposure to low and high doses of ionizing radiation. High-content-analysis at the single cell level over hundreds of cells allows us to quantify precisely the dose dependence of 53BP1 protein production, RIF nuclear localization and RIF movement after exposure to X-ray. Using elastic registration techniques based on the nuclear pattern of individual cells, we could describe the motion of individual RIF precisely within the nucleus. We show that DNA repair occurs in a limited number of large domains, within which multiple small RIFs form, merge and/or resolve with random motion following normal diffusion law. Large foci formation is shown to be mainly happening through the merging of smaller RIF rather than through growth of an individual focus. We estimate repair domain sizes of 7.5 to 11 µm2 with a maximum number of ~15 domains per MCF10A cell. This work also highlights DDR which are specific to doses larger than 1 Gy such as rapid 53BP1 protein increase in the nucleus and foci diffusion rates that are significantly faster than for spontaneous foci movement. We hypothesize that RIF merging reflects a "stressed" DNA repair process that has been taken outside physiological conditions when too many DSB occur at once. High doses of ionizing radiation lead to RIF merging into repair domains which in turn increases DSB proximity and misrepair. Such finding may therefore be critical to explain the supralinear dose dependence for chromosomal rearrangement and cell death measured after exposure to ionizing radiation.

  14. Analysis of a one-dimensional model for the regulation of the size of the renewable zone in biological tissue.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mjolsness, Eric

    Analysis of a one-dimensional model for the regulation of the size of the renewable zone, 630090 The results of a numerical study of a cell-oriented model of the regulation of the renewable zone of the renewable zone is suggested. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is provided as an example. The model is cell

  15. Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnett, Morgan P.

    2010-01-16

    Particle size distribution (PSD) of gypseous soils is important in the soil science community. When gypsum constitutes a major portion of the soil, its removal prior to PSD analysis distorts the results and may lead to ...

  16. Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures Software Productivity MeasurementContents Introduction Background Related work Motivation Productivity measurement - Measurement model - Productivity measure construction - Productivity analysis Conclusion Discussion #12;Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 3

  17. Continuous Nanoparticle Sizing and Characterization via Microfluidics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Fanxu

    2015-04-27

    conductivity measurements can be exploited to instantaneously obtain size and species information in oxide nanoparticle suspensions. This approach is readily implemented in an easy to build platform that can be employed either online to provide real...

  18. Angular Size in a Static Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David F. Crawford

    1994-07-11

    In principle the geometry of the universe can be investigated by measuring the angular size of known objects as a function of distance. Thus the distribution of angular sizes provides a critical test of the stable and static model of the universe described by Crawford (1991,1993) that has a simple and explicit relationship between the angular size of an object and its redshift. The result is that the agreement with observations of galactic diameters and the size of double radio sources with the static model is much better than the standard (Big Bang) theory without evolution. However there is still a small discrepancy at large redshifts that could be due to selection effects.

  19. Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2008-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

  20. Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular and Ionic Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular of ca. 3.5 Å. Molecular transport can be modulated by axially ligating pore- blocking moieties of studies of photophysical and photochemical processes, including solar-cell-related processes. In many

  1. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to see a three region response as the results from the smaller spot size Type C detonators are completed.

  2. Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity #3. In this paper we present a construction keeping in mind the basic theory of annihilator immunity the basic theory. Most importantly, the cryptographic properties of our constructions, such as nonlinearity

  3. Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity Deepak present a construction keeping in mind the basic theory of annihilator immunity. This construction immunity that comes from the basic theory. Most importantly, the cryptographic properties of our

  4. Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    0 Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while intensifies. When the dissipation rate eventually reaches the production rate, the TC has no excess energy

  5. Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while intensifies. When the dissipation rate eventually reaches the production rate, the TC has no excess energy

  6. Linearized semiclassical initial value time correlation functions with maximum entropy analytic continuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    Linearized semiclassical initial value time correlation functions with maximum entropy analytic procedure to be a very significant enhancement of the LSC-IVR for correlation functions of both linear method is used to extend the range of accuracy of the linearized semiclassical initial value

  7. Regression Model for Daily Maximum Stream Temperature David W. Neumann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Rajagopalan

    Regression Model for Daily Maximum Stream Temperature David W. Neumann1 ; Balaji Rajagopalan2 for the summer period. The model is created using a stepwise linear regression procedure to select significant-9372 2003 129:7 667 CE Database subject headings: Decision support systems; Regression models; California

  8. Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use, interest in renewable energy sources has in- creased. Among these, solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has seen

  9. Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications 2012. Abstract--This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic, interest in renewable energy sources has in- creased. Among these, solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has seen

  10. On the Stochastic Maximum Principle in Optimal Control of Degenerate Diffusions with Lipschitz Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahlali, Khaled Djehiche, Boualem Mezerdi, Brahim

    2007-12-15

    We establish a stochastic maximum principle in optimal control of a general class of degenerate diffusion processes with global Lipschitz coefficients, generalizing the existing results on stochastic control of diffusion processes. We use distributional derivatives of the coefficients and the Bouleau Hirsh flow property, in order to define the adjoint process on an extension of the initial probability space.

  11. Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities , V.B. Yurchyshyn1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relationships with one another. Although the relationship between the solar and geomagnetic activity indices hasMaximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities A. Kilcik1 , V.B. Yurchyshyn1 , V. Abramenko1 , P.R. Goode1 , N. Gopalswamy2 , A. Ozguc3 , J.P. Rozelot4 1 Big Bear Solar

  12. Extraction of Spectral Functions from Dyson-Schwinger Studies via the Maximum Entropy Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominik Nickel

    2006-07-20

    It is shown how to apply the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to numerical Dyson-Schwinger studies for the extraction of spectral functions of correlators from their corresponding Euclidean propagators. Differences to the application in lattice QCD are emphasized and, as an example, the spectral functions of massless quarks in cold and dense matter are presented.

  13. Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    of reducing the cost of producing wind power: for example, the site selection, site layout design, predictiveDesign of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song Intelligent Accepted 24 August 2009 Available online 22 September 2009 Keywords: Wind farm Wind turbine Layout design

  14. Performance of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odam, Kofi

    Performance of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise tracking (MPPT) algorithms for photovoltaic systems, including how noise affects both tracking speed-performance photovoltaic sys- tems. An intelligent controller adjusts the voltage, current, or impedance seen by a solar

  15. Experimental evaluation of algorithmic solutions for the maximum generalised network ow problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radzik, Tomasz

    ; Tomasz Radzik y King's College London Shengxiang Yang z University of Leicester Department of Computer Science, King's College London Technical Report TR-01-09 December 2001 Abstract The maximum generalised problem models some optimisation problems arising in manufacturing, transportation and #12;nancial

  16. Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanahuja, Blai

    Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage D, New Mexico, USA T. R. Sanderson Research and Scientific Support Department of European Space Agency 2001), Ulysses remained immersed in polar coronal hole solar wind flow and observed five intense solar

  17. Recursive maximum likelihood estimation for structural health monitoring: Kalman and particle filter implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Recursive maximum likelihood estimation for structural health monitoring: Kalman and particle by a likelihood approach. In a first part the structural health monitoring problem is written in term of recursive al [6] in a more simple framework. Particle approximation for health monitoring was already proposed

  18. Operations Research Letters 21 (1997) 211217 An algorithm for nding a maximum clique in a graph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David R.

    1997-01-01

    . We denote the set of vertices adjacent to vV by NG(v) and the subgraph of G induced by S V by G a vertex vS with maximum degree in G, and set Q := Q {v} and S := S NG(v). We now turn our attention

  19. An Analysis of the Maximum Drawdown Risk Malik Magdon-Ismail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdon-Ismail, Malik

    Engineering Cairo University Giza, Egypt. amir@alumni.caltech.edu Introduction. The maximum cumulative loss to the Calmar ratio is the Sterling ratio, Sterling(T) = Return over [0,T ] MDD over [0,T ]-10% , and our discussion applies equally well to the Sterling ratio. 1 #12;primarily due to a lack of an analytical

  20. An Analysis of the Maximum Drawdown Risk Malik MagdonIsmail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdon-Ismail, Malik

    Engineering Cairo University Giza, Egypt. amir@alumni.caltech.edu Introduction. The maximum cumulative loss is not prevalent 1 Similar to the Calmar ratio is the Sterling ratio, Sterling(T ) = Return over [0,T ] MDD over [0,T ]-10% , and our discussion applies equally well to the Sterling ratio. 1 #12; primarily due

  1. Mathematical Geology, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1998 A Bootstrap Test Using Maximum Likelihood Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Snigdhansu

    Mathematical Geology, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1998 A Bootstrap Test Using Maximum Likelihood Ratio 24 January 1997; revised 10 May 1997. 2Geological Studies Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B-8121/98/0400-0275$15.00/1 © 1998 International Association for Mathematical Geology KEY WORDS: polar coordinates, joint frequency

  2. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safetyefficiency trade-off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety­efficiency trade.12126 Key words: hydraulic limitation, safety­ efficiency trade-off, soil­plant­atmosphere model, trait hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon

  3. MAximum Multicore POwer (MAMPO) -An Automatic Multithreaded Synthetic Power Virus Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Lizy Kurian

    and cooling issues along with a world-wide initiative towards green computing, power consump- tion is a firstMAximum Multicore POwer (MAMPO) - An Automatic Multithreaded Synthetic Power Virus Generation worst case power consumption for a com- puter system is a significant design parameter and it is a very

  4. STRAY-LIGHT CORRECTION IN MAGNETOGRAPH OBSERVATIONS USING THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STRAY-LIGHT CORRECTION IN MAGNETOGRAPH OBSERVATIONS USING THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD JONGCHUL CHAE1 June 1998; accepted 17 July 1998) Abstract. We have developed a method of stray-light correction which is applicable to filter-based magnetograph observations. Stray-light-corrected Stokes images are obtained

  5. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER DEERFIELD RIVER The Office of Hydrology (HYDRO) of the National Weather Service (NWS) develops procedures for making river agencies, and conducts pertinent research and development. NOAA Technical Memorandums in the NWS HYDRO

  6. Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs Lauren in human lungs. J Appl Physiol 96: 1808­1814, 2004. First published February 6, 2004; 10.1152/japplphysiol reactivity in healthy lungs by prohibiting DI for an extended period. The present study had two goals. First

  7. Aalborg Universitet Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    Aalborg Universitet Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator Systems. Poster session presented at The 31st International & 10th Generator Systems Casper Vadstrup (cvdst08@student.aau.dk), Min Chen (mch@et.aau.dk), Erik Schaltz (esc

  8. Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Catherine, E-mail: C.Donnelly@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Actuarial Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  9. On Finding the Maximum Number of Disjoint Cuts in Seymour Graphs ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ageev, Alexandr

    On Finding the Maximum Number of Disjoint Cuts in Seymour Graphs ? Alexander A. Ageev Sobolev. In this paper we prove that the problem is polynomially solvable on Seymour graphs which include both all bipar is polynomially solvable when restricted to the family of Seymour graphs. To present a rigorous definition

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 041144 (2012) Efficiency at maximum power for classical particle transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindenberg, Katja

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 041144 (2012) Efficiency at maximum power for classical particle transport transport. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.041144 PACS number(s): 05.70.Ln, 05.40.-a, 05.20.-y I. INTRODUCTION Over, operating between a hot and cold bath at temperatures T (1) and T (2) , respectively, possesses universal

  11. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  12. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  13. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  14. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Carsten

    Cell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin Pera,2 Carsten Peterson,3,4 and Peter W. Andrews5,* 1The Molecular Haematology Unit, The Weatherall and their relationship to commitment to differ- entiate and lineage selection can be elucidated in terms of a landscape

  15. Validation of a 4D-PET Maximum Intensity Projection for Delineation of an Internal Target Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne ; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Dunn, Leon; Thompson, Mick; Siva, Shankar; Aarons, Yolanda; Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne ; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.; Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The delineation of internal target volumes (ITVs) in radiation therapy of lung tumors is currently performed by use of either free-breathing (FB) {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) or 4-dimensional (4D)-CT maximum intensity projection (MIP). In this report we validate the use of 4D-PET-MIP for the delineation of target volumes in both a phantom and in patients. Methods and Materials: A phantom with 3 hollow spheres was prepared surrounded by air then water. The spheres and water background were filled with a mixture of {sup 18}F and radiographic contrast medium. A 4D-PET/CT scan was performed of the phantom while moving in 4 different breathing patterns using a programmable motion device. Nine patients with an FDG-avid lung tumor who underwent FB and 4D-PET/CT and >5 mm of tumor motion were included for analysis. The 3 spheres and patient lesions were contoured by 2 contouring methods (40% of maximum and PET edge) on the FB-PET, FB-CT, 4D-PET, 4D-PET-MIP, and 4D-CT-MIP. The concordance between the different contoured volumes was calculated using a Dice coefficient (DC). The difference in lung tumor volumes between FB-PET and 4D-PET volumes was also measured. Results: The average DC in the phantom using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was lowest for FB-PET/CT (DCAir = 0.72/0.67, DCBackground 0.63/0.62) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DCAir = 0.84/0.83, DCBackground = 0.78/0.73). The average DC in the 9 patients using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was also lowest for FB-PET/CT (DC = 0.45/0.44) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DC = 0.72/0.73). In the 9 lesions, the target volumes of the FB-PET using 40% and PET edge, respectively, were on average 40% and 45% smaller than the 4D-PET-MIP. Conclusion: A 4D-PET-MIP produces volumes with the highest concordance with 4D-CT-MIP across multiple breathing patterns and lesion sizes in both a phantom and among patients. Freebreathing PET/CT consistently underestimates ITV when compared with 4D PET/CT for a lesion affected by respiration.

  16. Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahara, Makiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugano, Kokichi

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. •Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. •Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. •Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro.

  17. Finite size analysis of the pseudo specific heat in SU(2) gauge theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Engels; T. Scheideler

    1996-07-19

    We investigate the pseudo specific heat of SU(2) gauge theory near the crossover point on $4^4$ to $16^4$ lattices. Several different methods are used to determine the specific heat. The curious finite size dependence of the peak maximum is explained from the interplay of the crossover phenomenon with the deconfinement transition occurring due to the finite extension of the lattice. In this context we calculate the modulus of the lattice average of the Polyakov loop on symmetric lattices and compare it to the prediction from a random walk model.

  18. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  19. Can amphiphile architecture directly control vesicle size?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Greenall; C. M. Marques

    2013-01-28

    Bilayer membranes self-assembled from simple amphiphiles in solution always have a planar ground-state shape. This is a consequence of several internal relaxation mechanisms of the membrane and prevents the straightforward control of vesicle size. Here, we show that this principle can be circumvented and that direct size control by molecular design is a realistic possibility. Using coarse-grained calculations, we design tetrablock copolymers that form membranes with a preferred curvature, and demonstrate how to form low-polydispersity vesicles while suppressing micellization.

  20. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Terry

    2014-12-02

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y?¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.

  1. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergeron, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. The maximum-entropy approach is the most widely used method whenever the data contains some numerical uncertainties, especially in Monte-Carlo based calculations. Here we present a highly optimized approach to maximum-entropy implemented in a freely available software that is both fast and accurate and offers quality-of-fit diagnostic tools. It can handle fermionic and bosonic input Green functions, self-energies, or correlation functions, both in Matsubara frequency or imaginary time, and with arbitrary covariance. All aspects of the implementation critical for accuracy and speed are optimized using specific numerical methods. A new way of choosing the optimal value of the entropy weight $\\alpha$ is also introduced. It is based on the identification of three different regimes in the value of $\\chi^2$ as a function of $\\alpha$: Large values of $\\alpha$...

  2. Hydrodynamic equations for electrons in graphene obtained from the maximum entropy principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletti, Luigi

    2014-08-15

    The maximum entropy principle is applied to the formal derivation of isothermal, Euler-like equations for semiclassical fermions (electrons and holes) in graphene. After proving general mathematical properties of the equations so obtained, their asymptotic form corresponding to significant physical regimes is investigated. In particular, the diffusive regime, the Maxwell-Boltzmann regime (high temperature), the collimation regime and the degenerate gas limit (vanishing temperature) are considered.

  3. REMARKS ON THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD APPLIED TO FINITE TEMPERATURE LATTICE QCD.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UMEDA, T.; MATSUFURU, H.

    2005-07-25

    We make remarks on the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) for studies of the spectral function of hadronic correlators in finite temperature lattice QCD. We discuss the virtues and subtlety of MEM in the cases that one does not have enough number of data points such as at finite temperature. Taking these points into account, we suggest several tests which one should examine to keep the reliability for the results, and also apply them using mock and lattice QCD data.

  4. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M.; Kim, H.

    2015-05-22

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. In conclusion, the time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  5. Global convergence of diluted iterations in maximum-likelihood quantum tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Gonçalves; M. A. Gomes-Ruggiero; C. Lavor

    2013-06-13

    In this paper we present an inexact stepsize selection for the Diluted R\\rho R algorithm, used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate to the density matrix in quantum state tomography. We give a new interpretation for the diluted R\\rho R iterations that allows us to prove the global convergence under weaker assumptions. Thus, we propose a new algorithm which is globally convergent and suitable for practical implementation.

  6. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  7. Unwinding of circular helicoidal molecules versus size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Zoli

    2015-04-12

    The thermodynamical stability of a set of circular double helical molecules is analyzed by path integral techniques. The minicircles differ only in \\textit{i)} the radius and \\textit{ii)} the number of base pairs ($N$) arranged along the molecule axis. Instead, the rise distance is kept constant. For any molecule size, the computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible helicoidal configurations while the partition function is a sum over the path trajectories describing the base pair fluctuational states. The stablest helical repeat of every minicircle is determined by free energy minimization. We find that, for molecules with $N$ larger than $100$, the helical repeat grows linearly with the size and the twist number is constant. On the other hand, by reducing the size below $100$ base pairs, the double helices sharply unwind and the twist number drops to one for $N=\\,20$. This is predicted as the minimum size for the existence of helicoidal molecules in the closed form. The helix unwinding appears as a strategy to release the bending stress associated to the circularization of the molecules.

  8. Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Sarah

    2011-08-08

    tsunamis, Chile 2010 and Peru 2008. The grain-size of the sediment from each tsunami was measured by two common techniques: sieving and digital particle counter. To interpret this real tsunami data, numerical and analytical analysis were used to simulate...

  9. NEEDS SIZE ADJUSTMENT 2 Perfect Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    NEEDS SIZE ADJUSTMENT #12;2 Perfect Chemistry 8 Starr Power 10 Balancing Act 14 A Rare Thing.B.A. EDitors Dee Metaj Jill Smith DEsigN Anderson McConaughy Design Co. WritErs Todd Schwartz Jill Smith Jim and friends. Please send correspondence to: Bridges Magazine sm-alum@ohsu.edu OHSU School of Medicine 3181 SW

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Analysis of size options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of the deliberations of the interagency group formed to study the costs and benefits of expanding the size of the SPR. The study concentrated on severe oil supply disruptions involving sharp reductions in world oil production that were 2 to 4 times larger than the largest 1970s interruption. The disruption sizes and estimated probability of occurrence of these scenarios were supplied by the CIA. The most critical part of the CIA's analysis was the assessment of likelihood of these cases occurring. The CIA approached the likelihood problem by combining an examination of past oil supply disruptions with qualitative analysis of important oil market and regional trends. The study group then used statistical techniques and probability distributions to synthesize the historical data with CIA evaluations of as yet unobserved events. The SPR size study assumed direct purchases of SPR oil and did not assume the use of alternative financing mechanisms. Members of the working group with foreign policy and national security responsibilities provided an in-depth review of strategic considerations affecting SPR size. A number of prior studies, some classified, have addressed the strategic importance and insurance value of the SPR to the US and its allies. The results of these studies have also been incorporated in the current effort. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

  12. Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size dependency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size to have clear configuration of standing waves of the nanorod. The nm resolution of the electron probe standing wave on a string with fixed ends, we observed that the wavelength of the SP standing wave

  13. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Callan-Jones; R. Voituriez

    2013-02-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  14. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Hilke E. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E., E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations.

  15. Magnetic nanoparticles for power absorption: Optimizing size, shape and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, M.A.; Torres, T.E.; Andres-Verges, M.; Costo, R.; Presa, P. de la; Serna, C.J.; Morales, M.P.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M.R.; Goya, G.F.

    2009-10-15

    We present a study on the magnetic properties of naked and silica-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with sizes between 5 and 110 nm. Their efficiency as heating agents was assessed through specific power absorption (SPA) measurements as a function of particle size and shape. The results show a strong dependence of the SPA with the particle size, with a maximum around 30 nm, as expected for a Neel relaxation mechanism in single-domain particles. The SiO{sub 2} shell thickness was found to play an important role in the SPA mechanism by hindering the heat outflow, thus decreasing the heating efficiency. It is concluded that a compromise between good heating efficiency and surface functionality for biomedical purposes can be attained by making the SiO{sub 2} functional coating as thin as possible. - Graphical Abstract: The magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from 5 to 110 nm are presented, and their efficiency as heating agents discussed as a function of particle size, shape and surface functionalization.

  16. CMOS Photovoltaic-cell Layout Configurations for Harvesting Microsystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    CMOS Photovoltaic-cell Layout Configurations for Harvesting Microsystems Rajiv Damodaran Prabha, and radiation, photovoltaic (PV) systems are appealing options. Still, chip-sized CMOS PV cells produce only well in substrate cell are better. Index Terms--Ambient light energy, harvester, CMOS photovoltaic (PV

  17. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    -processed single-junction cells and also multijunction architectures. Size-effect tuning also en- ables the useDepleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Andras G. Pattantyus-Abraham,, Illan J requires thick, high-purity solar cells with correspondingly long carrier transport lengths;3 organic

  18. Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of...

  19. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

  20. SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    review of all size standards for the next several years. An SBA-issued White Paper entitled, "Size Standards Methodology," which explains how SBA establishes, reviews...

  1. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing This tip sheet discusses how to reduce pumping system costs through optimum pipe...

  2. Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for...

  3. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  4. Scaling of Seismic Memory with Earthquake Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Zeyu; Tenenbaum, Joel; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that the earthquake events possess short-term memory, i.e. that events occurring in a particular location are dependent on the short history of that location. We conduct an analysis to see whether real-time earthquake data also possess long-term memory and, if so, whether such autocorrelations depend on the size of earthquakes within close spatiotemporal proximity. We analyze the seismic waveform database recorded by 64 stations in Japan, including the 2011 "Great East Japan Earthquake", one of the five most powerful earthquakes ever recorded which resulted in a tsunami and devastating nuclear accidents. We explore the question of seismic memory through use of mean conditional intervals and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find that the waveform sign series show long-range power-law anticorrelations while the interval series show long-range power-law correlations. We find size-dependence in earthquake auto-correlations---as earthquake size increases, both of these correlation beha...

  5. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pražnikar, Jure [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  6. An exploratory design of a 65 nm CMOS buck converter for maximum efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Doris, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Portable battery-operated consumer devices, such as mp3 players, cell phones, and digital cameras, are becoming ever more prevalent and so the need for long battery life is increasingly important. These small devices contain ...

  7. Dynamics of multi-modes maximum entangled coherent state over amplitude damping channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. El Allati; Y. Hassouni; N. Metwally

    2012-02-18

    The dynamics of maximum entangled coherent state travels through an amplitude damping channel is investigated. For small values of the transmissivity rate the travelling state is very fragile to this noise channel, where it suffers from the phase flip error with high probability. The entanglement decays smoothly for larger values of the transmissivity rate and speedily for smaller values of this rate. As the number of modes increases, the travelling state over this noise channel loses its entanglement hastily. The odd and even states vanish at the same value of the field intensity.

  8. Maximum Likelihood method for ultrahigh energy cosmic ray cross correlations with astrophysical sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronnie Jansson; Glennys R. Farrar

    2007-08-20

    We extend the Maximum Likelihood method used by HiRes to study cross correlations between a catalog of candidate astrophysical sources and Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), to allow for differing source luminosities. Our approach permits individual sources to be ranked according to their likelihood of having emitted the correlated UHECRs. We test both old and new method by simulations for various scenarios. We conclude that there are 9 true correlation between HiRes UHECRs and known BLLacs, with a 6*10^-5 probability of such a correlation arising by chance.

  9. Discrimination of two mixed quantum states with maximum confidence and minimum probability of inconclusive results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrike Herzog

    2009-02-28

    We study an optimized measurement that discriminates two mixed quantum states with maximum confidence for each conclusive result, thereby keeping the overall probability of inconclusive results as small as possible. When the rank of the detection operators associated with the two different conclusive outcomes does not exceed unity we obtain a general solution. As an application, we consider the discrimination of two mixed qubit states. Moreover, for the case of higher-rank detection operators we give a solution for particular states. The relation of the optimized measurement to other discrimination schemes is also discussed.

  10. On the geometrical place formed by the maximum heights of projectile motion with air resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández-Saldaña, H

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis on the geometrical place formed by the set of maxima of the orbits of a projectile launched in a media with linear drag. Such a place is written in term of the Lambert W function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. In order to characterize it, a study of the curvature is presented in two parameterizations, in terms of the launching angle and in the polar one. The angles of maximum curvature are compared with other important angles in the projectile problem.

  11. A New Maximum-Likelihood Change Estimator for Two-Pass SAR Coherent Change Detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we derive a new optimal change metric to be used in synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD). Previous CCD methods tend to produce false alarm states (showing change when there is none) in areas of the image that have a low clutter-to-noise power ratio (CNR). The new estimator does not suffer from this shortcoming. It is a surprisingly simple expression, easy to implement, and is optimal in the maximum-likelihood (ML) sense. The estimator produces very impressive results on the CCD collects that we have tested.

  12. U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5DryMay-15Decade Year-0Elements) Maximum

  13. Fundamental differences in endoreplication in mammals and Drosophila revealed by analysis of endocycling and endomitotic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    Throughout the plant and animal kingdoms specific cell types become polyploid, increasing their DNA content to attain a large cell size. In mammals, megakaryocytes (MKs) become polyploid before fragmenting into platelets. ...

  14. Bounds and phase diagram of efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. C. Tu

    2013-02-08

    The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) for tight-coupling molecular motors is investigated within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. It is found that the EMP depends merely on the constitutive relation between the thermodynamic current and force. The motors are classified into four generic types (linear, superlinear, sublinear, and mixed types) according to the characteristics of the constitutive relation, and then the corresponding ranges of the EMP for these four types of molecular motors are obtained. The exact bounds of the EMP are derived and expressed as the explicit functions of the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step. A phase diagram is constructed which clearly shows how the region where the parameters (the load distribution factor and the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step) are located can determine whether the value of the EMP is larger or smaller than 1/2. This phase diagram reveals that motors using ATP as fuel under physiological conditions can work at maximum power with higher efficiency ($>1/2$) for a small load distribution factor ($<0.1$).

  15. Variable Selection for Modeling the Absolute Magnitude at Maximum of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, S; Ikeda, Shiro; Maeda, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    We discuss what is an appropriate set of explanatory variables in order to predict the absolute magnitude at the maximum of Type Ia supernovae. In order to have a good prediction, the error for future data, which is called the "generalization error," should be small. We use cross-validation in order to control the generalization error and LASSO-type estimator in order to choose the set of variables. This approach can be used even in the case that the number of samples is smaller than the number of candidate variables. We studied the Berkeley supernova database with our approach. Candidates of the explanatory variables include normalized spectral data, variables about lines, and previously proposed flux-ratios, as well as the color and light-curve widths. As a result, we confirmed the past understanding about Type Ia supernova: i) The absolute magnitude at maximum depends on the color and light-curve width. ii) The light-curve width depends on the strength of Si II. Recent studies have suggested to add more va...

  16. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang Jiaxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2012-11-15

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  17. Interaction of root nodule size and oxygen pressure on the rate of nitrogen fixation by cowpea and peanut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, D.; Weaver, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    Size and anatomical features of nodules influence the rate of O/sub 2/ diffusion into nodules. Availability of oxygen can be a limiting factor in nitrogen fixation. Larger nodules have thicker cortices and low surface to volume ratio leading to lower rates of gaseous diffusion. Increased oxygen pressure in the environment alters the rate of nitrogen fixation but the rate of change may depend on the nodule size. This was investigated by measuring /sup 15/N/sub 2/ incorporation into nodules. Root nodules from 38 day old cowpea and peanut plants were collected and sorted into size groups having diameters of >3 mm, 2-3 mm, and just below 2 mm. Samples of each size group were enclosed in tubes and exposed to various combination of oxygen (8-28%) and /sup 15/N/sub 2/. With higher O/sub 2/ pressure all nodules showed increased N/sub 2/ fixation but the largest nodules showed the maximum increase. Specific activity of larger nodules was higher for N/sub 2/ fixation. For the sizes of nodules examined the largest nodules did not reflect any of the disadvantages of the large size but the benefits of higher rates of O/sub 2/ entry was evident.

  18. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  19. Size Dependent Population Dynamics of Microtus Ochrogaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sauer, John R.; Slade, Norman A.

    1986-06-01

    stream_size 20190 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name slade_american_naturalist.pdf.txt stream_source_info slade_american_naturalist.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Vol. 127... therefore could make no direct comparison of age- and mass-based methods (such as the analysis in Werner and Caswell 1977 of a population of teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris Huds.). Subsequent to our analysis of voles, we com­ pared age- and mass...

  20. Assessing Learning in Small Sized Physics Courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ene, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We describe the construction, validation and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics for undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes described in Bloom's taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. Since the Rasch Model (aka 1PL IRT model), can be used with small sample sizes, we describe Rasch Modeling analysis and results for this concept inventory.

  1. On the Physics of Size Selectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roland Roth; Dirk Gillespie

    2005-11-07

    We demonstrate that two mechanisms used by biological ion channels to select particles by size are driven by entropy. With uncharged particles in an infinite cylinder, we show that a channel that attracts particles is small-particle selective and that a channel that repels water from the wall is large-particle selective. Comparing against extensive density-functional theory calculations of our model, we find that the main physics can be understood with surprisingly simple bulk models that neglect the confining geometry of the channel completely.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distribution ARM Data Discovery

  3. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0Cubic Monthly Actual Data10)Households,Size of

  4. #MarketSize | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan)data bookresult formatswindMarketSize Home n/a n/a n/a

  5. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Walneuski

    2004-09-16

    ChevronTexaco has successfully operated a 200 kW PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant at the corporate data center in San Ramon, California for the past two years and seven months following installation in December 2001. This site was chosen based on the ability to utilize the combined heat (hot water) and power generation capability of this modular fuel cell power plant in an office park setting . In addition, this project also represents one of the first commercial applications of a stationary fuel cell for a mission critical data center to assess power reliability benefits. This fuel cell power plant system has demonstrated outstanding reliability and performance relative to other comparably sized cogeneration systems.

  7. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    examined under oil immersion at 800 and 1200 power. Cells were measured at 800 power. Cell classificationCELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes

  8. Connections for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

  9. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  10. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A.

    1997-06-02

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  11. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  12. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  13. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  14. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

    2013-08-07

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.6–8.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (I{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), fill factor, and efficiency (?) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm{sup 2}. A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency.

  15. Reduction of Beam Emittance of Pep-X Using Quadruple Bend Achromat Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Min-Huey; Cai, Yunhai; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2009-05-26

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is studying an option of building a high brightness synchrotron light source machine, PEP-X, in the existing PEP-II tunnel [1, 2]. By replacing 6 arcs of FODO cells of PEPII High Energy Ring (HER) with two arcs of DBA and four arcs of TME and installation of 89.3 m long damping wiggler an ultra low beam emittance of 0.14 nm-rad (including intra-beam scattering) at 4.5 GeV is achieved. In this paper we study the possibility to further reduce the beam emittance by releasing the constraint of the dispersion free in the DBA straight. The QBA (Quadruple Bend Achromat) cell is used to replace the DBA. The ratio of outer and inner bending angle is optimized. The dispersion function in the non-dispersion straight is controlled to compromise with lower emittance and beam size at the dispersion straight. An undulator of period length 23 mm, maximum magnetic field of 1.053 T, and total periods of 150 is used to put in the 30 straights to simulate the effects of these IDs on the beam emittance and energy spread. The brightness including all the ID effects is calculated and compared to the original PEP-X design.

  16. Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for fusion diagnostic measurements with compact neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements.

  17. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; et al

    2014-11-27

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developedmore »using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.« less

  18. Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Analysis of Cyclic Maximum Pressure and Peak Pressure Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker

    2006-11-29

    In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.

  19. Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

  20. Lyapunov exponent and natural invariant density determination of chaotic maps: An iterative maximum entropy ansatz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthapratim Biswas; H. Shimoyama; L. R. Mead

    2009-10-23

    We apply the maximum entropy principle to construct the natural invariant density and Lyapunov exponent of one-dimensional chaotic maps. Using a novel function reconstruction technique that is based on the solution of Hausdorff moment problem via maximizing Shannon entropy, we estimate the invariant density and the Lyapunov exponent of nonlinear maps in one-dimension from a knowledge of finite number of moments. The accuracy and the stability of the algorithm are illustrated by comparing our results to a number of nonlinear maps for which the exact analytical results are available. Furthermore, we also consider a very complex example for which no exact analytical result for invariant density is available. A comparison of our results to those available in the literature is also discussed.

  1. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; USA, Richland Washington; Carlson, Thomas J.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-11-27

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.

  2. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (?11%), temperature (?40%), thermal pressure (?55%), mass flux (?34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (?41%), energy flux (?48%), IMF magnitude (?31%), and radial component of the IMF (?38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ?1.4 nPa, compared to ?2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ?11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  3. Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, L.C.

    1994-10-01

    This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

  4. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  5. The Pseudo Specific Heat in SU(2) Gauge Theory : Finite Size Dependence and Finite Temperature Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Engels; T. Scheideler

    1996-10-15

    We investigate the pseudo specific heat of SU(2) gauge theory near the crossover point on $4^4$ to $16^4$ lattices. Several different methods are used to determine the specific heat. The curious finite size dependence of the peak maximum is explained from the interplay of the crossover phenomenon with the deconfinement transition occurring due to the finite extension of the lattice. We find, that for lattices of size $8^4$ and larger the crossover peak is independent of lattice size at $\\beta_{co}=2.23(2)$ and has a peak height of $C_{V,co}=1.685(10)$. We conclude therefore that the crossover peak is not the result of an ordinary phase transition. Further, the contributions to $C_V$ from different plaquette correlations are calculated. We find, that at the peak and far outside the peak the ratio of contributions from orthogonal and parallel plaquette correlations is different. To estimate the finite temperature influence on symmetric lattices far off the deconfinement transition point we calculate the modulus of the lattice average of the Polyakov loop on these lattices and compare it to predictions from a random walk model.

  6. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  7. The Pseudo Specific Heat in SU(2) Gauge Theory Finite Size Dependence and Finite Temperature Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engels, J

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the pseudo specific heat of SU(2) gauge theory near the crossover point on $4^4$ to $16^4$ lattices. Several different methods are used to determine the specific heat. The curious finite size dependence of the peak maximum is explained from the interplay of the crossover phenomenon with the deconfinement transition occurring due to the finite extension of the lattice. We find, that for lattices of size $8^4$ and larger the crossover peak is independent of lattice size at $\\beta_{co}=2.23(2)$ and has a peak height of $C_{V,co}=1.685(10)$. We conclude therefore that the crossover peak is not the result of an ordinary phase transition. Further, the contributions to $C_V$ from different plaquette correlations are calculated. We find, that at the peak and far outside the peak the ratio of contributions from orthogonal and parallel plaquette correlations is different. To estimate the finite temperature influence on symmetric lattices far off the deconfinement transition point we calculate the modulus...

  8. Achieving Minimum-Routing-Cost Maximum-Flows in Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szymanski, Ted

    of a collection of interconnected wireless mesh routers, represent a promising technology to deliver communication a wireless router and the end-users within a wireless cell is called end-user traffic. The delivery of traffic between the wireless routers in a multihop manner is called backhauling, and this traffic

  9. Physically constrained maximum likelihood (PCML) mode filtering and its application as a pre-processing method for underwater acoustic communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papp, Joseph C

    2009-01-01

    Mode filtering is most commonly implemented using the sampled mode shape or pseudoinverse algorithms. Buck et al [1] placed these techniques in the context of a broader maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. However, the ...

  10. ESTIMATE OF SOLAR MAXIMUM USING THE 1-8 Å GEOSTATIONARY OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES X-RAY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, L. M.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    2014-10-01

    We present an alternate method of determining the progression of the solar cycle through an analysis of the solar X-ray background. Our results are based on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray data in the 1-8 Å band from 1986 to the present, covering solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. The X-ray background level tracks the progression of the solar cycle through its maximum and minimum. Using the X-ray data, we can therefore make estimates of the solar cycle progression and the date of solar maximum. Based upon our analysis, we conclude that the Sun reached its hemisphere-averaged maximum in solar cycle 24 in late 2013. This is within six months of the NOAA prediction of a maximum in spring 2013.

  11. Integrated CMOS Energy Harvesting Converter with Digital Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Portable Thermophotovoltaic Power Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert

    This paper presents an integrated maximum power point tracking system for use with a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power generator. The design, implemented in 0.35 ?m CMOS technology, consists of a low-power control ...

  12. Estimate of Solar Maximum using the 1-8 \\AA$\\,$Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites X-ray Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, L M

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternate method of determining the progression of the solar cycle through an analysis of the solar X-ray background. Our results are based on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray data in the 1-8 \\AA$\\,$band from 1986 - present, covering solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. The X-ray background level tracks the progression of the solar cycle through its maximum and minimum. Using the X-ray data, we can therefore make estimates of the solar cycle progression and date of solar maximum. Based upon our analysis, we conclude that the Sun reached its hemisphere-averaged maximum in Solar Cycle 24 in late 2013. This is within six months of the NOAA prediction of a maximum in Spring 2013.

  13. Measuring compositional and growth properties of single cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, Francisco Feijó

    2013-01-01

    The physical properties of a cell are manifestations of its most basic molecular and metabolic processes. In particular, size has been a sought metric, which can be difficult to ascertain with great resolution or for smaller ...

  14. Source Temperatures and Sizes in Central Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Schwarz; ALADIN collaboration

    1997-04-03

    For midrapidity fragments from central 50-200 AMeV Au+Au collisions temperatures from double ratios of isotopic yields were compared with temperatures from particle unbound states. Temperatures from particle unbound states with T = 4-5 MeV show with increasing beam energy an increasing difference to temperatures from double ratios of isotopic yields, which increase from T = 5MeV to T = 12MeV. The lower temperatures extracted from particle unstable states can be explained by increasing cooling of the decaying system due to expansion. This expansion is driven by the radial flow, and freeze out of particle unstable states might depend on the dynamics of the expanding system. Source sizes from pp-correlation functions were found to be 9 to 11 fm.

  15. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

  16. CD8+ T cell antiviral activity: mechanism of induction and the suppression of emerging feline immunodeficiency virus strains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Anagha

    2007-09-17

    autologous cells and was probably not FIV specific. Suppression was maximum when the inducer cells and the effector CD8+ T cells were in contact with each other, suggesting a potential role for membrane antigen interactions and/or cytokines in the induction...

  17. Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion, and electrolyte flow rate on fuel cell performance to obtain a maximum power density of 191 mW/cm2. This flowing

  18. Grain size limits derived from 3.6 {\\mu}m and 4.5 {\\mu}m coreshine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinacker, J; Thi, W -F; Paladini, R; Juvela, M; Bacmann, A; Pelkonen, V -M; Pagani, L; Lefèvre, C; Henning, Th; Noriega-Crespo, A

    2015-01-01

    Recently discovered scattered light from molecular cloud cores in the wavelength range 3-5 {\\mu}m (called "coreshine") seems to indicate the presence of grains with sizes above 0.5 {\\mu}m. We aim to analyze 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m coreshine from molecular cloud cores to probe the largest grains in the size distribution. We analyzed dedicated deep Cycle 9 Spitzer IRAC observations in the 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m bands for a sample of 10 low-mass cores. We used a new modeling approach based on a combination of ratios of the two background- and foreground-subtracted surface brightnesses and observed limits of the optical depth. The dust grains were modeled as ice-coated silicate and carbonaceous spheres. We discuss the impact of local radiation fields with a spectral slope differing from what is seen in the DIRBE allsky maps. For the cores L260, ecc806, L1262, L1517A, L1512, and L1544, the model reproduces the data with maximum grain sizes around 0.9, 0.5, 0.65, 1.5, 0.6, and > 1.5 {\\mu}m, respectively. The maximum coreshi...

  19. Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petruzielo, Robin S [Cornell University; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University

    2013-01-01

    Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

  20. Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 7987 Predicting water and current distributions in a commercial-size PEMFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    2004-01-01

    in a commercial-size PEMFC S. Shimpaleea, S. Greenwaya, D. Spucklerb, J.W. Van Zeea, a Department of Chemical have experimentally studied small (10­50 cm2), single cell PEMFC systems to understand the behavior and electro- chemistry of PEMFC. Also, three-dimensional electrochemical models have been used to predict

  1. Resurrecting the Size Effect: Firm Size, Profitability Shocks, and Expected Stock Returns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    and Mathijs A. van Dijk* September 2008 Abstract Recent studies report that the size effect in U.S. stock of Business, Ohio State University. Mathijs A. van Dijk is at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus Dijk (2006) for a survey of the literature to date. 2 Dichev (1998), Chan, Karceski, and Lakonishok

  2. size; island size promoted abundances of some organisms and reduced others (Fig. 1). Second,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springer, Timothy A.

    - systems. Although a growing number of studies have used the concepts developed in island geographysize; island size promoted abundances of some organisms and reduced others (Fig. 1). Second, our study found diversity, community compo- sition, and ecosystem functioning all responded to island

  3. Thermodynamics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reck, Kasper; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-13

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) cells in which direct photon energy as well as thermal energy can be harvested have recently been suggested as a new candidate for high efficiency solar cells. Here, we present an analytic thermodynamical model for evaluation of the efficiency of PETE solar cells including an analysis of the entropy production due to thermionic emission of general validity. The model is applied to find the maximum efficiency of a PETE cell for given cathode and anode work functions and temperatures.

  4. Maximum Li storage in Si nanowires for the high capacity three-dimensional Li-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    , such as fuel cells and secondary batteries. Here we report a coin-type Si nanowire NW half-cell Li-ion battery is the central research subject in various energy conversion systems, such as solar cells, fuel cells must be optimally coordinated.7 In this respect, Si nanowire NW arrays can serve as the high capacity

  5. Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries.

  6. Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.F.

    1995-07-18

    An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries. 6 figs.

  7. Cost Sharing for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-04-18

    Keywords: game theory; cooperative game; cost sharing; integrality gap; economic lot-sizing ... order to meet demand, the retailer can either place an order for newly ...... Capacitated dynamic lot sizing problems in closed-loop supply chain.

  8. SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    You may also mail comments to Khem R. Sharma, Chief, Office of Size Standards, 409 3rd St., SW, Mail Code 6530, Washington, DC 20416. As part of an ongoing review of all size...

  9. Implications of Modern Semiconductor Technologies on Gate Sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, John

    2012-01-01

    set ? g as: the minimum power cell option ? that satisfiesslews. Next, the minimum power cell option that satisfiesgates at the minimum power cell, and p d 10 , is the power

  10. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

  11. Impact of Secondary Users' Field Size on Spectrum Sharing Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. spatial size of the field of secondary users. In most studies, the spatial

  12. Perceptual Affordances of Wall-Sized Displays for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Petra

    .g., HCI)]: Miscellaneous. Introduction Wall-sized displays (PowerWalls) engulf viewers in very large high

  13. Sexual size dimorphism and phylogeny in North American minnows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyron, Mark

    often sexually size dimorphic than birds with nonlekking mating systems (Oakes, 1992). In snakes (ShineSexual size dimorphism and phylogeny in North American minnows MARK PYRON University of Oklahoma 1995 Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is predicted to vary across mating systems. A previous study examined

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank

    and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used.6 lm) and small (0.2­1.6 lm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community

  15. Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel-based approach to termination uses sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored criterion, * *a calculus for semi-continuous function is developed. 1 Introduction Termination

  16. Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    , and classical applications are total correctness and termination of partial evaluation. In languagesSemi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel Institut für Informatik Ludwig to termination uses sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored in its type

  17. Water/Icy Super-Earths: Giant Impacts and Maximum Water Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Robert A; Stewart, Sarah T; Hernquist, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Water-rich super-Earth exoplanets are expected to be common. We explore the effect of late giant impacts on the final bulk abundance of water in such planets. We present the results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of impacts between differentiated water(ice)-rock planets with masses between 0.5 and 5 M_Earth and projectile to target mass ratios from 1:1 to 1:4. We find that giant impacts between bodies of similar composition never decrease the bulk density of the target planet. If the commonly assumed maximum water fraction of 75wt% for bodies forming beyond the snow line is correct, giant impacts between similar composition bodies cannot serve as a mechanism for increasing the water fraction. Target planets either accrete materials in the same proportion, leaving the water fraction unchanged, or lose material from the water mantle, decreasing the water fraction. The criteria for catastrophic disruption of water-rock planets are similar to those found in previous work on super-Earths of terre...

  18. Robust Maximum Lifetime Routing and Energy Allocation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Wu, Ruomin

    2012-01-01

    We consider the maximum lifetime routing problem in wireless sensor networks in two settings: (a) when nodes’ initial energy is given and (b) when it is subject to optimization. The optimal solution and objective value provide optimal flows and the corresponding predicted lifetime, respectively. We stipulate that there is uncertainty in various network parameters (available energy and energy depletion rates). In setting (a) we show that for specific, yet typical, network topologies, the actual network lifetime will reach the predicted value with a probability that converges to zero as the number of nodes grows large. In setting (b) the samemore »result holds for all topologies. We develop a series of robust problem formulations, ranging from pessimistic to optimistic. A set of parameters enable the tuning of the conservatism of the formulation to obtain network flows with a desirably high probability that the corresponding lifetime prediction is achieved. We establish a number of properties for the robust network flows and energy allocations and provide numerical results to highlight the tradeoff between predicted lifetime and the probability achieved. Further, we analyze an interesting limiting regime of massively deployed sensor networks and essentially solve a continuous version of the problem.« less

  19. Large deviations of the maximum of independent and identically distributed random variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierpaolo Vivo

    2015-07-20

    A pedagogical account of some aspects of Extreme Value Statistics (EVS) is presented from the somewhat non-standard viewpoint of Large Deviation Theory. We address the following problem: given a set of $N$ i.i.d. random variables $\\{X_1,\\ldots,X_N\\}$ drawn from a parent probability density function (pdf) $p(x)$, what is the probability that the maximum value of the set $X_{\\mathrm{max}}=\\max_i X_i$ is "atypically larger" than expected? The cases of exponential and Gaussian distributed variables are worked out in detail, and the right rate function for a general pdf in the Gumbel basin of attraction is derived. The Gaussian case convincingly demonstrates that the full rate function cannot be determined from the knowledge of the limiting distribution (Gumbel) alone, thus implying that it indeed carries additional information. Given the simplicity and richness of the result and its derivation, its absence from textbooks, tutorials and lecture notes on EVS for physicists appears inexplicable.

  20. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  1. Nonlinear oscillations of compact stars in the vicinity of the maximum mass configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Brillante; Igor Mishustin

    2015-07-17

    We solve the dynamical GR equations for the spherically symmetric evolution of compact stars in the vicinity of the maximum mass, for which instability sets in according to linear perturbation theory. The calculations are done with the analytical Zeldovich-like EOS P=a(rho-rho_0) and with the TM1 parametrisation of the RMF model. The initial configurations for the dynamical calculations are represented by spherical stars with equilibrium density profile, which are perturbed by either (i) an artificially added inward velocity field proportional to the radial coordinate, or (ii) a rarefaction corresponding to a static and expanded star. These configurations are evolved using a one-dimensional GR hydro code for ideal and barotropic fluids. Depending on the initial conditions we obtain either stable oscillations or the collapse to a black hole. The minimal amplitude of the perturbation, needed to trigger gravitational collapse is evaluated. The approximate independence of this energy on the type of perturbation is pointed out. At the threshold we find type I critical behaviour for all stellar models considered and discuss the dependence of the time scaling exponent on the baryon mass and EOS.

  2. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Co.

    2009-04-01

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

  3. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  4. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  5. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  6. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (6851 Carpenter St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Prakash, Jai (2205 Arbor Cir. 8, Downers Grove, IL 60515)

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  7. Size, effect of flexible proof mass on the mechanical behavior of micron-scale cantilevers for energy harvesting appications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, M.; Hong, S.; Miller, D. J.; Dugundji, J.; Wardle, B. L. (Materials Science Division); (MIT)

    2011-12-15

    Mechanical behavior of micron-scale cantilevers with a distributed, flexible proof mass is investigated to understand proof mass size effects on the performance of microelectromechanical system energy harvesters. Single-crystal silicon beams with proof masses of various lengths were fabricated using focused ion beam milling and tested using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of three different modeling results with measured data reveals that a 'two-beam' method has the most accurate predictive capability in terms of both resonant frequency and strain. Accurate strain prediction is essential because energy harvested scales with strain squared and maximum strain will be a design limit in fatigue.

  8. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  9. Selection, Sizing, and Testing of Stream Traps in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armer, A.; Risko, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    For maximum effectiveness in steam systems, steam traps should have operating characteristics which closely match the requirements of the applications for which they are used. A trap which holds back condensate until it is subcooled and some...

  10. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  11. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  12. Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 to guide the development of next-generation technologies capable of producing cell-based products in a safe will enhance cell therapy product quality and safety, expediting clinical development. Breakthroughs

  13. Distribution approximations for the chemical master equation: comparison of the method of moments and the system size expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Andreychenko; Luca Bortolussi; Ramon Grima; Philipp Thomas; Verena Wolf

    2015-09-30

    The stochastic nature of chemical reactions involving randomly fluctuating population sizes has lead to a growing research interest in discrete-state stochastic models and their analysis. A widely-used approach is the description of the temporal evolution of the system in terms of a chemical master equation (CME). In this paper we study two approaches for approximating the underlying probability distributions of the CME. The first approach is based on an integration of the statistical moments and the reconstruction of the distribution based on the maximum entropy principle. The second approach relies on an analytical approximation of the probability distribution of the CME using the system size expansion, considering higher-order terms than the linear noise approximation. We consider gene expression networks with unimodal and multimodal protein distributions to compare the accuracy of the two approaches. We find that both methods provide accurate approximations to the distributions of the CME while having different benefits and limitations in applications.

  14. A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

    2012-12-15

    We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

  15. Using the Comoving Maximum of the Galaxy Power Spectrum to Measure Cosmological Curvature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Broadhurst; Andrew H. Jaffe

    1999-04-26

    The large-scale maximum at k~0.05 identified in the power-spectrum of galaxy fluctuations provides a co-moving scale for measuring cosmological curvature. In shallow 3D surveys the peak is broad, but appears to be well resolved in 1D, at ~130 Mpc (k=0.048), comprising evenly spaced peaks and troughs. Surprisingly similar behaviour is evident at z=3 in the distribution of Lyman-break galaxies, for which we find a 5 sigma excess of pairs separated by Delta z=0.22pm0.02, equivalent to 85Mpc for Omega=1, increasing to 170 Mpc for Omega=0, with a number density contrast of 30% averaged over 5 independent fields. The combination, 3.2\\Omega_m -\\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0.7, matches the local scale of 130 Mpc, i.e. Omega=0.2\\pm0.1 or Omega_{m}=0.4\\pm0.1 for the matter-dominated and flat models respectively, with an uncertainty given by the width of the excess correlation. The consistency here of the flat model with SNIa based claims is encouraging, but overshadowed by the high degree of coherence observed in 1D compared with conventional Gaussian models of structure formation. The appearance of this scale at high redshift and its local prominence in the distribution of Abell clusters lends support to claims that the high-z `spikes' represent young clusters. Finally we show that a spike in the primordial power spectrum of delta\\rho/\\rho=0.3 at k=0.05 has little effect on the CMB, except to exaggerate the first Doppler peak in flat matter-dominated models, consistent with recent observations. \\\\effect on the CMB, except to exaggerate the first Doppler peak in flat matter-dominated models, consistent with recent observations.

  16. The Digital discrimination of neutron and {\\gamma} ray using organic scintillation detector based on wavelet transform modulus maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    yun, Yang; jun, Yang; xiaoliang, Luo

    2013-01-01

    A novel algorithm for the discrimination of neutron and {\\gamma}-ray with wavelet transform modulus maximum (WTMM) in an organic scintillation has been investigated. Voltage pulses arising from a BC501A organic liquid scintillation detector in a mixed radiation field have been recorded with a fast digital sampling oscilloscope. The performances of most pulse shape discrimination methods in scintillation detection systems using time-domain features of the pulses are affected intensively by noise. However, the WTMM method using frequency-domain features exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutron and {\\gamma}-ray events based on their different asymptotic decay trend between the positive modulus maximum curve and the negative modulus maximum curve in the scale-space plane. This technique has been verified by the corresponding mixed-field data assessed by the time-of-flight (TOF) method and the frequency gradient analysis (FGA) method. It is shown that the characterization of...

  17. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  18. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  19. Fuel Cells as an Emerging Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jewell, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    electrodes. SOFC Status Very high temperature (l,OOOOC) solid oxide fuel cells might offer greater sulfur tolerance, more systems design options, and cost advantages by not requiring expensive noble metal catalysts. The solid oxide cell offers... stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-100.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 21359 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-100.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FUEL CELLS...

  20. A mechanistic first--passage time framework for bacterial cell-division timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khem Raj Ghusinga; Cesar A. Vargas-Garcia; Abhyudai Singh

    2015-12-24

    How exponentially growing cells maintain size homeostasis is an important fundamental problem. Recent single-cell studies in prokaryotes have uncovered the adder principle, where cells on average, add a fixed size (volume) from birth to division. Interestingly, this added volume differs considerably among genetically-identical newborn cells with similar sizes suggesting a stochastic component in the timing of cell-division. To mechanistically explain the adder principle, we consider a time-keeper protein that begins to get stochastically expressed after cell birth at a rate proportional to the volume. Cell-division time is formulated as the first-passage time for protein copy numbers to hit a fixed threshold. Consistent with data, the model predicts that while the mean cell-division time decreases with increasing size of newborns, the noise in timing increases with size at birth. Intriguingly, our results show that the distribution of the volume added between successive cell-division events is independent of the newborn cell size. This was dramatically seen in experimental studies, where histograms of the added volume corresponding to different newborn sizes collapsed on top of each other. The model provides further insights consistent with experimental observations: the distributions of the added volume and the cell-division time when scaled by their respective means become invariant of the growth rate. Finally, we discuss various modifications to the proposed model that lead to deviations from the adder principle. In summary, our simple yet elegant model explains key experimental findings and suggests a mechanism for regulating both the mean and fluctuations in cell-division timing for size control.

  1. Cell kinetics of differentiation of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in a cultured renal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, J.S.; Weiss, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fully differentiated cells of the renal proximal tubule have the capability of taking up hexoses across their apical borders by transport coupled to the Na/sup +/-electrochemical gradient. This property is also found in postconfluent cultures of the cloned cell line LLC-PK/sub 1/, a morphologically polarized line of renal cells. Postconfluent cells develop the Na/sup +/-dependent capacity to transport hexoses at their apical surface. This function is not observable during the growth phase of the cultures. To analyze the developmental process at the cellular level a method has been derived to separate transporting cells, expressing the differentiated function, from nontransporting cells. The method is based on the swelling of the cells accompanying the uptake of the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha methylglucoside. The swollen cells have a lower buoyant density than the undifferentiated cells and may be separated from them on density gradients. Analysis of the distribution of cells on such gradients shows that after the cells reach confluence the undifferentiated subpopulation is recruited onto the differentiation pathway with a rate constant of 0.2 per day, that 5 to 7 days are required for a cell to traverse this pathway to the fully differentiated state, and that once the maximum uptake capacity is achieved the cells do not develop further.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  3. Constructal flow structure for a PEM fuel cell J.V.C. Vargas a,*, J.C. Ordonez b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ordonez, Juan C.

    Constructal flow structure for a PEM fuel cell J.V.C. Vargas a,*, J.C. Ordonez b , A. Bejan c the internal structure (relative sizes, spacings) and external shape (aspect ratios) of a unit PEM fuel cell so) level of a fuel cell stack, i.e., the unit PEM fuel cell, which is modeled as a unidirectional flow

  4. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  5. On the size-Ramsey number of hypergraphs Andrzej Dudek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mubayi, Dhruv

    On the size-Ramsey number of hypergraphs Andrzej Dudek Steven La Fleur Dhruv Mubayi Vojtech R¨odl§ March 20, 2015 Abstract The size-Ramsey number of a graph G is the minimum number of edges in a graph H such that every 2-edge-coloring of H yields a monochromatic copy of G. Size-Ramsey numbers of graphs have been

  6. A Note on Ramsey Size-Linear Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simonovits, Miklós

    A Note on Ramsey Size-Linear Graphs P.N. Balister,1 R.H. Schelp,1 and M. Simonovits1,2 1 DEPARTMENT is a Ramsey size-linear graph and x,y 2 V(G ) then if we add a sufficiently long path between x and y we obtain a new Ramsey size-linear graph. As a consequence we show that if G is any graph such that every

  7. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, George W. (2328 Ashwood, Norman, OK 73069)

    1983-01-01

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

  8. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, G.W.

    1983-09-13

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment. 3 figs.

  9. 3798 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 58, NO. 6, JUNE 2012 On the Maximum Achievable Sum-Rate With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    Symposium on Information Theory. Y. Zhao was with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University3798 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 58, NO. 6, JUNE 2012 On the Maximum Achievable of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA. He is now with the Department of Electrical

  10. IEICE TRANS. FUNDAMENTALS, VOL.E85 {A, NO.12 DECEMBER 2002 Approximate Maximum Likelihood Source Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Seungjin

    IEICE TRANS. FUNDAMENTALS, VOL.E85 {A, NO.12 DECEMBER 2002 1 PAPER Approximate Maximum Likelihood (t)] T is generated by x(t) = As(t) + v(t); (1) where A 2 IR m#2;n (m #21; n) is called the mixing ma of Education of Korea for its #12;nancial support toward the Electrical and Computer Engineering Division

  11. Abstract--This paper presents an approach and associated circuitry for harvesting near maximum output from low power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Experimental results are presented for harvesting energy from miniature RF and wind power sources operating (PPT) and are commonly used in high power photovoltaic and wind power systems [4-5]. Existing that either inherently or by design achieve maximum output power over a wide power range when loaded

  12. Development of a branch and price approach involving vertex cloning to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachdeva, Sandeep

    2006-04-12

    We propose a novel branch-and-price (B&P) approach to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem (MWISP). Our approach uses clones of vertices to create edge-disjoint partitions from vertex-disjoint partitions. We solve the MWISP on sub...

  13. Factors Determining the Location of the Chlorophyll Maximum and the Fate of Algal Production within the Tidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bukaveckas, Paul A.

    that cause the formation of a chlorophyll maximum within the tidal freshwater James River. Phyto- plankton in their dominant mode of hydrodynamics, tidal freshwaters share a number of features in common with rivers of the saline estuary. Their hydrodynamics are dominated by bi- directional flow but are subject to considerable

  14. CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B. Galvin 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA ABSTRACT The breadth and power of the set of solar1 CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B at solar minimum or in the declining phase of the past maxi­ mum, but we anticipate that most

  15. Maximum extent of the Eurasian ice sheets in the Barents and Kara Sea region during the Weichselian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Möller, Per

    . ISSN 0300-9483. Based on field investigations in northern Russia and interpretation of offshore seismic that the Barents and Kara ice sheets attained their maximum Weichselian positions in northern Russia prior to 50), to more localized ice caps over the Urals a

  16. Asymmetric response of maximum and minimum temperatures to soil emissivity change over the Northern African Sahel in a GCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    Asymmetric response of maximum and minimum temperatures to soil emissivity change over the Northern in the Sahel could lead to reduced land surface emissivity and thus might have an asymmetric impact on daytime balance to changes in soil emissivity over the Sahel using the recently developed Community Land Model

  17. The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the potential for 100-meter hubs operating in windy regions with at least 30% capacity is 12,125 GW of wind, the installed U.S. wind power capacity is now about 35 GW. While most of the wind potential comes from the windyThe maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three

  18. 2 Ocean circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum: 3 A combined modeling and magnetic proxy-based study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    40 greater influence and penetration of deep water formed in 41 the Southern Ocean [e.g., Oppo2 Ocean circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum: 3 A combined modeling and magnetic proxy (NADW) is an important component of the ocean thermohaline 7 circulation, but debate exists over

  19. THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick A.

    2010-11-10

    We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

  20. Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2010 - 2020 Home > Groups > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency John55364's picture...

  1. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Model Implementation We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating...

  2. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  3. A note on string size evolution in phantom cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soon-Tae Hong

    2015-04-05

    We analyze evolution of string size in higher-dimensional cosmology with phantom field. Assuming that the Universe possesses the phantom field defined in a ten-dimensional spacetime, we predict string size which is claimed to be that of photon in nature at present. The Universe size increases as in the standard inflationary Universe model while the photon size decreases drastically at the early stage of the string evolution after the Big Bang. Moreover, the photon spin in the phantom Universe is analyzed in the framework of the stringy cosmology.

  4. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency A novel method for fabricating custom porous filtration media for emission control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize...

  5. Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper Atamturk

    2007-06-26

    Jun 26, 2007 ... An O(n^2) Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs. Alper Atamturk (atamturk ***at*** berkeley.edu) Simge Kucukyavuz ...

  6. Simulations of Sizing and Comfort Improvements for Residential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 47309 1 Simulations of Sizing and Comfort Improvements for Residential Forced-Air Heating...................................................................................... 18 PEAK DEMAND AND POWER CONSUMPTION

  7. Scalable Heuristics for Planning, Placement and Sizing of Flexible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Sizing of Flexible AC Transmission System Devices Aiming to relieve transmission grid congestion and improve or extend feasibility domain of the operations, we build...

  8. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    for nuclear energy (Prelaw 2008). Energy Efficiency ServicesEnergy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size Two implementation contractor respondents mentioned defense, semiconductor, nuclear, and

  9. Optimization Online - Optimal management and sizing of energy ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavithra Harsha

    2012-07-30

    Jul 30, 2012 ... Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy. Pavithra Harsha ...

  10. SELF-CONSISTENT SIZE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF COLLISIONAL CASCADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Margaret [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schlichting, Hilke E., E-mail: mpan@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. Here we relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan and Sari can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies for the Kuiper belt, the asteroid belt, and extrasolar debris disks may constrain the mass and number of large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies' internal strengths.

  11. Estimating polyploidy levels in fossil Salix: A critical review of cell size proxy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buechler, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    L. T Wetzikon, Switzerland, 550 m /Nepal-Himalaya, 3450 mS. fragilis L. S. fragilis L. N Moenchaltorf, Switzerland NNiederuster, Switzerland C Schwerzenbach, Switzerland,

  12. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells Qiao Yang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power. One of the primary applications of MFCs will likely be wastewater treatment, as a single process can be used to simultaneously accomplish both wastewater treatment and power generation (Feng et al

  13. Estimating polyploidy levels in fossil Salix: A critical review of cell size proxy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buechler, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    F F F F F F F F F F F F F Salix / Subalbae S. babylonica L.550 m /Nepal-Himalaya, 3450 m 4 (Bue) 289 Salix /Salix S. alba L. S. fragilis L. S. fragilis L. N

  14. Estimating polyploidy levels in fossil Salix: A critical review of cell size proxy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buechler, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    Salix germplasm resource reveals new insights into relationships among subgenera, sections and species. Bio Energy

  15. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Differential cell size structure of desmids and diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of microalgae vary in relation to the abiotic factors, such as nutrients, temperature, or water transparency DOI 10.1007/s10750-013-1446-4 #12;transparency (Finkel et al., 2009). Small algae typi- cally over smaller centric diatoms in the phytoplankton has many times been documented (Round et al., 1990

  16. Sandia Energy - Glitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells in Utility-Scale Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis ofSample SULIColinEnergy PolicyLeaks in

  17. Received 10 May 2013 | Accepted 10 Oct 2013 | Published 8 Nov 2013 Probing single-to multi-cell level charge transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of microbe selection13,14 and fuel cell design7,15, the complex nature of biofilms in working MFCs has. Lieber1,5 & Justin C. Biffinger4 Microbial fuel cells, in which living microorganisms convert chemical the fundamental limits and factors determining maximum power output from a microbial fuel cell. Quantized stepwise

  18. Recent improvements in materials for thin GaAs and multibandgap solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benner, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    The High Efficiency Concepts Program at SERI supports research on III-V compound semiconductors with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for terrestrial solar electric power. The outcome of this research may also affect the future of space photovoltaic cells. While the interest in thin-film, high-efficiency solar cells for terrestrial applications is driven principally by consideration of system costs, such cells would also improve the power density of space power arrays.

  19. Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Multiple Exciton Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, M. C.; Beard, M. C.; Johnson, J. C.; Murphy, J.; Ellingson, R. J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2005-11-01

    We have measured the quantum yield of the multiple exciton generation (MEG) process in quantum dots (QDs) of the lead-salt semiconductor family (PbSe, PbTe, and PbS) using fs pump-probe transient absorption measurements. Very high quantum yields (up to 300%) for charge carrier generation from MEG have been measured in all of the Pb-VI QDs. We have calculated the potential maximum performance of various MEG QD solar cells in the detailed balance limit. We examined a two-cell tandem PV device with singlet fission (SF), QD, and normal dye (N) absorbers in the nine possible series-connected combinations to compare the tandem combinations and identify the combinations with the highest theoretical efficiency. We also calculated the maximum efficiency of an idealized single-gap MEG QD solar cell with M multiplications and its performance under solar concentration.

  20. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

  1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Reforming for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells," Berichte derVan Dijkum, "The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Programme in thealkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. (Fuel cells

  2. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  3. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  4. Abstract--The growing popularity and success of fuel cells in aerospace, stationary power, and transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 Abstract-- The growing popularity and success of fuel cells in aerospace, stationary power runtime, and decreasing size. Di- rect-methanol fuel cell batteries have now been built and conformed to low cost technologies and chip-scale dimen- sions. Conventional fuel cell models, however, fail

  5. Simulation of Large-Area Silicon Solar Cells1 Gernot Heiser2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Simulation of Large-Area Silicon Solar Cells1 Gernot Heiser2 Pietro P. Altermatt3 The University of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In the past, however, such modelling could only be applied to produce an accurate model of a full-sized high-efficiency solar cell. We demon- strate the power

  6. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  7. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  8. Journal of Power Sources, Vol.165, issue 2, March 2007, pp.819-832. Abstract--Power management strategy is as significant as component sizing in achieving optimal fuel economy of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    strategy is as significant as component sizing in achieving optimal fuel economy of a fuel cell hybrid demonstrate that combined optimization can efficiently provide excellent fuel economy. 1. Introduction Power management strategy and component sizing affect vehicle performance and fuel economy considerably in hybrid

  9. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  10. Energy Storage System Sizing for Smoothing Power Generation , P. Bydlowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Energy Storage System Sizing for Smoothing Power Generation of Direct J. Aubry1 , P. Bydlowski 1 E-mail: judicael.aubry Abstract This paper examines the sizing energy storage system (ESS) for energy converter. Keywords: Energy Storage System (ESS), power smoothing, Direct Wave Energy Converter, Supercapacitor, Power

  11. The Hydrogen Atom with a Finite Sized Nucleus Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    The Hydrogen Atom with a Finite Sized Nucleus Frank Rioux This exercise explores the impact of nuclear size on the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom's electron. The traditional approach assumes that the proton is a dimensionless point charge, which is a very good approximation for the hydrogen atom. However

  12. Enhancing cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    Enhancing cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia Amit P. Khandhar, R cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia Amit P. Khandhar,1 R. Matthew & Engineering, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Clinical

  13. Network Dynamics of City Sizes, Trade Networks, and Conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.

    Network Dynamics of City Sizes, Trade Networks, and Conflict Doug White In collaboration world, scale-free ­ but they are not going to get us where we need to go What are the possibilites: city size hierarchies and how they are likely to be driven by trade networks Network realism

  14. Biodistribution Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Jianghong

    Biodistribution Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence the Biodistribution of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer- or peptide-coated 64 Cu-labeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter

  15. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  16. D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals A. M. Kovanen, D. J. Gillich, T. Z the conditions for D-D fusion in pyroelectric crystal accelerators. Three different pyroelectric crystal sizes are with the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. A. M

  17. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell having a metal anode wherein the metal is selected from zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal bromide having the same metal as the metal of the anode. The improvement described here comprises: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte, the complexing agent consisting solely of a quaternary ammonium salt of an N-organo substituted alpha amino acid, ester, or betaine.

  18. THE COLLISIONAL DIVOT IN THE KUIPER BELT SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, 1200 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-11-20

    This paper presents the results of collisional evolution calculations for the Kuiper Belt starting from an initial size distribution similar to that produced by accretion simulations of that region-a steep power-law large object size distribution that breaks to a shallower slope at r approx 1-2 km, with collisional equilibrium achieved for objects r approx< 0.5 km. We find that the break from the steep large object power law causes a divot, or depletion of objects at r approx 10-20 km, which, in turn, greatly reduces the disruption rate of objects with r approx> 25-50 km, preserving the steep power-law behavior for objects at this size. Our calculations demonstrate that the roll-over observed in the Kuiper Belt size distribution is naturally explained as an edge of a divot in the size distribution; the radius at which the size distribution transitions away from the power law, and the shape of the divot from our simulations are consistent with the size of the observed roll-over, and size distribution for smaller bodies. Both the kink radius and the radius of the divot center depend on the strength scaling law in the gravity regime for Kuiper Belt objects. These simulations suggest that the sky density of r approx 1 km objects is approx10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} objects per square degree. A detection of the divot in the size distribution would provide a measure of the strength of large Kuiper Belt objects, and constrain the shape of the size distribution at the end of accretion in the Kuiper Belt.

  19. Effect of Particle Size and Operating Conditions on Pt3Co PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Durability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gummalla, Mallika; Ball, Sarah; Condit, David; Rasouli, Somaye; Yu, Kang; Ferreira, Paulo; Myers, Deborah; Yang, Zhiwei

    2015-05-29

    The initial performance and decay trends of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) cathodes with Pt3Co catalysts of three mean particle sizes (4.9 nm, 8.1 nm, and 14.8 nm) with identical Pt loadings are compared. Even though the cathode based on 4.9 nm catalyst exhibited the highest initial electrochemical surface area (ECA) and mass activity, the cathode based on 8.1 nm catalyst showed better initial performance at high currents. Owing to the low mass activity of the large particles, the initial performance of the 14.8 nm Pt3Co-based electrode was the lowest. The performance decay rate of the electrodes with themore »smallest Pt3Co particle size was the highest and that of the largest Pt3Co particle size was lowest. Interestingly, with increasing number of decay cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V, 50 mV/s), the relative improvement in performance of the cathode based on 8.1 nm Pt3Co over the 4.9 nm Pt3Co increased, owing to better stability of the 8.1 nm catalyst. The electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) of the decayed membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) showed that the amount of Co in the membrane was lower for the larger particles, and the platinum loss into the membrane also decreased with increasing particle size. This suggests that the higher initial performance at high currents with 8.1 nm Pt3Co could be due to lower contamination of the ionomer in the electrode. Furthermore, lower loss of Co from the catalyst with increased particle size could be one of the factors contributing to the stability of ECA and mass activity of electrodes with larger cathode catalyst particles. To delineate the impact of particle size and alloy effects, these results are compared with prior work from our research group on size effects of pure platinum catalysts. The impact of PEMFC operating conditions, including upper potential, relative humidity, and temperature on the alloy catalyst decay trends, along with the EMPA analysis of the decayed MEAs, are reported.« less

  20. The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS WA 6150 Abstract This paper focuses on pv/diesel/battery hybrid RAPS systems meeting loads above 50 kWh. INTRODUCTION A diesel hybrid system, incorporating a battery and inverter, can often provide power at a lower

  1. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, John H. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Kemeny, John [University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); King, Fraser [Integrity Corrosion Consulting, Ltd., 6732 Silverview Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ross, Alan M. [Alan M. Ross and Associates, 1061 Gray Fox Circle Pleasanton, CA 94566 (Canada); Ross, Benjamen [Disposal Safety, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  2. Two experiments for the price of one? -- The role of the second oscillation maximum in long baseline neutrino experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Huber; Joachim Kopp

    2011-05-09

    We investigate the quantitative impact that data from the second oscillation maximum has on the performance of wide band beam neutrino oscillation experiments. We present results for the physics sensitivities to standard three flavor oscillation, as well as results for the sensitivity to non-standard interactions. The quantitative study is performed using an experimental setup similar to the Fermilab to DUSEL Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). We find that, with the single exception of sensitivity to the mass hierarchy, the second maximum plays only a marginal role due to the experimental difficulties to obtain a statistically significant and sufficiently background-free event sample at low energies. This conclusion is valid for both water Cherenkov and liquid argon detectors. Moreover, we confirm that non-standard neutrino interactions are very hard to distinguish experimentally from standard three-flavor effects and can lead to a considerable loss of sensitivity to \\theta_{13}, the mass hierarchy and CP violation.

  3. The Digital discrimination of neutron and ? ray using organic scintillation detector based on wavelet transform modulus maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang yun; Liu guofu; Yang jun; Luo xiaoliang

    2013-04-17

    A novel algorithm for the discrimination of neutron and {\\gamma}-ray with wavelet transform modulus maximum (WTMM) in an organic scintillation has been investigated. Voltage pulses arising from a BC501A organic liquid scintillation detector in a mixed radiation field have been recorded with a fast digital sampling oscilloscope. The performances of most pulse shape discrimination methods in scintillation detection systems using time-domain features of the pulses are affected intensively by noise. However, the WTMM method using frequency-domain features exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutron and {\\gamma}-ray events based on their different asymptotic decay trend between the positive modulus maximum curve and the negative modulus maximum curve in the scale-space plane. This technique has been verified by the corresponding mixed-field data assessed by the time-of-flight (TOF) method and the frequency gradient analysis (FGA) method. It is shown that the characterization of neutron and gamma achieved by the discrimination method based on WTMM is consistent with that afforded by TOF and better than FGA. Moreover, because the WTMM method is it self presented to eliminate the noise, there is no need to make any pretreatment for the pulses.

  4. Study of Cosmic-Ray Modulation during the Recent Unusual Minimum and Mini Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslam, O P M

    2015-01-01

    After a prolonged and deep solar minimum at the end of Cycle 23, the current Solar Cycle 24 is one of the lowest cycles. These two periods of deep minimum and mini maximum are separated by a period of increasing solar activity. We study the cosmic-ray intensity variation in relation with the solar activity, heliospheric plasma and field parameters, including the heliospheric current sheet, during these three periods (phases) of different activity level and nature: (a) a deep minimum, (b) an increasing activity period and (c) a mini maximum. We use neutron monitor data from stations located around the globe to study the rigidity dependence on modulation during the two extremes, i.e., minimum and maximum. We also study the time lag between the cosmic-ray intensity and various solar and interplanetary parameters separately during the three activity phases. We also analyze the role of various parameters, including the current sheet tilt, in modulating the cosmic-ray intensity during the three different phases. Th...

  5. Equations of State and Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars in Light of PSR J1614-2230

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Daniel Xu

    2012-10-31

    We shall examine various types of equations of state for neutron stars, which determine the structure of neutron stars. In particular, the relation between mass and radius of neutron stars is of primary consideration. By combining an equation of state (EOS) with the Tolmann-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations, we can determine the theoretical maximum mass of a neutron star for a given equation of state. One question we seek to answer is whether quark matter can exist in the core of a neutron star. In light of the discovery of pulsar PSR J1614-2230, the mass of which is observed to be 1.97 solar masses, a valid equation of state must achieve a maximum mass that is greater than 2 solar masses. To try to solve this problem, we experiment with different sets of parameters for the quark matter to try to meet the lower limit 2-solar-mass criterion. It is found that certain parameters contribute significantly to the maximum mass of a neutron star.

  6. The Silicon and Calcium High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from Early to Maximum Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xulin; Maeda, Keiichi; Sai, Hanna; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Zhou, Qi; Mo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The high-velocity features (HVFs) in optical spectra of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are examined with a large sample including very early-time spectra (e.g., t < -7 days). Multiple Gaussian fits are applied to examine the HVFs and their evolutions, using constraints on expansion velocities for the same species (i.e., SiII 5972 and SiII 6355). We find that strong HVFs tend to appear in SNe Ia with smaller decline rates (e.g., dm15(B)<1.4 mag), clarifying that the finding by Childress et al. (2014) for the Ca-HVFs in near-maximum-light spectra applies both to the Si-HVFs and Ca-HVFs in the earlier phase. The Si-HVFs seem to be more common in fast-expanding SNe Ia, which is different from the earlier result that the Ca-HVFs are associated with SNe Ia having slower SiII 6355 velocities at maximum light (i.e., Vsi). This difference can be due to that the HVFs in fast-expanding SNe Ia usually disappear more rapidly and are easily blended with the photospheric components when approaching the maximum light. Mor...

  7. Enhanced infrared photovoltaic efficiency in PbS nanocrystal/ semiconducting polymer composites: 600-fold increase in maximum power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    separation or charge mobility.8­11 In solar cells consisting of pyridine-capped CdSe in poly 3-hexylthiophene-based solar cells active in the visible region,2­5 nearly one-half of the solar energy reaching the Earth

  8. Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Ben

    Cell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip H. Jones,1,* Benjamin D. Simons,2 and Fiona M. Watt3,4 1MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research basement membrane (Figures 1D and 1F). On commitment to terminal differen- tiation, basal keratinocytes

  9. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  10. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  11. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Kawamoto; Toshihiro Matsuo

    2015-06-03

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably.

  12. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamoto, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably.

  13. (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) William Grove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    Fuel Cell #12; H2 O2 Power CH4 H2 Toyota H2 H2 #12; H2 ~253 #12; 2. 3. : 1. #12; #12;Fuel Cell #12; (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) 1839 William Grove A H2O2 H2O2 2H; Fuel Cell #12;!! PEMFC DMFC SOFC (60~200) (60~100) (600~1000) #12; Proton

  14. Optimal Urban Population Size: National vs Local Economic Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Kyung-min

    This paper explores whether the population size of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in Korea is efficient in terms of the national economy. To undertake this analysis, a recursively dynamic interregional computable general ...

  15. Characterization of Nanocrystalline CdSe by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    that recycling size exclusion chromatogra- phy can be applied to assess the fine details of a sample such as polymers and proteins.8-14 Fischer et al. first evaluated chromatography for separating aqueous colloidal

  16. Fiber Sizing Sensor and Controller | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sample size is large and usually consists of hundreds of fibers. FibrSizr consists of a laser instrument developed for the accurate real-time and in-situ determination of fiber...

  17. Energy Efficiency Programs for Small and Medium Sized Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    Abundant, low-cost energy efficiency opportunities exist in industries with a high representation of small and medium-sized manufacturers. Small industrial facilities with fewer than 250 employees consume 25% of all industrial energy. Designing...

  18. Size-Dependent Filtration of Non-Loaded Particulate Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Jessica

    2014-12-12

    This work investigates the filtration efficiency of uncoated, commercial Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) substrates of three porosities (55.8%, 61.1%, 65.0%) for particulate sizes representative of Gasoline Direct Injection ...

  19. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Size...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Complete Set of 1999 CBECS Detailed Tables Detailed Tables- of Buildings Table B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings b6.pdf (PDF file), b6.xls (Excel spreadsheet file), b6.txt...

  20. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  1. Knowledge-based sizing of cogeneration plant in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.M.; Griffiths, A.J.; Knight, I.P.

    1998-10-01

    Cogeneration is now accepted as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly means of meeting some of a building`s heating and power needs. Cogeneration plants have been installed in many buildings throughout the United Kingdom. Because of commercial pressures, building owners and cogeneration companies are keen to reduce the time and money involved in sizing units, and a decision support tool has been developed to aid the engineer in selecting the unit size. An initial assessment of the sizing can be made with only knowledge of the building`s type, size, and location, which enables the model to be used in new build situations. For an existing building, the accuracy of the predictions can then be progressively improved by providing more information about the building`s energy use, enabling the optimum unit to be identified. This paper briefly describes the model and demonstrates its use through an example feasibility study.

  2. Effective Size and Zeta Potential of Nanorods by Ferguson Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sunho

    The effective hydrodynamic size and free mobility of particles of varying aspect ratio were evaluated by Ferguson analysis of gel electrophoresis. The ligand layer thickness was estimated from the difference between the ...

  3. Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing: Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 * October 2005 Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing Every industrial facility has a piping network that carries water or other fluids. According to the U.S....

  4. Particle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    Particle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring Zachary E. Humes blowing and suction control flows­flows that are a fraction of the jet flow rate­to sharply change

  5. Grain size effects on the fatigue response of nanocrystalline materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanlon, Timothy, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    The resistance of metals and alloys to fatigue crack initiation and propagation is known to be influenced significantly by grain size. Based on a wealth of experimental results obtained from microcrystalline metals, where ...

  6. Measuring Cepheid Angular Sizes Directly using the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measuring Cepheid Angular Sizes Directly using the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. Kuchner, B Cepheids with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) to measure their angular diameters at H and K bands

  7. Incorporating cycle time uncertainty to improve railcar fleet sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagatheesan, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This thesis involves railcar fleet sizing strategies with a specific company in the chemical industry. We note that the identity of the company in this report has been disguised, and some portions of the fleets have been ...

  8. A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio; Toledo, Olga Moraes

    2010-09-15

    Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chain and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)

  9. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Kawamoto; Toshihiro Matsuo

    2015-08-04

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably. We show phase diagrams in various dimensions that clarify how the size changes as the strengths of repulsive and gravitational forces vary.

  10. The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

    2006-01-01

    the mammals of Britain and Europe. Houghton Mif?in, Boston.mammals of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. Cotgreave,of mammal body size in Europe Miguel Á. Rodríguez 1 *, Irene

  11. Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Song; Zhou Zili; Tian Ye; Lu Haiyang; Wang Wentao; Ju Jingjing; Xu Yi; Leng Yuxin; Ni Guoquan; Wang Cheng; Liu Jiansheng; Li Hongyu

    2013-04-15

    An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} (55 fs, 160 mJ at 800 nm) with ethane cluster (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298 K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons, whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1 keV, respectively, by Coulomb explosion of (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters. (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of 5 nm in radius are generated in the experiment, which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH{sub 4}){sub N} clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters with radius of about 9.6 nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308 K. While (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses, the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50 keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C{sub 2}D{sub 6}){sub N} will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

  12. Coherent regulation in yeast cell cycle network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nese Aral; Alkan Kabakcioglu

    2014-12-14

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast's cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield and exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  13. Cell cycle regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in T cells: antagonistic effects of nuclear envelope breakdown and chromatin condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mannioui, Abdelkrim . E-mail: karim.mannioui@chu-stlouis.fr; Schiffer, Cecile . E-mail: cecile.schiffer@voila.fr; Felix, Nathalie . E-mail: nathalie.felix@chu-stlouis.fr

    2004-11-10

    We examined the influence of mitosis on the kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in T cells. Single-round infection of cells arrested in G1b or allowed to synchronously proceed through division showed that mitosis delays virus integration until 18-24 h postinfection, whereas integration reaches maximum levels by 15 h in G1b-arrested cells. Subcellular fractionation of metaphase-arrested cells indicated that, while nuclear envelope disassembly facilitates docking of viral DNA to chromatin, chromosome condensation directly antagonizes and therefore delays integration. As a result of the balance between the two effects, virus integration efficiency is eventually up to threefold greater in dividing cells. At the single-cell level, using a green fluorescent protein-expressing reporter virus, we found that passage through mitosis leads to prominent asymmetric segregation of the viral genome in daughter cells without interfering with provirus expression.

  14. G:\\FPDC\\Contracts Unit\\GCCM\\Appendix D GCCM_Gen_Conditions_Cost_Worksheet.doc GUARANTEED MAXIMUM COST FOR REIMBURSABLE EXPENSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    G:\\FPDC\\Contracts Unit\\GCCM\\Appendix D GCCM_Gen_Conditions_Cost_Worksheet.doc GUARANTEED MAXIMUM constitute the Guaranteed Maximum Cost for Reimbursables (GMCR). 100 Personnel/Organization Quantity Unit Unit Price GMC 1 Project Executive 2 Project Manager 3 Assistant Project Manager 4 Estimator 5 Project

  15. Maximum mass of stable magnetized highly super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs: stable solutions with varying magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata, E-mail: upasana@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: bm@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-06-01

    We address the issue of stability of recently proposed significantly super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. We present stable solutions of magnetostatic equilibrium models for super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs pertaining to various magnetic field profiles. This has been obtained by self-consistently including the effects of the magnetic pressure gradient and total magnetic density in a general relativistic framework. We estimate that the maximum stable mass of magnetized white dwarfs could be more than 3 solar mass. This is very useful to explain peculiar, overluminous type Ia supernovae which do not conform to the traditional Chandrasekhar mass-limit.

  16. Global self-weighted and local quasi-maximum exponential likelihood estimators for ARMA--GARCH/IGARCH models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ke; 10.1214/11-AOS895

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the asymptotic theory of the quasi-maximum exponential likelihood estimators (QMELE) for ARMA--GARCH models. Under only a fractional moment condition, the strong consistency and the asymptotic normality of the global self-weighted QMELE are obtained. Based on this self-weighted QMELE, the local QMELE is showed to be asymptotically normal for the ARMA model with GARCH (finite variance) and IGARCH errors. A formal comparison of two estimators is given for some cases. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of these estimators, and a real example on the world crude oil price is given.

  17. Choreography of the transcriptome, photophysiology, and cell cycle of a minimal photoautotroph, prochlorococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zinser, Erik R.

    The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 has the smallest genome and cell size of all known photosynthetic organisms. Like all phototrophs at temperate latitudes, it experiences predictable daily variation in available ...

  18. NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Baur; M. Gervasi; P. Nieminen; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

    2014-02-10

    The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

  19. Fuel cells: A handbook (Revision 3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Stauffer, D.B.; Engleman, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of reaction directly into electrical energy. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode (negative electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric current. A fuel cell, although having similar components and several characteristics, differs from a typical battery in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device, that is, the maximum energy that is available is determined by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself. Thus, the battery will cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device which theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

  20. Adult Stem Cells & Homeostasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Weidong

    · Tissue models for studying adult stem cells · Experimental assays · Adult stem cell & Cancer · Adult stem in many organs/tissues · Adult stem cells self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis #12;Stem Cell & Progenitor ·long-term self-renewal ·generate all differentiated cells of an organ