Sample records for maximum cell charge

  1. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  2. Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

  3. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  4. Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

  5. Microcontroller Servomotor for Maximum Effective Power Point for Solar Cell System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khalidy, M.; Al-Rawi, O.; Noaman, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a Maximum Power point (MPP) tracking algorithm is developed using dual-axis servomotor feedback tracking control system. An efficient and accurate servomotor system is used to increase the system efficiency and reduces the solar cell...

  6. The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation and Battery Management System Tutor degradation mechanisms of a Li-ion cell based on LiCoO2", Journal of Power Sources #12;Lithium ions and e and Y. Fuentes. Computer simulations of a lithium-ion polymer battery and implications for higher

  7. Diffuse charge effects in fuel cell membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, ...

  8. Charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giazitzidis, Paraskevas; Bisquert, Juan; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a simple model for the geminate electron-hole separation process in organic photovoltaicssss cells, in order to illustrate the influence of dimensionality of conducting channels on the efficiency of the process. The Miller-Abrahams expression for the transition rates between nearest neighbor sites was used for simulating random walks of the electron in the Coulomb field of the hole. The non-equilibrium kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results qualitatively confirm the equilibrium estimations, although quantitatively the efficiency of the higher dimensional systems is less pronounced. The lifetime of the electron prior to recombination is approximately equal to the lifetime prior to dissociation. Their values indicate that electrons perform long stochastic walks before they are captured by the collector or recombined. The non-equilibrium free energy considerably differs from the equilibrium one. The efficiency of the separation process decreases with increasing the distance to the collector, and this...

  9. Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vaudrey; P. Baucour; F. Lanzetta; R. Glises

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

  10. Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaudrey, A; Lanzetta, F; Glises, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

  11. Charge recombination in organic small-molecule solar cells by Jiye Lee.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jiye

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To enhance the power conversion efficiency in organic solar cells, charge recombination loss needs to be minimized. First, we perform transient absorption spectroscopy to study the charge recombination dynamics of thin ...

  12. Microcontroller Servomotor for Maximum Effective Power Point for Solar Cell System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khalidy, M.; Al-Rawi, O.; Noaman, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a Maximum Power point (MPP) tracking algorithm is developed using dual-axis servomotor feedback tracking control system. An efficient and accurate servomotor system is used to increase the system efficiency ...

  13. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells Wendy U. Huynh ‡ ,devices such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting-

  14. Diffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells M. van Soestbergen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    of an electrochemical cell in response to a current step, including effects of diffuse charge or "space charge" nearDiffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells M. van Soestbergen,1,2 P/discharge cycle of batteries 1­5 and the startup behavior of fuel cells 6 are important topics. Time- dependent

  15. Maximizing the Life of a Lithium-Ion Cell by Optimization of Charging Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maximizing the Life of a Lithium-Ion Cell by Optimization of Charging Rates Saeed Khaleghi Rahimian currents as a function of cycle number during cycling for the lithium-ion cell are obtained. A single. The useful life of lithium-ion cells is of interest for many appli- cations. A substantial amount of work has

  16. Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    stack storage capacity, shortening the battery lifetime and, eventually, permanently damaging the cellsCell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling Carmelo Speltino but it reduces the computational load of multiple EKF for every cell in the stack. Keywords: Battery Equalization

  17. Ion adsorption and equilibrium distribution of charges in a cell of finite thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    281 Ion adsorption and equilibrium distribution of charges in a cell of finite thickness G. Barbero-consistente, on évalue la distribution d'équilibre de charges dans une cellule d'épaisseur finie, en présence d'adsorption surface est évaluée, en étendant le problème classique d'adsorption de Langmuir aux situations loin du

  18. Maximum Entropy Method and Charge Flipping, a Powerful Combination to Visualize the True Nature of Structural Disorder from in situ X-ray Powder Diffraction Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samy, A.; Dinnebier, R; van Smaalen, S; Jansen, M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a systematic approach, the ability of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to reconstruct the most probable electron density of highly disordered crystal structures from X-ray powder diffraction data was evaluated. As a case study, the ambient temperature crystal structures of disordered {alpha}-Rb{sub 2}[C{sub 2}O{sub 4}] and {alpha}-Rb{sub 2}[CO{sub 3}] and ordered {delta}-K{sub 2}[C{sub 2}O{sub 4}] were investigated in detail with the aim of revealing the 'true' nature of the apparent disorder. Different combinations of F (based on phased structure factors) and G constraints (based on structure-factor amplitudes) from different sources were applied in MEM calculations. In particular, a new combination of the MEM with the recently developed charge-flipping algorithm with histogram matching for powder diffraction data (pCF) was successfully introduced to avoid the inevitable bias of the phases of the structure-factor amplitudes by the Rietveld model. Completely ab initio electron-density distributions have been obtained with the MEM applied to a combination of structure-factor amplitudes from Le Bail fits with phases derived from pCF. All features of the crystal structures, in particular the disorder of the oxalate and carbonate anions, and the displacements of the cations, are clearly obtained. This approach bears the potential of a fast method of electron-density determination, even for highly disordered materials. All the MEM maps obtained in this work were compared with the MEM map derived from the best Rietveld refined model. In general, the phased observed structure factors obtained from Rietveld refinement (applying F and G constraints) were found to give the closest description of the experimental data and thus lead to the most accurate image of the actual disorder.

  19. Short communication Powering microbial electrolysis cells by capacitor circuits charged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    microbial fuel cell Marta C. Hatzell a , Younggy Kim b,1 , Bruce E. Logan b,* a Department of Mechanical Available online 12 December 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Microbial electrolysis cell Capacitor Energy based energy storage circuit using energy from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to increase MEC hydrogen

  20. CHARGE STABILITY IN LPCVD SILICON NITRIDE FOR SURFACE PASSIVATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHARGE STABILITY IN LPCVD SILICON NITRIDE FOR SURFACE PASSIVATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS Yongling Ren, Natalita M Nursam, Da Wang and Klaus J Weber Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia ABSTRACT

  1. Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has attracted wide- spread. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, United Kingdom *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Solid-state dye-sensitized

  2. Charge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    the large improvement in performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) achieved in 1991, mesoporousCharge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar sensitized solar cells, nanoparticle size, impedance, charge transport properties INTRODUCTION Since

  3. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  4. Dynamics of charge transport and recombination in ZnO nanorod array dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of charge transport and recombination in ZnO nanorod array dye-sensitized solar cells Alex nanoparticles. Introduction Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) comprise an increasingly attractive alternative photovoltaic technology.1,2 These photo- electrochemical cells use molecular dyes to sensitize high-area, wide

  5. High-Surface-Area Architectures for Improved Charge Transfer Kinetics at the Dark Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT: Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) redox shuttles other than triiodide/iodide have exhibited: dark electrode, inverse opal, dye cell, fill factor INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCsHigh-Surface-Area Architectures for Improved Charge Transfer Kinetics at the Dark Electrode in Dye-Sensitized

  6. Interpreting impedance spectra of organic photovoltaic cells—Extracting charge transit and recombination rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.; Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J., E-mail: rholmes@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Holst, James [New Products R and D, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 6000 N. Teutonia Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53209 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Impedance spectroscopy has been widely used to extract the electron-hole recombination rate constant in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). This technique is typically performed on OPVs held at open-circuit. Under these conditions, the analysis is simplified with recombination as the only pathway for the decay of excess charge carriers; transit provides no net change in the charge density. In this work, we generalize the application and interpretation of impedance spectroscopy for bulk heterojunction OPVs at any operating voltage. This, in conjunction with reverse bias external quantum efficiency measurements, permits the extraction of both recombination and transit rate constants. Using this approach, the transit and recombination rate constants are determined for OPVs with a variety of electron donor-acceptor pairings and compositions. It is found that neither rate constant individually is sufficient to characterize the efficiency of charge collection in an OPV. It is demonstrated that a large recombination rate constant can be accompanied by a large transit rate constant, thus fast recombination is not necessarily detrimental to OPV performance. Extracting the transit and recombination rate constants permits a detailed understanding of how OPV architecture and processing conditions impact the transient behavior of charge carriers, elucidating the origin of optimum device configurations.

  7. Charge density dependent nongeminate recombination in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rauh; C. Deibel; V. Dyakonov

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparent recombination orders exceeding the value of two expected for bimolecular recombination have been reported for organic solar cells in various publications. Two prominent explanations are bimolecular losses with a carrier concentration dependent prefactor due to a trapping limited mobility, and protection of trapped charge carriers from recombination by a donor--acceptor phase separation until reemission from these deep states. In order to clarify which mechanism is dominant we performed temperature and illumination dependent charge extraction measurements under open circuit as well as short circuit conditions at poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C$_{61}$butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC$_{61}$BM) and PTB7:PC$_{71}$BM (Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  8. Method Of Charging Maintenance-Free Nickel Metal Hydride Storage Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlureau, Thierry (Bordeaux, FR); Liska, Jean-Louis (Bordeaux, FR)

    1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of charging an industrial maintenance-free Ni-MH storage cell, the method comprising in combination a first stage at a constant current I.sub.1 lying in the range I.sub.c /10 to I.sub.c /2, and a second stage at a constant current I.sub.2 lying in the range I.sub.c /50 to I.sub.c /10, the changeover from the first stage to the second stage taking place when the time derivative of the temperature reaches a threshold value which varies as a function of the temperature at the time of the changeover.

  9. Spacecraft charging analysis with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deca, J.; Lapenta, G. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marchand, R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first results on the analysis of spacecraft charging with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, designed for running on massively parallel supercomputers. The numerical algorithm is presented, highlighting the implementation of the electrostatic solver and the immersed boundary algorithm; the latter which creates the possibility to handle complex spacecraft geometries. As a first step in the verification process, a comparison is made between the floating potential obtained with iPic3D and with Orbital Motion Limited theory for a spherical particle in a uniform stationary plasma. Second, the numerical model is verified for a CubeSat benchmark by comparing simulation results with those of PTetra for space environment conditions with increasing levels of complexity. In particular, we consider spacecraft charging from plasma particle collection, photoelectron and secondary electron emission. The influence of a background magnetic field on the floating potential profile near the spacecraft is also considered. Although the numerical approaches in iPic3D and PTetra are rather different, good agreement is found between the two models, raising the level of confidence in both codes to predict and evaluate the complex plasma environment around spacecraft.

  10. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)] [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey) [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  11. Analytical Investigations of Varying Cross Section Microstructures on Charge Transfer in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extended surface modeling concept (electrochemical fin) is applied to charge transport within the SOFC electrode microstructure using an analytical modeling approach analogous to thermal fin analysis. This model is distinct from similar approaches applied to SOFC electrode microstructure in its application of a governing equation that allows for variable cross-section geometry. The model presented is capable of replicating experimentally observed electrode behavior inclusive of sensitivity to microstructural geometry, which stands in contrast to existing models that apply governing equations analogous to a constant cross-section thermal fin equation. Insights learned from this study include: the establishment of a suite of dimensionless parameters and performance metrics that can be applied to assess electrode microstructure, the definition of microstructure-related transport regimes relevant to electrode design, and correlations that allow performance predictions for electrodes that provide cell structural support. Of particular note, the variable cross-section modeling approach motivates the definition of a sintering quality parameter that quantifies the degree of constriction within the conducting network of the electrode, a phenomenon that exerts influence over electrode polarization. One-dimensional models are presented for electrochemical fins of several cross-sectional geometries with the ultimate goal of developing a general tool that enables the prompt performance evaluation of electrode microstructures. Such a tool would facilitate SOFC microstructural design by focusing more detailed modeling efforts on the most promising microstructures.

  12. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ma, Jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Hu, Enyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Nam, Kyung -Wan [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Liquan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Wang, Zhaoxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ma, Jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Hu, Enyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Nam, Kyung -Wan [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Liquan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Wang, Zhaoxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials.more »The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  15. ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work done during the sixth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in three areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Calculation of the effect of space charge and morphology of porous bodies on the effective charge transfer resistance of porous composite cathodes. (3) The investigation of the three electrode system for the measurement of cathodic polarization using amperometric sensors.

  16. A multi-dimensional, energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit, electromagnetic Vlasov-Darwin particle-in-cell algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guangye

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For decades, the Vlasov-Darwin model has been recognized to be attractive for particle-in-cell (PIC) kinetic plasma simulations in non-radiative electromagnetic regimes, to avoid radiative noise issues and gain computational efficiency. However, the Darwin model results in an elliptic set of field equations that renders conventional explicit time integration unconditionally unstable. Here, we explore a fully implicit PIC algorithm for the Vlasov-Darwin model in multiple dimensions, which overcomes many difficulties of traditional semi-implicit Darwin PIC algorithms. The finite-difference scheme for Darwin field equations and particle equations of motion is space-time-centered, employing particle sub-cycling and orbit-averaging. The algorithm conserves total energy, local charge, canonical-momentum in the ignorable direction, and preserves the Coulomb gauge exactly. An asymptotically well-posed fluid preconditioner allows efficient use of large time steps and cell sizes, which are determined by accuracy consid...

  17. Binding energy of singlet excitons and charge transfer complexes in MDMO-PPV:PCBM solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kern, Julia; Deibel, Carsten; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of an external electric field on the photoluminescence intensity of singlet excitons and charge transfer complexes is investigated for a poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) diode and a bulk heterojunction of the PPV in combination with [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methylester (PCBM), respectively. The experimental data is related to the dissociation probability derived from the Onsager-Braun model. In this way, a lower limit for the singlet exciton binding energy of MDMO-PPV is determined as (327 +- 30) meV, whereas a significantly lower value of (203 +- 18) meV is extracted for the charge transfer complex in a MDMO-PPV:PCBM blend.

  18. MELE: Maximum Entropy Leuven Estimators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, Quirino

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Generalized Maximum Entropy Estimator of the Generaland Douglas Miller, Maximum Entropy Econometrics, Wiley andCalifornia Davis MELE: Maximum Entropy Leuven Estimators by

  19. Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Reconstruction PHYLIP and T-REX Exercises Outline 1 Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 2 Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests 3 Character

  20. Maximum Entropy Correlated Equilibria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Luis E.

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study maximum entropy correlated equilibria in (multi-player)games and provide two gradient-based algorithms that are guaranteedto converge to such equilibria. Although we do not provideconvergence rates for these ...

  1. Charge Dynamics in Solution-Processed Nanocrystalline CuInS¬2 Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpert, Jonathan E.; Morgenstern, Frederik S. F.; Ehrler, Bruno; Vaynzof, Yana; Credgington, Dan; Greenham, Neil C.

    2015-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Cell Produced From Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals. Nano. Res. Lett. 2010, 5, 1253–1256. 14. Konstantatos, G.; Sargent, E. H. Nanostructured Materials for Photon Detection. Nat. Nano. 2010, 5, 391-400. 15. Habas, S. E.; Platt, H. A. S.; Hest, M. F. A...

  2. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2006, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) charged a seven-person Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force with: * examining approaches...

  3. Received 10 May 2013 | Accepted 10 Oct 2013 | Published 8 Nov 2013 Probing single-to multi-cell level charge transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cell level charge transport in Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1 Xiaocheng Jiang1,*, Jinsong Hu2,*, Emily R energy into electricity, represent a potentially sustainable energy technology for the future. Here we report the single-bacterium level current measurements of Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1 to elucidate

  4. Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses-Márquez, Juan; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R., E-mail: wicalder@ing.uchile.cl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

  5. university-logo Maximum likelihood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullagh, Peter

    university-logo Maximum likelihood Applications and examples REML and residual likelihood Peter McCullagh REML #12;university-logo Maximum likelihood Applications and examples JAN: Some personal remarks... IC #12;university-logo Maximum likelihood Applications and examples Outline 1 Maximum likelihood REML

  6. An in-vivo study of electrical charge distribution on the bacterial cell wall by Atomic Force Microscopy in vibrating force mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Marliere; Samia Dhahri

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an in-vivo electromechanical Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study of charge distribution on the cell wall of Gram plus Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria, naturally adherent to a glass substrate, in physiological conditions. The method presented in this paper relies on a detailed study of AFM approach-retract curves giving the variation of the interaction force versus distance between tip and sample. In addition to classical height and mechanical (as stiffness) data, mapping of local electrical properties, as bacterial surface charge, was proved to be feasible at a spatial resolution better than few tens of nanometers. This innovative method relies on the measurement of the cantilever's surface stress through its deflection far from (higher than 10nm) the repulsive contact zone. The variations of surface stress come from modification of electrical surface charge of the cantilever (as in classical electrocapillary measurements) likely stemming from its charging during contact of both tip and sample electrical double layers. This method offers an important improvement in local electrical and electrochemical measurements at the solid-liquid interface particularly in high-molarity electrolytes when compared to technics focused on the direct use of electrostatic force. It thus opens a new way to directly investigate in-situ biological electrical surface processes involved in numerous practical and fundamental problems as bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cell, etc.

  7. Ambipolar blends of CuPc and C60: charge carrier mobility, electronic structure and its implications for solar cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Bruetting; M. Bronner; M. Goetzenbrugger; A. Opitz

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ambipolar transport has been realised in blends of the molecular hole conductor Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and the electron conducting fullerene C60. Charge carrier mobilities and the occupied electronic levels have been analyzed as a function of the mixing ratio using field-effect transistor measurements and photoelectron spectroscopy. These results are discussed in the context of photovoltaic cells based on these materials.

  8. Charge transport in zirconium doped anatase nanowires dye-sensitized solar cells: Trade-off between lattice strain and photovoltaic parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archana, P. S.; Gupta, Arunava [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, 250 Hackberry Lane, Shelby hall, Tuscaloosa 35401 Alabama (United States); Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconium (Zr) is doped up to 5 at.?% in anatase TiO{sub 2} nanowires by electrospinning and used as working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Variations observed in the photovoltaic parameters were correlated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, open circuit voltage decay, and X-ray diffraction measurements. Results show that homovalent substitution of Zr in TiO{sub 2} increased the chemical capacitance and electron diffusion coefficient which in turn decreased charge transport resistance and charge transit time. However, lattice strain due to size mismatch between the Zr{sup 4+} and Ti{sup 4+} ions decreased open circuit voltage and fill factor thereby setting a trade-off between doping concentration and photovoltaic properties.

  9. Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar [UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba); University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba)

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  10. Achieve maximum application availability and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Phil

    Highlights Achieve maximum application availability and data protection using SQL Server AlwaysOn and other high availability features Reduce planned downtime significantly with SQL Server on Windows and management of high availability and disaster recovery using integrated tools Achieve maximum application

  11. Original article Restricted maximum likelihood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Restricted maximum likelihood estimation of covariances in sparse linear models on the simplex algorithm of Nelder and Mead [40]. Kovac [29] made modifications that turned it into a stable

  12. Engineering Schottky Contacts in Open-Air Fabricated Heterojunction Solar Cells to Enable High Performance and Ohmic Charge Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Heffernan, Shane; Ievskaya, Yulia; Sadhanala, Aditya; Flewitt, Andrew; Friend, Richard H.; MacManus-Driscol, Judith L.; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    . Mater. 2010, 22, E254?E258. (10) Sarkar, K.; Braden, E. V.; Pogorzalek, S.; Yu, S.; Roth, S. V.; Mu?ller-Buschbaum, P. Monitoring Structural Dynamics of in Situ Spray-Deposited Zinc Oxide Films for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Chem... , 2112?2114. (17) Sarkar, K.; Braden, E. V.; Fro?schl, T.; Hu?sing, N.; Mu?ller- Buschbaum, P. Spray-Deposited Zinc Titanate Films Obtained via Sol?Gel Synthesis for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. J. Mater. Chem. A 2014, 2, 15008?15014. (18...

  13. An experimental and modeling study of isothermal charge/discharge behavior of commercial NiMH cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­MH) battery model is applied in conjunction with experimental characterization. Important geometric parameters and incorporated in the model. The kinetic parameters of the oxygen evolution reaction are also characterized using and discharge. The Ni electrode kinetic parameters are re-calibrated for the battery studied. The Ni­MH cell

  14. Journal of Power Sources 161 (2006) 13461355 Online estimation of the state of charge of a lithium ion cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to predict battery performance in the context of electric vehicles. Fuzzy-logic based models that can.e., extension of circuit analog models) were presented by Plett [19­21], but these are too empirical to pr, for a given set of properties of the electrodes. An electrochemical cell model is used to obtain an extended

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  16. Effects of proton-exchange membrane fuel-cell operating conditions on charge transfer resistances measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, Doug S [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are highly dependent on operating conditions, such as humidity and temperature. This study employs electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to measure the effects of operating parameters on internal proton and electron transport resistance mechanisms in the PEMFC. Current-density experiments have been performed to measure the power production in a 25 cm{sup 2} Nafion 117 PEMFC at varying operating conditions. These experiments have shown that low humidity and low temperature contribute to decreased power production. EIS is currently employed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in power production by calculating the specific resistances at various regions in the PEMFC. Experiments are performed at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C, feed humidities from 20 to 98%, and air stoichiometric ratios from 1.33 to 2.67. In all experiments, the hydrogen feed stoichiometric ratio was approximately 4.0. EIS is used to identify which transport steps limit the power production of the PEMFC over these ranges of conditions. The experimental data are analyzed via comparison to equivalent circuit models (ECMs), a technique that uses an electrical circuit to represent the electrochemical and transport properties of the PEMFC. These studies will aid in designing fuel cells that are more tolerant to wide-ranging operating conditions. In addition, optimal operating conditions for PEMFC operation can be identified.

  17. Influence of the Charge State on the Structures and Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Antibiotics with Cell-Wall Analogue Peptides: Influence of the Charge State on the Structures and Interactions of Vancomycin Antibiotics with Cell-Wall Analogue Peptides:...

  18. Maximum likelihood estimation for cooperative sequential adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Maximum likelihood estimation for cooperative sequential adsorption Mathew D. Penrose and Vadim;Maximum likelihood estimation for cooperative sequential adsorption M.D. Penrose, Department of the region. Keywords: cooperative sequential adsorption, space-time point pro- cess, maximum likelihood

  19. Estimating a mixed strategy employing maximum entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MIXED STRATEGY EMPLOYING MAXIMUM ENTROPY by Amos Golan LarryMixed Strategy Employing Maximum Entropy Amos Golan Larry S.Abstract Generalized maximum entropy may be used to estimate

  20. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

  1. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

  2. Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

  3. Maximum Entropy Method Approach to $?$ Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahiro Imachi; Yasuhiko Shinno; Hiroshi Yoneyama

    2004-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In Monte Carlo simulations of lattice field theory with a $\\theta$ term, one confronts the complex weight problem, or the sign problem. This is circumvented by performing the Fourier transform of the topological charge distribution $P(Q)$. This procedure, however, causes flattening phenomenon of the free energy $f(\\theta)$, which makes study of the phase structure unfeasible. In order to treat this problem, we apply the maximum entropy method (MEM) to a Gaussian form of $P(Q)$, which serves as a good example to test whether the MEM can be applied effectively to the $\\theta$ term. We study the case with flattening as well as that without flattening. In the latter case, the results of the MEM agree with those obtained from the direct application of the Fourier transform. For the former, the MEM gives a smoother $f(\\theta)$ than that of the Fourier transform. Among various default models investigated, the images which yield the least error do not show flattening, although some others cannot be excluded given the uncertainty related to statistical error.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully. Sample Workplace Charging Policy More Documents & Publications...

  5. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

    2008-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  6. Maximum-likelihood density modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A likelihood-based density modification approach is developed that can incorporate expected electron-density information from a wide variety of sources. A likelihood-based approach to density modification is developed that can be applied to a wide variety of cases where some information about the electron density at various points in the unit cell is available. The key to the approach consists of developing likelihood functions that represent the probability that a particular value of electron density is consistent with prior expectations for the electron density at that point in the unit cell. These likelihood functions are then combined with likelihood functions based on experimental observations and with others containing any prior knowledge about structure factors to form a combined likelihood function for each structure factor. A simple and general approach to maximizing the combined likelihood function is developed. It is found that this likelihood-based approach yields greater phase improvement in model and real test cases than either conventional solvent flattening and histogram matching or a recent reciprocal-space solvent-flattening procedure [Terwilliger (1999 ?), Acta Cryst. D55, 1863–1871].

  7. CHANGES IN THE ELECTRICAL SURFACE CHARGE AND TRANSPLANTATION PROPERTIES OF TA3 ASCITES TUMOR CELLS DURING SHORT-TERM MAINTENANCE IN AN ISOTONIC SALT SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenforde, T.S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CELLS DURING SHORT-TERM MAINTENANCE IN AN ISOTONIC SALTcells. In conclusion, the maintenance of TA3 ascites cellslhort-term tumor cell maintenance in vitro. REFERENCES

  8. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries (Management Publication)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  9. Optimization Online - Efficient Heuristic Algorithms for Maximum ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. G. J. Myklebust

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 19, 2012 ... Efficient Heuristic Algorithms for Maximum Utility Product Pricing Problems. T. G. J. Myklebust(tmyklebu ***at*** csclub.uwaterloo.ca)

  10. Effects of Iodine Content in the Electrolyte on the Charge Transfer and Power Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under Low Light Intensities Jo-Lin Lan, Tzu-Chien Wei,*, Shien-Ping Feng of dye-sensitized solar cells under lower light intensities. By analyzing the current-voltage behavior results in an exclusive application for indoor use. 1. INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has

  11. High Efficiency, Low EMI and Positioning Tolerant Wireless Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low EMI and Positioning Tolerant Wireless Charging of EVs 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wireless Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  13. Maximum Theoretical Efficiency Limit of Photovoltaic Devices: Effect of Band Structure on Excited State Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    Maximum Theoretical Efficiency Limit of Photovoltaic Devices: Effect of Band Structure on Excited a theoretical limit for the maximum energy conversion efficiency of single junction photovoltaic cells for the efficiency variations observed for real photovoltaic devices today.4-6 Here, we show that the extractable

  14. Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Using Only Single Current Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    » «Solar cell systems» Abstract This paper describes a novel strategy of maximum-power-point tracking point using only a single current sensor, i.e., a Hall-effect CT. Output power of the photovoltaic can-climbing method is employed to seek the maximum power point, using the output power obtained from only the current

  15. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  16. Charged particle acceleration in dense plasma channels I. Y. Dodin and N. J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charged particle acceleration in dense plasma channels I. Y. Dodin and N. J. Fisch Department amplitude and the energy of a charged particle accelerated in a plasma channel. The maximum energy gain accelerators can operate at much higher magnitudes as they utilize electrostatic fields due to charge

  17. Maximum entropy segmentation of broadcast news 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Heidi; Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    speech recognizer and subsequently segmenting the text into utterances and topics. A maximum entropy approach is used to build statistical models for both utterance and topic segmentation. The experimental work addresses the effect on performance...

  18. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  19. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited field emission due to counter-streaming ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M. C., E-mail: mingchiehlin@gmail.com; Lu, P. S. [NanoScience Simulation Laboratory, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China) [NanoScience Simulation Laboratory, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Plasma Theory and Simulation Group, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chang, P. C. [NanoScience Simulation Laboratory, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China) [NanoScience Simulation Laboratory, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Plasma Theory and Simulation Group, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Ragan-Kelley, B. [Plasma Theory and Simulation Group, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Plasma Theory and Simulation Group, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Verboncoeur, J. P. [Plasma Theory and Simulation Group, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Plasma Theory and Simulation Group, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, field emission has attracted increasing attention despite the practical limitation that field emitters operate below the Child-Langmuir space charge limit. By introducing counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the space charge limited field emission (SCLFE) current can be dramatically enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of SCLFE by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a benchmark or comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions.

  20. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  1. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  2. Improvement of charge injection efficiency in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells by chemical modification of metal oxides with organic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudo, Naomi; Honda, Satoshi; Shimazaki, Yuta; Ohkita, Hideo; Ito, Shinzaburo; Benten, Hiroaki [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of chemical modification of metal oxide surface with dye molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid solid solar cells was studied by using double layered cells consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a flat layer of dense TiO{sub 2}. The external quantum efficiency of the chemically modified cell was nearly double that expected from the photosensitizing effect of the dye molecules. The additional increase shows that the chemical modification with dye molecules can serve not only as a photosensitizer but mainly as an energy funnel and/or an electronic mediator to significantly improve the electron injection efficiency from P3HT to TiO{sub 2}.

  3. Electrically charged pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

  4. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  5. Maximum Likelihood Haplotyping for General Pedigrees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Nir

    networks. The use of Bayesian networks enables efficient maximum likelihood haplotyping for more complex for the variables of the Bayesian network. The presented optimization algorithm also improves likelihood Analysis, Pedigree, superlink. Abstract Haplotype data is valuable in mapping disease-susceptibility genes

  6. Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

  7. Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

  8. Integrating Correlated Bayesian Networks Using Maximum Entropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of generating a joint distribution for a pair of Bayesian networks that preserves the multivariate marginal distribution of each network and satisfies prescribed correlation between pairs of nodes taken from both networks. We derive the maximum entropy distribution for any pair of multivariate random vectors and prescribed correlations and demonstrate numerical results for an example integration of Bayesian networks.

  9. Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

  10. Method for charging a hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Keyser, M.A.; Benson, D.K.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10{sup {minus}4} torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then subjecting the sample of getter material to a low temperature vacuum bake-out process. Application of the method results in a reversible hydrogen getter which is highly charged to maximum capacities of hydrogen and which concurrently exhibits minimum hydrogen vapor pressures at room temperatures. 9 figs.

  11. QCD Level Density from Maximum Entropy Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinji Ejiri; Tetsuo Hatsuda

    2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method to calculate the QCD level density directly from the thermodynamic quantities obtained by lattice QCD simulations with the use of the maximum entropy method (MEM). Understanding QCD thermodynamics from QCD spectral properties has its own importance. Also it has a close connection to phenomenological analyses of the lattice data as well as experimental data on the basis of hadronic resonances. Our feasibility study shows that the MEM can provide a useful tool to study QCD level density.

  12. A global maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Joseph, 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design, and validation of a maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter capable of following the true global maximum power point in the presence of other local maximum. It does this without the ...

  13. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  14. articulatorily constrained maximum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    weight spanning forests. Amitabha Bagchi; Ankur Bhargava; Torsten Suel 2005-01-01 27 Maximum Entropy Correlated Equilibria MIT - DSpace Summary: We study maximum entropy...

  15. General Groves takes charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    takes charge Colonel James C. Marshall, head of the DSM project (Development of Substitute Materials), did not make much headway, yet he did accomplish some things that lasted....

  16. The electrostatic charge generation characteristics of transformer oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James Rensselaer

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , reaching maximum values at 1. 9 X 10 " S/c, and then gradually decreasing as the conductivity continued to increase. CHARGE (x E-8 coulombs) 8 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 TIME (seconds) REYNOLDS NUMBER 3083 ~ 4404 ~ 5284 IB 7047 FIGURE 13 New... (x E-7 coulombs) 25 20 15 10 0 0 200 TIME (seconds) 300 400 REYNOLDS NUM8ER 3083 ~ 4404 ~ 5284 ~ 7047 FIGURE 15 New Transformer Oil Average Charge vs Time ]. . 9 X IQ ' 5/o 70 CHARGE (x E-7 coulombs) 60 5D 40 30 20 10 0 50 10D...

  17. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  18. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  19. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  20. Electrically charged compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

  1. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  2. Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Zeev R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    state-of-the-art photovoltaic cells. Prog. Photovolt: Res.efficiency of an ideal photovoltaic cell with charge carrierefficiency of photovoltaic and photoelectrolysis cells with

  3. Charge Separation via Strain in Silicon Zhigang Wu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    been used in hybrid organic polymer/inorganic nanocrystal solar cells2,3 and in dye-sensitized solar cells by morphology control, where effectively a type-II homojunction is formed and charge separation expensive solar cells, comparable to the costs of fossil-based electricity, from abundant, environmen- tally

  4. Parametrization of extended Gaussian disorder models from microscopic charge transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    -size effects at small charge densities, the data is fitted to the uncorrelated and correlated extended Gaussian to compound synthesis. 1 Introduction The optimization of organic photovoltaic cells,1,2 light emitting diodes,3 and field effect tran- sistors4 requires the improvement of the charge-carrier mobility, µ

  5. An integrator based on motion and electrostatic charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamran-Savehi, Mostafa

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with respect to the circuit time constant. Furthermore, the maximum 35 voltage of the oondenser C 1 ~ suggested to be 1 of the uax- 10 inun voltage of C vhich helps the charge displacensnt even in position a . For the raver tibia integrator, three...

  6. Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene solar cells April 13, 2010 at 3pm36-428 Koen Vandewal Linkping University vandewal-small abstract: For an efficient...

  7. Exciton/Charge-transfer Electronic Couplings in Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    Charge transfer (CT) states and excitons are important in energy conversion processes that occur in organic light emitting devices (OLEDS) and organic solar cells. An ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method for ...

  8. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  9. Maximum screening fields of superconducting multilayer structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurevich, Alex

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a multilayer comprised of alternating thin superconducting and insulating layers on a thick substrate can fully screen the applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating fields $H_s$ of both the superconducting layers and the substrate, the maximum Meissner field is achieved at an optimum multilayer thickness. For instance, a dirty layer of thickness $\\sim 0.1\\; \\mu$m at the Nb surface could increase $H_s\\simeq 240$ mT of a clean Nb up to $H_s\\simeq 290$ mT. Optimized multilayers of Nb$_3$Sn, NbN, some of the iron pnictides, or alloyed Nb deposited onto the surface of the Nb resonator cavities could potentially double the rf breakdown field, pushing the peak accelerating electric fields above 100 MV/m while protecting the cavity from dendritic thermomagnetic avalanches caused by local penetration of vortices.

  10. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Joye; V. Brosco; F. Hekking

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping in a general context. We consider closed systems characterized by a slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonian depending on an external parameter $\\alpha$. The current operator, defined as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to $\\alpha$, once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system over that time span. We determine the first two leading terms in the adiabatic parameter of this pumped charge under the usual gap hypothesis. In particular, in case the Hamiltonian is time periodic and has discrete non-degenerate spectrum, the charge pumped over a period is given to leading order by the derivative with respect to $\\alpha$ of the corresponding dynamical and geometric phases.

  11. International aeronautical user charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

  12. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  13. 1/12/14 EDACafe.com -Video Roundup -Smitha Rao and J.C. Chiao Design Micro-Windmills to Charge Cell Phones www10.edacafe.com/blogs/videoroundup/2014/01/11/smitha-rao-and-j-c-chiao-design-micro-windmills-to-charge-cell-phones/ 1/5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    a micro- windmill that generates wind energy and may become an innovative solution to cell phone batteries constantly in need of recharging and home energy generation where large windmills are not preferred. Click Workstation Launch Wows `em In the Big Apple Recent Comments » Daniel Payne on Dell Precision M3800 ultra thin

  14. Charge trapping by anionic quinones electrostatically bound to a highly charged cationic quinone-viologen polymer or a cationic poly(3-viologen-thiophene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hable, C.T.; Crooks, R.M.; Valentine, J.R.; Giasson, R.; Wrighton, M.S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States))

    1993-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge associated with quinone reduction is trapped at low pH in systems composed of sulfonated anthraquinones electrostatically bound to a polymer derived from a monomer consisting of a quinone unit flanked by two viologen units. Each monomer repeat unit carries 6 equiv of positive charge which can be charge compensated by monosulfonated anthraquinone to yield a quinone-viologen ratio of nearly 7:2. At low pH, electrostatic binding is persistent, and the amount of trapped charge is 90% of the theoretical maximum. Some of the electrostatically bound quinine can be replaced with Fe(CN)[sub 6][sup 3[minus

  15. Maximum Throughput Power Control in CDMA Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    Maximum Throughput Power Control in CDMA Wireless Networks Anastasios Giannoulis Department introduce cross­layer, distributed power control algorithms that guarantee maximum possible data throughput performing dynamic routing and scheduling together with power control. The cross­layer interaction consists

  16. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

  17. Implications of Rapid Charging and Chemo-Mechanical Degradation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Mohammed Fouad

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................... 18 Charging Protocols ................................................................................................... 30 Electrode Design Parameters .................................................................................... 44 Summary...) and the accompanied internal cell resistances in (b), during the charge/discharge pulse followed by CCCV ...... 44 Figure 20 The effect of electrode design parameters with (3 C-rate) CCCV charging starting at 25?C and using self-heating thermal condition (h = 28 W...

  18. GMM Estimation of a Maximum Entropy Distribution with Interval Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    GMM Estimation of a Maximum Entropy Distribution with Interval Data Ximing Wu* and Jeffrey M estimate it using a simple yet flexible maximum entropy density. Our Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed maximum entropy density is able to approximate various distributions extremely well. The two

  19. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Wu, Peng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  20. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Javed, W. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  1. Application of Maximum Entropy Method to Lattice Field Theory with a Topological Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Imachi; Y. Shinno; H. Yoneyama

    2003-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In Monte Carlo simulation, lattice field theory with a $\\theta$ term suffers from the sign problem. This problem can be circumvented by Fourier-transforming the topological charge distribution $P(Q)$. Although this strategy works well for small lattice volume, effect of errors of $P(Q)$ becomes serious with increasing volume and prevents one from studying the phase structure. This is called flattening. As an alternative approach, we apply the maximum entropy method (MEM) to the Gaussian $P(Q)$. It is found that the flattening could be much improved by use of the MEM.

  2. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  3. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  4. Holographic Charge Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Blake; Aristomenis Donos; David Tong

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reissner-Nordstrom black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law

  5. Overview of charge symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge independence and symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature. The observations of the small charge symmetry breaking effects and the consequences of those effects are reviewed. The effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and the off shell dependence {ital q}{sup 2} of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing are stressed. We find that models which predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} dependence of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing seem also to predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} variation for the {rho}{sup 0}-{gamma}* matrix element, in contradiction with experiment.

  6. Solvent eects on the charge storage ability in polypyrrole T.F. Otero, I. Cantero, H. Grande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otero, Toribio Fernández

    charge is in¯uenced by the conditions of synthesis of the poly- mer and by the charge storage variables electrode was an Ag/AgCl electrode from Crison Instruments which introduced directly into the cell. Pyrrole

  7. Charged anisotropic matter with linear or nonlinear equation of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varela, Victor; Rahaman, Farook; Ray, Saibal; Chakraborty, Koushik; Kalam, Mehedi [Institute of Mathematics, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700 010, West Bengal (India); Department of Physics, Government Training College, Hooghly 712103 (India)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ivanov pointed out substantial analytical difficulties associated with self-gravitating, static, isotropic fluid spheres when pressure explicitly depends on matter density. Simplifications achieved with the introduction of electric charge were noticed as well. We deal with self-gravitating, charged, anisotropic fluids and get even more flexibility in solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations. In order to discuss analytical solutions we extend Krori and Barua's method to include pressure anisotropy and linear or nonlinear equations of state. The field equations are reduced to a system of three algebraic equations for the anisotropic pressures as well as matter and electrostatic energy densities. Attention is paid to compact sources characterized by positive matter density and positive radial pressure. Arising solutions satisfy the energy conditions of general relativity. Spheres with vanishing net charge contain fluid elements with unbounded proper charge density located at the fluid-vacuum interface. Notably the electric force acting on these fluid elements is finite, although the acting electric field is zero. Net charges can be huge (10{sup 19}C) and maximum electric field intensities are very large (10{sup 23}-10{sup 24} statvolt/cm) even in the case of zero net charge. Inward-directed fluid forces caused by pressure anisotropy may allow equilibrium configurations with larger net charges and electric field intensities than those found in studies of charged isotropic fluids. Links of these results with charged strange quark stars as well as models of dark matter including massive charged particles are highlighted. The van der Waals equation of state leading to matter densities constrained by cubic polynomial equations is briefly considered. The fundamental question of stability is left open.

  8. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  9. AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced...

  10. Charge and spin topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaev, Yu. V., E-mail: kopaev@sci.lebedev.ru; Gorbatsevich, A. A.; Belyavskii, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The topologically nontrivial states of matter-charge and spin topological insulators, which exhibit, respectively, properties of the integer quantum Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect-are discussed. The topological characteristics (invariant with respect to weak adiabatic changes in the Hamiltonian parameters) which lead to such states are considered. The model of a 2D hexagonal lattice having symmetries broken with respect to time reversal and spatial inversion which was proposed by Haldane and marked the beginning of unprecedented activity in the study of topologically nontrivial states is discussed. This model relates the microscopic nature of the symmetry breaking with respect to the time reversal to the occurrence of spontaneous orbital currents which circulate within a unit cell. Such currents become zero upon summation over the unit cell, but they may form spreading current states at the surface which are similar to the edge current states under the quantum Hall effect. The first model of spontaneous currents (exciton insulator model) is considered, and the possibility of implementing new topologically nontrivial states in this model is discussed.

  11. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  12. Determination of time zero from a charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Jesse Andrew (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, system and computer program is used to determine a linear track having a good fit to a most likely or expected path of charged particle passing through a charged particle detector having a plurality of drift cells. Hit signals from the charged particle detector are associated with a particular charged particle track. An initial estimate of time zero is made from these hit signals and linear tracks are then fit to drift radii for each particular time-zero estimate. The linear track having the best fit is then searched and selected and errors in fit and tracking parameters computed. The use of large and expensive fast detectors needed to time zero in the charged particle detectors can be avoided by adopting this method and system.

  13. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  14. A Near Maximum Likelihood Decoding Algorithm for MIMO Systems ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin Mobasher

    2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 3, 2005 ... A Near Maximum Likelihood Decoding Algorithm for MIMO Systems Based ... models are also used for soft output decoding in MIMO systems.

  15. Computing the Maximum Volume Inscribed Ellipsoid of a Polytopic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianzhe Zhen

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 23, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper introduces a method for computing the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid and k-ball of a projected polytope. It is known ...

  16. Solving Maximum-Entropy Sampling Problems Using Factored Masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel Burer

    2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 2, 2005 ... Abstract: We present a practical approach to Anstreicher and Lee's masked spectral bound for maximum-entropy sampling, and we describe ...

  17. A masked spectral bound for maximum-entropy sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurt Anstreicher

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 16, 2003 ... Abstract: We introduce a new masked spectral bound for the maximum-entropy sampling problem. This bound is a continuous generalization of ...

  18. Maximum entropy generation in open systems: the Fourth Law?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umberto Lucia

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops an analytical and rigorous formulation of the maximum entropy generation principle. The result is suggested as the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics.

  19. annual maximum extent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Sixteenth Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS2002) A Maximum Entropy Approach To Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites...

  20. analog fixed maximum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state for given entanglement which can be viewed as an analogue of the Jaynes maximum entropy principle. Pawel Horodecki; Ryszard Horodecki; Michal Horodecki 1998-05-22...

  1. IBM Research Report Solving Maximum-Entropy Sampling ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 28, 2005 ... Solving Maximum-Entropy Sampling Problems Using. Factored Masks. Samuel Burer. Department of Management Sciences. University of Iowa.

  2. A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

  3. General 2 charge geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marika Taylor

    2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.

  4. On the Proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gluck

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

  5. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stål

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  6. Appendix 22 Draft Nutrient Management Plan and Total Maximum Daily

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appendix 22 Draft Nutrient Management Plan and Total Maximum Daily Load for Flathead Lake, Montana. #12;11/01/01 DRAFT i October 30, 2001 Draft Nutrient Management Plan and Total Maximum Daily Load..............................................................................................................................2-11 SECTION 3.0 APPLICABLE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

  7. FAST SPEAKER ADAPTION VIA MAXIMUM PENALIZED LIKELIHOOD KERNEL REGRESSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang Wai Hung "Ivor"

    of MLLR using non- linear regression. Specifically, kernel regression is applied with appropriate of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong ABSTRACT Maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) has], and transformation-based methods, most notably, maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) adap- tation [3]. However

  8. Digital tomosynthesis mammography using a parallel maximum likelihood reconstruction method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meleis, Waleed

    Digital tomosynthesis mammography using a parallel maximum likelihood reconstruction method Tao Wu , a Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 b Dept. of Electrical and Computer on an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm, is developed to provide fast reconstruction for digital

  9. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.Energy University Managing Increased Charging

  10. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from TarasaName4ServicesTribalWorkplace Charging Summit

  11. NERSC HPSS Charging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1AllocationsNOVA Portal: Submit2014 2015Charging HPSS

  12. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  13. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  14. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  15. Linearized semiclassical initial value time correlation functions with maximum entropy analytic continuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jian

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1992). J. Skilling, in Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods,1989). S. F. Gull, in Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods,with the classical maximum entropy (CME) technique (MEAC-

  16. Improved constraints on transit time distributions from argon 39: A maximum entropy approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzer, Mark; Primeau, Francois W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gull (1991), Bayesian maximum entropy image reconstruction,Atlantic venti- lated? Maximum entropy inversions of bottlefrom argon 39: A maximum entropy approach Mark Holzer 1,2

  17. Quantum Statistics Basis, Thermodynamic Analogies and the Degree of Confidence for Maximum Entropy Restoration and Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soffer, Bernard H; Kikuchi, Ryoichi

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Confidence for Maximum Entropy Restoration and EstimationApril 3, 1992) The Maximum Entropy method, using physicalare discussed. Maximum Entropy (ME) estimation has been

  18. 2/16/2014 Can You Charge Your Mobile With Wind Turbine? -TechTxr http://www.techtxr.com/can-charge-mobile-wind-turbine/ 1/7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    maximum functionality. Home Wind Generators comparestores.net Looking for Wind Turbines? Compare Latest Turbine? | February 9, 2014 Wind Energy Wind Mill Wind Power Wind Mobile About Wind Power Wind Generator Mobile Generator Mobile Building #12;2/16/2014 Can You Charge Your Mobile With Wind Turbine

  19. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The report also examines when consumers want to recharge vehicles, and to what extent pricing and incentives can encourage consumers to charge during off-peak periods. Evaluating...

  20. Multichannel Blind Identification: From Subspace to Maximum Likelihood Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Lang

    Multichannel Blind Identification: From Subspace to Maximum Likelihood Methods LANG TONG, MEMBER, IEEE, AND SYLVIE PERREAU Invited Paper A review of recent blind channel estimation algorithms is pre-- Blind equalization, parameter estimation, system identification. I. INTRODUCTION A. What Is Blind

  1. Maximum containment : the most controversial labs in the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruzek, Alison K. (Allison Kim)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2002, following the September 11th attacks and the anthrax letters, the United States allocated money to build two maximum containment biology labs. Called Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) facilities, these labs were built to ...

  2. On the maximum pressure rise rate in boosted HCCI operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildman, Craig B.

    This paper explores the combined effects of boosting, intake air temperature, trapped residual gas fraction, and dilution on the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) in a boosted single cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with ...

  3. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  4. Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Reed Solomon Codes Madhu Sudan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudan, Madhu

    Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Reed Solomon Codes Madhu Sudan Abstract We present a randomized and Welch [4] (see, for instance, Gem- mell and Sudan [9]). In this paper we present an algorithm which

  5. Multi-Class Classification with Maximum Margin Multiple Kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomkins, Andrew

    (named OBSCURE and UFO-MKL, respectively) are used to optimize primal versions of equivalent problems), the OBSCURE and UFO-MKL algorithms are compared against MCMKL #12;Multi-Class Classification with Maximum

  6. Maximum entropy method and oscillations in the diffraction cone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Dumbrajs; J. Kontros; A. Lengyel

    2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The maximum entropy method has been applied to investigate the oscillating structure in the pbarp- and pp-elastic scattering differential cross-section at high energy and small momentum transfer. Oscillations satisfying quite realistic reliability criteria have been found.

  7. Filtering Additive Measurement Noise with Maximum Entropy in the Mean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henryk Gzyl; Enrique ter Horst

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this note is to show how the method of maximum entropy in the mean (MEM) may be used to improve parametric estimation when the measurements are corrupted by large level of noise. The method is developed in the context on a concrete example: that of estimation of the parameter in an exponential distribution. We compare the performance of our method with the bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches.

  8. The maximum entropy tecniques and the statistical description of systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Z. Belashev; M. K. Suleymanov

    2001-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is used to determine the distribution functions of physical values. MENT naturally combines required maximum entropy, the properties of a system and connection conditions in the form of restrictions imposed on the system. It can, therefore, be employed to statistically describe closed and open systems. Examples in which MENT is used to describe equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, as well as steady states that are far from being in thermodynamic equilibrium, are discussed.

  9. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  10. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  11. CP$^{N-1}$ model with the theta term and maximum entropy method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahiro Imachi; Yasuhiko Shinno; Hiroshi Yoneyama

    2004-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A $\\theta$ term in lattice field theory causes the sign problem in Monte Carlo simulations. This problem can be circumvented by Fourier-transforming the topological charge distribution $P(Q)$. This strategy, however, has a limitation, because errors of $P(Q)$ prevent one from calculating the partition function ${\\cal Z}(\\theta)$ properly for large volumes. This is called flattening. As an alternative approach to the Fourier method, we utilize the maximum entropy method (MEM) to calculate ${\\cal Z}(\\theta)$. We apply the MEM to Monte Carlo data of the CP$^3$ model. It is found that in the non-flattening case, the result of the MEM agrees with that of the Fourier transform, while in the flattening case, the MEM gives smooth ${\\cal Z}(\\theta)$.

  12. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    . Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due to sacrificial charge. " Solar Min Solar Max increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage! Catherine Grant, Bev LaMarr, Eric Miller and Mark Bautz (MIT Kavli Institute)! Instruments and Data! · Front

  13. Maximum-Entropy Meshfree Method for Compressible and Near-Incompressible Elasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, A; Puso, M A; Sukumar, N

    2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical integration errors and volumetric locking in the near-incompressible limit are two outstanding issues in Galerkin-based meshfree computations. In this paper, we present a modified Gaussian integration scheme on background cells for meshfree methods that alleviates errors in numerical integration and ensures patch test satisfaction to machine precision. Secondly, a locking-free small-strain elasticity formulation for meshfree methods is proposed, which draws on developments in assumed strain methods and nodal integration techniques. In this study, maximum-entropy basis functions are used; however, the generality of our approach permits the use of any meshfree approximation. Various benchmark problems in two-dimensional compressible and near-incompressible small strain elasticity are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and optimal convergence in the energy norm of the maximum-entropy meshfree formulation.

  14. Electrically Charged One and a Half Monopole Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosy Teh; Ban-Loong Ng; Khai-Ming Wong

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, we have discussed the coexistence of a finite energy one-half monopole and a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole of opposite magnetic charges. In this paper, we would like to introduce electric charge into this new monopoles configuration, thus creating a one and a half dyon. This new dyon possesses finite energy, magnetic dipole moment and angular momentum and is able to precess in the presence of an external magnetic field. Similar to the other dyon solutions, when the Higgs self-coupling constant, $\\lambda$, is nonvanishing, this new dyon solution possesses critical electric charge, total energy, magnetic dipole moment, and dipole separation as the electric charge parameter, $\\eta$, approaches one. The electric charge and total energy increase with $\\eta$ to maximum critical values as $\\eta\\rightarrow1$ for all nonvanishing $\\lambda$. However, the magnetic dipole moment decreases with $\\eta$ when $\\lambda\\geq0.1$ and the dipole separation decreases with $\\eta$ when $\\lambda\\geq1$ to minimum critical values as $\\eta\\rightarrow1$.

  15. Charged Scalar-Tensor Boson Stars: Equilibrium, Stability and Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. W. Whinnett; Diego F. Torres

    1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study charged boson stars in scalar-tensor (ST) gravitational theories. We analyse the weak field limit of the solutions and analytically show that there is a maximum charge to mass ratio for the bosons above which the weak field solutions are not stable. This charge limit can be greater than the GR limit for a wide class of ST theories. We numerically investigate strong field solutions in both the Brans Dicke and power law ST theories. We find that the charge limit decreases with increasing central boson density. We discuss the gravitational evolution of charged and uncharged boson stars in a cosmological setting and show how, at any point in its evolution, the physical properties of the star may be calculated by a rescaling of a solution whose asymptotic value of the scalar field is equal to its initial asymptotic value. We focus on evolution in which the particle number of the star is conserved and we find that the energy and central density of the star decreases as the cosmological time increases. We also analyse the appearance of the scalarization phenomenon recently discovered for neutron stars configurations and, finally, we give a short discussion on how making the correct choice of mass influences the argument over which conformal frame, the Einstein frame or the Jordan frame, is physical.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    York: Wiley; 1998. Short circuit current of a solar cell [circuit voltage, short circuit current and maximum powerinterface. (ii) Short circuit current (I sc ); In the ideal

  17. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  18. Piston-assisted charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

  19. Analysis of the Sommer technique for measurement of the mobility for charges in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, R.; Dahm, A.J.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique for measuring the low-frequency ac mobility of free surface charges first employed by Sommer is analyzed for arbitrary values of driving frequency, charge mobility, and effective mass. Analytical expressions for the cell admittance are given for both rectangular and circular geometries in the absence of edge corrections.

  20. Minimum Entangling Power is Close to Its Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianxin Chen; Zhengfeng Ji; David W Kribs; Bei Zeng

    2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a quantum gate $U$ acting on a bipartite quantum system, its maximum (average, minimum) entangling power is the maximum (average, minimum) entanglement generation with respect to certain entanglement measure when the inputs are restricted to be product states. In this paper, we mainly focus on the 'weakest' one, i.e., the minimum entangling power, among all these entangling powers. We show that, by choosing von Neumann entropy of reduced density operator or Schmidt rank as entanglement measure, even the 'weakest' entangling power is generically very close to its maximal possible entanglement generation. In other words, maximum, average and minimum entangling powers are generically close. We then study minimum entangling power with respect to other Lipschitiz-continuous entanglement measures and generalize our results to multipartite quantum systems. As a straightforward application, a random quantum gate will almost surely be an intrinsically fault-tolerant entangling device that will always transform every low-entangled state to near-maximally entangled state.

  1. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (6851 Carpenter St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Prakash, Jai (2205 Arbor Cir. 8, Downers Grove, IL 60515)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  3. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  4. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  5. NGC2613, 3198, 6503, 7184: Case studies against `maximum' disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Fuchs

    1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Decompositions of the rotation curves of NGC2613, 3198, 6505, and 7184 are analysed. For these galaxies the radial velocity dispersions of the stars have been measured and their morphology is clearly discernible. If the parameters of the decompositions are chosen according to the `maximum' disk hypothesis, the Toomre Q stability parameter is systematically less than one and the multiplicities of the spiral arms as expected from density wave theory are inconsitent with the observed morphologies of the galaxies. The apparent Q<1 instability, in particular, is a strong argument against the `maximum' disk hypothesis.

  6. When are microcircuits well-modeled by maximum entropy methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access When are microcircuits well-modeled by maximum entropy methods? Andrea K Barreiro1*, Eric T Shea-Brown1, Fred M Rieke2,3, Julijana Gjorgjieva4 From Nineteenth Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2010 San... Antonio, TX, USA. 24-30 July 2010 Recent experiments in retina and cortex have demon- strated that pairwise maximum entropy (PME) methods can approximate observed spiking patterns to a high degree of accuracy [1,2]. In this paper we examine...

  7. Valence quark distributions of the proton from maximum entropy approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rong Wang; Xurong Chen

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an attempt of maximum entropy principle to determine valence quark distributions in the proton at very low resolution scale $Q_0^2$. The initial three valence quark distributions are obtained with limited dynamical information from quark model and QCD theory. Valence quark distributions from this method are compared to the lepton deep inelastic scattering data, and the widely used CT10 and MSTW08 data sets. The obtained valence quark distributions are consistent with experimental observations and the latest global fits of PDFs. Maximum entropy method is expected to be particularly useful in the case where relatively little information from QCD calculation is given.

  8. Valence quark distributions of the proton from maximum entropy approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Rong

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an attempt of maximum entropy principle to determine valence quark distributions in the proton at very low resolution scale $Q_0^2$. The initial three valence quark distributions are obtained with limited dynamical information from quark model and QCD theory. Valence quark distributions from this method are compared to the lepton deep inelastic scattering data, and the widely used CT10 and MSTW08 data sets. The obtained valence quark distributions are consistent with experimental observations and the latest global fits of PDFs. Maximum entropy method is expected to be particularly useful in the case where relatively little information from QCD calculation is given.

  9. Assessing complexity by means of maximum entropy models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chliamovitch, Gregor; Velasquez, Lino

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a characterization of complexity based on successive approximations of the probability density describing a system by means of maximum entropy methods, thereby quantifying the respective role played by different orders of interaction. This characterization is applied on simple cellular automata in order to put it in perspective with the usual notion of complexity for such systems based on Wolfram classes. The overlap is shown to be good, but not perfect. This suggests that complexity in the sense of Wolfram emerges as an intermediate regime of maximum entropy-based complexity, but also gives insights regarding the role of initial conditions in complexity-related issues.

  10. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EVS26 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS26 Los Angeles, California, May 6-9, 2012 A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging...

  11. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  12. Collective thermoelectrophoresis of charged colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arghya Majee; Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally driven colloidal transport is, to a large extent, due to the thermoelectric or Seebeck effect of the charged solution.We show that, contrary to the generally adopted single-particle picture, the transport coefficient depends on the colloidal concentration. For solutions that are dilute in the hydrodynamic sense, collective effects may significantly affect the thermophoretic mobility. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental observations on polyelectrolytes and charged particles and suggest that for charged colloids collective behavior is the rule rather than the exception.

  13. The Energy of Charged Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Philip Solovej

    2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

  14. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  15. Cell Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    were 1.50 observed after exposing charged carbonLi cell at Cell: LiGraphiteEC-EMC(LiPF ) 100 o C for several hours. These gases are similar to 1.25 6 1st cycle:...

  16. Maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Th. Maschberger; C. J. Clarke

    2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have made a new compilation of observations of maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number from the literature, which we analyse for consistency with the predictions of a simple random drawing hypothesis for stellar mass selection in clusters. Previously, Weidner and Kroupa have suggested that the maximum stellar mass is lower, in low mass clusters, than would be expected on the basis of random drawing, and have pointed out that this could have important implications for steepening the integrated initial mass function of the Galaxy (the IGIMF) at high masses. Our compilation demonstrates how the observed distribution in the plane of maximum stellar mass versus membership number is affected by the method of target selection; in particular, rather low n clusters with large maximum stellar masses are abundant in observational datasets that specifically seek clusters in the environs of high mass stars. Although we do not consider our compilation to be either complete or unbiased, we discuss the method by which such data should be statistically analysed. Our very provisional conclusion is that the data is not indicating any striking deviation from the expectations of random drawing.

  17. Maximum likelihood estimation of the equity Efstathios Avdis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahana, Michael J.

    premium is usually estimated by taking the sample mean of stock returns and subtracting a measure the expected return on the aggregate stock market less the government bill rate, is of central importance an alternative esti- mator, based on maximum likelihood, that takes into account informa- tion contained

  18. STATE OF CALIFORNIA MAXIMUM RATED TOTAL COOLING CAPACITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-27-HERS Maximum Rated Total Cooling Capacity of the installed system (Btu/hr) 3b Sum of the ARI Rated Total Cooling Capacities of multiple systems installed Cooling Capacities of the installed cooling systems must be calculated and entered in row 3b. 4a MRTCC

  19. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  20. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena, Hugo Eduardo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  1. annual maximum water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual maximum water First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 ORIGINAL PAPER The distribution of...

  2. BRANCH-CUT-AND-PROPAGATE FOR THE MAXIMUM k ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    maximum k-colorable subgraph problem consists of selecting a k-color- able induced subgraph of ..... a symmetric subgroup Sp of Aut(G) acts on Vp for all p ? [s]. Let Vp = {vp. 1,...,vp qp. } ...... [9] J. Crawford, M. Ginsberg, E. Luks, and A. Roy.

  3. Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel with energy harvesting. We assume that the side information of both the channel states and energy harvesting

  4. What is a Hurricane? Tropical system with maximum sustained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Andrew-Category 4· Category 4 Hurricane - Winds 131-155 mph. Wall failures in homes and complete roofHurricane 101 #12;What is a Hurricane? · Tropical system with maximum sustained surface wind of 74 mph or greater. A hurricane is the worst and the strongest of all tropical systems. · Also known

  5. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    of Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) systems a power converter is often inserted between the TEG system that the TEG system produces the maximum power. However, if the conditions, e.g. temperature, health, age, etc find the best compromise of all modules. In order to increase the power production of the TEG system

  6. Efficiency Improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency Operating Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    Efficiency Improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency Operating Strategy Daniel Pohlenz. These are characterized by high efficiency and high torque as well as power density. The generation of reference currents that the MTPC method deviates considerably from the best efficiency under certain boundary conditions. The use

  7. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena, Hugo Eduardo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  8. Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

  9. MARTIN'S MAXIMUM AND TOWER FORCING SEAN COX AND MATTEO VIALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viale, Matteo

    MARTIN'S MAXIMUM AND TOWER FORCING SEAN COX AND MATTEO VIALE Abstract. There are several examples, the Reflection Princi- ple (RP) implies that if I is a tower of ideals which concentrates on the class GIC1 of 1 [16], shows that if PFA+ or MM holds and there is an inaccessible cardinal, then there is a tower

  10. Retrocommissioning Case Study - Applying Building Selection Criteria for Maximum Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luskay, L.; Haasl, T.; Irvine, L.; Frey, D.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RETROCOMMISSIONING CASE STUDY ?Applying Building Selection Criteria for Maximum Results? Larry Luskay, Tudi Haasl, Linda Irvine Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Portland, Oregon Donald Frey Architectural Energy Corporation Boulder.... The building was retrocommissioned by Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. (PECI), in conjunction with Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The building-specific goals were: 1) Obtain cost-effective energy savings from optimizing operation...

  11. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the intermediate band solar cell under nonideal space chargeInGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 381 (band impact ionization and solar cell efficiency,” J. Appl.

  12. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  13. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  14. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in Magnetite (Fe3O4) (100) Surfaces from First Principles. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Electric vehicle chargers (otherwise known as...

  16. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  17. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fayolle; T. Bickel; A. Würger

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  18. Jet Charge at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Krohn; Tongyan Lin; Matthew D. Schwartz; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the Standard Model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-Standard-Model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pile-up, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as Standard Model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically-decaying W bosons in t-tbar events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multi-hadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte-Carlo fragmentation models.

  19. Detailed Calculation of Test-Mass Charging in the LISA Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Araujo; P. Wass; D. Shaul; G. Rochester; T. J. Sumner

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic charging of the LISA test masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to energetic particles in the space environment has implications in the design and operation of the gravitational inertial sensors and can affect the quality of the science data. Robust predictions of charging rates and associated stochastic fluctuations are therefore required for the exposure scenarios expected throughout the mission. We report on detailed charging simulations with the Geant4 toolkit, using comprehensive geometry and physics models, for Galactic cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei. These predict positive charging rates of 50 +e/s (elementary charges per second) for solar minimum conditions, decreasing by half at solar maximum, and current fluctuations of up to 30 +e/s/Hz^{1/2}. Charging from sporadic solar events involving energetic protons was also investigated. Using an event-size distribution model, we conclude that their impact on the LISA science data is manageable. Several physical processes hitherto unexplored as potential charging mechanisms have also been assessed. Significantly, the kinetic emission of very low-energy secondary electrons due to bombardment of the inertial sensors by primary cosmic rays and their secondaries can produce charging currents comparable with the Monte Carlo rates.

  20. Bighorns Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE): Amplitude Response to Different Seismic Charge Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, S. H., Killer, K. C., Worthington, L. L., Snelson, C. M.

    2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrary to popular belief, charge weight is not the most important engineering parameter determining the seismic amplitudes generated by a shot. The scientific literature has long claimed that the relationship, A ~R2L1/2, where A is the seismic amplitude generated by a shot, R is the radius of the seismic charge and L is the length of that charge, holds. Assuming the coupling to the formation and the pressure generated by the explosive are constants, this relationship implies that the one should be able to increase the charge radius while decreasing the charge length and obtain more seismic amplitude with less charge weight. This has significant implications for the economics of lithospheric seismic shots, because shallower holes and small charge sizes decrease cost. During the Bighorns Array Seismic Experiment (BASE) conducted in the summer of 2010, 24 shots with charge sizes ranging from 110 to 900 kg and drill hole diameters of 300 and 450 mm were detonated and recorded by an array of up to 2000 single-channel Texan seismographs. Maximum source-receiver offset of 300 km. Five of these shots were located within a one-acre square in an effort to eliminate coupling effects due to differing geological formations. We present a quantitative comparison of the data from these five shots to experimentally test the equation above.

  1. Maximum Entropy Principle and the Higgs Boson Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alves, Alexandre; da Silva, Roberto

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A successful connection between Higgs boson decays and the Maximum Entropy Principle is presented. Based on the information theory inference approach we determine the Higgs boson mass as $M_H= 125.04\\pm 0.25$ GeV, a value fully compatible to the LHC measurement. This is straightforwardly obtained by taking the Higgs boson branching ratios as the target probability distributions of the inference, without any extra assumptions beyond the Standard Model. Yet, the principle can be a powerful tool in the construction of any model affecting the Higgs sector. We give, as an example, the case where the Higgs boson has an extra invisible decay channel. Our findings suggest that a system of Higgs bosons undergoing a collective decay to Standard Model particles is among the most fundamental ones where the Maximum Entropy Principle applies.

  2. Maximum Entropy Principle and the Higgs Boson Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre Alves; Alex G. Dias; Roberto da Silva

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A successful connection between Higgs boson decays and the Maximum Entropy Principle is presented. Based on the information theory inference approach we determine the Higgs boson mass as $M_H= 125.04\\pm 0.25$ GeV, a value fully compatible to the LHC measurement. This is straightforwardly obtained by taking the Higgs boson branching ratios as the target probability distributions of the inference, without any extra assumptions beyond the Standard Model. Yet, the principle can be a powerful tool in the construction of any model affecting the Higgs sector. We give, as an example, the case where the Higgs boson has an extra invisible decay channel. Our findings suggest that a system of Higgs bosons undergoing a collective decay to Standard Model particles is among the most fundamental ones where the Maximum Entropy Principle applies.

  3. Max '91: flare research at the next solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, B.; Canfield, R.; Bruner, M.; Emslie, G.; Hildner, E.; Hudson, H.; Hurford, G.; Lin, R.; Novick, R.; Tarbell, T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided.

  4. Maximum Entry and Mandatory Separation Ages for Certain Security Employees

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The policy establishes the DOE policy on maximum entry and mandatory separation ages for primary or secondary positions covered under special statutory retirement provisions and for those employees whose primary duties are the protection of officials of the United States against threats to personal safety or the investigation, apprehension, and detention of individuals suspected or convicted of offenses against the criminal laws of the United States. Admin Chg 1, dated 12-1-11, cancels DOE P 310.1.

  5. Maximum entropy method for reconstruction of the CMB images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Bajkova

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approach for the accurate reconstruction of cosmic microwave background distributions from observations containing in addition to the primary fluctuations the radiation from unresolved extragalactic point sources and pixel noise. The approach uses some effective realizations of the well-known maximum entropy method and principally takes into account {\\it a priori} information about finiteness and spherical symmetry of the power spectrum of the CMB satisfying the Gaussian statistics.

  6. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  7. Occam's Razor Cuts Away the Maximum Entropy Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudnicki, ?ukasz

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I show that the maximum entropy principle can be replaced by a more natural assumption, that there exists a phenomenological function of entropy consistent with the microscopic model. The requirement of existence provides then a unique construction of the related probability density. I conclude the letter with an axiomatic formulation of the notion of entropy, which is suitable for exploration of the non-equilibrium phenomena.

  8. PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.

    2007-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.

  9. Some interesting consequences of the maximum entropy production principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martyushev, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Division (Russian Federation)], E-mail: mlm@ecko.uran.ru

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two nonequilibrium phase transitions (morphological and hydrodynamic) are analyzed by applying the maximum entropy production principle. Quantitative analysis is for the first time compared with experiment. Nonequilibrium crystallization of ice and laminar-turbulent flow transition in a circular pipe are examined as examples of morphological and hydrodynamic transitions, respectively. For the latter transition, a minimum critical Reynolds number of 1200 is predicted. A discussion of this important and interesting result is presented.

  10. Beyond Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Maximum entropy hyperensembles out-of-equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1957). J. Skilling, in Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods,45–52. J. Skilling, in Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods,e C. C. Rodriguez, in Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods,

  11. Deriving the continuity of maximum-entropy basis functions via variational analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukumar, N.; Wets, R. J. -B.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and V. J. DellaPietra, A maximum entropy approach to naturalJ. and R. K. Bryan, Maximum entropy image reconstruction:Heidelberg, Continuity of maximum-entropy basis functions p

  12. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  13. Critical Points of the Electric Field from a Collection of Point Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N; Weinkauf, T

    2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric field around a molecule is generated by the charge distribution of its constituents: positively charged atomic nuclei, which are well approximated by point charges, and negatively charged electrons, whose probability density distribution can be computed from quantum mechanics. For the purposes of molecular mechanics or dynamics, the charge distribution is often approximated by a collection of point charges, with either a single partial charge at each atomic nucleus position, representing both the nucleus and the electrons near it, or as several different point charges per atom. The critical points in the electric field are useful in visualizing its geometrical and topological structure, and can help in understanding the forces and motion it induces on a charged ion or neutral dipole. Most visualization tools for vector fields use only samples of the field on the vertices of a regular grid, and some sort of interpolation, for example, trilinear, on the grid cells. There is less risk of missing or misinterpreting topological features if they can be derived directly from the analytic formula for the field, rather than from its samples. This work presents a method which is guaranteed to find all the critical points of the electric field from a finite set of point charges. To visualize the field topology, we have modified the saddle connector method to use the analytic formula for the field.

  14. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  15. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    MeV). Anti-correlated with the solar cycle. Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due background" which depends on solar cycle and activity." XIS energy scale and line width as a function of cut increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage

  16. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  17. Magnetic moment versus tensor charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mekhfi

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We express the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the baryon tensor charges, considering the quarks as relativistic interacting objects. Once tensor charges get measured accurately, the formula for the baryon magnetic moment will serve to extract precise information on the quark anomalous magnetic moment, the quark effective mass and the ratio of the quark constituent mass to the quark effective mass. The analogous formula for the baryon electric dipole moment is of no great use as it gets eventually sizable contributions from various CP- violating sources not necessary associated to the quark electric dipole moment.

  18. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature ionic liquids under constant-current charging conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xikai [ORNL] [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhao, Hui [University of Nevada, Las Vegas] [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University] [Clemson University

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report detailed simulation results on the formation dynamics of an electrical double layer (EDL) inside an electrochemical cell featuring room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) enclosed between two planar electrodes. Under relatively small charging currents, the evolution of cell potential during charging can be suitably predicted by the Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum model proposed recently (M. Z. Bazant, B. D. Storey, and A. A. Kornyshev, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 046102, 2011). Under very large charging currents, the cell potential shows pronounced oscillation during the initial stage of charging, a feature not captured by the continuum model. Such oscillation originates from the sequential growth of the ionic space charge layers near the electrode surface, allowing the evolution of EDLs in RTILs with time, an atomistic process difficult to visualize experimentally, to be studied by analyzing the cell potential under constant current charging conditions. While the continuum model cannot predict the potential oscillation under such far-from-equilibrium charging conditions, it can nevertheless qualitatively capture the growth of cell potential during the later stage of charging. Improving the continuum model by introducing frequency-dependent dielectric constant and density-dependent ion diffusion coefficients may help to further extend the applicability of the model. Keywords: ionic

  19. Better Nonlinear Models from Noisy Data: Attractors with Maximum Likelihood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick E. McSharry; Leonard A. Smith

    1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to nonlinear modelling is presented which, by incorporating the global behaviour of the model, lifts shortcomings of both least squares and total least squares parameter estimates. Although ubiquitous in practice, a least squares approach is fundamentally flawed in that it assumes independent, normally distributed (IND) forecast errors: nonlinear models will not yield IND errors even if the noise is IND. A new cost function is obtained via the maximum likelihood principle; superior results are illustrated both for small data sets and infinitely long data streams.

  20. Application of Maximum Entropy Method to Dynamical Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan Clowser; Costas Strouthos

    2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Maximum Entropy Method is applied to dynamical fermion simulations of the (2+1)-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This model is particularly interesting because at T=0 it has a broken phase with a rich spectrum of mesonic bound states and a symmetric phase where there are resonances, and hence the simple pole assumption of traditional fitting procedures breaks down. We present results extracted from simulations on large lattices for the spectral functions of the elementary fermion, the pion, the sigma, the massive pseudoscalar meson and the symmetric phase resonances.

  1. Improving predictability of time series using maximum entropy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregor Chliamovitch; Alexandre Dupuis; Bastien Chopard; Anton Golub

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss how maximum entropy methods may be applied to the reconstruction of Markov processes underlying empirical time series and compare this approach to usual frequency sampling. It is shown that, at least in low dimension, there exists a subset of the space of stochastic matrices for which the MaxEnt method is more efficient than sampling, in the sense that shorter historical samples have to be considered to reach the same accuracy. Considering short samples is of particular interest when modelling smoothly non-stationary processes, for then it provides, under some conditions, a powerful forecasting tool. The method is illustrated for a discretized empirical series of exchange rates.

  2. Reducing Degeneracy in Maximum Entropy Models of Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvát, Szabolcs; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Jaynes's maximum entropy principle, exponential random graphs provide a family of principled models that allow the prediction of network properties as constrained by empirical data. However, their use is often hindered by the degeneracy problem characterized by spontaneous symmetry-breaking, where predictions simply fail. Here we show that degeneracy appears when the corresponding density of states function is not log-concave. We propose a solution to the degeneracy problem for a large class of models by exploiting the nonlinear relationships between the constrained measures to convexify the domain of the density of states. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on examples, including on Zachary's karate club network data.

  3. Improving predictability of time series using maximum entropy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chliamovitch, Gregor; Chopard, Bastien; Golub, Anton

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss how maximum entropy methods may be applied to the reconstruction of Markov processes underlying empirical time series and compare this approach to usual frequency sampling. It is shown that, at least in low dimension, there exists a subset of the space of stochastic matrices for which the MaxEnt method is more efficient than sampling, in the sense that shorter historical samples have to be considered to reach the same accuracy. Considering short samples is of particular interest when modelling smoothly non-stationary processes, for then it provides, under some conditions, a powerful forecasting tool. The method is illustrated for a discretized empirical series of exchange rates.

  4. Excited nucleon spectrum from lattice QCD with maximum entropy method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Sasaki; S. Sasaki; T. Hatsuda; M. Asakawa

    2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study excited states of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD with the spectral analysis using the maximum entropy method. Our simulations are performed on three lattice sizes $16^3\\times 32$, $24^3\\times 32$ and $32^3\\times 32$, at $\\beta=6.0$ to address the finite volume issue. We find a significant finite volume effect on the mass of the Roper resonance for light quark masses. After removing this systematic error, its mass becomes considerably reduced toward the direction to solve the level order puzzle between the Roper resonance $N'(1440)$ and the negative-parity nucleon $N^*(1535)$.

  5. Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. James D. Batteas Organic molecules such as porphyrins and alkanethiols are currently being investigated for applications such as sensors, light-emitting diodes and single electron transistors. Porphyrins are stable, highly..., molecules have shown their potential for applications such as information storage, charge separation, single electron transistors, current routers and gates and continue to be designed for use in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors...

  6. System and method for collisional activation of charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Yehia M; Belov, Mikhail E; Prior, David C

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A collision cell is disclosed that provides ion activation in various selective modes. Ion activation is performed inside selected segments of a segmented quadrupole that provides maximum optimum capture and collection of fragmentation products. The invention provides collisional cooling of precursor ions as well as product fragments and further allows effective transmission of ions through a high pressure interface into a coupled mass analysis instrument.

  7. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  8. RELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    experience little change while those using the electronic cutoff would drift due to ageing components and changing parameters. The first few shots using the electronic cutoff were less reliable than subsequentRELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS Clint Sprott July 30, 1965 University of Wisconsin

  9. Synthetic Peptides Use the Force to Influence Cell Survival

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this study investigated how positively charged PAs interact with cells when water-hating properties and hydrogen bonding (a force that holds the nanofibers together) are altered....

  10. Electrical conductivity and charge diffusion in thermal QCD from the lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gert Aarts; Chris Allton; Alessandro Amato; Pietro Giudice; Simon Hands; Jon-Ivar Skullerud

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a lattice QCD calculation of the charge diffusion coefficient, the electrical conductivity and various susceptibilities of conserved charges, for a range of temperatures below and above the deconfinement crossover. The calculations include the contributions from up, down and strange quarks. We find that the diffusion coefficient is of the order of 1/(2\\pi T) and has a dip around the crossover temperature. Our results are obtained with lattice simulations containing 2+1 dynamical flavours on anisotropic lattices. The Maximum Entropy Method is used to construct spectral functions from correlators of the conserved vector current.

  11. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe results of data collected through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  12. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive a SOC estimator for suitable for multiple lithium ion battery chemistries. Proved the system robustness of charge (SoC) of multiple types of lithium ion battery (LiB) cells with adaptive extended Kalman filter

  13. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  14. Maximum Margin Clustering for State Decomposition of Metastable Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When studying a metastable dynamical system, a prime concern is how to decompose the phase space into a set of metastable states. Unfortunately, the metastable state decomposition based on simulation or experimental data is still a challenge. The most popular and simplest approach is geometric clustering which is developed based on the classical clustering technique. However, the prerequisites of this approach are: (1) data are obtained from simulations or experiments which are in global equilibrium and (2) the coordinate system is appropriately selected. Recently, the kinetic clustering approach based on phase space discretization and transition probability estimation has drawn much attention due to its applicability to more general cases, but the choice of discretization policy is a difficult task. In this paper, a new decomposition method designated as maximum margin metastable clustering is proposed, which converts the problem of metastable state decomposition to a semi-supervised learning problem so that...

  15. Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooyberghs, Hans; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O; Broeck, Christian Van den

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power $\\eta$ takes the form 1/2+c\\Delta \\mu + O(\\Delta \\mu^2), with 1/2 a universal constant and $\\Delta \\mu$ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in $\\eta$ is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model we obtain \\eta = 1/(\\theta +1), with \\theta >0 the power of $\\Delta \\mu$ in the transport equation

  16. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, George E. (West Chicago, IL); Dawson, John W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t.sub.max -t.sub.min) of a series of paired time signals t.sub.1 and t.sub.2 varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t.sub.1 .ltoreq.t.sub.2 and t.sub.1 +t.sub.2 equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t.sub.min) of the first signal t.sub.1 closer to t.sub.max and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20-800.

  17. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t[sub max]--t[sub min]) of a series of paired time signals t[sub 1] and t[sub 2] varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t[sub 1][<=]t[sub 2] and t[sub 1]+t[sub 2] equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t[sub min]) of the first signal t[sub 1] closer to t[sub max] and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20--800. 6 figs.

  18. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  19. Improved Maximum Entropy Analysis with an Extended Search Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Rothkopf

    2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard implementation of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) follows Bryan and deploys a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to limit the dimensionality of the underlying solution space apriori. Here we present arguments based on the shape of the SVD basis functions and numerical evidence from a mock data analysis, which show that the correct Bayesian solution is not in general recovered with this approach. As a remedy we propose to extend the search basis systematically, which will eventually recover the full solution space and the correct solution. In order to adequately approach problems where an exponentially damped kernel is used, we provide an open-source implementation, using the C/C++ language that utilizes high precision arithmetic adjustable at run-time. The LBFGS algorithm is included in the code in order to attack problems without the need to resort to a particular search space restriction.

  20. Quantum maximum entropy principle for a system of identical particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trovato, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria, 95125 Catania (Italy); Reggiani, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione and CNISM, Universita del Salento, Via Arnesano s/n, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    By introducing a functional of the reduced density matrix, we generalize the definition of a quantum entropy which incorporates the indistinguishability principle of a system of identical particles. With the present definition, the principle of quantum maximum entropy permits us to solve the closure problem for a quantum hydrodynamic set of balance equations corresponding to an arbitrary number of moments in the framework of extended thermodynamics. The determination of the reduced Wigner function for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions is found to become possible only by assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of (Planck constant/2pi){sup 2}. Quantum contributions are expressed in powers of (Planck constant/2pi){sup 2} while classical results are recovered in the limit (Planck constant/2pi)->0.

  1. Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to become a part of the Workplace Charging Challenge. "We are delighted to be the first health care institution in Maryland to provide charging stations for our employees, staff...

  3. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  4. Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

  5. Theoretical performance of solar cell based on mini-bands quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aly, Abou El-Maaty M., E-mail: drabouelmaaty@hotmail.com, E-mail: ashraf.nasr@gmail.com [Power Electronics and Energy Conversion Department, ERI, NRCB (Egypt); College of Computer, Qassim University, P.O.B. 6688, Buryadah 51453 (Saudi Arabia); Nasr, A., E-mail: drabouelmaaty@hotmail.com, E-mail: ashraf.nasr@gmail.com [Radiation Engineering Department, NCRRT, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); College of Computer, Qassim University, P.O.B. 6688, Buryadah 51453 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The tremendous amount of research in solar energy is directed toward intermediate band solar cell for its advantages compared with the conventional solar cell. The latter has lower efficiency because the photons have lower energy than the bandgap energy and cannot excite mobile carriers from the valence band to the conduction band. On the other hand, if mini intermediate band is introduced between the valence and conduction bands, then the smaller energy photons can be used to promote charge carriers transfer to the conduction band and thereby the total current increases while maintaining a large open circuit voltage. In this article, the influence of the new band on the power conversion efficiency for structure of quantum dots intermediate band solar cell is theoretically investigated and studied. The time-independent Schrödinger equation is used to determine the optimum width and location of the intermediate band. Accordingly, achievement of a maximum efficiency by changing the width of quantum dots and barrier distances is studied. Theoretical determination of the power conversion efficiency under the two different ranges of QD width is presented. From the obtained results, the maximum power conversion efficiency is about 70.42%. It is carried out for simple cubic quantum dot crystal under fully concentrated light. It is strongly dependent on the width of quantum dots and barrier distances.

  6. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

  7. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of

  8. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review of

  9. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review

  10. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by David A.1

  11. Quarks with Integer Electric Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the context of the Standard Model, quarks are placed in a $(\\mathbf{3},\\mathbf{2})\\oplus (\\mathbf{3},\\bar{\\mathbf{2}})$ matter field representation of $U_{EW}(2)$. Although the quarks carry unit intrinsic electric charge in this construction, anomaly cancellation constrains the Lagrangian in such a way that the quarks' associated currents couple to the photon with the usual 2/3 and 1/3 fractional electric charge associated with conventional quarks. The resulting model is identical to the Standard Model in the $SU_C(3)$ sector: However, in the $U_{EW}(2)$ sector it is similar but not necessarily equivalent. Off hand, the model appears to be phenomenologically equivalent to the conventional quark model in the electroweak sector for experimental conditions that preclude observation of individual constituent currents. On the other hand, it is conceivable that detailed analyses for electroweak reactions may reveal discrepancies with the Standard Model in high energy and/or large momentum transfer reactions. The possibility of quarks with integer electric charge strongly suggests the notion that leptons and quarks are merely different manifestations of the same underlying field. A speculative model is proposed in which a phase transition is assumed to occur between $SU_C(3)\\otimes U_{EM}(1)$ and $U_{EM}(1)$ regimes. This immediately; explains the equality of lepton/quark generations and lepton/hadron electric charge, relates neutrino oscillations to quark flavor mixing, reduces the free parameters of the Standard Model, and renders the issue of quark confinement moot.

  12. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  13. tt Charge asymmetry at hadron colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapelain, Antoine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the current status for the measurements of the ttbar charge asymmetry at the Tevatron and LHC colliders.

  14. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  15. INL Testing of Wireless Charging Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    investments and FOAs (Funding Opportunity Announcements) * Provide the charging, automotive, and electric utility industries with independent testing assessments and...

  16. Electrostatic charging of lunar dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walch, Bob [Department of Physics, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 80639 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0391 (United States)

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient dust clouds suspended above the lunar surface were indicated by the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor spacecrafts and the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite Experiment (Apollo 17), for example. The theoretical models cannot fully explain these observations, but they all suggest that electrostatic charging of the lunar surface due to exposure to the solar wind plasma and UV radiation could result in levitation, transport and ejection of small grains. We report on our experimental studies of the electrostatic charging properties of an Apollo-17 soil sample and two lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. We have measured their charge after exposing individual grains to a beam of fast electrons with energies in the range of 20{<=}E{<=}90 eV. Our measurements indicate that the secondary electron emission yield of the Apollo-17 sample is intermediate between MLS-1 and JSC-1, closer to that of MLS-1. We will also discuss our plans to develop a laboratory lunar surface model, where time dependent illumination and plasma bombardment will closely emulate the conditions on the surface of the Moon.

  17. Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy technologies, electric vehicles and the appurtenant charging infrastructure, is explored in detail to determine regarding system load profiles, vehicle charging strategies, electric vehicle adoption rates, and storage

  18. Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    into the electric power grid. EV charging increases the electricity demand, and potentially amplifies the peak1 Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging Lingwen Gan Ufuk Topcu Steven Low Abstract--We propose decentralized algorithms for optimally scheduling electric vehicle (EV) charging

  19. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to provide the convenience of rare battery replacement and extend the periods between charges. This thesis proposes a user programmable charging system that can charge a Lithium ion battery from three different input sources, i.e. a wall outlet, a universal...

  20. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

  1. Tuning the Electron Gas at an Oxide Heterointerface via Free Surface Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Christopher

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide heterointerfaces are emerging as one of the most exciting materials systems in condensed matter science. One remarkable example is the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (LAO/STO) interface, a model system in which a highly mobile electron gas forms between two band insulators, exhibiting two dimensional superconductivity and unusual magnetotransport properties. An ideal tool to tune such an electron gas is the electrostatic field effect. In principle, the electrostatic field can be generated by bound charges due to polarization (as in the normal and ferroelectric field effects) or by adding excess free charge. In previous studies, a large modulation of the carrier density and mobility of the LAO/STO interface has been achieved using the normal field effect. However, little attention has been paid to the field effect generated by free charges. This issue is scarcely addressed, even in conventional semiconductor devices, since the free charges are typically not stable. Here, we demonstrate an unambiguous tuning of the LAO/STO interface conductivity via free surface charges written using conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM). The modulation of the carrier density was found to be reversible, nonvolatile and surprisingly large, {approx}3 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, comparable to the maximum modulation by the normal field effect. Our finding reveal the efficiency of free charges in controlling the conductivity of this oxide interface, and suggest that this technique may be extended more generally to other oxide systems.

  2. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Alexander P. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Kirk, Wiley P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  3. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  4. Boiler MACT 35000FT: Maximum Achievable Control Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .2800 2.00E-03 0.022 5.70E-06 770 520 c Existing-Biomass Fuel Cells 0.0200 5.80E-03 0.022 5.70E-06 1,100 ND Existing-Biomass Hybrid Suspension Grate 0.4400 4.50E-04 0.022 5.70E-06 2...,400 2,000 c New-Biomass Dutch Ovens/Pile Burners 0.0032 3.90E-05 0.022 8.00E-07 330 520 c New-Biomass Fuel Cells 0.0200 2.90E-05 0.022 8.00E-07 910 ND New...

  5. Vacuum charge fractionlization re-examined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nogami

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a model of a quantized fermion field that is based on the Dirac equation in one dimensional space and re-examine how the fermion number of the vacuum, or the vacuum charge, varies when an external potential is switched on. With this model, fractionization of the vacuum charge has been illustrated in the literature by showing that the external potential can change the vacuum charge from zero to a fractional number. Charge conservation then appears violated in this process. This is because the charge that has been examined in this context is only a part of the total charge of the vacuum. The total charge is conserved. It is not fractionalized unless the Dirac equation has a zero mode. Two other confusing aspects are discussed. One is concerned with the usage of the continuum limit and the other with the regularization of the current operator. Implications of these aspects of the vacuum problem are explored.

  6. Charge-Balanced Minimum-Power Controls for Spiking Neuron Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasanayake, Isuru

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the optimal control of phase models for spiking neuron oscillators. We focus on the design of minimum-power current stimuli that elicit spikes in neurons at desired times. We furthermore take the charge-balanced constraint into account because in practice undesirable side effects may occur due to the accumulation of electric charge resulting from external stimuli. Charge-balanced minimum-power controls are derived for a general phase model using the maximum principle, where the cases with unbounded and bounded control amplitude are examined. The latter is of practical importance since phase models are more accurate for weak forcing. The developed optimal control strategies are then applied to both mathematically ideal and experimentally observed phase models to demonstrate their applicability, including the phase model for the widely studied Hodgkin-Huxley equations.

  7. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  8. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandra Corsi; Benjamin J. Owen

    2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave (GW) data raise the question of what maximum GW energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (\\sim 10^{49} erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001)] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10^{48}-10^{49} erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  9. Maximum Entropy Analysis of the Spectral Functions in Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Asakawa; T. Hatsuda; Y. Nakahara

    2001-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    First principle calculation of the QCD spectral functions (SPFs) based on the lattice QCD simulations is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the Bayesian inference theory and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM), which is a useful tool to extract SPFs from the imaginary-time correlation functions numerically obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Three important aspects of MEM are (i) it does not require a priori assumptions or parametrizations of SPFs, (ii) for given data, a unique solution is obtained if it exists, and (iii) the statistical significance of the solution can be quantitatively analyzed. The ability of MEM is explicitly demonstrated by using mock data as well as lattice QCD data. When applied to lattice data, MEM correctly reproduces the low-energy resonances and shows the existence of high-energy continuum in hadronic correlation functions. This opens up various possibilities for studying hadronic properties in QCD beyond the conventional way of analyzing the lattice data. Future problems to be studied by MEM in lattice QCD are also summarized.

  10. Improved Maximum Entropy Method with an Extended Search Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Rothkopf

    2012-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on an improvement to the implementation of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM). It amounts to departing from the search space obtained through a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Kernel. Based on the shape of the SVD basis functions we argue that the MEM spectrum for given $N_\\tau$ data-points $D(\\tau)$ and prior information $m(\\omega)$ does not in general lie in this $N_\\tau$ dimensional singular subspace. Systematically extending the search basis will eventually recover the full search space and the correct extremum. We illustrate this idea through a mock data analysis inspired by actual lattice spectra, to show where our improvement becomes essential for the success of the MEM. To remedy the shortcomings of Bryan's SVD prescription we propose to use the real Fourier basis, which consists of trigonometric functions. Not only does our approach lead to more stable numerical behavior, as the SVD is not required for the determination of the basis functions, but also the resolution of the MEM becomes independent from the position of the reconstructed peaks.

  11. Maximum entropy detection of planets around active stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petit, P; Hébrard, E; Morin, J; Folsom, C P; Böhm, T; Boisse, I; Borgniet, S; Bouvier, J; Delfosse, X; Hussain, G; Jeffers, S V; Marsden, S C; Barnes, J R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (shortened for arXiv) We aim to progress towards more efficient exoplanet detection around active stars by optimizing the use of Doppler Imaging in radial velocity measurements. We propose a simple method to simultaneously extract a brightness map and a set of orbital parameters through a tomographic inversion technique derived from classical Doppler mapping. Based on the maximum entropy principle, the underlying idea is to determine the set of orbital parameters that minimizes the information content of the resulting Doppler map. We carry out a set of numerical simulations to perform a preliminary assessment of the robustness of our method, using an actual Doppler map of the very active star HR 1099 to produce a realistic synthetic data set for various sets of orbital parameters of a single planet in a circular orbit. Using a simulated time-series of 50 line profiles affected by a peak-to-peak activity jitter of 2.5 km/s, we are able in most cases to recover the radial velocity amplitude, orbital phase and o...

  12. Compatibility and toxicity of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles on mammalian cell systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kral, Kelly M., 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) produced normal growth curves in the presence of particles. However, the particles do still exhibit some toxicity towards the cells, as the maximum cell density of cells cultured with particles does not reach that ...

  13. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: Energy Resources Jump to:Delta, Ohio:Charges Jump

  14. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy "ANFIS energy demand. The mathematical modeling and simulation of the photovoltaic system is implemented) like ANFIS. This paper presents Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic System Using

  15. Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Jos Zwanikken; Markus Bier; Arjen Baarsma; Yasha Oloumi; Mischa Spelt; Rene van Roij

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

  16. Electron beam melting of charge based on titanium sponge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonovsky, A.L.; Tikhonovsky, K.A. [JS Co FIKO, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experience of 0.8 MW consumable box melting furnace operation and theoretical simulation have led to the further development of the FIKO plant under construction on the base of melting of two consumable box-like bullets which move opposite each other and form narrow heated space between melted butt ends. It allows to reduce vaporization, spatter and radiation losses by several times and to reach two times increase in melting rate and 99%(97%) yield for c.p. titanium (alloys) without furnace power add. Future furnace design will provide the optimum protection of vacuum pumps against chlorides, the safety when melting titanium sponge and will permit hot ingots to move to the special furnace for EB surface conditioning. The maximum productivity is to be 18,000 t/year. The furnace can be used for the manufacture of aluminum-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, tungsten-based alloys and others of any charge including salvage.

  17. Rate constants for charge transfer across semiconductor-liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajardo, A.M.; Lewis, N.S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfacial charge-transfer rate constants have been measured for n-type Si electrodes in contact with a series of viologen-based redox couples in methanol through analyses of the behavior of these junctions with respect to their current density versus potential and differential capacitance versus potential properties. The data allow evaluation of the maximum rate constant (and therefore the electronic coupling) for majority carriers in the solid as well as of the dependence of the rate constant on the driving force for transfer of delocalized electrons from the n-Si semiconducting electrode into the localized molecular redox species in the solution phase. The data are in good agreement with existing models of this interfacial electron transfer process and provide insight into the fundamental kinetic events underlying the use of semiconducting photoelectrodes in applications such as solar energy conversion. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  18. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - and D+ s decays, the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard

  19. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard Model) would modify

  20. A Maximum Entropy Algorithm for Rhythmic Analysis of Genome-Wide Expression Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    A Maximum Entropy Algorithm for Rhythmic Analysis of Genome-Wide Expression Patterns Christopher James Langmead C. Robertson McClung Bruce Randall Donald ,,,§,¶ Abstract We introduce a maximum entropy-based spectral analysis, maximum entropy spectral reconstruction is well suited to signals of the type generated

  1. 1 A MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD FOR SUBNETWORK ORIGIN-DESTINATION 2 TRIP MATRIX ESTIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    1 A MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD FOR SUBNETWORK ORIGIN-DESTINATION 2 TRIP MATRIX ESTIMATION 3 4 Chi Xie 5, maximum entropy, linearization 36 algorithm, column generation 37 #12;C. Xie, K.M. Kockelman and S is the trip matrix of the simplified network. This paper discusses a5 maximum entropy method

  2. Maximum entropy and Bayesian approaches to the ratio problem Edward Z. Shen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    Maximum entropy and Bayesian approaches to the ratio problem Edward Z. Shen* Jeffrey M. Perloff** January 2001 Abstract Maximum entropy and Bayesian approaches provide superior estimates of a ratio extra information in the supports for the underlying parameters for generalized maximum entropy (GME

  3. Comparison of Maximum Entropy and Higher-Order Entropy Estimators Amos Golan* and Jeffrey M. Perloff**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    Comparison of Maximum Entropy and Higher-Order Entropy Estimators Amos Golan* and Jeffrey M. Perloff** ABSTRACT We show that the generalized maximum entropy (GME) is the only estimation method- classes of estimators may outperform the GME estimation rule. Keywords: generalized entropy, maximum

  4. A maximum entropy-least squares estimator for elastic origin-destination trip matrix estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    A maximum entropy-least squares estimator for elastic origin- destination trip matrix estimation propose a combined maximum entropy-least squares (ME-LS) estimator, by which O- D flows are distributed-destination trip table; elastic demand; maximum entropy; least squares; subnetwork analysis; convex combination

  5. Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  6. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  7. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  8. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  9. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  10. Maximum velocity of self-propulsion for an active segment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recho, Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The motor part of a crawling eukaryotic cell can be represented schematically as an active continuum layer. The main active processes in this layer are protrusion, originating from non-equilibrium polymerization of actin fibers, contraction, induced by myosin molecular motors and attachment due to active bonding of trans-membrane proteins to a substrate. All three active mechanisms are regulated by complex signaling pathways involving chemical and mechanical feedback loops whose microscopic functioning is still poorly understood. In this situation, it is instructive to take a reverse engineering approach and study a problem of finding the spatial organization of standard active elements inside a crawling layer ensuring an optimal cost-performance trade-off. In this paper we assume that (in the range of interest) the energetic cost of self-propulsion is velocity independent and adopt, as an optimality criterion, the maximization of the overall velocity. We then choose a prototypical setting, formulate the corr...

  11. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  12. Particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.

  13. Effects of flow cell design on charge percolation and storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrochemical flow capacitor Energy storage Flow battery Flowable electrode Supercapacitor a b s t r a c t The electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) is an electrical energy...

  14. Soret Motion of a Charged Spherical Colloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyyed Nader Rasuli; Ramin Golestanian

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermophoretic motion of a charged spherical colloidal particle and its accompanying cloud of counterions and co-ions in a temperature gradient is studied theoretically. Using the Debye-Huckel approximation, the Soret drift velocity of a weakly charged colloid is calculated analytically. For highly charged colloids, the nonlinear system of electrokinetic equations is solved numerically, and the effects of high surface potential, dielectrophoresis, and convection are examined. Our results are in good agreement with some of the recent experiments on highly charged colloids without using adjustable parameters.

  15. EV Project: Solar-Assisted Charging Demo

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    occurs at night and times during the day where PV generation is greater than EV charging load Technical Accomplishments and Progress - Peak Shaving Algorithms 17 * The most...

  16. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  17. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron spin-in addition to charge-for the storage and processing of data. However, the manipulation of spin typically requires magnetic materials. While commonly found in...

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the progress of the Challenge and its partners as determined through the annual partner survey. progressreportfinal.pdf More Documents & Publications Workplace Charging...

  19. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia AgencyCompany Organization: Natural...

  20. Randomly charged polymers in porous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law $\\sim x^{-a}$. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

  1. Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: March 20, 2015 FY 2016 February 2015 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

  2. Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? April 5, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Carlos Silva University of...

  3. Optical state-of-charge monitor for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cell or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  4. Parallel Multiphysics Simulations of Charged Particles in Microfluidic Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartuschat, Dominik

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes parallel multiphysics simulations of charged particles in microfluidic flows with the waLBerla framework. To this end, three physical effects are coupled: rigid body dynamics, fluid flow modelled by a lattice Boltzmann algorithm, and electric potentials represented by a finite volume discretisation. For solving the finite volume discretisation for the electrostatic forces, a cell-centered multigrid algorithm is developed that conforms to the lattice Boltzmann meshes and the parallel communication structure of waLBerla. The new functionality is validated with suitable benchmark scenarios. Additionally, the parallel scaling and the numerical efficiency of the algorithms are analysed on an advanced supercomputer.

  5. Photoelectrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

    1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  6. Ultrafast Charge Separation and Nongeminate Electron-Hole Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel L Smith; Alex W Chin

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of electron-hole separation in organic solar cells is currently hotly debated. Recent experimental work suggests that these charges can separate on extremely short timescales (<100 fs). This can be understood in terms of delocalised transport within fullerene aggregates, which is thought to emerge on short timescales before vibronic relaxation induces polaron formation. However, in the optimal heterojunction morphology, electrons and holes will often re-encounter each other before reaching the electrodes. If such charges trap and cannot separate, then device efficiency will suffer. Here we extend the theory of ultrafast charge separation to incorporate polaron formation, and find that the same delocalised transport used to explain ultrafast charge separation can account for the suppression of nongeminate recombination in the best devices.

  7. Time-Domain ab Initio Study of Charge Relaxation and Recombination in Dye-Sensitized TiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with surface hopping in the Kohn-Sham basis. Representing the dye-sensitized semiconductor Gra¨tzel cellTime-Domain ab Initio Study of Charge Relaxation and Recombination in Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Walter R understanding of these processes is crucial for improving solar cell design and optimizing photovoltaic current

  8. Identifying the Charge Carriers of the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Pratt

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge correlations in lattice gauge calculations suggest that up, down and strange charges move independently in the QGP (quark-gluon plasma), and that the density of such charges is similar to what is expected from simple thermal arguments. Here, we show how specific elements of the charge-charge correlation matrix in the QGP survive hadronization and become manifest in final-state charge-charge correlation measurements.

  9. Algebraic charge liquids RIBHU K. KAUL1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    to this fermion as a `holon'. The holon comes in two species, carrying charges ±1 in its interaction holons with charges ±1. From the f± and aµ, we can construct a variety of observables whose correlations

  10. Charged Higgs boson searches at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the latest results from searches for singly charged Higgs bosons carried out by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC. Both experiments have searched for production of charged Higgs bosons in pp collisions of up to 20 (5) fb^-

  11. Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel Kovtun

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.

  12. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  13. DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potsdam, Universität

    DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions #12;Outline 1. DNA: structure, charges, dense phases 2. Counterion and DNA condensation 3. ES DNA-DNA interactions 4. DNA toroidal structures 5. Interactions of real DNA helices 6. DNA-DNA ES recognition 7. DNA melting in aggregates 8. Azimuthal

  14. Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems Liang He1 , Linghe, TX, USA ABSTRACT Large-scale Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted in many systems and heterogeneous discharging con- ditions, cells in the battery system may have differ- ent statuses

  15. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  16. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  17. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  18. New charge radius relations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. H. Sun; Y. Lu; J. P. Peng; C. Y. Liu; Y. M. Zhao

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the charge radii of neighboring atomic nuclei, independent of atomic number and charge, follow remarkably very simple relations, despite the fact that atomic nuclei are complex finite many-body systems governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. These relations can be understood within the picture of independent-particle motion and by assuming neighboring nuclei having similar pattern in the charge density distribution. A root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.0078 fm is obtained between the predictions in these relations and the experimental values, i.e., a comparable precision as modern experimental techniques. Such high accuracy relations are very useful to check the consistence of nuclear charge radius surface and moreover to predict unknown nuclear charge radii, while large deviations from experimental data is seen to reveal the appearance of nuclear shape transition or coexsitence.

  19. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  20. The ReA electron-beam ion trap charge breeder for reacceleration of rare isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Fogleman, J.; Krause, S.; Nash, S.; Rencsok, R.; Tobos, L.; Perdikakis, G.; Portillo, M.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Wittmer, W.; Wu, X.; Bollen, G.; Leitner, D.; Syphers, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Collaboration: ReA Team

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ReA is a post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. ReA is designed to reaccelerate rare isotopes to energies of a few MeV/u following production by projectile fragmentation and thermalization in a gas cell. The facility consists of four main components: an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder, an achromatic charge-over-mass (Q/A) separator, a radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator, and a superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator. The EBIT charge breeder was specifically designed to efficiently capture continuous beams of singly charged ions injected at low energy (<60 keV), charge breed in less than 50 ms, and extract highly charged ions to the Q/A separator for charge-state selection and reacceleration through the accelerator structures. The use of highly charged ions to reach high beam energies is a key aspect that makes ReA a compact and cost-efficient post-accelerator. The EBIT is characterized by a high-current electron gun, a long multi-electrode trap structure and a dual magnet to provide both the high electron-beam current density necessary for fast charge breeding of short-lived isotopes as well as the high capture probability of injected beams. This paper presents an overview and the status of the ReA EBIT, which has extracted for reacceleration tests stable {sup 20}Ne{sup 8+} ion beams produced from injected gas and more recently {sup 39}K{sup 16+} beams by injecting stable {sup 39,41}K{sup +} ions from an external ion source.

  1. Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    to charge from an inexpensive AC charging station feeding power directly from the electric grid are an effective catalyst for considerably expanding fast-charging infrastructure. With AC fast-charging, high-powerJoachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12

  2. An analog memory using a CCD memory cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, James Ray

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Charge Storage . B. Charge Transfer C. Charge Injection D. Charge Detection CHAPTER III. DESIGN OF THE 4K ANALOG MEMORY A. Overview of the 4K Analog Memory B. NMOS Process . C. CCD Memory Cell D. Address Decoding . Page iv vi vii I 12 18 23... Gain Buffer . 18. ADC-DAC Loop . 19. Memory with Addressing Scheme 20. Memory with AD Loop and Addressing Scheme Page 13 15 16 17 20 21 24 26 ix 21. Floor Plan of the 4K Analog Memory 22. Overhead Plot of Memory Cell 23. Side View...

  3. Charge transfer from TiO2 into adsorbed benzene diazonium compounds Tel-Aviv University, School of Electrical Engineering, Ramat-Aviv 69978, Israel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapira, Yoram

    Charge transfer from TiO2 into adsorbed benzene diazonium compounds A. Merson Tel-Aviv University benzene diazonium compounds has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, x-ray photoelectron that the potential of maximum electron transfer depends strongly on the dipole moment of the benzene compound. Two

  4. Self-Charging Battery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, Eric

    2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 2006, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was formed between Fauton Tech, Inc. and INL to develop a prototype for a commercial application that incorporates some INL-developed Intellectual Properties (IP). This report presents the results of the work performed at INL during Phase 1. The objective of Phase 1 was to construct a prototype battery in a “D” cell form factor, determine optimized internal components for a baseline configuration using a standard coil design, perform a series of tests on the baseline configuration, and document the test results in a logbook.

  5. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  6. Momentum computed tomography of charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Deyang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle of the momentum computed tomography of charged particles is presented. It may be useful for momentum spectroscopy of various beam-matter interactions, especially when very intense beams are involved. It is able to collect the shower of charged particles with the 4Pi solid angle, and suitable for measuring the overall perspective of the arbitrary momentum distribution of the outgoing charged particles induced by arbitrary beams, especially when the other techniques are invalid. The extended collisional region, the strong field approximation and the case without magnetic field are discussed.

  7. Simulating spin-charge separation with light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitris G. Angelakis; Mingxia Huo; Elica Kyoseva; Leong Chuan kwek

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we show that stationary light-matter excitations generated inside a hollow one-dimensional waveguide filled with atoms, can be made to generate a photonic two-component Lieb Liniger model. We explain how to prepare and drive the atomic system to a strongly interacting regime where spin-charge separation could be possible. We then proceed by explaining how to measure the corresponding effective spin and charge densities and velocities through standard optical methods based in measuring dynamically the emitted photon intensities or by analyzing the photon spectrum. The relevant interactions exhibit the necessary tunability both to generate and efficiently observe spin charge separation with current technology.

  8. Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

    2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

  9. Lyapunov Exponent and Charged Myers Perry Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partha Pratim Pradhan

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the proper time Lyapunov exponent for charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime and investigate the instability of the equatorial circular geodesics (both timelike and null) via this exponent. We also show that for more than four spacetime dimensions $(N \\geq 3)$, there are \\emph{no} Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCOs) in charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime. We further show that among all possible circular orbits, timelike circular orbits have \\emph{longer} orbital periods than null circular orbits (photon spheres) as measured by asymptotic observers. Thus, timelike circular orbits provide the \\emph{slowest way} to orbit around the charged Myers Perry black hole.

  10. The number e^{(1/2)} is the ratio between the time of maximum value and the time of maximum growth rate for restricted growth phenomena?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zi-Niu Wu

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    For many natural process of growth, with the growth rate independent of size due to Gibrat law and with the growth process following a log-normal distribution, the ratio between the time (D) for maximum value and the time (L) for maximum growth rate (inflexion point) is then equal to the square root of the base of the natural logarithm (e^{1/2}). On the logarithm scale this ratio becomes one half ((1/2)). It remains an open question, due to lack of complete data for various cases with restricted growth, whether this e^{1/2} ratio can be stated as e^{1/2}-Law. Two established examples already published, one for an epidemic spreading and one for droplet production, support however this ratio. Another example appears to be the height of humain body. For boys the maximum height occurs near 23 years old while the maximum growth rate is at the age near 14, and there ratio is close to e^{1/2}. The main theoretical base to obtain this conclusion is problem independent, provided the growth process is restricted, such as public intervention to control the spreading of communicable epidemics, so that an entropy is associated with the process and the role of dissipation, representing the mechanism of intervention, is maximized. Under this formulation the principle of maximum rate of entropy production is used to make the production process problem independent.

  11. Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations Rebecca H. Masel, Pennsylvania 18015, United States ABSTRACT: Maximum temperature limitations are encountered in distillation of the bottoms product fixes the column base pressure and, hence, the condenser pressure. The distillate

  12. Maximum Power Transfer Tracking in a Solar USB Charger for Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    chargers do not perform the maximum power point tracking [2], [3] of the solar panel. We excludeMaximum Power Transfer Tracking in a Solar USB Charger for Smartphones Abstract--Battery life poor capacity utilization during solar energy harvesting. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate

  13. LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ). The top three panels correspond to the southern segment of the solar minimum orbit; repeated passesLANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes

  14. Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while frictional dissipation rate balances the energy production rate near the radius of maximum wind (RMW

  15. Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    0 Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while frictional dissipation rate balances the energy production rate near the radius of maximum wind (RMW

  16. Efficiency at maximum power of low dissipation Carnot engines Massimiliano Esposito

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawai, Ryoichi

    Efficiency at maximum power of low dissipation Carnot engines Massimiliano Esposito Center the efficiency at maximum power, , of engines performing finite-time Carnot cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For engines reaching Carnot efficiency C = 1 - Tc

  17. An Improved Maximum Likelihood Formulation for Accurate Genome Assembly Aditya Varma, Abhiram Ranade and Srinivas Aluru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, Abhiram G.

    An Improved Maximum Likelihood Formulation for Accurate Genome Assembly Aditya Varma, Abhiram maximum likelihood method for genome assembly. We formulate the problem as one of direct convex estimate of the length of the genome or the need to use further expectation minimization to predict

  18. How Is the Maximum Entropy of a Quantized Surface Related to Its Area?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. B. Khriplovich; R. V. Korkin

    2001-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The maximum entropy of a quantized surface is demonstrated to be proportional to the surface area in the classical limit. The result is valid in loop quantum gravity, and in a somewhat more general class of approaches to surface quantization. The maximum entropy is calculated explicitly for some specific cases.

  19. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Grace (Fremont, CA), Li; Bo (San Jose, CA)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  20. Analyticity, Convergence and Convergence Rate of Recursive Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Hidden Markov Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tadi?, Vladislav B

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper considers the asymptotic properties of the recursive maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models. The paper is focused on the asymptotic behavior of the log-likelihood function and on the point-convergence and convergence rate of the recursive maximum likelihood estimator. Using the principle of analytical continuation, the analyticity of the asymptotic log-likelihood function is shown for analytically parameterized hidden Markov models. Relying on this fact and some results from differential geometry (Lojasiewicz inequality), the almost sure point-convergence of the recursive maximum likelihood algorithm is demonstrated, and relatively tight bounds on the convergence rate are derived. As opposed to the existing result on the asymptotic behavior of maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models, the results of this paper are obtained without assuming that the log-likelihood function has an isolated maximum at which the Hessian is strictly negative definite.

  1. Unification of Field Theory and Maximum Entropy Methods for Learning Probability Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Justin B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian field theory and maximum entropy are two methods for learning smooth probability distributions (a.k.a. probability densities) from finite sampled data. Both methods were inspired by statistical physics, but the relationship between them has remained unclear. Here I show that Bayesian field theory subsumes maximum entropy density estimation. In particular, the most common maximum entropy methods are shown to be limiting cases of Bayesian inference using field theory priors that impose no boundary conditions on candidate densities. This unification provides a natural way to test the validity of the maximum entropy assumption on one's data. It also provides a better-fitting nonparametric density estimate when the maximum entropy assumption is rejected.

  2. Charge Relaxation in a Single Electron Si/SiGe Double Quantum Dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Wang; C. Payette; Y. Dovzhenko; P. W. Deelman; J. R. Petta

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the interdot charge relaxation time T_1 of a single electron trapped in an accumulation mode Si/SiGe double quantum dot. The energy level structure of the charge qubit is determined using photon assisted tunneling, which reveals the presence of a low lying excited state. We systematically measure T_1 as a function of detuning and interdot tunnel coupling and show that it is tunable over four orders of magnitude, with a maximum of 45 microseconds for our device configuration. Measured relaxation times are consistent with a phonon mediated energy relaxation process and indicate that low lying excited states may have important implications in the development of silicon spin qubits.

  3. A User Programmable Battery Charging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age...

  4. Scattering of very light charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J C Taylor

    1993-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    I advance arguments against the view that the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem is relevant in practice to the scattering of charged particles as their mass tends to zero. I also discuss the case of massive coloured particle scattering.

  5. Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT), which includes both initial partonic and final hadronic interactions, we study the rapidity distributions of charged particles such as protons, antiprotons, pions, and kaons in heavy ion collisions at RHIC...

  6. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  7. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/ps/mm{sup 2}, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within {+-}10%.

  8. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates."Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics 11(2):86-95. doi:10.1016j.gpb.2012.11.004 Authors: D...

  9. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    has made plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) readiness a major focus of its site sustainability strategy. The laboratory began PEV charging for employees on a modest scale in May...

  11. Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis Dmitry Matyushov Arizona State scheme is to snap a proton from solution! #12; Bacterial photosynthesis e 0.25 eV lost in two

  12. CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES GREEN PARKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES P 3 P 3 P 6 GREEN PARKING UNIVERSITÉ DE SHERBROOKE YELLOW (CAR-POOLING) PERMITS HOSPITAL PARKING PARKING-PERMIT DISPENSERS RESERVED DISABLED PARKING PLACES ONE

  13. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: self-charging battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    self-charging battery Sandia Labs, Front Edge Technology, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Lab, Univ. of California-Los Angeles: Micro Power Source On March 20, 2013, in Energy...

  15. Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicle (ex. Chevy Volt, Ford C-MAX, etc.) b. Electric vehicle (ex. Nissan Leaf, BMW Active-E, etc.) 5. Do you or would you have the ability to install a charging station...

  16. Smart Frequency-Sensing Charge Controller for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for licensing:System uses frequency-sensing charge controllers that provide automatic demand response and regulation service to the grid by reducing or turning the charging...

  17. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  18. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  19. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  20. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School...

  1. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE...

  3. AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Aerovironment AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: Clipper Creek AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System...

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of North Carolina...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eerevehiclesev-everywhere-workplace-charging-challenge July 15, 2014 Campus to get electric car-charging stations Last month, the university became the first institution in...

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of...

  6. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  7. A Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Charge Transfer in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polarons, respectively, are modeled by delocalizing the polaron’s charge over a titanium or oxygen ion, respectively, and its first nearest-neighbors. The charge...

  8. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  9. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  10. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  11. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  12. Experimental study of rare charged pion decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinko Pocanic; Emil Frlez; Andries van der Schaaf

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of simple dynamics, small number of available decay channels, and extremely well controlled radiative and loop corrections, make charged pion decays a sensitive means for testing the underlying symmetries and the universality of weak fermion couplings, as well as for improving our understanding of pion structure and chiral dynamics. This paper reviews the current state of experimental study of the allowed rare decays of charged pions: (a) leptonic, $\\pi^+ \\to e^+\

  13. Scalable quantum computer using superconducting charge qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Y. Huo; G. L. Long

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a scalable scheme for superconducting charge qubits with the assistance of one-dimensional superconducting transmission line resonator (STLR) playing the role of data bus. The coupling between qubit and data bus may be turned on and off by just controlling the gate voltage and externally applied flux of superconducting charge qubit. In our proposal, the entanglement between arbitrary two qubits and $W$ states of three qubits can be generated quickly and easily.

  14. Gravitational collapse of charged scalar fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose M. Torres; Miguel Alcubierre

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study the gravitational collapse of charged matter we analyze the simple model of an self-gravitating massless scalar field coupled to the electromagnetic field in spherical symmetry. The evolution equations for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon sector are derived in the 3+1 formalism, and coupled to gravity by means of the stress-energy tensor of these fields. To solve consistently the full system we employ a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of General Relativity that is adapted to spherical symmetry. We consider two sets of initial data that represent a time symmetric spherical thick shell of charged scalar field, and differ by the fact that one set has zero global electrical charge while the other has non-zero global charge. For compact enough initial shells we find that the configuration doesn't disperse and approaches a final state corresponding to a sub-extremal Reissner-N\\"ordstrom black hole with $|Q|charge of the scalar field $q$ we find that the final black hole tends to become more and more neutral. Our results support the cosmic censorship conjecture for the case of charged matter.

  15. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  16. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  17. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  18. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  19. Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrauth, Anthony J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

  20. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

  1. Advantage of suppressed non-Langevin recombination in low mobility organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Pandey, Ajay K.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Pivrikas, Almantas, E-mail: almantas.pivrikas@uq.edu.au [Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences and School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Philippa, Bronson; White, Ronald D. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811 (Australia)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic performance in relation to charge transport is studied in efficient (7.6%) organic solar cells (PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM). Both electron and hole mobilities are experimentally measured in efficient solar cells using the resistance dependent photovoltage technique, while the inapplicability of classical techniques, such as space charge limited current and photogenerated charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage is discussed. Limits in the short-circuit current originate from optical losses, while charge transport is shown not to be a limiting process. Efficient charge extraction without recombination can be achieved with a mobility of charge carriers much lower than previously expected. The presence of dispersive transport with strongly distributed mobilities in high efficiency solar cells is demonstrated. Reduced non-Langevin recombination is shown to be beneficial for solar cells with imbalanced, low, and dispersive electron and hole mobilities.

  2. Effect of Hysteresis on Measurements of Thin-Film Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient or hysteresis effects in polycrystalline thin film CdS/CdTe cells are a function of pre-measurement voltage bias and whether Cu is introduced as an intentional dopant during back contact fabrication. When Cu is added, the current-density (J) vs. voltage (V) measurements performed in a reverse-to-forward voltage direction will yield higher open-circuit voltage (Voc), up to 10 mV, and smaller short-circuit current density (Jsc), by up to 2 mA/cm2, relative to scanning voltage in a forward-to-reverse direction. The variation at the maximum power point, Pmax, is however small. The resulting variation in FF can be as large as 3%. When Cu is not added, hysteresis in both Voc and Jsc is negligible however Pmax hysteresis is considerably greater. This behavior corroborates observed changes in depletion width, Wd, derived from capacitance (C) vs voltage (V) scans. Measured values of Wd are always smaller in reverse-to-forward voltage scans, and conversely, larger in the forward-to-reverse voltage direction. Transient ion drift (TID) measurements performed on Cu-containing cells do not show ionic behavior suggesting that capacitance transients are more likely due to electronic capture-emission processes. J-V curve simulation using Pspice shows that increased transient capacitance during light-soak stress at 100 degrees C correlates with increased space-charge recombination. Voltage-dependent collection however was not observed to increase with stress in these cells.

  3. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 10 Solar Cell Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 10 Solar Cell Operation Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman P-N Junction Solar CellVbi Charge Density Electrostatic Potential Vbi Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear Contact

  4. Proposal for high-speed and high-fidelity electron-spin initialization in a negatively charged quantum dot coupled to a microcavity in a weak external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arka; Lin Ziliang; Faraon, Andrei; Vuckovic, Jelena [E. L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a proposal for fast electron-spin initialization in a negatively charged quantum dot coupled to a microcavity without the need for a strong magnetic field. We employ two-photon excitation to access trion states that are spin forbidden by one-photon excitation. Our simulation shows a maximum initialization speed of 1.3 GHz and maximum fidelity of 99.7% with realistic system parameters.

  5. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  6. Attraction between negatively charged surfaces mediated by spherical counterions with quadrupolar charge distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglic, Ales

    charge distribution Jasna Urbanija,1 Klemen Bohinc,2 Alfredo Bellen,3 Stefano Maset,3 Ales Iglic,2 functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations, as that of two interacting flat electrical double layers and by performing the Monte Carlo simulation are in excellent agreement. For high enough charge densities

  7. Stochastic Distributed Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging with Discrete Charging Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    including those in the integration into the electric power grid. For example, EV charging potentially studies demonstrate that adopting "smart" charging strategies can mitigate some of the integration Gan, Ufuk Topcu, Member, IEEE, and Steven H. Low, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--To address the grid

  8. Fermion space charge in narrow-band gap semiconductors, Weyl semimetals and around highly charged nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene B. Kolomeisky; Joseph P. Straley; Hussain Zaidi

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of charged impurities in narrow-band gap semiconductors and Weyl semimetals can create electron-hole pairs when the total charge $Ze$ of the impurity exceeds a value $Z_{c}e$. The particles of one charge escape to infinity, leaving a screening space charge. The result is that the observable dimensionless impurity charge $Q_{\\infty}$ is less than $Z$ but greater than $Z_{c}$. There is a corresponding effect for nuclei with $Z >Z_{c} \\approx 170$, however in the condensed matter setting we find $Z_{c} \\simeq 10$. Thomas-Fermi theory indicates that $Q_{\\infty} = 0$ for the Weyl semimetal, but we argue that this is a defect of the theory. For the case of a highly-charged recombination center in a narrow band-gap semiconductor (or of a supercharged nucleus), the observable charge takes on a nearly universal value. In Weyl semimetals the observable charge takes on the universal value $Q_{\\infty} = Z_{c}$ set by the reciprocal of material's fine structure constant.

  9. Atlantic Ocean circulation at the last glacial maximum : inferences from data and models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dail, Holly Janine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO? ...

  10. Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, Kristina Ariel

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...

  11. Investigating the angle or response and maximum stability of a cohesive granular pile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Sara Alice, 1982-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I investigate the static and dynamic properties of a granular heap made cohesive by an interstitial fluid. I present the results of experimental work measuring the maximum angle of stability and the angle ...

  12. Dynamical Reconstruction of Upper-Ocean Conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Carl

    Proxies indicate that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Ocean was marked by increased meridional and zonal near sea surface temperature gradients relative to today. Using a least squares fit of a full general circulation ...

  13. Achieving Consistent Maximum Brake Torque with Varied Injection Timing in a DI Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Timothy H

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , revealing the premixed and diffusion burn fractions as well as important engine and exhaust design criteria such as maximum in-cylinder pressure and exhaust composition. These results are significant in diesel engine design because cheaper, lighter engines...

  14. Submodule Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.

    This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use of submodule integrated maximum power point trackers (MPPT). We propose a system architecture that provides ...

  15. Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane the current study and the previous measurements in similar flames with methane, ethane, and propane flames

  16. Maximum Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks with Adjustable Sensing Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    1 Maximum Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks with Adjustable Sensing Ranges Mihaela problem in wireless sensor networks with adjustable sensing range. Communication and sensing consume Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) constitute the foundation of a broad range of applications related

  17. Parameterization of Maximum Wave Heights Forced by Hurricanes: Application to Corpus Christi, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Sym 1978-

    2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    sensitivity based on the investigation of several hurricane parameters. Also presented is the development of parameterized maximum significant wave height models. These are determined by incorporating three forms of an equivalent fetch into (1) dimensionless...

  18. A more efficient formulation for computation of the maximum loading points in electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, H.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering; Jean-Jumeau, R. [Electricite d`Haita, Port-au-Prince (Haiti)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a more efficient formulation for computation of the maximum loading points. A distinguishing feature of the new formulation is that it is of dimension (n + 1), instead of the existing formulation of dimension (2n + 1), for n-dimensional load flow equations. This feature makes computation of the maximum loading points very inexpensive in comparison with those required in the existing formulation. A theoretical basis for the new formulation is provided. The new problem formulation is derived by using a simple reparameterization scheme and exploiting the special properties of the power flow model. Moreover, the proposed test function is shown to be monotonic in the vicinity of a maximum loading point. Therefore, it allows one to monitor the approach to maximum loading points during the solution search process. Simulation results on a 234-bus system are presented.

  19. Acoustic Space Dimensionality Selection and Combination using the Maximum Entropy Principle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Haleem, Yasser H; Renals, Steve; Lawrence, Neil D

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose a discriminative approach to acoustic space dimensionality selection based on maximum entropy modelling. We form a set of constraints by composing the acoustic space with the space of phone classes, and use a continuous...

  20. An Analysis of Maximum Residential Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Orlando, Florida, July 24-26, 2006 Methodology 1. Development of the Basecase Simulation Model 2. Analysis of Energy Saving Measures 3. Development of the Maximum Energy-Efficient House 4. Economic Analysis DOE-2 Input...AN ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES Mini Malhotra Graduate Research Assistant Jeff Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor/Associate Director Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University College...

  1. ON THE PROBLEM OF UNIQUENESS FOR THE MAXIMUM STIRLING NUMBER(S) OF THE SECOND KIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomerance, Carl

    ON THE PROBLEM OF UNIQUENESS FOR THE MAXIMUM STIRLING NUMBER(S) OF THE SECOND KIND E. Rodney Say that an integer n is exceptional if the maximum Stirling number of the second kind S(n, k) occurs or equal to x is O(x3/5+ ), for any > 0. 1. Introduction Let S(n, k) be the Stirling number of the second

  2. A stochastic model for sediment yield using the Principle of Maximum Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, V. P.; Krstanovic, P. F.

    WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 23, NO. 5, PAGES 781-793, MAY 1987 A Stochastic Model for Sediment Yield Using the Principle of Maximum Entropy V. P. SINGH AND P. F. KRSTANOVIC Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton... Rouge The principle of maximum entropy was applied to derive a stochastic model for sediment yield from upland watersheds. By maximizing the conditional entropy subject to certain constraints, a probability distribution of sediment yield conditioned...

  3. Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ? 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ? 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

  4. Measuring and interpreting charge dependent anisotropic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei A. Voloshin; Ronald Belmont

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) [1] predicts a dependence of the positive and negative particle elliptic flow on the event charge asymmetry. Such a dependence has been observed by the STAR Collaboration [2]. However, it is rather difficult to interpret the results of this measurement, as well as to perform cross-experiment comparisons, due to the dependence of the observable on experimental inefficiencies and the kinematic acceptance used to determine the net asymmetry. We propose another observable that is free from these deficiencies. It also provides possibilities for differential measurements clarifying the interpretation of the results. We use this new observable to study the effect of the local charge conservation that can mimic the effect of the CMW in charge dependent flow measurements.

  5. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepak Kumar; A. Sane; Smita Gohil; P. R. Bandaru; S. Bhattacharya; Shankar Ghosh

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures.

  6. Electrostatic wire for stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Briggs, Richard J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  7. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency of solar panels and power to weight ratio insolar cells, there exist two basic processes to convert sunlight power topower to a load connected when charged by Sun. The typical output voltage of a silicon based solar

  8. antigen presenting cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Anurag Kaushik Master of Science in Electrical Engineering San Diego State University photovoltaic cells made of a large array of high-aspect ratio charge-collecting carbon...

  9. antigen presenting cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Anurag Kaushik Master of Science in Electrical Engineering San Diego State University photovoltaic cells made of a large array of high-aspect ratio charge-collecting carbon...

  10. Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

  11. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  12. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  13. Static charged fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Interior perfect fluid solutions for the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied on the basis of a new classification scheme. It specifies which two of the fluid's characteristics are given functions and picks up accordingly one of the three main field equations, the other two being universal. General formulae are found for charged de Sitter solutions, the case of constant energy component of the energy-momentum tensor, the case of known pressure (including charged dust) and the case of linear equation of state. Explicit new global solutions, mainly in elementary functions, are given as illustrations. Known solutions are briefly reviewed and corrected.

  14. Noncommutative magnetic moment of charged particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Shabad, A. E. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vassilevich, D. V. [CMCC - Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, S.P. (Brazil); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been argued that in noncommutative field theories, the sizes of physical objects cannot be taken smaller than an ''elementary length'' related to noncommutativity parameters. By gauge covariantly extending field equations of noncommutative U(1){sub *} theory to cover the presence of external sources, we find electric and magnetic fields produced by an extended static charge. We find that such a charge, apart from being an ordinary electric monopole, is also a magnetic dipole. By writing off the existing experimental clearance in the value of the lepton magnetic moments for the present effect, we get the bound on noncommutativity at the level of 10{sup 4} TeV.

  15. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  16. Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: A design principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Lin, E-mail: zhulin@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Sato, Shintaroh; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi, E-mail: golgo@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo and JST-CREST, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University and JST-CREST, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To develop a realistic design principle, we calculated the maximum conversion efficiency ?{sub sc} and optimized sub-cell band-gap energies E{sub g} in double-junction tandem solar cells via a detailed-balance theory, paying particular attention to their dependence on internal luminescence quantum yields y{sub int} of the top and bottom sub-cell materials. A strong drop in the maximum ?{sub sc} occurs when y{sub int} slightly drops from 1 to 0.9, where the drop in y{sub int} of the bottom cell causes a stronger effect than that of the top cell. For low values of y{sub int}, the maximum ?{sub sc} has a simple logarithmic dependence on the geometric mean of the two sub-cells'y{sub int}.

  17. QEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Paul

    and a framework that details timelines, leadership, resource allocation, and an assessment plan that is clearlyQEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group The topic of the QEP should fit should be supported by a thorough understanding of the institutional context and by assessment data

  18. Interaction of Gravitational Waves with Charged Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thulsi Wickramasinghe; Will Rhodes; Mitchell Revalski

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown here that a cloud of charged particles could in principle absorb energy from gravitational waves (GWs) incident upon it, resulting in wave attenuation. This could in turn have implications for the interpretation of future data from early universe GWs.

  19. Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,§ Sohail Chatoor, Jaan Ma¨nnik, Marcel A. G an experimental study of 1/f noise in liquid-gated graphene transistors. We show that the gate dependence to the graphene, while at high carrier density it is consistent with noise due to scattering in the channel

  20. Conserved charges in 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  1. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  2. Short Communication Growth of charged micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nonlinearities suggests that Coulomb interactions result in an additional contribution to the free energy of an end-cap that modifies the growth law for the average micelle size. In some cases, the micelle size varies approximately as 03A6(1/2)(1+039B),where 039B > 0 depends on the renormalized coulomb charge

  3. Effective dynamics of a classical point charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polonyi, Janos, E-mail: polonyi@iphc.cnrs.fr

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out. -- Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.

  4. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  5. Rigidly rotating cylinders of charged dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The gravitational field of a rigidly rotating cylinder of charged dust is found analytically. The general and all regular solutions are divided into three classes. The acceleration and the vorticity of the dust are given, as well as the conditions for the appearance of closed timelike curves.

  6. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  7. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  8. Process for fabricating a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  9. Period-luminosity and period-luminosity-colour relations for Mira variables at maximum light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Kanbur; M. A. Hendry; D. Clarke

    1997-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we confirm the existence of period-luminosity (PL) and period-luminosity-colour (PLC) relations at maximum light for O and C Mira variables in the LMC. We demonstrate that in the J and H bands the maximum light PL relations have a significantly smaller dispersion than their counterparts at mean light, while the K band and bolometric PL relations have a dispersion comparable to that at mean light. In the J, H and K bands the fitted PL relations for the O Miras are found to have smaller dispersion than those for the C Miras, at both mean and maximum light, while the converse is true for the relations based on bolometric magnitudes. The inclusion of a non-zero log period term is found to be highly significant in all cases except that of the C Miras in the J band, for which the data are found to be consistent with having constant absolute magnitude. This suggests the possibility of employing C Miras as standard candles. We suggest both a theoretical justification for the existence of Mira PL relations at maximum light and a possible explanation of why these relations should have a smaller dispersion than at mean light. The existence of such maximum light relations offers the possibility of extending the range and improving the accuracy of the Mira distance scale to Galactic globular clusters and to other galaxies.

  10. HFIR Vessel Maximum Permissible Pressures for Operating Period 26 to 50 EFPY (100 MW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Inger, J.R.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending the life of the HFIR pressure vessel from 26 to 50 EFPY (100 MW) requires an updated calculation of the maximum permissible pressure for a range in vessel operating temperatures (40-120 F). The maximum permissible pressure is calculated using the equal-potential method, which takes advantage of knowledge gained from periodic hydrostatic proof tests and uses the test conditions (pressure, temperature, and frequency) as input. The maximum permissible pressure decreases with increasing time between hydro tests but is increased each time a test is conducted. The minimum values that occur just prior to a test either increase or decrease with time, depending on the vessel temperature. The minimum value of these minimums is presently specified as the maximum permissible pressure. For three vessel temperatures of particular interest (80, 88, and 110 F) and a nominal time of 3.0 EFPY(100 MVV)between hydro tests, these pressures are 677, 753, and 850 psi. For the lowest temperature of interest (40 F), the maximum permissible pressure is 295 psi.

  11. On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

    2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

  12. Nighttime solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently photovoltaic (PV) cells convert solar energy into electrical energy at an efficiency of about 18%, with the maximum conversion rate taking place around noon on a cloudless day. In many applications, the PV cells are utilized to recharge a stand-by battery pack that provides electrical energy at night or on cloudy days. Increasing the utilization of the panel array area by producing electrical power at night will reduce the amount of required electrical energy storage for a given array size and increase system reliability. Thermoelectric generators (TEG) are solid state devices that convert thermal energy into electrical energy. Using the nighttime sky, or deep space, with an effective temperature of 3.5 K as a cold sink, the TEG presented here can produce electrical power at night. The hot junction is supplied energy by the ambient air temperature or some other warm temperature source. The cold junction of the TEG is insulated from the surroundings by a vacuum cell, improving its overall effectiveness. Combining the TEG with the PV cell, a unique solid state device is developed that converts electromagnetic radiant energy into usable electrical energy. The thermoelectric-photovoltaic (TEPV) cell, or the Nighttime Solar Cell, is a direct energy conversion device that produces electrical energy both at night and during the day.

  13. Optical generation of free charge carriers in thin films of tin oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhurbina, I. A., E-mail: zhurbina@vega.phys.msu.ru; Tsetlin, O. I.; Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to study nanocrystalline SnO{sub x} films (1 {<=} x {<=} 2) prepared by thermal oxidation of metallic tin layers. A monotonic decrease in the transmittance of films in the infrared region has been observed as a result of exposure of the films to light with the wavelength of 380 nm at room temperature. The effect is at a maximum for the samples with x Almost-Equal-To 2 and is observed for {approx}10 min after switching off of illumination. The mentioned variations in optical properties, similarly to those observed in the case of heating of the samples in the dark, are accounted for by an increase in the concentration of free charge carriers (electrons) in nanocrystals of tin dioxide. The data of infrared spectroscopy and the Drude model are used to calculate the concentrations of photogenerated charge carriers ({approx}10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}); variations in these concentrations in the course of illumination and after switching off of illumination are determined. Mechanisms of observed photogeneration of charge carriers in SnO{sub x} films and possible applications of this effect to gas sensors are discussed.

  14. A charge-pump 60kV modulator for the ISOLDE target extraction voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlow, R A; Fowler, A; Gaudillet, H; Gharsa, T; Schipper, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN provides radioactive ion beams to a number of experimental stations. These ions are produced by a metal target, floating at 60 kV, which is impacted by a 1.4 GeV high intensity proton beam. The ions are then accelerated by a grounded extraction electrode to 60 keV, before transport to the experimental area. During proton beam impact extremely high ionisation of the volume around the target gives rise to significant leakage current which results in loss of charge on the effective target capacitance of approximately 6 nF. If short life-time isotopes are to be studied, the 60 kV must be re-established within a maximum of 10 ms. Recharging the target capacitance to 60 kV and to the required stability of better than 10-4 precludes a direct charging system and an alternative method of re-establishing the 60 kV is used. The present system [1], in operation since 1991, employs a resonant circuit which is triggered 35 µs prior to beam impact. This circuit transfers the charge on the effec...

  15. Molecular Rotation at Negatively Charged Surfactant/Aqueous Interfaces Kim T. Nguyen, Xiaoming Shang, and Kenneth B. Eisenthal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated using femtosecond time-resolved second harmonic at the interface. These factors effect an anisotropic orientation and a preferred alignment (up vs down. Charged interfaces are ubiquitous, ranging from aqueous/ mineral oxide interfaces to aqueous/cell membrane

  16. Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman unobservable conditions as discussed in [3] and allow the application of an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) from Kalman Filter (EKF) based on the averaged model and the performance is shown experimentally in a 10 cell

  17. NEI Workshop, Nice, September 24-26, 2006Peter Peumans (ppeumans@stanford.edu) Energy and Charge Transport on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 NEI Workshop, Nice, September 24-26, 2006Peter Peumans (ppeumans@stanford.edu) Energy and Charge Transport on the Nanoscale in Organic and Organic- Metallic Composite Solar Cells Peter Peumans Department@stanford.edu) Acknowledgements Students Shanbin Zhao Mukul Agrawal Jung-Yong Lee Postdoc Shigeo Fujimori Stanford Prof. Mark

  18. Charge migration in organic materials: Can propagating charges affect the key physical quantities controlling their motion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollub, C; Gutierrez, R; Berlin, Y; Cuniberti, G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge migration is a ubiquitous phenomenon with profound implications throughout many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. The long-term vision of designing functional materials with tailored molecular scale properties has triggered an increasing quest to identify prototypical systems where truly molecular conduction pathways play a fundamental role. Such pathways can be formed due to the molecular organization of various organic materials and are widely used to discuss electronic properties at the nanometer scale. Here, we present a computational methodology to study charge propagation in organic molecular stacks at nano and sub-nanoscales and exploit this methodology to demonstrate that moving charge carriers strongly affect the values of the physical quantities controlling their motion. The approach is also expected to find broad application in the field of charge migration in soft matter systems.

  19. Spectral Modeling of SNe Ia Near Maximum Light: Probing the Characteristics of Hydro Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Baron; S. Bongard; David Branch; Peter H. Hauschildt

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed detailed NLTE spectral synthesis modeling of 2 types of 1-D hydro models: the very highly parameterized deflagration model W7, and two delayed detonation models. We find that overall both models do about equally well at fitting well observed SNe Ia near to maximum light. However, the Si II 6150 feature of W7 is systematically too fast, whereas for the delayed detonation models it is also somewhat too fast, but significantly better than that of W7. We find that a parameterized mixed model does the best job of reproducing the Si II 6150 line near maximum light and we study the differences in the models that lead to better fits to normal SNe Ia. We discuss what is required of a hydro model to fit the spectra of observed SNe Ia near maximum light.

  20. Fast singular value decomposition combined maximum entropy method for plasma tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Junghee; Choe, W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701(Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The maximum entropy method (MEM) is a widely used reconstruction algorithm in plasma physics. Drawbacks of the conventional MEM are its heavy time-consuming process and possible generation of noisy reconstruction results. In this article, a modified maximum entropy algorithm is described which speeds up the calculation and shows better noise handling capability. Similar to the rapid minimum Fisher information method, the modified maximum entropy algorithm uses simple matrix operations instead of treating a fully nonlinear problem. The preprocess for rapid tomographic calculation is based on the vector operations and the singular value decomposition (SVD). The initial guess of the sought-for emissivity is calculated by SVD and this helped reconstruction about ten times faster than the conventional MEM. Therefore, the developed fast MEM can be used for intershot tomographic analyses of fusion plasmas.

  1. What is the maximum rate at which entropy of a string can increase?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ropotenko, Kostyantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    According to Susskind, a string falling toward a black hole spreads exponentially over the stretched horizon due to repulsive interactions of the string bits. In this paper such a string is modeled as a self-avoiding walk and the string entropy is found. It is shown that the rate at which information/entropy contained in the string spreads is the maximum rate allowed by quantum theory. The maximum rate at which the black hole entropy can increase when a string falls into a black hole is also discussed.

  2. Hydrodynamic Relaxation of an Electron Plasma to a Near-Maximum Entropy State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Mitchell, T. B.; Aziz, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Montgomery, D. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical relaxation of a pure electron plasma in a Malmberg-Penning trap is studied, comparing experiments, numerical simulations and statistical theories of weakly dissipative two-dimensional (2D) turbulence. Simulations confirm that the dynamics are approximated well by a 2D hydrodynamic model. Statistical analysis favors a theoretical picture of relaxation to a near-maximum entropy state with constrained energy, circulation, and angular momentum. This provides evidence that 2D electron fluid relaxation in a turbulent regime is governed by principles of maximum entropy.

  3. Maximum-Entropy Closures for Kinetic Theories of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, Aaditya V.; Cai, David [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze (1+1)D kinetic equations for neuronal network dynamics, which are derived via an intuitive closure from a Boltzmann-like equation governing the evolution of a one-particle (i.e., one-neuron) probability density function. We demonstrate that this intuitive closure is a generalization of moment closures based on the maximum-entropy principle. By invoking maximum-entropy closures, we show how to systematically extend this kinetic theory to obtain higher-order (1+1)D kinetic equations and to include coupled networks of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

  4. Maximum Entropy Models of Shortest Path and Outbreak Distributions in Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauckhage, Christian; Hadiji, Fabian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of networks are often characterized in terms of features such as node degree distributions, average path lengths, diameters, or clustering coefficients. Here, we study shortest path length distributions. On the one hand, average as well as maximum distances can be determined therefrom; on the other hand, they are closely related to the dynamics of network spreading processes. Because of the combinatorial nature of networks, we apply maximum entropy arguments to derive a general, physically plausible model. In particular, we establish the generalized Gamma distribution as a continuous characterization of shortest path length histograms of networks or arbitrary topology. Experimental evaluations corroborate our theoretical results.

  5. Portunes: Privacy-Preserving Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    a charging section, and the EV's battery is charged through magnetic induction between the coils simultaneously charge multiple EVs with different battery types and coils. While the micro charging pad approach charging parameters, such as the desired charging rate, battery type, coil type, etc. Second, the charging

  6. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  7. Design and control of photoflash capacitor charging circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Michael G. (Michael George), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops an optimal strategy for charging photoflash capacitors. Photoflash capacitors need to be charged to voltages as high as 350V in low-voltage battery-powered portable devices. With the decreasing size ...

  8. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    days 2013 ECOtality 7302013 8:20:32 AM INLMIS-10-19479 4 of 116 Vehicles Charged Car sharing fleet Nissan Leaf Chevrolet Volt Unknown Percent of charging events 53% 6%...

  9. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    all days 2012 ECOtality 212013 9:44:51 AM INLMIS-10-19479 4 of 89 Vehicles Charged Car sharing fleet Nissan Leaf Chevrolet Volt Unknown Percent of charging events 22% 20%...

  10. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doubly and Singly Charged Group...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doubly and Singly Charged Group VIB Dimetalate Anions: M2O72-, MM'072-, and M207- (M, M'Cr, Mo, W Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doubly and Singly Charged Group VIB Dimetalate...

  11. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions ?-PM12O403- (M Mo, W) in the Gas Phase. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions ?-PM12O403- (M Mo,...

  12. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  13. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  14. Entanglement Entropy at Large Central Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hartman

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional conformal field theories with a large central charge and a small number of low-dimension operators are studied using the conformal block expansion. A universal formula is derived for the Renyi entropies of N disjoint intervals in the ground state, valid to all orders in a series expansion. This is possible because the full perturbative answer in this regime comes from the exchange of the stress tensor and other descendants of the vacuum state. Therefore, the Renyi entropy is related to the Virasoro vacuum block at large central charge. The entanglement entropy, computed from the Renyi entropy by an analytic continuation, decouples into a sum of single-interval entanglements. This field theory result agrees with the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy of a 2d CFT, applied to any number of intervals, and thus can be interpreted as a microscopic calculation of the area of minimal surfaces in 3d gravity.

  15. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  16. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  17. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.

  18. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  19. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  20. Diplme Inter Universitaire TUDE et PRISE en CHARGE des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    services de Médecine et de Psychiatrie, amenés à participer à la prise en charge des suicidants (infirmiers

  1. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit (Madison, WI); Li, Hui (Madison, WI); Blanchard, James P. (Madison, WI); Henderson, Douglass L. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  2. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/{radical}(3)){<=}(a/M){<=}1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  3. Field theoretic description of charge regulation interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natasa Adzic; Rudolf Podgornik

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to find the exact form of the electrostatic interaction between two proteins with dissociable charge groups in aqueous solution, we have studied a model system composed of two macroscopic surfaces with charge dissociation sites immersed in a counterion-only ionic solution. Field-theoretic representation of the grand canonical partition function is derived and evaluated within the mean-field approximation, giving the Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Ninham-Parsegian boundary condition. Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field are then analyzed in the lowest order correction that we calculate analytically and exactly, using the path integral representation for the partition function of a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency. The first order (one loop) free energy correction gives the interaction free energy that reduces to the zero-frequency van der Waals form in the appropriate limit but in general gives rise to a mono-polar fluctuation term due to charge fluctuation at the dissociation sites. Our formulation opens up the possibility to investigate the Kirkwood-Shumaker interaction in more general contexts where their original derivation fails.

  4. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER DEERFIELD RIVER The Office of Hydrology (HYDRO) of the National Weather Service (NWS) develops procedures for making river agencies, and conducts pertinent research and development. NOAA Technical Memorandums in the NWS HYDRO

  5. Analysis and Optimization of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odam, Kofi

    , Charles R. Sullivan, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper analyzes the effect of noise on sev- eral maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for photovoltaic systems. Noise is an essential of the signals, mitigating the noise. The effect of noise and other parameters on tracking performance

  6. Maximum Output Amplitude of Linear Systems for certain Input Constraints1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    of this input and calculates the maximum amplitude of the output. The solution of this problem is a necessary, Linear Sys- tems. 1 Introduction and Motivation Most practical control problems are dominated by hard bounds. Valves can only be operated between fully open and fully closed, pumps and compressors have

  7. Blind Equalization via Approximate Maximum Likelihood Source Seungjin CHOI x1 and Andrzej CICHOCKI y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Seungjin

    Blind Equalization via Approximate Maximum Likelihood Source Separation Seungjin CHOI x1, RIKEN 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi Saitama 351-0198, JAPAN Abstract Blind equalization of single input multiple output (SIMO) FIR channels can be refor- mulated as the problem of blind source separation

  8. Photothermoacoustic imaging of biological tissues: maximum depth characterization comparison of time and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Photothermoacoustic imaging of biological tissues: maximum depth characterization comparison for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering 5 King's College induced in light-absorbing materials can be observed either as a transient signal in time domain

  9. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  10. Maximum principle and bang-bang property of time optimal controls for Schrodinger type systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Maximum principle and bang-bang property of time optimal controls for Schr¨odinger type systems J conditions for the bang- bang property of optimal controls. The results are then applied to some systems-Bang property, Schr¨odinger equation 1 Introduction Time optimal control is a classical problem for linear

  11. Recursive maximum likelihood estimation for structural health monitoring: Kalman and particle filter implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Recursive maximum likelihood estimation for structural health monitoring: Kalman and particle by a likelihood approach. In a first part the structural health monitoring problem is written in term of recursive al [6] in a more simple framework. Particle approximation for health monitoring was already proposed

  12. Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Power System Using Single Transducer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Power System Using Single Transducer Toshihiko) method of a photovoltaic power system with less transducer count. A unique feature of this method concern on an environmental issue since 1990's. Above all, a photovoltaic power generation system is one

  13. Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song Intelligent Accepted 24 August 2009 Available online 22 September 2009 Keywords: Wind farm Wind turbine Layout design Optimization Evolutionary algorithms Operations research a b s t r a c t Wind is one of the most promising

  14. Electrical Estimation of Conditional Probability for Maximum-likelihood Based PMD Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zweck, John

    Xi, T¨ulay Adali, and John Zweck Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering UniversityElectrical Estimation of Conditional Probability for Maximum-likelihood Based PMD Mitigation Wenze probability density functions in the presence of both all-order PMD and ASE noise are estimated electronically

  15. Brayton Cycles: From the ...rst law, the maximum transfers for component SSSF control volumes are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . For the simple reversible Brayton cycle of given pressure ratio rp $ (p2=p1) = (p3=p4) [compare Example 9.4, pp is higher than 1 r (2=7) . For the ideal regenerator, the thermal e¢ ciency approaches the Carnot-cycle eBrayton Cycles: From the ...rst law, the maximum transfers for component SSSF control volumes are w

  16. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Mixture Densities for Binned and Truncated Multivariate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Padhraic

    Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Mixture Densities for Binned and Truncated Multivariate Data in data analysis and machine learning. This paper addresses the problem of fitting mixture densities to multivariate binned and truncated data. The EM approach proposed by McLachlan and Jones (1988

  17. EXTENSION OF THE MAXIMUM POWER REGION OF DOUBLY-SALIENT VARIABLE RELUCTANCE MOTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Salient Variable Reluctance Motors (DSVRM) has been investigated and developed for variable-speed drives during, variable-frequency generators, wind wheels, machine tools, etc.). In these applications, it is generally necessary to operate in a regime of a high speed ux-weakening (zone of maximum constant power), for a better

  18. Hydrogen Molecules inside Fullerene C70: Quantum Dynamics, Energetics, Maximum Occupancy, And Comparison with C60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Hydrogen Molecules inside Fullerene C70: Quantum Dynamics, Energetics, Maximum Occupancy of Chemistry, New York UniVersity, New York, New York 10003, Department of Chemistry, Brown UniVersity, ProVidence, Rhode Island 02912, and Department of Chemistry, Columbia UniVersity, New York, New York 10027 Received

  19. Vision Research 40 (2000) 11571165 Local luminance factors that determine the maximum disparity for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vision Research 40 (2000) 1157­1165 Local luminance factors that determine the maximum disparity dense arrays of micropatterns, whose luminance characteristics were manipulated. In Experiment 1, we with luminance spatial frequency and with Gabor size, but was constant for a constant bandwidth (frequency times

  20. Exact Maximum Likelihood estimator for the BL-GARCH model under elliptical distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exact Maximum Likelihood estimator for the BL-GARCH model under elliptical distributed innovations, Brisbane QLD 4001, Australia Abstract We are interested in the parametric class of Bilinear GARCH (BL-GARCH examine, in this paper, the BL-GARCH model in a general setting under some non-normal distributions. We