Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Maximally exposed offsite individual location determination for NESHAPS compliance  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer program CAP88 for demonstrating compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS.) One of the inputs required for CAP88 is the location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI) by sector and distance. Distances to the MEI have been determined for 15 different potential release locations at SRS. These locations were compared with previous work and differences were analyzed. Additionally, SREL Conference Center was included as a potential offsite location since in the future it may be used as a dormitory. Worst sectors were then determined based on the distances.

Simpkins, A.A.

2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

2

Maxim I  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maxim I. Boyanov Maxim I. Boyanov Address: Biosciences Division Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Ave Argonne, IL, U.S.A. Phone: +1 (630) 252-8242 Fax: +1 (630) 252-9793 Email: mboyanov@anl.gov WWW: http://www.nd.edu/~mboyanov/ EDUCATION Ph.D.: Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN, U.S.A. 1996-2003 Dissertation: "XAFS spectroscopy studies of metal-ligand interactions at organic surfaces and in solution" Advisor: Prof. Bruce Bunker B.Sc., M.Sc.: Physics, University of Sofia, Bulgaria. 1991-1995 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, U.S.A. 1990-1991 M.Sc. Thesis: "Two new analytical solutions to the inverse ellipsometric problem" Advisor: Prof. Stoyan Russev Graduated: Magna Cum Laude PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

3

Identifying Energy Systems that Maximize Cogeneration Savings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the maximizing of Regional Cogeneration Energy Savings utilizing various technologies and fuels within a given service region. A methodology is developed to establish the allocation of power to the individual cogenerators such that overall energy economic benefits are maximized while process steam needs are simultaneously satisfied. Application of the methodology is illustrated and discussed.

Ahner, D. J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Maximizing Multi-Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stochastic interdependence of a probablility distribution on a product space is measured by its Kullback-Leibler distance from the exponential family of product distributions (called multi-information). Here we investigate low-dimensional exponential families that contain the maximizers of stochastic interdependence in their closure. Based on a detailed description of the structure of probablility distributions with globally maximal multi-information we obtain our main result: The exponential family of pure pair-interactions contains all global maximizers of the multi-information in its closure.

Nihat Ay; Andreas Knauf

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Title Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds...

6

Security Maxims - Vulnerability Assessment Team - Nuclear Engineering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tobias Maxim 5: Encryption is largely irrelevant. From Marc Weber Tobias. Red Herring Maxim: At some point in any challenging security application, somebody (or nearly...

7

Maximal Reliability for Unit-weighted Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximal Reliability for Unit-weighted Composites Peter M.Maximal Reliability for Unit-weighted Composites Althoughconsistency coefficient for a unit-weighted composite. The

Peter M. Bentler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Scheduling resources for throughput maximization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of scheduling a set of resources over time. Each resource is specified by a set of time intervals (and the associated amount of resource available), and we can choose to schedule it in one of these intervals. The goal is to maximize ...

Venkatesan T. Chakaravarthy; Amit Kumar; Vinayaka Pandit; Sambuddha Roy; Yogish Sabharwal

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Beeping a maximal independent set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of ...

Yehuda Afek; Noga Alon; Ziv Bar-Joseph; Alejandro Cornejo; Bernhard Haeupler; Fabian Kuhn

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

11

On Test Sets for Nonlinear Integer Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Test Sets for Nonlinear. Integer Maximization. July 2007; revised February 2008. Jon Leea, Shmuel Onnb, Robert Weismantelc a IBM T.J. Watson Research  ...

12

Algorithms and analyses for maximal vector computation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximal vector problem is to identify the maximals over a collection of vectors. This arises in many contexts and, as such, has been well studied.The problem recently gained renewed attention with skyline queries for relational databases and with ...

Parke Godfrey; Ryan Shipley; Jarek Gryz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Efficient maximal poisson-disk sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We solve the problem of generating a uniform Poisson-disk sampling that is both maximal and unbiased over bounded non-convex domains. To our knowledge this is the first provably correct algorithm with time and space dependent only on the ... Keywords: Poisson disk, blue noise, linear complexity, maximal, provable convergence, sampling

Mohamed S. Ebeida; Andrew A. Davidson; Anjul Patney; Patrick M. Knupp; Scott A. Mitchell; John D. Owens

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Task-Oriented Maximally Entangled States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the tasks for which a quantum state is used as the resource. This concept may be more fruitful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for {\\em n}-qubit systems.

Pankaj Agrawal; B. Pradhan

2007-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

15

Maximizing absorption and scattering by dipole particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a review and tutorial paper which discusses the fundamental limitations on the maximal power which can be received, absorbed, and scattered by an electrically small electrically polarizable particle and infinite periodical arrays of such particles.

Tretyakov, Sergei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Alternative Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines

17

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Maximizing the Productive Uses...

18

Maximizing Buoyancy Flux across Layered Geostrophic Sections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For layered analogues of the ocean stratification, the problem of maximizing buoyancy flux across a section with zero mass flux is considered. The two layer situation on an f-plane is particularly simple and it is shown that the buoyancy flux is ...

Nelson G. Hogg; Henry M. Stommel

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Modified expectation maximization algorithm for MRI segmentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetic Resonance Image segmentation is a fundamental task in a wide variety of computed-based medical applications that support therapy, diagnostic and medical applications. In this work, spatial information is included for estimating paramaters of ... Keywords: expectation maximization algorithm, finite mixture models, magnetic resonance imaging segmentation, spatial information

Ramiro Donoso; Alejandro Veloz; Héctor Allende

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

A scalable, parallel algorithm for maximal clique enumeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of maximal clique enumeration (MCE) is to enumerate all of the maximal cliques in a graph. Once enumerated, maximal cliques are widely used to solve problems in areas such as 3-D protein structure alignment, genome mapping, gene expression ... Keywords: Biological networks, Cray XT, Dynamic load balancing, High-performance computing, Maximal clique enumeration, Parallel graph algorithms

Matthew C. Schmidt; Nagiza F. Samatova; Kevin Thomas; Byung-Hoon Park

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).

Eiman Abou El Dahab; Abdel Nasser Tawfik

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

22

Maximizing Wastewater Reduction for the Process Industries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides an overview of water and wastewater management practices in the U.S. process industries. The focus is on the chemical and petroleum industries and their methods for maximizing wastewater reduction and zero discharge. However, it also covers end-of-pipe treatment, since water reduction and zero discharge practices have evolved from end-of-pipe treatment practices. The resulting report is a comprehensive reference developed to help utilities and energy service providers understand and f...

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

Almost Degenerate Neutrinos with Maximal Mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If the upper limit on the effective (Majorana) neutrino mass from neutrinoless double beta decay experiments is confirmed to be much less than an electron-volt, then one way to reconcile it with the degenerate neutrino mass pattern suggested recently to explain the observed deficit of solar and atmospheric neutrinos as well as neutrinos as HDM is to postulate that there be maximal mixing among the three light (or two) neutrinos. This suggestion is advanced in this paper and is analysed.

R. N. Mohapatra; S. Nussinov

1994-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

24

Welfare and Profit Maximization with Production Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combinatorial Auctions are a central problem in Algorithmic Mechanism Design: pricing and allocating goods to buyers with complex preferences in order to maximize some desired objective (e.g., social welfare, revenue, or profit). The problem has been well-studied in the case of limited supply (one copy of each item), and in the case of digital goods (the seller can produce additional copies at no cost). Yet in the case of resources---oil, labor, computing cycles, etc.---neither of these abstractions is just right: additional supplies of these resources can be found, but at increasing difficulty (marginal cost) as resources are depleted. In this work, we initiate the study of the algorithmic mechanism design problem of combinatorial pricing under increasing marginal cost. The goal is to sell these goods to buyers with unknown and arbitrary combinatorial valuation functions to maximize either the social welfare, or the seller's profit; specifically we focus on the setting of \\emph{posted item prices} with buyer...

Blum, Avrim; Mansour, Yishay; Sharma, Ankit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Maximize Efficiency and Safety of Smelters through Advanced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Maximize Efficiency and Safety of Smelters through ... Multivariate Statistical Investigation of Carbon Consumption for HSS Reduction Cell.

26

Maximal covering location problem (MCLP) with fuzzy travel times  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a fuzzy maximal covering location problem (FMCLP) in which travel time between any pair of nodes is considered to be a fuzzy variable. A fuzzy expected value maximization model is designed for such a problem. Moreover, a hybrid algorithm ... Keywords: Credibility theory, Facility location, Fuzzy travel times, Maximal covering location problem (MCLP), Simulation

Soheil Davari; Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi; Ahmad Hemmati

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Theoretical underpinnings for maximal clique enumeration on perturbed graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of enumerating the maximal cliques of a graph is a computationally expensive problem with applications in a number of different domains. Sometimes the benefit of knowing the maximal clique enumeration (MCE) of a single graph is worth investing ... Keywords: Graph algorithms, Graph perturbation theory, Maximal clique enumeration, Uncertain and noisy data

William Hendrix; Matthew C. Schmidt; Paul Breimyer; Nagiza F. Samatova

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Generation and Transmission Maximization Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.dis.anl.gov/projects/Gtmax.html Cost: Paid Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Screenshot References: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model [1] Logo: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model The GTMax model helps researchers study complex marketing and system operational issues. With the aid of this comprehensive model, utility operators and managers can maximize the value of the electric system, taking into account not only its limited energy and transmission resources,

29

On maximizing lifetime of a sensor cluster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the energy consumed in radio transmission of a set of sensors forming a data gathering wireless network. Our objective is to enhance the lifetime of such networks by exploiting three system-level opportunities. Firstly, the number of bits to be transmitted can be reduced by taking advantage of the redundancy induced by spatio-temporal correlation in sensor data. Secondly, channel coding allows us to reduce transmission energy at the cost of increased transmission time. Thirdly, sensor nodes can be expected to operate collaboratively, allowing optimal management of distributed energy resources. Our main contribution lies in providing a framework to merge these ideas for energy conscious networking. We pose the problem of maximizing network lifetime as an optimal scheduling problem. We first consider a special case where data rate is linearly proportional to received signal power. In this scenario, we investigate both static and dynamic scheduling strategies. The optimal static schedule turns out to have a very simple form. For the dynamic case, we obtain an integer linear program formulation to find the optimal strategy. We then propose an efficient algorithm that exploits the special nature of the problem setting to quickly find the optimal solution. Finally, we consider the general case where data rates and signal power need not be linearly related and propose an algorithm to find the optimal transmission times subject to the deadline constraint imposed by the system. 1

Samar Agnihotri; Pavan Nuggehalli; H. S. Jamadagni

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Beaird Maxim Model TRP-12 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRP-12 Jump to: navigation, search Manufacturer Beaird Model Number Maxim Model TRP-12 Distributed Generation Purpose Domestic hot water, Space heat, HVAC reheat Retrieved from...

31

On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 18, 2010 ... On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in wireless networks by joint channel assignment and power allocation.

32

Rate-maximization scheduling schemes for uplink OFDMA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose and study several sum rate maximization algorithms for uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). For uplink scheduling without fairness consideration, we propose two Lagrangian duality optimization-based ... Keywords: Lagrangian duality, OFDMA uplink, multiuser diversity, proportional fairness, throughput maximization, water-filling power allocation

Yao Ma; Dong In Kim

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Faster Algorithms for Computing Maximal Multirepeats in Multiple Sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A repeat in a string is a substring that occurs more than once. A repeat is extendible if every occurrence of the repeat has an identical letter either on the left or on the right; otherwise, it is maximal. A multirepeat is a repeat that occurs at least ... Keywords: biological sequences, gaps, maximal multirepeats, repeats, suffix arrays

Costas S. Iliopoulos; W. F. Smyth; Munina Yusufu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Constrained flow control in storage networks: Capacity maximization and balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the control of distributed storage networks with guarantees of constraints satisfaction and asymptotic stability. We consider two problems: network capacity maximization and network balancing. In the first part of the paper we describe ... Keywords: Capacity maximization, Load balancing, Model predictive control, Reachable sets, Storage networks

Claus Danielson, Francesco Borrelli, Douglas Oliver, Dyche Anderson, Tony Phillips

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

TREC Individual User Agreement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual Application to use the TREC Information- Retrieval Text Research Collections. I, _____ ...

36

A distributed Newton method for Network Utility Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most existing work uses dual decomposition and subgradient methods to solve Network Utility Maximization (NUM) problems in a distributed manner, which suffer from slow rate of convergence properties. This work develops an ...

Wei, Ermin

37

Hardy-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a variation on a gedanken experiment of Hardy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 2981] that allows, for the first time, a Hardy-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles in a four-dimensional Hilbert space.

Demetrios Kalamidas

2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

38

Maximal r-Diameter Sets and Solids of Constant Width  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recall the definition of an r-maximal set in a metric space as a maximal subset of diameter r. In the special case when the metric space is Euclidean such a set is exactly a solid of constant diameter r. In the process of reviewing the theory of these objects we provide a simple construction which generates a large class of such solids.

Ethan Akin

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Optimal Sequencing of Individually Rational Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiagent researchers have worked on the problem of determining optimal contracts between self-interested agents. In particular, Sandholm et al. [1, 8] have both theoretically and experimentally studied the necessity and usefulness of di#erent contract types under the assumption of individually myopically rational contracting. We study a variant of sequential contracting where the goal is to maximize social welfare through a fixed-length sequence of individually rational contracts. The space of possible contract sequences is exponential. We compare a greedy deterministic heuristic with a stochastic genetic algorithm based approach for this optimal sequential contract selection problem. We focus on sub-additive domains where individually rational contracts are feasible with side payments. We show that the GAbased approach consistently outperforms the deterministic heuristic by generating larger social welfare.

Partha Sarathi Dutta; Sandip Sen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Facially exposed cones are not always nice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 23, 2013 ... a valuable insight into the fundamental properties of convex programs, performance of numerical ..... F12(?) are exposed faces of C, that all zero- dimensional faces are exposed and that C does not have any ..... Handbook of.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency January 30, 2013 - 5:13pm Addthis A warm fireplace can save you energy and money with proper maintenance. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Pgiam. A warm fireplace can save you energy and money with proper maintenance. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Pgiam. Erin Connealy Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy How can I participate? Follow these tips to make sure that your cozy fireplace isn't wasting energy in your home. The Northeast and much of the country has had very frigid temperatures lately! If you're like me, nothing sounds better than cozying up to the fireplace with a cup of cocoa on a cold day. But be aware that while

42

Maximal output purity and capacity for asymmetric unital qudit channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider generalizations of depolarizing channels to maps in which the identity channel is replaced by a convex combinations of unitary conjugations. We show that one can construct unital channels of this type for which the input which achieves maximal output purity is unique. We give conditions under which multiplicativity of the maximal p-norm and additivity of the minimal output entropy. We also show that the Holevo capacity need not equal log d - the minimal entropy as one might expect for a convex combination of unitary conjugations. Conversely, we give examples for which this condition holds, but the channel has no evident covariance properties.

Nilanjana Datta; Mary Beth Ruskai

2005-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

43

Efficiency of Exterior Exposed Ductwork  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Efficiency of Exterior Exposed Ductwork Most of California's commercial buildings have thermal distribution systems, the majority (63%) of which are air-based and distribute air through ductworks. Thermal distribution ductwork systems in small commercial buildings are similar to those in residential construction [Winter 1995, p.8] and have the same leakage and conduction-loss problems. The extent of these duct-related thermal losses depends on the location of the ductwork-the largest thermal losses occur when the ducts are entirely outside the building envelope. Leakage, conduction losses, direct solar radiation effects and solar reflection all affect the magnitude of thermal loss. Differences in the lengths of exterior ducts also affect a distribution system's energy

44

MAXIMAL ANALYTIC EXTENSIONS OF THE EMPARAN-REALL BLACK RING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAXIMAL ANALYTIC EXTENSIONS OF THE EMPARAN-REALL BLACK RING Piotr T. Chru´sciel & Julien Cortier Abstract We construct a Kruskal-Szekeres-type analytic extension of the Emparan- Reall black ring-Reall [13] metrics form a remarkable class of vacuum black hole solutions of Einstein equations in dimension

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Maximization of Mutual Information for Offline Thai Handwriting Recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aims to improve the performance of an HMM-based offline Thai handwriting recognition system through discriminative training and the use of fine-tuned feature extraction methods. The discriminative training is implemented by maximizing the ... Keywords: Character recognition, Hidden Markov Model, discriminative training, PCA, feature extraction, Thai handwriting recognition.

Roongroj Nopsuwanchai; Alain Biem; William F. Clocksin

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Density-metric unimodular gravity: Vacuum maximal symmetry  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the vacuum maximally symmetric solutions of recently proposed density-metric unimodular gravity theory. The results are widely different from inflationary scenario. The exponential dependence on time in deSitter space is substituted by a power law. Open space-times with non-zero cosmological constant are excluded.

Abbassi, A.H., E-mail: ahabbasi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbassi, A.M., E-mail: amabasi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department of Computer Abstract--Most wireless ad hoc networks consist of mobile devices which operate on batteries. Power con, for an ad hoc network consisting of the same type of battery mobile nodes, two approximation algorithms

Liang, Weifa

48

A linear combination of classifiers via rank margin maximization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The method we present aims at building a weighted linear combination of already trained dichotomizers, where the weights are determined to maximize the minimum rank margin of the resulting ranking system. This is particularly suited for real applications ... Keywords: combination of classifiers, margin, ranking

Claudio Marrocco; Paolo Simeone; Francesco Tortorella

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Throughput maximization in UWB-based ad-hoc networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we study the problem of radio resource allocation, both transmission rates and transmission powers, so as to maximize the throughput of UWB wireless ad-hoc networks. Our analysis is based on the packet-success function (PSF), which is defined as the probability of a data packet being successfully received as a function of the receiver’s signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR). We find an optimal link transmission rate, which maximizes the link’s throughput and is dependent on the all active links transmission powers. If each link transmission rate is adapted to this optimal link transmission rate, then, with single-link operation (i.e., no other interference sources are present), the link’s throughput is directly proportional to the transmitter’s power and increases indefinitely with increasing transmission power. However, with multiplelinks operation and interference each other, as each link transmitting power increases, so does the interference level, and the total network throughput approaches a constant other than infinite. Thus, for sufficiently small transmission power, the total network throughput of the multiple-links case exceeds the throughput of the single-link case, but the reverse happens for high power. In addition, this paper reveals that, as the number of concurrently transmitting links increases, regardless of the power level, the maximal total network throughput approaches a constant, with each link’s throughput approaching zero. To maximize the network throughput, for the case of small maximal transmission power with weak interference levels, the optimal transmission scheduling

Zou Chuanyun; Haas Zygmunt J; Zou Sheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

53

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Maximize  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Maximize Results Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Maximize Results March 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) Manager Joe Franco, right, presents a memento to EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) Manager Joe Franco, right, presents a memento to EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga Three HalfPACT transportation packages on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) truck are parked inside the exhibit hall at the 2013 Waste Management Conference. WIPP featured the exhibit as part of outreach to visitors at the annual gathering in Phoenix. Three HalfPACT transportation packages on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) truck are parked inside the exhibit hall at the 2013 Waste

54

Maximizing Cloud Providers Revenues via Energy Aware Allocation Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud providers, like Amazon, offer their data centers' computational and storage capacities for lease to paying customers. High electricity consumption, associated with running a data center, not only reflects on its carbon footprint, but also increases the costs of running the data center itself. This paper addresses the problem of maximizing the revenues of Cloud providers by trimming down their electricity costs. As a solution allocation policies which are based on the dynamic powering servers on and off are introduced and evaluated. The policies aim at satisfying the conflicting goals of maximizing the users' experience while minimizing the amount of consumed electricity. The results of numerical experiments and simulations are described, showing that the proposed scheme performs well under different traffic conditions.

Mazzucco, Michele; Deters, Ralph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Maximal Beable Subalgebras of Quantum-Mechanical Observables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given a state on an algebra of bounded quantum-mechanical observables (the self-adjoint part of a C*-algebra), we investigate those subalgebras that are maximal with respect to the property that the given state's restriction to the subalgebra is a mixture of dispersion-free states---what we call maximal "beable" subalgebras (borrowing a terminology due to J. S. Bell). We also extend our investigation to the theory of algebras of unbounded observables (as developed by R. Kadison), and show how our results articulate a solid mathematical foundation for central tenets of the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory (such as the joint indeterminacy of canonically conjugate observables, and Bohr's defense of the completeness of quantum theory against the argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen).

Hans Halvorson; Rob Clifton

1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

56

Superluminal group velocity through near-maximal neutrino oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently it was suggested that the observation of superluminal neutrinos by the OPERA collaboration may be due to group velocity effects resulting from close-to-maximal oscillation between neutrino mass eigenstates, in analogy to known effects in optics. We show that superluminal propagation does occur through this effect for a series of very narrow energy ranges, but this phenomenum cannot explain the OPERA measurement.

Tim R. Morris

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

57

Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments Title Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-6147E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Noris, Federico, William W. Delp, Kimberly Vermeer, Gary Adamkiewicz, Brett C. Singer, and William J. Fisk Journal Energy and Buildings Volume 61 Pagination 378-386 Date Published 06/2013 Keywords apartments, buildings, costs, energy, indoor environmental quality, Protocol, retrofits, Selection Abstract The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

58

Exploring pure quantum states with maximally mixed reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate multipartite entanglement for composite quantum systems in a pure state. Using the generalized Bloch representation for n-qubit states, we express the condition that all k-qubit reductions of the whole system are maximally mixed, reflecting maximum bipartite entanglement across all k vs. n-k bipartitions. As a special case, we examine the class of balanced pure states, which are constructed from a subset of the Pauli group P_n that is isomorphic to Z_2^n. This makes a connection with the theory of quantum error-correcting codes and provides bounds on the largest allowed k for fixed n. In particular, the ratio k/n can be lower and upper bounded in the asymptotic regime, implying that there must exist multipartite entangled states with at least k=0.189 n when $n\\to \\infty$. We also analyze symmetric states as another natural class of states with high multipartite entanglement and prove that, surprisingly, they cannot have all maximally mixed k-qubit reductions with k>1. Thus, measured through bipartite entanglement across all bipartitions, symmetric states cannot exhibit large entanglement. However, we show that the permutation symmetry only constrains some components of the generalized Bloch vector, so that very specific patterns in this vector may be allowed even though k>1 is forbidden. This is illustrated numerically for a few symmetric states that maximize geometric entanglement, revealing some interesting structures.

Ludovic Arnaud; Nicolas J. Cerf

2012-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

59

Individual Development Plan (IDP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Individual Development Plan (IDP) Individual Development Plan (IDP) SAMPLE 10/01/2012 to 09/30/2013 Training Reason Developmental Activity Description Training Cost Travel Cost Total Cost Hours Start Date/ Completion Date Short Range Goal 1: Enhance Leadership Skills Development Mentoring Receive mentoring from a higher grade employee (s) and provide mentoring to lower grade employee(s). 0 0 0 TBD 1/1/2013 Development Instructor led EM Leadership Excellence Program - Interpersonal Communication Skills 0 0 0 8 6/15/2013 Development Instructor led Federal Executive Institute (OPM): Leadership for a Democratic Society $18,300 0 0 30 day residential TBD Development Shadowing Shadow one or more SES employees for one or two day period to learn leadership techniques. 0 0 0 TBD TBD

60

Predicting Individual Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Generating efficient quantum circuits for preparing maximally multipartite entangled states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we provide a method for generating quantum circuits preparing maximally multipartite entangled states using genetic programming. The presented method is faster that known realisations thanks to the applied fitness function and several modifications to the genetic programming schema. Moreover, we enrich the described method by the unique possibility to define an arbitrary structure of a system. We use the developed method to find new quantum circuits, which are simpler from known results. We also analyse the efficiency of generating entanglement in the spin chain system and in the system of complete connections.

Przemys?aw Sadowski

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Maxim> App Notes> Battery Management Power-Supply Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION NOTE 680 How to design battery charger applications that require external microcontrollers and related system-level issues Abstract: Notebook computers increasingly require complex battery charging algorithms and systems. This article provides information and background on lithium-ion (Li+), nickel-cadmium (NiCd), and nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries and related system-level switch-mode and linear battery chargers. These voltage regulators and current regulators are controlled by external microprocessors like the 8051 or Microchip PIC, and examples are provided with these controllers. An overview of requirements for charging common battery chemistries with Maxim battery charger ICs is provided, along with a discussion of system-level trade-offs and firmware design tips, and a list of World Wide Web engineering resources. The previous issue of Maxim's Engineering Journal (Vol. 27) discussed new developments in stand-alone battery chargers. This second article of a two-part series explores the system-level issues in applying battery-charger ICs. Over the past five years, market pressures on portable equipment have transformed the simple battery charger into a sophisticated switch-mode device capable of charging an advanced battery in 30 minutes. This development also marks a departure from the selfcontained, stand-alone charger ICs of only a few years ago. Some of those ICs included considerable intelligence: enough to handle the complex task of fast charging advanced batteries.

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Exploiting the Parallelism Exposed by Partial Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the key role played by partial evaluation in the Supercomputing Toolkit, a parallel computing system for scientific applications that effectively exploits the vast amount of parallelism exposed by partial ...

Surati, Rajeev

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Individual differences in sentence processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis aims to elucidate shared mechanisms between retrieval in sentence processing and memory retrieval processes in nonlinguistic domains using an individual differences approach. Prior research in individual ...

Troyer, Melissa L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Individual energy conservation behaviors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One important basis for sound energy policy is an understanding of how American consumers view and practice energy conservation. This volume reports the results of Project Monitor, a study of consumers' energy attitudes and behaviour. More than 1000 household consumers were interviewed to determine individual attributes, situational factors, attitudes, and perceptions that influence (or fail to influence) energy conservation. Using these data, the authors related specific types of energy conservation-general, winterization, heating, cooling, appliance, transportation, and electricity reductions-to twenty-four demographic, situational, attitudinal, and perceptual variables in the household sample. To determine the characteristics that differentiate conservers from nonconservers, simple correlations are made between each of the ''independent'' variables and the ''dependent'' measures of conservation and the results of multivariate regression analyses are used to estimate the effects of the independent variables simultaneously.

Beck, P.; Doctors, S.I.; Hammond, P.Y.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

DOE Solar Decathlon: University of Texas at Austin: Maximizing Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mobile Utility Unit's Airstream trailer and entryway at dusk. Mobile Utility Unit's Airstream trailer and entryway at dusk. Enlarge image The Mobile Utility Unit designed by the University of Texas at Austin is one of the core buildings associated with the Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems. (Courtesy of Kit Morris) Who: University of Texas at Austin What: Mobile Utility Unit Where: Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems 8604 FM 969 Austin, Texas 78724 Map This House Public tours: Visitors are welcome the first Friday of every month. For tour information, call 512-928-4786. Solar Decathlon 2002 University of Texas at Austin: Maximizing Potential Students from the University of Texas at Austin designed the Mobile Utility Unit for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2002. Based on an agreement with the University of Texas School of Architecture, the

68

Extremal black attractors in 8D maximal supergravity  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the new higher D-supergravity solutions on intersecting attractors obtained by Ferrara et al. in [Phys. Rev. D 79, 065031 (2009)], we focus in this paper on 8D maximal supergravity with moduli space (SL(3,R)/SO(3))x(SL(2,R)/SO(2)) and study explicitly the attractor mechanism for various configurations of extremal black p-branes (antibranes) with the typical near horizon geometries AdS{sub p+2}xS{sup m}xT{sup 6-p-m} and p=0, 1, 2, 3, 4; 2{<=}m{<=}6. Interpretations in terms of wrapped M2 and M5 branes of the 11D M-theory on 3-torus are also given.

Drissi, L. B [INANOTECH, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (Morocco); Hassani, F. Z; Jehjouh, H. [Lab/UFR-High Energy Physics, Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco) and GNPHE; Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies (Morocco); Saidi, E. H [INANOTECH, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (Morocco) and Lab/UFR-High Energy Physics; Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco); GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies (Morocco)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Globally Optimal Distributed Power Control for Nonconcave Utility Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future wireless networks are expected to operate in dense environments where the system capacity is fundamentally limited by severe co-channel interference among neighboring links. Transmit-power control has been recently explored as an important interference-mitigation technique that aims to maximize a system efficiency metric, which is often measured by a system utility function. Optimal power control is known to be difficult to achieve, mainly because the optimization problem is in general highly non-convex. This problem had eluded researchers and remained open until our recent work [11], where a centralized optimal power control algorithm, referred to as MAPEL, is developed based on a monotonic optimization framework. However, there does not yet exist a distributed power control algorithm that achieves the global optimal solution for generic utility functions, although the distributed implementation is crucial for the wireless infrastructureless networks such as ad hoc and sensor networks. This paper fill...

Qian, Li Ping; Zhang,; Chiang, Mung

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Ecological Impacts of Beach Grooming on Exposed Sandy Beaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California.of grooming on exposed sandy beaches in southern California.of grooming on exposed sandy beaches in southern California.

Dugan, Jenifer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Bone lead content assessed by L-line x-ray fluorescence in lead-exposed and non-lead-exposed suburban populations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of lead (Pb) in bone reflect cumulative Pb exposure, whereas blood Pb levels are indices of absorption during the previous 21-30 days. This study was undertaken to estimate bone Pb concentrations by L-line x-ray fluorescence (LXRF) in a United States suburban population which was exposed to unusually high levels of Pb in emissions from an adjacent factory during 1963-1981, compared with concentrations similarly estimated in a matched suburban community without unusual Pb exposure. The mean bone Pb value in 269 residents of the highly exposed suburb (15 ppm) was 3-fold greater than that of the reference suburb (5 ppm). LXRF estimates of bone Pb identified those individuals at risk for adverse effects of Pb, whereas blood Pb levels were uninformative. Average LXRF-estimated bone Pb concentrations in residents of the unusually exposed suburb approximated estimated values in workers at Pb-processing factories. 44 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Rosen, J.F.; Balbi, K.; Balbi, J.; Bailey, C.; Clemente, I.; Redkey, N.; Grainger, S. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)); Crocetti, A.F. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Matter Collineations of Static Spacetimes with Maximal Symmetric Transverse Spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to study the symmetries of the energy-momentum tensor for the static spacetimes with maximal symmetric transverse spaces. We solve matter collineation equations for the four main cases by taking one, two, three and four non-zero components of the vector $\\xi^a$. For one component non-zero, we obtain only one matter collineation for the non-degenerate case and for two components non-zero, the non-degenerate case yields maximum three matter collineations. When we take three components non-zero, we obtain three, four and five independent matter collineations for the non-degenerate and for the degenerate cases respectively. This case generalizes the degenerate case of the static spherically symmetric spacetimes. The last case (when all the four components are non-zero) provides the generalization of the non-degenerate case of the static spherically symmetric spacetimes. This gives either four, five, six, seven or ten independent matter collineations in which four are the usual Killing vectors and rest are the proper matter collineations. It is mentioned here that we obtain different constraint equations which, on solving, may provide some new exact solutions of the Einstein field equations.

M. Sharif

2007-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

74

N=1 RG Flows, Product Groups, and a-Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore new IR phenomena and dualities, arising for product groups, in the context of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The RG running of the multiple couplings can radically affect each other. For example, an otherwise IR interacting coupling can be driven to be instead IR free by an arbitrarily small, but non-zero, initial value of another coupling. Or an otherwise IR free coupling can be driven to be instead IR interacting by an arbitrarily small non-zero initial value of another coupling. We explore these and other phenomena in N=1 examples, where exact results can be obtained using a-maximization. We also explore the various possible dual gauge theories, e.g. by dualizing one gauge group with the other treated as a weakly gauged flavor symmetry, along with previously proposed duals for the theories deformed by A_k-type Landau-Ginzburg superpotentials. We note that this latter duality, and all similar duality examples, always have non-empty superconformal windows, within which both the electric and dual A_k superpotentials are relevant.

Edwin Barnes; Ken Intriligator; Brian Wecht; Jason Wright

2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

75

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Parametric completely generalized mixed implicit quasi-variational inclusions involving h-maximal monotone mappings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new class of parametric completely generalized mixed implicit quasi-variational inclusions involving h-maximal monotone mappings is introduced. By applying resolvent operator technique of h-maximal monotone mapping and the property of fixed point set ... Keywords: 47H05, 47J20, 47J25, 49J40, 49J53, Parametric completely generalized mixed implicit quasi-variational inclusion, Resolvent operator, Sensitivity analysis, h-maximal monotone mapping

Xie Ping Ding

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for Next Generation Safeguards Specialists--Maximizing Potential and Minimizing the Risks  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to provide an overview of the workshop entitled 'The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for the Next Generation Safeguards Experts-Maximizing Benefits While Minimizing Proliferation Risks', conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in partnership with the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This document presents workshop objectives; lists the numerous participant universities and individuals, the nuclear nonproliferation lecture topics covered, and the facilities tours taken as part of the workshop; and discusses the university partnership sessions and proposed areas for collaboration between the universities and ORNL for 2009. Appendix A contains the agenda for the workshop; Appendix B lists the workshop attendees and presenters with contact information; Appendix C contains graphics of the evaluation form results and survey areas; and Appendix D summarizes the responses to the workshop evaluation form. The workshop was an opportunity for ORNL, Y-12, and SRNL staff with more than 30 years combined experience in nuclear nonproliferation to provide a comprehensive overview of their expertise for the university professors and their students. The overall goal of the workshop was to emphasize nonproliferation aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and to identify specific areas where the universities and experts from operations and national laboratories could collaborate.

Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A Round-based Pricing Scheme for Maximizing Service Provider's Revenue in P2PTV Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze a round-based pricing scheme that encourages favorable behavior from users of real-time P2P applications like P2PTV. In the design of pricing schemes, we consider price to be a function of usage and capacity of download/upload streams, and quality of content served. Users are consumers and servers at the same time in such networks, and often exhibit behavior that is unfavorable towards maximization of social benefits. Traditionally, network designers have overcome this difficulty by building-in traffic latencies. However, using simulations, we show that appropriate pricing schemes and usage terms can enable designers to limit required traffic latencies, and be able to earn nearly 30% extra revenue from providing P2PTV services. The service provider adjusts the prices of individual programs incrementally within rounds, while making relatively large-scale adjustments at the end of each round. Through simulations, we show that it is most beneficial for the service provider to carry out ...

Bhutani, Gitanjali

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Application of geostatistical reservoir description for maximizing waterflood infill drilling recovery from La Cira Field, Colombia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??One of the prospective ways to increase the oil production is to maximize the oil recovery from mature oil fields. In this study we apply… (more)

Cubillos Gutierrez, Helber

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Control Architecture and Utility Maximization for a Smart Grid based Energy Community.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a control architecture and utility maximization mechanisms for a smart grid based energy community. The particular focus is upon a central server… (more)

W. Abegaz, B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Studies on persons exposed to plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males.

Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Individual Permit for Storm Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Individual Permit Individual Permit Individual Permit for Storm Water The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. October 15, 2012 Sandia Canyon Wetlands Sandia Canyon Wetlands in the early morning looking north. Get Expertise Environmental Communications & Public Involvement Email In the Individual Permit, to 'minimize' means to reduce and/or eliminate discharges of pollutants in storm water to the extent achievable. What is the Individual Permit for Storm Water? The Permit - NPDES No. NM0030759 - was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, on September 30, 2010 to Los Alamos National

83

On perturbation theory and an algorithm for maximal clique enumeration in uncertain and noisy graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximal clique enumeration (MCE) problem can be used to find very tightly-coupled collections of objects inside a network or graph of relationships. However, when such networks are based on noisy or uncertain data, the solutions to the MCE problem ... Keywords: biological applications, graph algorithms, graph perturbation theory, maximal clique enumeration

William Hendrix; Matthew C. Schmidt; Paul Breimyer; Nagiza F. Samatova

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Maximal network reliability with optimal transmission line assignment for stochastic electric power networks via genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study proposes a genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the recursive sum of disjoint products to find maximal network reliability with optimal transmission line assignment for a stochastic electric power network. In our ... Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Maximal network reliability, Recursive sum of disjoint products, Stochastic electric power network, Transmission line assignment

Yi-Kuei Lin; Cheng-Ta Yeh

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

RTDS Based Maximal Power Point Tracking Simulation for Doubly-Fed Induction Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the control of the wind generation, the maximal power point tracking (MPPT) control plays important role in the efficiency. This paper presents the simulation results of the MPPT control with RTDS-based DFIG model. At first, it analyzes the vector-control ... Keywords: Wind energy, DFIG((doubly-fed induction generator), Stator flux-oriented, Maximal power point tracking

Jiamin Zhang; Ancheng Xue; Tianshu Bi

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Author's personal copy Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency of outdoor, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin ­ Austin, TX 78712, USA b Mechanical t A numerical study is presented aiming to maximize the solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency

Pilon, Laurent

87

Low complexity subcarrier and power allocation for utility maximization in uplink OFDMA systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the joint subcarrier and power allocation problem with the objective of maximizing the total utility of users in the uplink of an OFDMA system. Our formulation includes the problems of sum rate maximization, proportional fairness and max-min ...

Cho Yiu Ng; Chi Wan Sung

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Maximally concentrating optics for photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of a two-stage concentrator with a fresnel lens primary and a nonimaging dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary, has unique advantages for photovoltaic concentration. Some preliminary ray trace studies have shown that with planar lenses, an increase in angular acceptance for a given geometric concentration to about 2/3 of the maximum theoretical limit can be achieved. To demonstrate this, two preprototype concentrators, each having a geometric concentration of 248:1 for a 0.635cm (0.25 inch) diameter cell, have been designed, built, and tested. Measurements of the angular response show an acceptance of 8[degrees] (full angle) which is drastically better than the 1[degrees]--2[degrees] achievable without a secondary, and is in excellent agreement with the ray trace predictions. For these preprototypes, passive cooling was sufficient to prevent any thermal problems for both the cell and secondary. No problems associated with nouuniform cell illumination were found, as evidenced by the fill factor of 71%--73% measured under concentration. Initial measurements of the system electrical efficiency lie in the range 7.5%--9.9% for a variety of individual cells.

O'Gallagher, J.J.

1985-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Chloride-Exposed Steel-Reinforced Concrete Service Life ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chloride-Exposed Steel-Reinforced Concrete Service Life Prediction Program. Description/Summary: (Return to Cement ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

NREL: Continuum Magazine - Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Issue 4 Print Version Share this resource Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Advancing electric vehicle charging options and grid readiness reduces oil consumption and vehicle emissions. A photo of two electric vehicles in a research facility. Enlarge image Electric vehicle charging stations in NREL's parking garage. Photo by Dennis Schroder, NREL Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)-including all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-offer the opportunity to reduce oil consumption and vehicle emissions by drawing on power from the utility grid. When the grid uses electricity generated from clean, domestic energy sources, the emerging PEV infrastructure will increasingly maximize

91

Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program The Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D)/Facility Engineering (FE) is charged with reducing the technical risk and uncertainty of D&D activities across the Environmental Management (EM) Complex through the identification, development and demonstration of alternative technologies as well as through the provision of technical assistance activities such as Lessons Learned Workshops and External Technical Review Teams. Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program More Documents & Publications Across the Pond Newsletter Issue 1 D&D Toolbox Project - Technology Demonstration of Fixatives Applied to Hot

92

Penalized Maximal t Test for Detecting Undocumented Mean Change in Climate Data Series  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a penalized maximal t test (PMT) is proposed for detecting undocumented mean shifts in climate data series. PMT takes the relative position of each candidate changepoint into account, to diminish the effect of unequal sample sizes ...

Xiaolan L. Wang; Qiuzi H. Wen; Yuehua Wu

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs Agency/Company /Organization: Christophe de Gouvello and Laurent Durix Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.esmap.org/esmap/sites/esmap.org/files/FR_Maximizing%20the%20Produc Cost: Free Language: English This paper argues that to be successful, rural electrification programs should target direct impact on livelihoods and revenue generation beyond the provision of connections and kilowatt-hours by implementing electricity

94

Individuals and Modality Hisashi Komatsu*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Individuals and Modality Hisashi Komatsu* Hiroshima City University School of Information Sciences 151-5 Ozuka, Numata-cho, Asa-minaini-ku, Hiroshima 731-31, Japan Tel.: +81-82-830-1615, 1500 e-mail: komatsu@cs.hiroshima-cu.ac.jp Abstract In this paper, I argue that the modality contained in declarative

95

Characterization of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface antigen MB2 in malaria exposed individuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Director of the Kenya Medical Research Institute. ReferencesCommittee at the Kenya Medical Research Institute and theRogers at the US Naval Medical Research Center (Rockville,

Nguyen, Thanh V; Sacci, John B; de la Vega, Patricia; John, Chandy C; James, Anthony A; Kang, Angray S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Characterization of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface antigen MB2 in malaria exposed individuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tested for antibodies to CSP and TRAP by ELISA, as describedindividuals had antibodies to CSP and/or TRAP, demonstratingtesting for antibodies to CSP and TRAP by ELISA had lower

Nguyen, Thanh V; Sacci, John B; de la Vega, Patricia; John, Chandy C; James, Anthony A; Kang, Angray S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN JOB AID  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN JOB AID INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN JOB AID Log into to ESS>Click the IDP drop down menu>Click Start Page Click on "Create a new IDP" NOTE: This screen also gives you the option to change supervisors, view, update and rollover your IDP. Your initial IDP will be (blank) in the goal column for your 3 Short Range and Long Range goals, so click on the word/link (Modify) to enter goals. Enter your Goal in the box below>Click Save This window will appear>Click on one of the Activity boxes below to enter an activity. You can add more than one activity per goal. This window will appear so you can enter the detailed information for your activities. You can select one of the 3 save options on the bottom. To View your IDP>Click on View current IDP (example is below this screen

98

Fatigue Testing of Hydrogen-Exposed Austenitic Stainless Steel in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part of the focus is on possible mechanical properties degradation of stainless steel exposed to hydrogen for long periods of time. Samples of austenitic ...

99

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine September 27, 2011 - 3:52pm Addthis A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL Bryan Wheeler Intern, Office of Science

100

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine September 27, 2011 - 3:52pm Addthis A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL Bryan Wheeler Intern, Office of Science

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Higher Order GUP with Minimal Length Uncertainty and Maximal Momentum II: Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent paper, we presented a nonperturbative higher order generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) that is consistent with various proposals of quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, doubly special relativity, and predicts both a minimal length uncertainty and a maximal observable momentum. In this Letter, we find exact maximally localized states and present a formally self-adjoint and naturally perturbative representation of this modified algebra. Then we extend this GUP to D dimensions that will be shown it is noncommutative and find invariant density of states. We show that the presence of the maximal momentum results in upper bounds on the energy spectrum of the free particle and the particle in box. Moreover, this form of GUP modifies blackbody radiation spectrum at high frequencies and predicts a finite cosmological constant. Although it does not solve the cosmological constant problem, it gives a better estimation with respect to the presence of just the minimal length.

Pouria Pedram

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

Thermodynamics for individual quantum systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a 'weight' that can be raised or lowered). We then prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and give a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system (equal to its change in free energy). Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we can use it to construct a quantum Carnot engine.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Anthony J. Short; Sandu Popescu

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

103

Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts Gaëlle Uzu, Sophie Sobanska of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead Pb-rich fallouts are studied. INTRODUCTION Particles emitted in the atmosphere present a large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts G A ¨E L L E U Z U , S O P H I E S O) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead-recycling plant were studied. After43daysofexposure area, they can strongly impact the biosphere (7, 8). At the global scale, fallouts of atmospheric PM

Mailhes, Corinne

105

Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was $beta$ burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references). (CH)

Conard, R.A.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Notices Accessible Format: Individuals with  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

472 Federal Register 472 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 83 / Monday, April 30, 2012 / Notices Accessible Format: Individuals with disabilities can obtain this document in an accessible format (e.g., braille, large print, audiotape, or computer diskette) on request to the program contact person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. Electronic Access to This Document: The official version of this document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys. At this site you can view this document, as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document

107

Individual energy-conservation behaviors  

SciTech Connect

One important basis for sound energy policy is an understanding of how American consumers view and practice energy conservation. Project Monitor, a study of consumers' energy attitudes and behavior surveyed more than 1000 household consumers to determine individual attributes, situational factors, attitudes, and perceptions that influence (or fail to influence) energy conservation. Using these data, the authors related specific types of energy conservation - general, winterization, heating, cooling, appliance, transportation, and electricity reductions - to 24 demographic, situational, attitudinal, and perceptual variables in the household sample. To determine the characteristics that differentiate conservers from nonconservers, simple correlations are made between each of the independent variables and the dependent measures of conservation; the results of multivariate regression analyses are used to estimate the effects of the independent variables simultaneously. Also measured were the effects on households of two exogenous events during the period of the study. It concludes with recommendations for implementing and increasing energy conservation. 296 references, 42 tables.

Beck, P.; Doctors, S.I.; Hammond, P.Y.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Notices Affected Public: Individuals and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

23 Federal Register 23 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 23 / Thursday, February 3, 2011 / Notices Affected Public: Individuals and households; not-for-profit institutions; State, Local, or Tribal Government, State Educational Agencies or Local Educational Agencies. Total Estimated Number of Annual Responses: 22,760. Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 8,725. Abstract: The study is being conducted as part of the National Assessment of Title I, mandated by Title I, Part E, Section 1501 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The study is designed to identify school programs and instructional practices associated with improved language development, background knowledge, and comprehension outcomes for children in prekindergarten through third grade. Analyses will estimate the

109

Wind Farm Power Maximization Based On A Cooperative Static Game Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Farm Power Maximization Based On A Cooperative Static Game Approach Jinkyoo Parka, Soonduck efficiency of wind farms using cooperative control. The key factors in determining the power production and the loading for a wind turbine are the nacelle yaw and blade pitch angles. However, the nacelle and blade

Stanford University

110

An efficient data rate maximization algorithm for OFDM based wireless networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a computationally efficient, suboptimal integer bit allocation algorithm that maximizes the overall data rate in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems implemented in wireless networks. Assuming the ... Keywords: Bit allocation algorithm, Multiuser OFDM system, Power allocation algorithm, QoS, Wireless networks

Željko Ili?; Alen Bažant; Borivoj Modlic

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Maximizing bichromatic reverse nearest neighbor for Lp-norm in two- and three-dimensional spaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bichromatic reverse nearest neighbor (BRNN) has been extensively studied in spatial database literature. In this paper, we study a related problem called MaxBRNN: find an optimal region that maximizes the size of BRNNs for L p ... Keywords: Indexing, Reverse nearest neighbor, Spatial databases

Raymond Chi-Wing Wong; M. Tamer Özsu; Ada Wai-Chee Fu; Philip S. Yu; Lian Liu; Yubao Liu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Combination of dichotomizers for maximizing the partial area under the ROC curve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, classifier combination has been of great interest for the pattern recognition community as a method to improve classification performance. The most part of combination rules are based on maximizing the accuracy and, only recently, the ... Keywords: ROC curve, classifiers combination, partial AUC

Maria Teresa Ricamato; Francesco Tortorella

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Some Aspects of Supersymmetric Field Theories with Minimal Length and Maximal Momentum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a real scalar field and a Majorana fermion field to construct a supersymmetric quantum theory of free fermion fields based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra $[x,p]=i\\hbar\\big(1-\\beta p+2\\beta^{2}p^{2}\\big)$, where $\\beta $ is a deformation parameter. We present a deformed supersymmetric algebra in the presence of minimal length and maximal momentum.

Nozari, Kourosh; Balef, F Rezaee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Energy-Aware Loop Parallelism Maximization for Multi-core DSP Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the advance of semiconductor, multi-core architecture is inevitable in today's embedded system design. Nested loops are usually the most critical part in multimedia and high performance DSP (Digital Signal Processing) systems. Hence, maximizing ... Keywords: Energy, multi-core, loop parallelization, retiming, voltage assignment

Meikang Qiu; Jian-Wei Niu; Laurence T. Yang; Xiao Qin; Senlin Zhang; Bin Wang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality oriental mustard (Brassica juncea).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality oriental mustard such as winter and spring canola and rapeseed have long been grown in this region, albeit on a relatively small. Wheat yields after canola, rapeseed and yellow mustard have been shown to be favorably high compared

Brown, Jack

117

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality Oriental mustard (Brassica juncea).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality Oriental mustard with small grain cereals. Brassica crops such as winter and spring canola and rapeseed have long been canola, rapeseed and yellow mustard can be favorably high compared to monoculture cereal production

Brown, Jack

118

Generating English Summaries of Time Series Data Using the Gricean Maxims  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, gas-turbine sensor readings, and hospital intensive care data. Our weather-forecast generator users. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.7 [Natural Language Processing]: Language Generation. Keywords Time series data, Summarization, Natural Language Processing, Gricean maxims. 1. INTRODUCTION

Sripada, Yaji

119

Coverage-Based Information Retrieval for Lifetime Maximization in Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coverage-Based Information Retrieval for Lifetime Maximization in Sensor Networks Tong Zhao {ttzhao, qzhao}@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract--We consider information retrieval in a wireless sensor network-of-service (QoS) specific information retrieval for the reconstruction of a spatially correlated random signal

Islam, M. Saif

120

Maximizing the Statistical Diversity of an Ensemble of Bred Vectors by Using the Geometric Norm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the choice of the norm has a great impact on the construction of ensembles of bred vectors. The geometric norm maximizes (in comparison with other norms such as the Euclidean one) the statistical diversity of the ensemble while at ...

Diego Pazó; Miguel A. Rodríguez; Juan M. López

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.

Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica 'E. R. Caianiello', Universita di Salerno, INFM-Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Vitali, David [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, MC (Italy)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.

Antonio Di Lisi; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati; David Vitali

2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

123

Controlled generation of hard and easy Bayesian networks: Impact on maximal clique size in tree clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents and analyzes algorithms that systematically generate random Bayesian networks of varying difficulty levels, with respect to inference using tree clustering. The results are relevant to research on efficient Bayesian network inference, ... Keywords: Bayesian networks, C/V-ratio, Controlled experiments, Maximal clique size, Probabilistic reasoning, Random generation, Tree clustering inference

Ole J. Mengshoel; David C. Wilkins; Dan Roth

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid Pedram Samadi algorithm for the future smart grid. We focus on the interactions between the smart meters and the energy-mail:{psamadi, hamed, rschober, vincentw, jurij}@ece.ubc.ca Abstract--In this paper, we consider a smart power infras

Wong, Vincent

125

Cost-Based Sampling of Individual Instances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many practical domains, misclassification costs can differ greatly and may be represented by class ratios, however, most learning algorithms struggle with skewed class distributions. The difficulty is attributed to designing classifiers to maximize ... Keywords: Class Imbalance, Cost-Based Learning, Sampling

William Klement; Peter Flach; Nathalie Japkowicz; Stan Matwin

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Outdoor polymeric insulators long-term exposed to HVDC  

SciTech Connect

Field experience from outdoor polymeric insulators exposed to HVDC under natural contamination conditions is presented. This paper summarizes the peak leakage current statistics, the hydrophobicity and the surface material conditions studied by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show a strong interrelation between the surface conditions and the performance with respect to leakage currents. Moreover, the results show that the surface conditions and the performance of the insulators exposed to HVDC are rather similar to those of the insulators exposed to HVAC.

Soerqvist, T.; Vlastos, A.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Ecological Impacts of Beach Grooming on Exposed Sandy Beaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beach Grooming on Exposed Sandy Beaches R/CZ-174 J.E. Dugan,of California, Santa Barbara Sandy beaches and associatedstructure and function of sandy beach ecosystems. We used a

Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Page, Henry M.; Schimel, Joshua P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO); Taylor, Roger W. (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Advanced control for power density maximization of the brushless DC generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation proposes a novel control technique for power density maximization of the brushless DC (BLDC) generator which is a nonsinusoidal power supply system. In a generator of given rating, the weight and size of the system affect the fuel consumption directly, therefore power density is one of the most important issues in a stand-alone generator. Conventional rectification methods cannot achieve the maximum power possible because of a distorted or unsuitable current waveform. The optimal current waveform for maximizing power density and minimizing machine size and weight in a nonsinusoidal power supply system has been proposed theoretically and verified by simulation and experimental work. Also, various attributes of practical interest are analyzed and simulated to investigate the impact on real systems.

Lee, Hyung-Woo

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Engineering extremal two-qubit entangled states with maximally entangled Gaussian light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study state engineering induced by bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and light fields prepared in two-mode Gaussian states. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-vs-global-purity plane. We show that two-mode Gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. The target two-qubit entanglement is determined quantitatively only by the purities of the two-mode Gaussian resource. Thus, a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode Gaussian states is sufficient to control completely the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic scenarios of cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Paternostro, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources to Maximize the Use of Wind Power in Rural Microgrids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this paper is to design control strategies for distributed energy resources (DERs) to maximize the use of wind power in a rural microgrid. In such a system, it may be economical to harness wind power to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels for electricity production. In this work, we develop control strategies for DERs, including diesel generators, energy storage and demand response, to achieve high penetration of wind energy in a rural microgrid. Combinations of centralized (direct control) and decentralized (autonomous response) control strategies are investigated. Detailed dynamic models for a rural microgrid are built to conduct simulations. The system response to large disturbances and frequency regulation are tested. It is shown that optimal control coordination of DERs can be achieved to maintain system frequency while maximizing wind power usage and reducing the wear and tear on fossil fueled generators.

Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Chunlian; Zhang, Yu

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

132

Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.

Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

133

Transplanting assembly of individual carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Handling and assembling individual nanostructures to bigger scale systems such as MEMS have been the biggest challenge. A deterministic assembly of individual carbon nanotubes by transplanting them to MEMS structures is ...

Kim, Soohyung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Generation and purification of maximally entangled atomic states in optical cavities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a probabilistic scheme for generating and purifying maximally entangled states of two atoms inside an optical cavity via no-photon detection at the cavity output, where ideal detectors are not required. The intermediate mixed states can be continuously purified so as to violate Bell inequalities in a parametrized manner. The scheme relies on an additional strong-driving field that realizes, atypically, simultaneous Jaynes-Cummings and anti-Jaynes-Cummings interactions.

Lougovski, P.; Walther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Solano, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seccion Fisica, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Maximization of No-Load Flux Density in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors Frdric DUBAS, Christophe ESPANET & Abdellatif MIRAOUI.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximization of No-Load Flux Density in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors Frédéric DUBAS mounted permanent magnet motors having a direction of parallel or radial magnetization [1]. I expression of the optimal thickness of the magnet which make it possible to maximize the no-load flux density

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Accounting for Autocorrelation in Detecting Mean Shifts in Climate Data Series Using the Penalized Maximal t or F Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study proposes an empirical approach to account for lag-1 autocorrelation in detecting mean shifts in time series of white or red (first-order autoregressive) Gaussian noise using the penalized maximal t test or the penalized maximal F test. ...

Xiaolan L. Wang

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Individualized Site Training | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Individualized Site Training | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response...

138

Final DUF6 PEIS: Volume 2, Appendix G; Long-Term Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLMW low-level mixed waste LLW low-level radioactive waste MEI maximally exposed individual NEPA National Environmental Policy Act...

139

Microsoft Word - Influence of Adv Fuel cycles on Uncertainty...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

R&D Research and Development RMEI Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual SCC Stress Corrosion Cracking SiC Silicon Carbide SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company...

140

Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to gain significant market share over the next decade. The economic viability for such vehicles is contingent upon the availability of cost-effective batteries with high power and energy density. For initial commercial success, government subsidies will be highly instrumental in allowing PHEVs to gain a foothold. However, in the long-term, for electric vehicles to be commercially viable, the economics have to be self-sustaining. Towards the end of battery life in the vehicle, the energy capacity left in the battery is not sufficient to provide the designed range for the vehicle. Typically, the automotive manufacturers indicated the need for battery replacement when the remaining energy capacity reaches 70-80%. There is still sufficient power (kW) and energy capacity (kWh) left in the battery to support various grid ancillary services such as balancing, spinning reserve, load following services. As renewable energy penetration increases, the need for such balancing services is expected to increase. This work explores optimality for the replacement of transportation batteries to be subsequently used for grid services. This analysis maximizes the value of an electric vehicle battery to be used as a transportation battery (in its first life) and then as a resource for providing grid services (in its second life). The results are presented across a range of key parameters, such as depth of discharge (DOD), number of batteries used over the life of the vehicle, battery life in vehicle, battery state of health (SOH) at end of life in vehicle and ancillary services rate. The results provide valuable insights for the automotive industry into maximizing the utility and the value of the vehicle batteries in an effort to either reduce the selling price of EVs and PHEVs or maximize the profitability of the emerging electrification of transportation.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Individual Development Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Individual Development Plan Individual Development Plan Individual Development Plan To be effective, training decisions made at the organizational and departmental levels must be informed by the needs of the individual. An individual development plan (IDP) is cooperatively developed between a supervisor and an employee to identify training needs that address mandatory training, essential competencies, legal requirements, career development and professional growth. This allows the employee and supervisor to focus limited resources in the area of greatest need for the individual and the organization. IDPs should be updated annually. The IDP tool resides in the Employee Self Service (ESS) system, a web-based application for all DOE Federal Employees. For instructions on using the IDP tool, visit the ESS website (once logged

142

Individualized Site Training | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Individualized Site Training Home > About Us > Our Programs > Nuclear Security > Nuclear Materials Management &...

143

Chapter 5 - Individuals and Agencies Contacted  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5-1 CHAPTER 5 INDIVIDUALS AND AGENCIES CONTACTED NEPA regulations require that federal, state, and local agencies with jurisdiction or special expertise regarding environmental...

144

FlexCore: Utilizing Exposed Datapath Control for Efficient Computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce FlexCore, the first exemplar of an architecture based on the FlexSoC framework. Comprising the same datapath units found in a conventional five-stage pipeline, the FlexCore has an exposed datapath control and a flexible interconnect to allow ... Keywords: Computer architecture, Flexible, Interconnect, Reconfigurable

Martin Thuresson; Magnus Själander; Magnus Björk; Lars Svensson; Per Larsson-Edefors; Per Stenstrom

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and hydrocarbon denuded diesel exhaust Title Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and hydrocarbon denuded diesel exhaust Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Holder, Amara L., Donald Lucas, Regine Goth-Goldstein, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Chemosphere Volume 70 Pagination 13-19 Date Published 09/2007 Keywords air-liquid interface, combustion particle, human bronchial epithelial cells, interleukin-8 Abstract In vitro studies with the organic extracts of diesel particles have suggested that hydrocarbons such as PAH may play a role in an inflammatory response, but these have been limited by the possible artifacts introduced in the particle collection and processing. In this study, we avoid these artifacts and use an activated carbon denuder to remove hydrocarbons from the exhaust stream to investigate their role in the inflammatory response. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE140) were exposed at the air-cell interface to diluted and aged exhaust from a diesel generator operated at partial and no load conditions. When particles were removed with a filter before cell exposure, exhaust gases accounted for almost half of the response compared to the whole exhaust. Removal of gas phase and a portion of the particle phase hydrocarbons with the denuder decreased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion to unexposed levels

146

Throughput Maximization for the Gaussian Relay Channel with Energy Harvesting Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper considers the use of energy harvesters, instead of conventional time-invariant energy sources, in wireless cooperative communication. For the purpose of exposition, we study the classic three-node Gaussian relay channel with decode-and-forward (DF) relaying, in which the source and relay nodes transmit with power drawn from energy-harvesting sources. Assuming a deterministic energy-harvesting model under which the energy arrival time and the harvested amount are known prior to transmission, the throughput maximization problem over a finite horizon of $N$ transmission blocks is investigated. In particular, two types of data traffic with different delay constraints are considered: delay-constrained (DC) traffic (for which only one-block decoding delay is allowed at the destination) and no-delay-constrained (NDC) traffic (for which arbitrary decoding delay up to $N$ blocks is allowed). For the DC case, we show that the joint source and relay power allocation over time is necessary to achieve the maxim...

Huang, Chuan; Cui, Shuguang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

DISTRIBUTION OF MAXIMAL LUMINOSITY OF GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

Extreme value statistics is applied to the distribution of galaxy luminosities in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We analyze the DR8 Main Galaxy Sample (MGS), as well as the luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Maximal luminosities are sampled from batches consisting of elongated pencil beams in the radial direction of sight. For the MGS, results suggest a small and positive tail index {xi}, effectively ruling out the possibility of having a finite maximum cutoff luminosity, and implying that the luminosity distribution function may decay as a power law at the high-luminosity end. Assuming, however, {xi} = 0, a non-parametric comparison of the maximal luminosities with the Fisher-Tippett-Gumbel distribution (limit distribution for variables distributed by the Schechter fit) indicates a good agreement provided that uncertainties arising from both the finite batch size and the batch-size distribution are accounted for. For a volume-limited sample of LRGs, results show that they can be described as being the extremes of a luminosity distribution with an exponentially decaying tail, provided that the uncertainties related to batch-size distribution are taken care of.

Taghizadeh-Popp, M.; Szalay, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ozogany, K.; Racz, Z. [Institute for Theoretical Physics-HAS, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany setany 1/a, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Regoes, E., E-mail: mtaghiza@pha.jhu.edu [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Periodic optimal control for biomass productivity maximization in a photobioreactor using natural light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We address the question of optimization of the microalgal biomass long term productivity in the framework of production in photobioreactors under the influence of day/night cycles. For that, we propose a simple bioreactor model accounting for light attenuation in the reactor due to biomass density and obtain the control law that optimizes productivity over a single day through the application of Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the dilution rate being the main control. An important constraint on the obtained solution is that the biomass in the reactor should be at the same level at the beginning and at the end of the day so that the same control can be applied everyday and optimizes some form of long term productivity. Several scenarios are possible depending on the microalgae's strain parameters and the maximal admissible value of the dilution rate: bang-bang or bang-singular-bang control or, if the growth rate of the algae is very strong in the presence of light, constant maximal dilution. A bifurcation...

Grognard, Frédéric; Bernard, Olivier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Supporting collaborative help for individualized use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we seek to advance the research around utilizing collaborative help for supporting individualized use of technologies. We do this by shedding light on the ways that users of MythTV, a highly flexible open-source software system for home ... Keywords: appropriation, collaborative help, configuration, individualized use, mythtv, pervasive systems, tailorability

Jina Huh; Mark W. Newman; Mark S. Ackerman

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards Title Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4608E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Garbesi, Karina, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Christopher A. Bolduc, Gabriel Burch, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, and Seth Saltiel Document Number LBNL-4608E Pagination 13 Date Published July 11 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports-simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save ~200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

151

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Charles Limoli University of California, Irvine Abstract In the CNS, irradiation of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells has been shown to cause a persistent oxidative stress that impacts radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. The nature, magnitude and duration of reactive species dictates whether these radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to a variety of in vitro and in vivo endpoints of viability and function. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-10 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days post-exposure. These changes can be attenuated when the dose is protracted over several weeks using a 57Co flood source having a surface dose rate of

152

Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

DAMAGE TO COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS EXPOSED TO NUCLEAR EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

One equipment control building designed to be blast resistant and two each of three standardized types of metal warehouse or utility buildings were exposed to the effects of a nuclear device detonation. One of the utility buildings was frameless, with deeply corrugated wall and roof sections; a second was very largely frameless, utilizing interlocking channel sections; and in the third the aluininum-panel wall and roof covering was supported by girts and purlins, which in turn were supported by steel frames. Because of atmospheric conditions at the time of an earlier detonation in the test series, one of each of the three types of utility buildings was exposed to approximately 0.7 psi overpressure before the planned test. In the planned test one of each of the three types was exposed to approximately 3.0 psi overpressure and one to 1.3 psi, with the intention of bracketing their overpressure survival range and obtaining data for possible economic redesign for improved blast resistance. The equipment control building utilized continuous-welded steel frames and reinforced-gypsum curtain-wall construction. The control building was exposed to approximately 4.1 psi, in the anticipated fringe zone of major structural damage, to determine its protective capabilities. The blast-resistant equipment control building was nat structurally damaged by the blast, thus exceeding the expectations of the design. Each of the three utility buildings received severe damage at the near range, one being completely destroyed, whereas at the far range the damage in every case was repairable. The test results are discussed, and recommendations for improved designs are made. Damage records during the unexpected test and at the far range in the planned test are correlated by means of dynamic analyses with pressuretime data and studies of structural resintance. Pressure-time information is appended. (auth)

Johnston, B.G.

1956-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan)] [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan)] [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Maximizing the Value of Photovoltaic Installations on Schools in California: Choosing the Best Electricity Rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Schools in California often have a choice between multiple electricity rate options. For schools with photovoltaic (PV) installations, choosing the right rate is essential to maximize the value of PV generation. The rate option that minimizes a school?s electricity expenses often does not remain the most economical choice after the school installs a PV system. The complex interaction between PV generation, building load, and rate structure makes determining the best rate a challenging task. This report evaluates 22 rate structures across three of California?s largest electric utilities--Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)--in order to identify common rate structure attributes that are favorable to PV installations.

Ong, S.; Denholm, P.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers: The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps that the dimmers were historically designed to control, and how these differences can lead to complications when trying to dim LEDs. Compatibility between a specific LED source and a specific phase-cut dimmer is often unknown and difficult to assess, and ensuring compatibility adds complexity to the design, specification, bidding, and construction observation phases for new buildings and major remodel projects. To maximize project success, this report provides both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects, as well as real-world examples of how to use those procedures.

Miller, Naomi J.; Poplawski, Michael E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technical Assistance Technical Assistance Office level Program Planning Process development Page 1 of 2 Environmental Management Corporate HQ DOE - Complex Wide Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program Challenge The Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D)/Facility Engineering (FE) is charged with reducing the technical risk and uncertainty of D&D activities across the Environmental Management (EM) Complex through the identification, development and demonstration of alternative technologies as well as through the provision of technical assistance activities such as Lessons Learned Workshops and External Technical Review Teams. There is a need to ensure an optimum balance between these different types of projects as well as to ensure that the projects funded are focused on the

158

Routing and packet scheduling for throughput maximization in ieee 802.16 mesh networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — This paper considers the problem of maximizing the system throughput in IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks with mesh topology, and the following results are presented. We first consider a simplified linear network with only uplink traffic and provide an optimal scheduling algorithm and establish an analytical result on the length of the schedule. We then consider the problem of routing and packet scheduling in general topology, and show its NPcompleteness. We also provide an ILP formulation for this problem. Based on our optimal algorithm for linear networks, we propose algorithms that find routes and schedules of packet transmissions in general mesh topologies. The performance of our proposed algorithms is analyzed using the NS-2 simulator. The results show that the suggested algorithms perform significantly better than other existing algorithms.

Fanchun Jin; Amrinder Arora; Jinho Hwang; Hyeong-ah Choi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Nonrobustness Property of the Individual Ergodic Theorem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Main laws of probability theory, when applied to individual sequences, have a “robustness” property under small violations of randomness. For example, the law of large numbers for the symmetric Bernoulli scheme holds for a sequence where ...

V. V. V'yugin

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Private Citizens/Individuals Written Comments | A  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Citizens/Individuals Written Comments | A Citizens/Individuals Written Comments | A 74BPrivate Citizen/Individual's Written Comments Private Citizens/Individuals Written Comments | 1 While anecdotal suggestions of health effects from wind turbine sound can be found online, No evidence exists regarding direct negative health effects associated with wind turbine sound in any peer reviewed, scientific papers or studies. Impacts to birds and bats are disclosed in Section 4.4.5.11-Migratory Birds - Direct and Indirect Effects by Alternative and 4.4.5.8-Bats - Direct and Indirect Effects by Alternative, respectively. Impacts to Birds and Bats will be minimized by MM-BIO-5 Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy. Additionally, refer to Appendix B-4: Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy (formerly known as the Avian and Bat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inhibiting Individual Notch Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Wednesday, 27 July 2011 00:00 Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly specialized antibody inhibitors that specifically inhibit only Notch1 or Notch2, acting through a potent and novel mechanism of Notch inhibition. These antibodies, characterized at ALS Beamline 5.0.2, could provide the tools to therapeutically target individual Notch receptors, avoiding the intestinal toxicity ascribed to treatment with more than one, or a pan-Notch, inhibitor.

162

Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly specialized antibody inhibitors that specifically inhibit only Notch1 or Notch2, acting through a potent and novel mechanism of Notch inhibition. These antibodies, characterized at ALS Beamline 5.0.2, could provide the tools to therapeutically target individual Notch receptors, avoiding the intestinal toxicity ascribed to treatment with more than one, or a pan-Notch, inhibitor.

163

Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly specialized antibody inhibitors that specifically inhibit only Notch1 or Notch2, acting through a potent and novel mechanism of Notch inhibition. These antibodies, characterized at ALS Beamline 5.0.2, could provide the tools to therapeutically target individual Notch receptors, avoiding the intestinal toxicity ascribed to treatment with more than one, or a pan-Notch, inhibitor.

164

Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly specialized antibody inhibitors that specifically inhibit only Notch1 or Notch2, acting through a potent and novel mechanism of Notch inhibition. These antibodies, characterized at ALS Beamline 5.0.2, could provide the tools to therapeutically target individual Notch receptors, avoiding the intestinal toxicity ascribed to treatment with more than one, or a pan-Notch, inhibitor.

165

Maximizing phylogenetic diversity in biodiversity conservation: Greedy solutions to the noah’s ark problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract.—The Noah’s Ark Problem (NAP) is a comprehensive cost-effectiveness methodology for biodiversity conservation that was introduced by Weitzman (1998) and utilizes the phylogenetic tree containing the taxa of interest to assess biodiversity. Given a set of taxa, each of which has a particular survival probability that can be increased at some cost, the NAP seeks to allocate limited funds to conserving these taxa so that the future expected biodiversity is maximized. Finding optimal solutions using this framework is a computationally difficult problem to which a simple and efficient “greedy ” algorithm has been proposed in the literature and applied to conservation problems. We show that, although algorithms of this type cannot produce optimal solutions for the general NAP, there are two restricted scenarios of the NAP for which a greedy algorithm is guaranteed to produce optimal solutions. The first scenario requires the taxa to have equal conservation cost; the second scenario requires an ultrametric tree. The NAP assumes a linear relationship between the funding allocated to conservation of a taxon and the increased survival probability of that taxon. This relationship is briefly investigated and one variation is suggested that can also be solved using a greedy algorithm. [Biodiversity conservation; greedy algorithm; Noah’s Ark Problem; phylogenetic diversity.] Biodiversity conservation requires a methodology for prioritizing the taxa to conserve, given limited resources. Many conservation approaches have simply aimed to

Klaas Hartmann; Mike Steel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Reserved or On-Demand Instances? A Revenue Maximization Model for Cloud Providers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the problem of managing a server farm in a way that attempts to maximize the net revenue earned by a cloud provider by renting servers to customers according to a typical Platform-as-a-Service model. The Cloud provider offers its resources to two classes of customers: `premium' and `basic'. Premium customers pay upfront fees to reserve servers for a specified period of time (e.g. a year). Premium customers can submit jobs for their reserved servers at any time and pay a fee for the server-hours they use. The provider is liable to pay a penalty every time a `premium' job can not be executed due to lack of resources. On the other hand, `basic' customers are served on a best-effort basis, and pay a server-hour fee that may be higher than the one paid by premium customers. The provider incurs energy costs when running servers. Hence, it has an incentive to turn off idle servers. The question of how to choose the number of servers to allocate to each pool (basic and premium) is answered by analyzing a s...

Mazzucco, Michele

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Maximizing Web site availability Authors: High-Volume Web Site Team  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: High availability is more important than ever now that your customers, suppliers, and/or employees rely on your Web site. This paper reviews availability concepts and practices that can help you achieve your availability objectives. It includes a summary of practices that pertain specifically to e-business infrastructures. © Copyright IBM Corporation 200 2 Maximizing Web Site availabilityExecutive summary What happens when your Web site is down? At the least, your site’s users become idle, your staff goes into crisis mode, and everyone’s productivity decreases. At the worst, the users are your customers and they go somewhere else to buy the product or service your company offers. Depending on how long the site is down, customer satisfaction and revenue are diminished, and the reputation of your IT organization, if not your company, is damaged. It’s not a good place to be. That’s why availability is such an important aspect of managing a successful e-business Web site. This paper reviews availability concepts, all of which are well known to IT professionals. Given the increasing complexities of managing e-business infrastructures and the increasing intolerance for any outages, the paper stresses that the basic concepts and practices of availability are more important than ever. It also reviews practices specifically related to e-business infrastructures; understanding and

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

SciTech Connect

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Real-time individualized virtual humans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This tutorial will present the latest techniques to model fast individualized animatable virtual humans for Real-Time applications. As a human is composed of a head and a body, we will analyze how these two parts can be modeled and globally animated ...

Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Daniel Thalmann

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Maximal heart rates of 130140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) (Brill, 1987;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximal heart rates of 130­140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) (Brill, 1987; Farrell et al., 1992; Keen et al., 1995). These heart rates slightly exceed the suggested, skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) have maximum heart rates of 154­191 beats min-1 (Brill, 1987; Farrell et

Vellend, Mark

177

Simulated annealing assisted optimization of fuzzy rules for maximizing tool life in high-speed milling process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In metal cutting industry it is a common practice to search for optimal combination of cutting parameters in order to maximize the tool life for a fixed minimum value of material removal rate (MRR). After the advent of high-speed milling (HSM) process, ... Keywords: HSM, expert system, fuzzy logic, simulated annealing

Asif Iqbal; Ning He; Liang Li; Naeem Ullah Dar

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

THE HEALTH EFFECTS IN WOMEN EXPOSED TO LOW-LEVELS OF IONIZING RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

explosions or nuclear fallout have been studied in detail.population exposed to fallout, and the Japanese atomic-boiro

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Microstructure, morphology and lifetime of armored bubbles exposed to surfactants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the behavior of particle-stabilized bubbles (armored bubbles) when exposed to various classes and concentrations of surfactants. The bubbles are non-spherical due to the jamming of the particles on the interface and are stable to dissolution prior to the addition of surfactant. We find that the dissolving bubbles exhibit distinct morphological, microstructural, and lifetime changes, which correlate with the concentration of surfactant employed. For low concentrations of surfactant an armored bubble remains non-spherical while dissolving, while for concentrations close to and above the surfactant CMC a bubble reverts to a spherical shape before dissolving. We propose a microstructural interpretation, supported by our experimental observations of particle dynamics on the bubble interface, that recognizes the role of interfacial jamming and stresses in particle stabilization and surfactant-mediated destabilization of armored bubbles.

Anand Bala Subramaniam; Cecile Mejean; Manouk Abkarian; Howard A. Stone

2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

180

X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Watching a Glycine Riboswitch "Switch" Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism MAY 11, 2007 Bookmark and Share By observing changes in coherent x-ray speckle pattern, such as the one shown above, researchers are able for the first time to investigate nanoscale dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls, and observe a cross over from classical to quantum behavior. (Credit: O. Shpyrko)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Solderability of environmentally exposed Sn-plated surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solderability of Class II environmentally exposed Ni-Sn plated Cu substrates was evaluated with 60Sn-40Pb solder. Tin thickness were 10, 50, and 150 {mu}in. The 10 {mu}in. plating gave the smallest solder meniscus rise. A general decrease in contact angle, or increase in wettability, was observed with increasing Sn plating. The environmental exposures retarded the wetting rate and increased the time to maximum wetting, particularly with only 10 {mu}in. of Sn. Although the solderability of the 50 and 150 {mu}in. surfaces were not significantly affected by the test conditions, an intermediate plating thickness of 100 {mu}in. is preferred for processing flexibility. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hosking, F.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of Individual Notch Receptors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of Individual Notch Receptors Print Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of Individual Notch Receptors Print Notch receptors are widely expressed transmembrane proteins through which mammalian cells communicate to regulate cell fate and growth, and defects in Notch signalling are linked to many cancers. Using phage display technology, a multi-department team at Genentech has produced synthetic antibodies that act as potent and specific antagonists of Notch1 and Notch2. The cover, by GregĂłire Vion of Salamander Design Studios (www.grgwr.com), depicts communication between a ligand-expressing cell (right) stimulating Notch signalling in an adjacent cell. The receptor-cell membrane expresses Notches 1 and 2 (red and blue); action of a specific antagonist means that only the blue signal is transduced to the nucleus. Article Link (PDF)

183

Entropic measures of individual mobility patterns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding human mobility from a microscopic point of view may represent a fundamental breakthrough for the development of a statistical physics for cognitive systems and it can shed light on the applicability of macroscopic statistical laws for social systems. Even if the complexity of individual behaviors prevents a true microscopic approach, the introduction of mesoscopic models allows the study of the dynamical properties for the non-stationary states of the considered system. We propose to compute various entropy measures of the individual mobility patterns obtained from GPS data that record the movements of private vehicles in the Florence district, in order to point out new features of human mobility related to the use of time and space and to define the dynamical properties of a stochastic model that could generate similar patterns. Moreover, we can relate the predictability properties of human mobility to the distribution of time passed between two successive trips. Our analysis suggests the exist...

Gallotti, Riccardo; Esposti, Mirko Degli; Rambaldi, Sandro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Visualizing Individual Nitrogen Dopants in Monolayer Graphene  

SciTech Connect

In monolayer graphene, substitutional doping during growth can be used to alter its electronic properties. We used scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, and first principles calculations to characterize individual nitrogen dopants in monolayer graphene grown on a copper substrate. Individual nitrogen atoms were incorporated as graphitic dopants, and a fraction of the extra electron on each nitrogen atom was delocalized into the graphene lattice. The electronic structure of nitrogen-doped graphene was strongly modified only within a few lattice spacings of the site of the nitrogen dopant. These findings show that chemical doping is a promising route to achieving high-quality graphene films with a large carrier concentration.

L Zhao; R He; K Rim; T Schiros; K Kim; H Zhou; C Gutierrez; S Chockalingam; C Arguello; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Individual variation in cooperative behaviour in meerkats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

help or advice along the way include: Neil Jordan, Krys Golabek, Andrew Bateman (and Dr. Love), Lucy Browning, Martha (Maple) Nelson-Flower, Caroline Dingle and Jenny Oates. I have also received considerable help and guidance from many... or hormonal pathway (Sih et al., 2004a). Theoretical models have demonstrated how differences in state variables, such as body size or energy reserves, in tandem with behavioural experience, can result in consistent individual differences between foraging...

English, Sinéad

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

186

Analysis of individual lipoproteins and liposomes  

SciTech Connect

We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural (serum lipoproteins) and synthetic (liposomes) transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms from heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

Robbins, D.L.; Keller, R.A.; Nolan, J.P. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs L. A. Davis Lorne.Davis@coe.ttu.edu Department of Petroleum Engineering A. L. Graham Alan.Graham@coe.ttu.edu H. W. Parker** Harry.Parker@coe.ttu.edu Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 M. S. Ingber ingber@me.unm.edu A. A. Mammoli mammoli@me.unm.edu Department of Mechanical Engineering University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 L. A. Mondy lamondy@engsci.sandia.gov Energetic and Multiphase Processes Department Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834 Quanxin Guo quan@advantekinternational.com Ahmed Abou-Sayed a.abou-sayed@att.net

188

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet), Thermal Test Facility (TTF), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management Scientists at this living laboratory develop optimal solutions for managing energy flows within buildings and transportation systems. The built environment is stressing the utility grid to a greater degree than ever before. Growing demand for electric vehicles, space conditioning, and plug loads presents a critical opportunity for more effective energy management and development of efficiency technologies. Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing this opportunity. Through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems,

189

Individual & Team Training | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Individual & Team ... Individual & Team Training Florida Department of Transportation law enforcement officers conduct a radiological survey of abandoned vehicle. The Nuclear and...

190

WASTE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC COMPONENTS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent independent review led to uncertainty about the technical basis for characterizing the residual amount of tritium in polymer components used in the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities that are sent for waste disposal. A review of a paper published in the open literature firmly establishes the basis of the currently used characterization, 10 Ci/cc. Information provided in that paper about exposure experiments performed at the DOE Mound Laboratory allows the calculation of the currently used characterization. These experiments involved exposure of high density polyethylene (HD-PE) to initially 1 atm tritium gas. In addition, a review of recent research at the Savannah River Site not only further substantiates this characterization, but also establishes its use for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide. 10 Ci/cc tritium is a representative characterization for any type of polymer components exposed at ambient temperature and at approximately 1 atm. tritium gas.

Clark, E

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Evidence for the Strongest Version of the 4d a-Theorem, via a-Maximization Along RG Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In earlier work, we (KI and BW) gave a two line "almost proof" (for supersymmetric RG flows) of the weakest form of the conjectured 4d a-theorem, that a_{IR}maximizes a=3Tr R^3-Tr R. The proof was incomplete because of two identified loopholes: theories with accidental symmetries, and the fact that it's only a local maximum of \\it{a}. Here we discuss and extend a proposal of Kutasov (which helps close the latter loophole) in which a-maximization is generalized away from the endpoints of the RG flow, with Lagrange multipliers that are conjectured to be identified with the running coupling constants. a-maximization then yields a monotonically decreasing "a-function" along the RG flow to the IR. As we discuss, this proposal in fact suggests the strongest version of the a-theorem: that 4d RG flows are gradient flows of an a-function, with positive definite metric. In the perturbative limit, the RG flow metric thus obtained is shown to agree precisely with that found by very different computations by Osborn and collaborators. As examples, we discuss a new class of 4d SCFTs, along with their dual descriptions and IR phases, obtained from SQCD by coupling some of the flavors to added singlets.

Edwin Barnes; Ken Intriligator; Brian Wecht; Jason Wright

2004-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Small Punch Creep of Service-Exposed SUS 316 HTB Superheater ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Small Punch Creep of Service-Exposed SUS 316 HTB Superheater Tubes of Fossil Boilers. Author(s), Maribel Leticia Saucedo-Muńoz,  ...

193

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare

Hopkins, William A.

194

SIMS ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY DUST FROM SPACE-EXPOSED AEROGEL. F. J. Stadermann  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMS ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY DUST FROM SPACE-EXPOSED AEROGEL. F. J. Stadermann 1: Aerogel is the medium of choice for the intact capture of small particles in space, because it is capable materials [1, 2]. After space-exposed aerogel is returned to the laboratory, the first step of analysis

195

Voltage/Pitch Control for Maximization and Regulation of Active/Reactive Powers in Wind Turbines with Uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of controlling a variable-speed wind turbine with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), modeled as an electromechanically-coupled nonlinear system with rotor voltages and blade pitch angle as its inputs, active and reactive powers as its outputs, and most of the aerodynamic and mechanical parameters as its uncertainties. Using a blend of linear and nonlinear control strategies (including feedback linearization, pole placement, uncertainty estimation, and gradient-based potential function minimization) as well as time-scale separation in the dynamics, we develop a controller that is capable of maximizing the active power in the Maximum Power Tracking (MPT) mode, regulating the active power in the Power Regulation (PR) mode, seamlessly switching between the two modes, and simultaneously adjusting the reactive power to achieve a desired power factor. The controller consists of four cascaded components, uses realistic feedback signals, and operates without knowledge of the C_p-...

Guo, Yi; Jiang, John N; Tang, Choon Yik; Ramakumar, Rama G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Three-Phase Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Individual MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed ideas.

Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Hang, Lijun [ORNL; Riley, Cameron [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Multiple scattering measurements in nuclear emulsions exposed to momentum-analysed particle beams from the CERN proton synchrotron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple scattering measurements in nuclear emulsions exposed to momentum-analysed particle beams from the CERN proton synchrotron

Hossain, A; Wataghin, A; CERN. Geneva. Emulsion Experiments Committee

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Individual Differences in the Social Psychology of Money.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF MONEY by Jason Anthony Tate Master of Arts in Psychology Psychological Science Option California State University, Chico… (more)

Tate, Jason A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Controlling Composition at the Individual FePt Nanoparticle Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CNT Based Thermoelectric Devices for Energy Harvesting · Controlling Composition at the Individual FePt Nanoparticle Level · Corrosion Rates and Mechanical ...

200

Individual player developmental model in ice-hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the past few years, there has been plenty of discussion about individual player development in Finnish hockey hockey-scene. Rarely you hear the actual models… (more)

Varmanen, Jukka

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Imaging individual mRNA molecules using multiple  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at their 3¢ termini to detect individual mRNA molecules. We constructed a doxycycline-controlled gene GFP 3

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

202

Low Dose Program Highlight: Do Heritable Differences in an Individual...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Differences in an Individual's Immune System Predict Differential Sensitivity to Low Dose Radiation Exposure? Brynn Voy, University of Tennessee Knoxville, and Oak Ridge...

203

Maximizing Drilling Efficiency Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the United States by increasing supply, reducing cost, and increasing efficiency of exploration and production while minimizing environmental impacts. Growth in supply of...

204

Maximizing ROI for Continuous  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A ttacker Prog ram S u cc es sfu l A ttac ks (Outputs ) ... NIST SP 800-53 and 53A NIST SP 800-39 > Allows for more investment in Security Design (By ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

205

Individual Virtual Competence and Its Influence on Work Outcomes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Witnessing both opportunities and challenges in virtual work arrangements, researchers have explored a number of technological, social, and organizational factors in order to improve virtual work effectiveness. However, there is limited understanding ... Keywords: Individual Virtual Competence, Individual Work Outcomes, Virtual Organization, Virtual Work

Yinglei Wang; Nicole Haggerty

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Exact distribution of individual displacements in linear probing hashing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the distribution of individual displacements for the standard and the Robin Hood linear probing hashing algorithms. When the a table of size m has n elements, the distribution of the search cost of a random element is ... Keywords: Linear probing, distributional analysis, individual displacements

Alfredo Viola

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Information flow between composite stock index and individual stocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the strength and the direction of information transfer in the U.S. stock market between the composite stock price index of stock market and prices of individual stocks using the transfer entropy. Through the directionality of the information transfer, we find that individual stocks are influenced by the index of the market.

Kwon, Okyu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper Individual Fishing Quota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009 Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper Individual Fishing Quota Annual Report National Marine Fisheries the completion of the third Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) season in the Gulf of Mexico. This year's report to lower quotas implemented in recent years. In the western Gulf of Mexico, average landings per trip

209

Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|)/D{sub max}{sup DVH}) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D{sub max}{sup Man}) and the objective method (D{sub max}{sup DVH}) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average{+-}standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%{+-}1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value dose difference compared with maximal skin dose difference for both Abdiff (2.30%{+-}1.71% vs 1.05%{+-}1.43%) and Rediff[%] (2.32%{+-}1.79% vs 1.21%{+-}1.41%). In general, rib has a more irregular contour and it is more proximally located to the balloon for 50 HDR patients. Due to the inverse square law factor, more dose difference was observed in higher dose range (D{sub max}>90%) compared with lower dose range (D{sub max}low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was dose point in 3D planning CT images.

Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States) and Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN A NATURAL POPULATION OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS EXPOSED TO CHRONIC LOW-LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus tentans larvae collected from White Oak Creek, an area contaminated by radioactive waste from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and from six uncontaminated areas were examined for chromosomal aberrations. White Oak Creek populations were exposed to absorbed doses as high as 230 rads per year or about 1000 times background. Chromosomal maps were constructed to make a general comparison of the banding pattern of the salivary chromosomes of the C. tentans in the East Tennessee area with those of Canada and Europe. These maps were used as a reference in scoring aberrations. Fifteen different chromosomal aberrations were found in 365 larvae taken from the irradiated population as compared with five different aberrations observed in 356 larvae from six control populations, but the mean number of aberrations per larva did not differ in any of the populations. The quantitative amount of heterozygosity was essentially the same in the irradiated and the control population, but there were three times the variety of chromosomal aberrations found in the irradiated area. From this evidence it was concluded that chronic low-level irradiation from radioactive waste was increasing the variability of chromosomal aberrations without significantly increasing the frequency. It was also concluded that chromosomal polymorphism can be maintained in a natural population without superiority of the heterozygous individuals. (C.H.)

Blaylock, B G; Auerbach, S I; Nelson, D J

1964-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

211

Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Flow cytometric analysis of respiratory tract cells exposed to oil shale and silica particulates. [Hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometric techniques were used to measure the cytological and biochemical damage to respiratory tract cells in animals exposed to particulates. Hamsters were exposed to raw and spent oil shale particulates and silica by intratracheal instillation. Exfoliated lung cells were obtained by sacrificing the animals and lavaging the respiratory tract posterior to the trachea with saline. Cell samples were fixed in ethanol and stained with mithramycin for fluorescence analysis of DNA content. DNA content distributions from hamsters exposed to spent oil shale and silica particulates showed atypical changes 28 to 35 days later. Cell counts and total numbers of macrophages, leukocytes, and epithelial cells in the lavage fluid also showed marked changes related to time after exposure.

Steinkamp, J.A.; Wilson, J.S.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Attribution Bias, Market Condition, and Trading Behavior of Individual Investors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theory predicts that attribution bias creates overconfident traders and thus causes excessive trading in the market. This paper tests this prediction by comparing the trading behavior of individual investors in different market conditions. In a bull market, investors suffer more from attribution bias and therefore should be more overconfident and trade more excessively. Using the trading records of Chinese individual investors from January 2005 to November 2008, we find that individual investors trade more excessively in a bull market than in a bear market, where excessive trading is measured following Odean (1999) and Barber and Odean (2001). Specifically, we find that in the bull market the securities bought by individual investors significantly underperform those sold in the subsequent periods of one and three months. In the bear market, however, individual investors do not make the similar suboptimal trading decisions as they do in the bull market. In addition, the poor trading decisions made in the bull market are due to poor security selection, and not due to poor market timing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individual investors turn their portfolios more frequently and their performance measured by market abnormal returns is significantly worse in the bull market than in the bear market. Overall, these results provide strong evidence that attribution bias creates overconfident traders and thus causes excessive trading in the market. Key words: Attribution bias, individual trading behavior, bull market, and bear market.

Zhen Shi A; Na Wang B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

An exact method to find a circle passing through two points and minimizing the maximal weighted distance to a set of points  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an optimal algorithm to solve a circuit design problem. We consider the constrained minimax problem to find a circle which minimizes the maximal weighted distance to a set of points passing through two given points. The problem is ... Keywords: Location of a circle, Minimax problem

Seonjeong Lee; Dongyung Kim; Dongwoo Sheen

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Although models that simulate the fracturing process exist, they can be significantly improved by extending the models to account for nonsymmetric, nonplanar fractures, coupling the models to more realistic reservoir simulators, and implementing advanced multiphase flow models for the transport of proppant. Third, it may be possible to deviate from current hydraulic fracturing technology by using different proppants (possibly waste materials that need to be disposed of, e.g., asbestos) combined with different hydraulic fracturing carrier fluids (possibly supercritical CO2 itself). Because current technology is mainly aimed at enhanced oil recovery, it may not be ideally suited for the injection and storage of CO2. Finally, advanced concepts such as increasing the injectivity of the fractured geologic formations through acidization with carbonated water will be investigated. Saline formations are located through most of the continental United States. Generally, where saline formations are scarce, oil and gas reservoirs and coal beds abound. By developing the technology outlined here, it will be possible to remove CO2 at the source (power plants, industry) and inject it directly into nearby geological formations, without releasing it into the atmosphere. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a technology capable of sequestering CO2 in geologic formations at a cost of US $10 per ton.

L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

216

Optimal fracture treatment design for dry gas wells maximizes well performance in the presence of non-Darcy flow effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a methodology based on Proppant Number approach for optimal fracture treatment design of natural gas wells considering non-Darcy flow effects in the design process. Closure stress is taken into account, by default, because it is the first factor decreasing propped pack permeability at in-situ conditions. Gel damage was also considered in order to evaluate the impact of incorporating more damaging factors on ultimate well performance and optimal geometry. Effective fracture permeability and optimal fracture geometry are calculated through an iterative process. This approach was implemented in a spreadsheet. Non-Darcy flow is described by the ? factor. All ? factor correlations available in the literature were evaluated. It is recommended to use the correlation developed specifically for the given type of proppant and mesh size, if available. Otherwise, the Pursell et al. or the Martins et al. equations are recommended as across the board reliable correlations for predicting non-Darcy flow effects in the propped pack. The proposed methodology was implemented in the design of 11 fracture treatments of 3 natural tight gas wells in South Texas. Results show that optimal fracture design might increase expected production in 9.64 MMscf with respect to design that assumes Darcy flow through the propped pack. The basic finding is that for a given amount of proppant shorter and wider fractures compensate the non-Darcy and/or gel damage effect. Dynamic programming technique was implemented in design of multistage fractures for one of the wells under study for maximizing total gas production. Results show it is a powerful and simple technique for this application. It is recommended to expand its use in multistage fracture designs.

Lopez Hernandez, Henry De Jesus

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Biological Response of Individual...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response of Individual Cells Following Electron Microbeam Irradiation L. A. Braby and J. R. Ford Texas A&M University, College Station Texas In recent years studies with low doses...

218

Wind Farms in Regions Exposed to Tropical Cyclones Niels-Erik Clausen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Farms in Regions Exposed to Tropical Cyclones Niels-Erik Clausen1 , niels Energy A/S, A.C. Meyers Vænge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark, Phone +45 44 80 65 71 3 Tripod Wind 6001 Summary The present paper analyses the design basis of wind farms to be established in regions

219

Poolside Examination Data on High-Duty BWR Fuel Exposed to 52 GWd/MTU:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poolside examinations conducted on boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel exposed to 52 GWd/MTU under high-duty operating conditions are providing data needed to justify extending allowable burnup limits. The good condition of the examined fuel assemblies allowed four of them to be reinserted for an additional 2-year duty cycle to provide data at even higher burnup levels.

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

220

(Un)dressing the interface: Exposing the foundational HCI metaphor "computer is woman"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two fundamental (and oftentimes opposing) metaphors have directed much of HCI design: HCI is communication and HCI is direct manipulation. Beneath these HCI metaphors, however, is the unspoken metaphor of computer is woman. In this paper we expose this ... Keywords: Agent abuse, Feminist HCI, Feminization, HCI metaphors, TechnoFeminism, Turing Test

Sheryl Brahnam; Marianthe Karanikas; Margaret Weaver

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hydrogen Storage in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework with Exposed Mn2+ Coordination Sites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework with Exposed Mn2+ Coordination Sites and 90 bar, which at 60 g H2/L provides a storage density 85% of that of liquid hydrogen. The material-358. (2) EERE: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program Homepage, www.eere.energy

222

Two Dynamical Core Formulation Flaws Exposed by a Baroclinic Instability Test Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two flaws in the semi-Lagrangian algorithm originally implemented as an optional dynamical core in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1) are exposed by steady-state and baroclinic instability test cases. Remedies are demonstrated and have ...

David L. Williamson; Jerry G. Olson; Christiane Jablonowski

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Centriacinar alterations in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the morphologic changes in the centriacinar regions of lungs following long-term exposure of cats to diesel exhaust. Nine male cats (13 months of age) from a minimal disease colony were exposed to diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week for 27 months. Eight cats were exposed to filtered air. Following exposure, the animals were killed by exsanguination and the lungs and trachea removed from the chest by thoracotomy, weighed, and fixed via tracheal cannula with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde (550 mOsmoles, pH 7.4) at 30 cm of pressure. Centriacinar regions were selected from fixed tissue, the airways bisected, and complementary tissue halves processed by a large block method for high resolution light microscopy and for scanning electron microscopy. Compared with controls, diesel-exposed cats had lower fresh lung and kidney weights and lower fixed volumes of the right cranial lobe. The volume fractions of pulmonary parenchyma and nonparenchyma were unchanged. Epithelium of terminal and respiratory bronchioles in exposed cats consisted of three types of cells (ciliated, basal, and Clara cells), compared with only one type (Clara cells) in controls. Carbon-laden macrophages were found filling alveolar and interstitial spaces in exposed animals. Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia was present in proximal interalveolar septa. More distal alveolar ducts and the majority of the rest of the parenchyma were unchanged from controls. We concluded that exposure to diesel exhaust produces changes in both epithelial and interstitial tissue compartments and that the focus of these lesions in peripheral lung is the centriacinar region where alveolar ducts join terminal conducting airways.

Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; Weir, A.J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Success |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Success Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Success October 10, 2012 - 9:59am Addthis Dr. Karina Edmonds, the Department's Technology Transfer Director, speaks with Joan Michelson of Green Connections Radio about women in STEM last July. This week she is receiving a Career Achievement Award from Women of Color Magazine. Dr. Karina Edmonds, the Department's Technology Transfer Director, speaks with Joan Michelson of Green Connections Radio about women in STEM last July. This week she is receiving a Career Achievement Award from Women of Color Magazine. Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity Hispanic Heritage Month is celebrated from September 15 - October 15,

226

Active Brownian Particles. From Individual to Collective Stochastic Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review theoretical models of individual motility as well as collective dynamics and pattern formation of active particles. We focus on simple models of active dynamics with a particular emphasis on nonlinear and stochastic dynamics of such self-propelled entities in the framework of statistical mechanics. Examples of such active units in complex physico-chemical and biological systems are chemically powered nano-rods, localized patterns in reaction-diffusion system, motile cells or macroscopic animals. Based on the description of individual motion of point-like active particles by stochastic differential equations, we discuss different velocity-dependent friction functions, the impact of various types of fluctuations and calculate characteristic observables such as stationary velocity distributions or diffusion coefficients. Finally, we consider not only the free and confined individual active dynamics but also different types of interaction between active particles. The resulting collective dynamical beha...

Romanczuk, Pawel; Ebeling, Werner; Lindner, Benjamin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Success |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Success Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual Success October 10, 2012 - 9:59am Addthis Dr. Karina Edmonds, the Department's Technology Transfer Director, speaks with Joan Michelson of Green Connections Radio about women in STEM last July. This week she is receiving a Career Achievement Award from Women of Color Magazine. Dr. Karina Edmonds, the Department's Technology Transfer Director, speaks with Joan Michelson of Green Connections Radio about women in STEM last July. This week she is receiving a Career Achievement Award from Women of Color Magazine. Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity Hispanic Heritage Month is celebrated from September 15 - October 15,

228

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Cerenkov light spectrum in an optical fiber exposed to a photon or electron radiation therapy beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cerenkov signal is generated when energetic charged particles enter the core of an optical fiber. The Cerenkov intensity can be large enough to interfere with signals transmitted through the fiber. We determine the spectrum of the Cerenkov background signal generated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber exposed to photon and electron therapeutic beams from a linear accelerator. This spectral measurement is relevant to discrimination of the signal from the background, as in scintillation dosimetry using optical fiber readouts. We find that the spectrum is approximated by the theoretical curve after correction for the wavelength dependent attenuation of the fiber. The spectrum does not depend significantly on the angle between the radiation beam and the axis of the fiber optic but is dependent on the depth in water at which the fiber is exposed to the beam.

Lambert, Jamil; Yin Yongbai; McKenzie, David R.; Law, Sue; Suchowerska, Natalka

2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

Using GIS and Individual-Level Data for Whole Communities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can assist the reintegration of the estranged fields of American political and social history when focused on individual-level political and social information for whole communities of moderate size. This article ... Keywords: GIS, historical geography, political history

Donald A. Debats

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Learning to Be Thoughtless: Social Norms and Individual Computation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper extends the literature on the evolution of norms with an agent-based model capturing a phenomenon that has been essentially ignored, namely that individual thought – or computing – is often inversely related to the strength of ... Keywords: agent-based computational economics, evolution of norms

Joshua M. Epstein

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thorough Analysis of IEEE 802.11 EDCA in Ring Topology Scenarios with Hidden and Exposed Nodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the authors present a simulation study of five different ring networks with hidden and exposed nodes in which the IEEE 802.11 EDCA function is used as the MAC protocol. The presented analysis is crucial for understanding how the theoretically ... Keywords: Ad-hoc, QoS provisioning, exposed nodes, hidden nodes

Katarzyna Kosek; Marek Natkaniec; Luca Vollero

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Maximally concentrating optics for photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Technical progress report, [July 1, 1984--January 31, 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of a two-stage concentrator with a fresnel lens primary and a nonimaging dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary, has unique advantages for photovoltaic concentration. Some preliminary ray trace studies have shown that with planar lenses, an increase in angular acceptance for a given geometric concentration to about 2/3 of the maximum theoretical limit can be achieved. To demonstrate this, two preprototype concentrators, each having a geometric concentration of 248:1 for a 0.635cm (0.25 inch) diameter cell, have been designed, built, and tested. Measurements of the angular response show an acceptance of 8{degrees} (full angle) which is drastically better than the 1{degrees}--2{degrees} achievable without a secondary, and is in excellent agreement with the ray trace predictions. For these preprototypes, passive cooling was sufficient to prevent any thermal problems for both the cell and secondary. No problems associated with nouuniform cell illumination were found, as evidenced by the fill factor of 71%--73% measured under concentration. Initial measurements of the system electrical efficiency lie in the range 7.5%--9.9% for a variety of individual cells.

O`Gallagher, J.J.

1985-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

234

Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Individuals |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Individuals Never Again: Remembering the Holocaust, as Government and as Individuals May 1, 2012 - 10:27am Addthis President Barack Obama and Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel light candles in the Hall of Remembrance during a tour of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., April 23, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza) President Barack Obama and Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel light candles in the Hall of Remembrance during a tour of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., April 23, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza) Last week, President Obama spoke at the United States Holocaust Memorial

235

Contributions to Sustainability by Communities and Individuals: Problems and Prospects  

SciTech Connect

This report examines relationships between a comprehensive set of definitions of and viewpoints on the concept of Sustainability and the abilities of communities and individuals in the United States to meet the behavioral prescriptions inherent in these definitions and viewpoints. This research is timely because sustainability is becoming a cornerstone of national and international environmental strategies designed to simultaneously achieve environmental, economic, and social goals. In the United States, many communities have adopted sustainability principles as the foundation for both their environmental protection efforts and their socioeconomic development initiatives. This research is important because it highlights serious problems communities and inviduals may have in achieving sustainability expectations, and illustrates how much work is needed to help communities and individuals overcome numerous considerable and complex constraints to sustainability.

MacGregor, D.; Tonn, B.E.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Individual User Behavior Leading Factor in Comfort Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With global warming effects and exploding energy prices it is necessary to further optimize the energy performance of buildings. Intelligent Agents technology for individual climate control for each user of a building in combination with feedback on the energy consumption (costs) leads to better acceptance of the individual comfort and a reduction of the energy consumption. Agents at room level with knowledge of the actual preferences of the occupants are used to improve the distribution of the available HVAC resources of the building and lead to better performance with less energy consumption and at lower costs. At building level an agent is used to optimize the settings of HVAC-controls and lead to peak reduction. The technology was tested in field tests in different office buildings in the Netherlands.

Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Houten, M. A.; Wortel, W.; Van Der Velden, J. A. J.; Kamphuis, R.; Hommelberg, M.; Broekhuizen, H.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

Voytchev, Miroslav [IRSN; Ambrosi, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB); Behrens, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB); Chiaro Jr, Peter John [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), with arbitrary individual imperfections simultaneously in the source and detectors. We provide the secure key generation rate, and show that only two parameters must be bounded to ensure security; the basis dependence of the source and a detector blinding parameter. The system may otherwise be completely uncharacterized and contain large losses.

Řystein Marřy; Lars Lydersen; Johannes Skaar

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

239

Active Brownian Particles. From Individual to Collective Stochastic Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review theoretical models of individual motility as well as collective dynamics and pattern formation of active particles. We focus on simple models of active dynamics with a particular emphasis on nonlinear and stochastic dynamics of such self-propelled entities in the framework of statistical mechanics. Examples of such active units in complex physico-chemical and biological systems are chemically powered nano-rods, localized patterns in reaction-diffusion system, motile cells or macroscopic animals. Based on the description of individual motion of point-like active particles by stochastic differential equations, we discuss different velocity-dependent friction functions, the impact of various types of fluctuations and calculate characteristic observables such as stationary velocity distributions or diffusion coefficients. Finally, we consider not only the free and confined individual active dynamics but also different types of interaction between active particles. The resulting collective dynamical behavior of large assemblies and aggregates of active units is discussed and an overview over some recent results on spatiotemporal pattern formation in such systems is given.

Pawel Romanczuk; Markus Bär; Werner Ebeling; Benjamin Lindner; Lutz Schimansky-Geier

2012-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

240

Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

Natesan, K.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

CAST STONE OXIDATION FRONT EVALUATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR SAMPLES EXPOSED TO MOIST AIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. • The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. • Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. • Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduct

Langton, C.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

242

Metallicity of InN and GaN surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3}.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic study of energies and structures of InN and GaN (0001) surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} and its decomposition products was performed with first-principles methods. A phenomenological model including electron counting contributions is developed based on calculated DFT energies and is used to identify low-energy structures. These predictions are checked with additional DFT calculations. The equilibrium phase diagrams are found to contain structures that violate the electron counting rule. Densities of states for these structures indicate n-type conductivity, consistent with available experimental results.

Walkosz, W.; Zapol, P.; Stephenson, G. B. (Materials Science Division)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Assessment of the risk of fatal electric shocks inside a substation and in nearby exposed areas  

SciTech Connect

A simulation approach is elaborated for the risk assessment of fatal electric shocks due to touch and step voltages that are caused inside and around substations by ground faults. The approach suggested takes into account specific effects of ground faults, depending on their location, and various exposures encountered in practice. The fibrillation thresholds and human body impedance values are modelled as random functions to match well with the available experimental data. Several typical cases are analyzed for a substation, as an illustration. The approach developed is intended to serve for a realistic analysis of risks implied by grounding system design of a substation surrounded by exposed areas.

Nahman, J.M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hypergolic fuel detection using individual single walled carbon nanotube networks  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and reliable detection of hypergolic fuels such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and its derivatives is vital to missile defense, aviation, homeland security, and the chemical industry. More importantly these sensors need to be capable of operation at low temperatures (below room temperature) as most of the widely used chemical sensors operate at high temperatures (above 300 deg. C). In this research a simple and highly sensitive single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network sensor was developed for real time monitoring of hydrazine leaks to concentrations at parts per million levels. Upon exposure to hydrazine vapor, the resistance of the air exposed nanotubes (p-type) is observed to increase rapidly while that of the vacuum-degassed nanotubes (n-type) is observed to decrease. It was found that the resistance of the sample can be recovered through vacuum pumping and exposure to ultraviolet light. The experimental results support the electrochemical charge transfer mechanism between the oxygen redox couple of the ambient and the Fermi level of the SWNT. Theoretical results of the hydrazine-SWNT interaction are compared with the experimental observations. It was found that a monolayer of water molecules on the SWNT is necessary to induce strong interactions between hydrazine and the SWNT by way of introducing new occupied states near the bottom of the conduction band of the SWNT.

Desai, S. C.; Willitsford, A. H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Sumanasekera, G. U. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Yu, M.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Tian, W. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

A comparison of phasing algorithms for trios and unrelated individuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge of haplotype phase is valuable for many analysis methods in the study of disease, population, and evolutionary genetics. Considerable research effort has been devoted to the development of statistical and computational methods that infer haplotype phase from genotype data. Although a substantial number of such methods have been developed, they have focused principally on inference from unrelated individuals, and comparisons between methods have been rather limited. Here, we describe the extension of five leading algorithms for phase inference for handling father-mother-child trios. We performed a comprehensive assessment of the methods applied to both trios and to unrelated individuals, with a focus on genomic-scale problems, using both simulated data and data from the HapMap project. The most accurate algorithm was PHASE (v2.1). For this method, the percentages of genotypes whose phase was incorrectly inferred were 0.12%, 0.05%, and 0.16 % for trios from simulated data, HapMap Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) trios, and HapMap Yoruban trios, respectively, and 5.2 % and 5.9 % for unrelated individuals in simulated data and the HapMap CEPH data, respectively. The other methods considered in this work had comparable but slightly worse error rates. The error rates for trios are similar to the levels of genotyping error and missing data expected. We thus conclude that all the methods considered will provide highly accurate estimates of haplotypes when applied to trio data sets. Running times differ substantially

Jonathan Marchini; David Cutler; Nick Patterson; Matthew Stephens; Eleazar Eskin; Eran Halperin; Shin Lin; Zhaohui S. Qin; Heather M. Munro; Gonçalo R. Abecasis; Peter Donnelly; For The International Hapmap Consortium

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

What can be learned from epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to low doses of radiation?  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of radiation risk assessment is to determine the risk of various adverse health effects associated with exposure to low doses and low dose rates. Extrapolation of risks from studies of persons exposed at high doses (generally exceeding 1 Sv) and dose rates has been the primary approach used to achieve this objective. The study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has played an especially important role in risk assessment efforts. A direct assessment of the dose-response function based on studies of persons exposed at low doses and dose rates is obviously desirable. This paper focuses on the potential of both current and future nuclear workers studies for investigating the dose-response functions at low doses, and also discusses analyses making use of the low dose portion of the atomic bomb survivor data. Difficulties in using these data are the statistical imprecision of estimated dose-response parameters, and potential bias resulting from confounding factors and from uncertainties in dose estimates.

Gilbert, E.S.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Cancer mortality among a group of fluorspar miners exposed to radon progeny  

SciTech Connect

A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1984) of 1,772 Newfoundland underground fluorspar miners occupationally exposed to high levels of radon daughters (mean dose = 382.8 working levels months) has been conducted. Observed numbers of cancers of the lung, salivary gland, and buccal cavity and pharynx were significantly elevated among these miners. A highly significant relation was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of salivary gland (n = 2) and buccal cavity and pharynx (n = 6) cancers precluded meaningful analysis of dose response. Attributable and relative risk coefficients for lung cancer were estimated as 6.3 deaths per working level month per million person-years and 0.9% per working level month, respectively. Relative risk coefficients were highest for those first exposed before age 20 years. Cigarette smokers had relative and attributable risk coefficients comparable to those of nonsmokers. Relative risks fell sharply with age, whereas attributable risks were lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups. The results suggest that efforts to raise existing occupational exposure standards may be inappropriate.

Morrison, H.I.; Semenciw, R.M.; Mao, Y.; Wigle, D.T.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions.

Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

{sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Su Xiaoming [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Suzuki, Hiromi [Japan Space Forum, Tokyo (Japan); Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Omori, Katsunori [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko [Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Advanced Engineering Services Company, Limited, Ibaraki (Japan); Shimazu, Toru [Japan Space Forum, Tokyo (Japan); Ishioka, Noriaki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiyasu [Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Equilibrium magnetic states in individual hemispherical permalloy caps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnetization distributions in individual soft magnetic permalloy caps on non-magnetic spherical particles with sizes ranging from 50 to 800 nm are investigated. We experimentally visualize the magnetic structures at the resolution limit of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). By analyzing the so-called tail contrast in XMCD-PEEM, the spatial resolution is significantly enhanced, which allowed us to explore magnetic vortices and their displacement on curved surfaces. Furthermore, cap nanostructures are modeled as extruded hemispheres to determine theoretically the phase diagram of equilibrium magnetic states. The calculated phase diagram agrees well with the experimental observations.

Streubel, Robert; Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Radiophysics Faculty, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Makarov, Denys [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kronast, Florian [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

251

Handbook for preparation of Individual Procurement Action Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS) provides a mechanism for collecting, assembling, organizing, and presenting acquisition and assistance data for the Department of Energy (DOE). This handbook and associated documents establish a uniform system to report acquisition/assistance data to PADS for the collection, processing, and dissemination of official statistical data on the Department`s acquisition and assistance actions. The data provides, based on information available at the time of request, a basis for any recurring and special reports to the senior procurement executive, Congress, General Accounting Office (GAO), Federal executive agencies, Office of management and Budget (OMB), and the general public. It provides information for measuring and assessing the extent to which small business firms and small disadvantages business enterprises are sharing in DOE placement, and for other acquisition and assistance policy and management control purposes. The Handbook for the Preparation of the Individual Procurement Action Report (IPAR) has been designed in two sections; Procurement and Financial Assistance to support the individual forms.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Successful Demolition of Historic Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Facilities: Managing the Process to Maximize Recycle Value to Fund Demolition  

SciTech Connect

This paper will present the history of the Atlas 36 and Titan 40 Space Launch Complexes (SLC), the facility assessment process, demolition planning, recycle methodology, and actual facility demolition that resulted in a 40% reduction in baseline cost. These two SLC launched hundreds of payloads into space from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS), Florida. The Atlas-Centaur family of rockets could lift small- to medium-size satellites designed for communications, weather, or military use, placing them with near pinpoint accuracy into their intended orbits. The larger Titan family was relied upon for heavier lifting needs, including launching military satellites as well as interplanetary probes. But despite their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the Titan rockets, as well as earlier generation Atlas models, were retired in 2005. Concerns about potential environmental health hazards from PCBs and lead-based paint chipping off the facilities also contributed to the Air Force's decision in 2005 to dismantle and demolish the Atlas and Titan missile-launching systems. Lockheed Martin secured the complex following the final launch, removed equipment and turned over the site to the Air Force for decommissioning and demolition (D and D). AMEC was retained by the Air Force to perform demolition planning and facility D and D in 2004. AMEC began with a review of historical information, interviews with past operations personnel, and 100% facility assessment of over 100 structures. There where numerous support buildings that due to their age contained asbestos containing material (ACM), PCB-impacted material, and universal material that had to be identified and removed prior to demolition. Environmental testing had revealed that the 36B mobile support tower (MST) exceeded the TSCA standard for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) paint (<50 ppm), as did the high bay sections of the Titan Vertical Integration Building (VIB). Thus, while most of the steel structures could be completely recycled, about one-third of 36B MST and the affected areas of the VIB were to be consigned to an on-site regulated waste landfill. In all, it is estimated that approximately 10,000,000 kg (11,000 tons) of PCB-coated steel will be land-filled and 23,000,000 kg (25,000 tons) will be recycled. The recycling of the steel and other materials made it possible to do additional demolition by using these funds. Therefore, finding ways to maximize the recycle value of materials became a key factor in the pre-demolition characterization and implementation strategy. This paper will present the following: - Critical elements in demolition planning working at an active launch facility; - Characterization and strategy to maximize steel recycle; - Waste disposition strategy to maximize recycle/reuse and minimize disposal; - Recycle options available at DOD installations that allow for addition funds for demolition; - Innovation in demolition methodologies for large structures - explosive demolition and large-scale dismantlement; - H and S aspects of explosive demolition and large scale dismantlement. In conclusion: The Cape Canaveral AFS Demolition Program has been a great success due to the integration of multiple operations and contractors working together to determine the most cost-effective demolition methods. It is estimated that by extensive pre-planning and working with CCAFS representatives, as well as maximizing the recycle credits of various material, primarily steel, that the government will be able to complete what was base-lined to be a $30 M demolition program for < $20 M. Other factors included a competitive subcontractor environment where they were encouraged with incentives to maximize recycle/reuse of material and creative demolition solutions. Also, by overlapping multiple demolition tasks at multiple facilities allowed for a reduction in field oversight. (authors)

Jones, A.; Hambro, L. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc., Cocoa, FL (United States); Hooper, K. [U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing, Patrick AFB, Florida (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

DAMAGE TO CONVENTIONAL AND SPECIAL TYPES OF RESIDENCES EXPOSED TO NUCLEAR EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

Ten residential structures of wood, brick, lightweight reinforced concrete block, and lightweight precast concrete slabs were exposed in pairs to the effects of a nuclear device of approximately 30 kt yield, detonated atop a 500-ft tower. The houses represented various structural types, and two houses of each type were tested. One house was located at an anticipated overpressure at which collapse or major damage might be expected and the other was located at an anticipated overpressure at which damage without collapse might be expected. The one-story reinforced lightweight concrete block house and the one-story precast lightweight concrete house suffered only minor structural damage. Photographs are included of the houses both before and after damage. Motion pictures were made during the event and were analyzed for information on thermal and blast effects. Recommendations are included for strengthening the structures within the limits of practical economy and so providing increased protection to dwelling structures. (C.H.)

Randall, P.A.

1961-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances (a) In general The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and on-going medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of the exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such empIoyment. (b) Implementation of program ( I ) The Secretary shall, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, issue regulations under which the Secretary shall implement the program. Such regulations shall, to the extent practicable, provide for a process to- (A) identify the hazardous substances and radioactive substances to which

255

Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances (a) In general The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and on-going medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of the exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such empIoyment. (b) Implementation of program ( I ) The Secretary shall, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, issue regulations under which the Secretary shall implement the program. Such regulations shall, to the extent practicable, provide for a process to- (A) identify the hazardous substances and radioactive substances to which

256

Mechanical properties of cables exposed to simultaneous thermal and radiation aging  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant Class 1E cables. The objectives of this program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond the 40-year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring (CM) techniques for predicting remaining cable life. This paper provides the results of mechanical measurements that were performed on cable specimens cross-linked polyethylene neoprene jackets: chlorinated polyethylene jackets, fiberglass braid jackets, and chlorosulfonated polyethylene jackets aged at relatively mild, simultaneous thermal and radiation exposure conditions for periods of up to nine months. After aging, some of the aged samples, as well as some unaged samples, were exposed to accident gamma radiation at ambient temperature. The mechanical measurements discussed in this paper include tensile strength, ultimate elongation, and compressive modulus. 10 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Jacobus, M.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Fuehrer, G.F. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

CLINICAL GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS EXPOSED TO THE WORLD TRADE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

• More than 7 years after the WTC attacks on 9/11, some children and adolescents may still be experiencing physical or mental health effects associated with the disaster. • Due to their development, behavior, and physiology, children and adolescents are more susceptible than adults to certain adverse health effects resulting from disasters. • Pediatricians and other child health clinicians should know how to identify, evaluate, treat and, if necessary, refer pediatric patients with potential WTC-related physical or mental health conditions. • Physicians should also consider WTC-related health effects among young adults who were exposed as adolescents. More than 7 years after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on 9/11, adverse health effects have been documented in adults and children who lived or worked in the vicinity of the World Trade Center. In 2006 and again in 2008, the New York City Department of Health and

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

CSIRO GASLAB Network: Individual Flask Measurements of Atmospheric Trace  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GASLAB Network GASLAB Network CSIRO GASLAB Network: Individual Flask Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases (April 2003) data Data Investigators L.P. Steele, P.R. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) DOI 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1021 Data are available for four atmospheric trace gases at nine stationary sites and one moving platform (aircraft over Cape Grim, Tasmania, and Bass Strait, between the Australian continent and Tasmania). The trace gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H2). Measurements of δ13C from CO2 are also included in this database. The nine stationary sites are, from north to south: Alert, Canada; Shetland Islands, Scotland; Estevan Point, Canada; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Ferguson,

259

EVALUATION OF MILITARY INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE PROTECTION DEVICES AND CLOTHING  

SciTech Connect

Under conditions resulting from surface and underground detonations of atomic bombs, tests were conducted on Chemical Corps impregnated and unimpregnated protective clothing, Individual Protective Mask M9A1 with M11 Canister, Tank Collective Protector E26 and E22, and Protective Ointment M5. Both impregnated and unimpregnated clothing were capable of preventing contact between the skin and radioactive dusts. Unimpregnated clothing demonstrated better contanmination-decontamination characteristics, but the secondary radiation from all clothing was negligible. The protective cover was effective in preventing contamination of clothing. The M9A1 mask with M11 canister furnished complete protection against inhalation of radioactive dust. The flltering efficiencies of the E26 tank collective protectors were found to be very high, and no deficiencies were found in the unit. The filtering efficiencies of the E22 tank collective protectors were also high. Panels coated with M5 ointment were found to be much more highly contaminated than bare panels. (auth)

Hendrickson, J.R.

1952-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Deuterium Depth Profile in Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten Exposed to Plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of radiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. The ions, however, are limited in range to only a few microns into the surface. Hence, some uncertainty remains about the increase of trapping at radiation damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, which penetrate much farther into the bulk material. With the Japan-US joint research project: Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), the tungsten samples (99.99 % pure from A.L.M.T., 6mm in diameter, 0.2mm in thickness) were irradiated to high flux neutrons at 50 C and to 0.025 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 1021-1022 m-2s-1, ion fluence: 1025-1026 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). First results of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed in TPE have been reported previously. This paper presents the latest results in our on-going work of deuterium depth profiling in neutron-irradiated tungsten via nuclear reaction analysis. The experimental data is compared with the result from non neutron-irradiated tungsten, and is analyzed with the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) to elucidate the hydrogen isotope behavior such as retention and depth distribution in neutron-irradiated and non neutron-irradiated tungsten.

Masashi Shimada; G. Cao; Y. Hatano; T. Oda; Y. Oya; M. Hara; P. Calderoni

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950 - May 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cancer mortality for the period from October 1950 through May 1992 was analyzed in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Risk estimates for this group were also compared to those for survivors who were less than 6 years old at the time of exposure. The cohorts studied include 807 in utero survivors and 5,545 persons exposed during childhood with all members of both groups having estimated doses of at least 0.01 Sv. The comparison group includes 10,453 persons with little (<0.01 Sv) or no exposure. Analyses were limited mainly to cancer deaths occurring between the ages of 17 and 46. Only 10 cancer deaths were observed among persons exposed in utero. However, there is a significant dose response with an estimate of excess relative risk per sievert (ERR/Sv) of 2.1 (90% confidence interval of 0.2 to 6.0). This estimate does not differ significantly from that for survivors exposed during the first 5 years of life. The cancer deaths among those exposed during the first 5 years of life. 23 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Delongchamp, R.R.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)] [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays  

SciTech Connect

Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

263

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

264

Analysis of potential used oil recovery from individuals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To assist the Department of Energy in its investigation of methods for recycling used motor oil, Market Facts conducted a telephone survey of individuals who change their own motor oil. The study examined the amount of oil used, oil change practices, oil disposal methods, and perceptions and attitudes toward used motor oil disposal and oil recycling. The results of this survey are presented in this report. The findings of this study confirm the generally held view that about half the vehicle households in the United States now do their own oil changes and additions. These do-it-yourselfers (DIY) households account for almost two-thirds of the motor oil consumed by all US households and produce about one-third of one billion gallons of used motor oil annually. At least half of this used motor oil, more than 170 million gallons, is returned to the environment in a form that pollutes the ground and endangers the water supply. Measures such as requiring information about proper disposal and the need for recycling used oil to be printed on motor oil containers have been taken in many states. The need for reminder advertising and reinforcement education and information and practical measures to ease the burden of compliance is suggested. These results suggest that careful consideration be given to the logistics of these measures. The most appealing of the measures would appear to be making a special container available to DIY oil changers. Employing civic groups as collection agents would also seem to be attractive.

Gottlieb, M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

Metzger, C.; Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

N reactor individual risk comparison to quantitative nuclear safety goals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A full-scope level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been completed for N reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided the technical leadership for this work, using the state-of-the-art NUREG-1150 methodology developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The main objectives of this effort were to assess the risks to the public and to the on-site workers posed by the operation of N reactor, to identify changes to the plant that could reduce the overall risk, and to compare those risks to the proposed NRC and DOE quantitative safety goals. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and SNL for individual health risk evaluation, its results, and a comparison to the NRC safety objectives and the DOE nuclear safety guidelines. The N reactor results, are also compared with the five NUREG-1150 nuclear plants. Only internal events are compared here because external events are not yet reported in the current draft NUREG-1150. This is the first full-scope level III PRA study with a detailed quantitative safety goal comparison performed for DOE production reactors.

Wang, O.S.; Rainey, T.E.; Zentner, M.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Real-time individualized training vectors for experiential learning.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Military training utilizing serious games or virtual worlds potentially generate data that can be mined to better understand how trainees learn in experiential exercises. Few data mining approaches for deployed military training games exist. Opportunities exist to collect and analyze these data, as well as to construct a full-history learner model. Outcomes discussed in the present document include results from a quasi-experimental research study on military game-based experiential learning, the deployment of an online game for training evidence collection, and results from a proof-of-concept pilot study on the development of individualized training vectors. This Lab Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project leveraged products within projects, such as Titan (Network Grand Challenge), Real-Time Feedback and Evaluation System, (America's Army Adaptive Thinking and Leadership, DARWARS Ambush! NK), and Dynamic Bayesian Networks to investigate whether machine learning capabilities could perform real-time, in-game similarity vectors of learner performance, toward adaptation of content delivery, and quantitative measurement of experiential learning.

Willis, Matt; Tucker, Eilish Marie; Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Glickman, Matthew R.; Fabian, Nathan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Throughput Maximization Cruz et al. Throughput Maximization of Queueing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 - Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil. Corresponding author. E-mail: fcruz^encias Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, 39401-089 Montes Claros MG, Brazil. 1 INTRODUCTION

Cruz, Frederico

269

SCC Initiation in Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Temperature Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies have shown that grain boundary chromium carbides improve the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of nickel based alloys exposed to high temperature, high purity water. However, thermal cycles from welding can significantly alter the microstructure of the base material near the fusion line. In particular, the heat of welding can solutionize grain boundary carbides and produce locally high residual stresses and strains, reducing the SCC resistance of the Alloy 600 type material in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Testing has shown that the SCC growth rate in Alloy 600 heat affected zone samples can be {approx}30x faster than observed in the Alloy 600 base material under identical testing conditions due to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and increased plastic strain in the HAZ [1, 2]. Stress corrosion crack initiation tests were conducted on Alloy 600 HAZ samples at 360 C in hydrogenated, deaerated water to determine if these microstructural differences significantly affect the SCC initiation resistance of Alloy 600 heat affected zones compared to the Alloy 600 base material. Alloy 600 to EN82H to Alloy 600 heat-affected-zone (HAZ) specimens where fabricated from an Alloy 600 to Alloy 600 narrow groove weld with EN82H filler metal. The approximate middle third of the specimen gauge region was EN82H such that each specimen had two HAZ regions. Tests were conducted with in-situ monitored smooth tensile specimens under a constant load, and a direct current electric potential drop was used for in-situ detection of SCC. Test results suggest that the SCC initiation resistance of Alloy 600 and its weld metal follows the following order: EN82H > Alloy 600 HAZ > Alloy 600. The high SCC initiation resistance observed to date in Alloy 600 heat affected zones compared to wrought Alloy 600 is unexpected based on the microstructure of HAZ versus wrought material and based on prior SCC growth rate studies. The observed behavior for the HAZ specimens is likely not related to differences in the environment, differences in surface stress/strain between the various specimen regions (weld, HAZ, wrought), differences in surface residual stress, or differences in the microstructure of the various specimen regions (weld, HAZ, wrought). The behavior may be related to differences in the creep behavior of the various weld regions or differences in the surface area of the various materials (weld, HAZ, wrought) exposed to high temperature water.

E Richey; DS Morton; RA Etien; GA Young; RB Bucinell

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

270

Height reduction among prenatally exposed atomic-bomb survivors: A longitudinal study of growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a random coefficient regression model, sex-specific longitudinal analyses of height were made on 801 (392 male and 409 female) atomic-bomb survivors exposed in utero to detect dose effects on standing height. The data set resulted from repeated measurements of standing height of adolescents (age 10-18 y). The dose effect, if any, was assumed to be linear. Gestational ages at the time of radiation exposure were divided into trimesters. Since an earlier longitudinal data analysis has demonstrated radiation effects on height, the emphasis in this paper is on the interaction between dose and gestational age at exposure and radiation effects on the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt. For males, a cubic polynomial growth-curve model applied to the data was affected significantly by radiation. The dose by trimester interaction effect was not significant. The onset of adolescent growth spurt was estimated at about 13 y at 0 Gy. There was no effect of radiation on the adolescent growth spurt For females, a quadratic polynomial growth-curve model was fitted to the data. The dose effect was significant, while the dose by trimester interaction was again not significant. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji; Funamoto, Sachiyo [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Carter, R.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Quantifying mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A proportion of juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids travel through one or more turbines during seaward migration in the Columbia and Snake River every year. Despite this understanding, limited information exists on how these fish respond to hydraulic pressures found during turbine passage events. In this study we exposed juvenile Chinook salmon to varied acclimation pressures and subsequent exposure pressures (nadir) to mimic the hydraulic pressures of large Kaplan turbines (ratio of pressure change). Additionally, we varied abiotic (total dissolved gas, rate of pressure change) and biotic (condition factor, fish length, fish weight) factors that may contribute to the incidence of mortal injury associated with fish passing through hydro-turbines. We determined that the main factor associated with mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon during simulated turbine passage was the ratio between acclimation and nadir pressures. Condition factor, total dissolved gas, and the rate of pressure change were found to only slightly increase the predictive power of equations relating probability of mortal injury to conditions of exposure or characteristics of test fish during simulated turbine passage. This research will assist engineers and fisheries managers in operating and improving hydroelectric facility efficiency while minimizing mortality and injury of turbine-passed juvenile Chinook salmon. The results are discussed in the context of turbine development and the necessity of understanding how different species of fish will respond to the hydraulic pressures of turbine passage.

Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Welch, Abigail E.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Generic and maximal Jordan types  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2007 ... •(G,k) we exhibit a “generic Jordan type” of M. In the very special ... specializes to the non-trivial observation that the Jordan type obtained by.

273

Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Method and means of reducing erosion of components of plasma devices exposed to helium and hydrogen isotope radiation  

SciTech Connect

Surfaces of components of plasma devices exposed to radiation by atoms or ions of helium or isotopes of hydrogen can be protected from damage due to blistering by shielding the surfaces with a structure formed by sintering a powder of aluminum or beryllium and its oxide or by coating the surfaces with such a sintered metal powder.

Kaminsky, Manfred S. (Hinsdale, IL); Das, Santosh K. (Naperville, IL); Rossing, Thomas D. (De Kalb, IL)

1977-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

275

Steam Turbine Rotor Life Assessment and Extension: Evaluation of Retired Rotors: Volume 2: Mechanical Properties of Service-Exposed Rotors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Informed run/retire decisions on high and intermediate pressure (HP/IP) rotors require mechanical property data on service-exposed material. This report presents a comprehensive set of mechanical property data, including creep and creep-fatigue crack growth, on a 1950 vintage CrMoV HP/IP rotor retired after more than 160,000 hours of service.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Liver antioxidant and plasmatic immune responses in juvenile1 golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) exposed to dispersed crude oil2 3 Thomas Milinkovitch1* , Awa Ndiaye2 , Wilfried Sanchez2 , Stéphane Le ; CD : Chemically Dispersed oil ; D : Dispersant solution ; MD : Mechanically Dispersed oil; WSF application is an oil spill response technique. To evaluate the environmental31 cost of this operation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Problems with providing QoS in EDCA ad-hoc networks with hidden and exposed nodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the problem of providing QoS within IEEE 802.11 EDCA ad-hoc networks. Our study shows that a strong unfairness in medium access between certain nodes may appear. It also shows that the possible unfairness is dependent on ... Keywords: EDCA, QoS, ad-hoc, hidden and exposed nodes

Katarzyna Kosek

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

ISCCP Cloud Properties Associated with Standard Cloud Types Identified in Individual Surface Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual surface weather observations from land stations and ships are compared with individual cloud retrievals of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), stage C1, for an 8-yr period (1983–91) to relate cloud optical ...

Carole J. Hahn; William B. Rossow; Stephen G. Warren

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thermal Performance of Exposed Composed Roofs in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal performance for any building in hot dry region depend on the external climatic factor, the ability of the construction materials used in gained heat through day time and loss this heat through night time through the nocturnal radiation. Roof is considered the major part of the building envelop which exposed to high thermal load due to the high solar intensity and high outdoor air temperature through summer season which reach to 6 months. In Egypt the thermal effect of roof is increased as one go towards from north to south. This study evaluate the thermal performance of different test rooms with different roofs construction; uninsulated concrete, insulated concrete, double, plant, and active concrete roofs, constructed under the effect of external climatic condition of very hot and dry region in Egypt (Toshky region). The external climatic conditions and the temperature distribution inside the roof construction and the indoor air temperature were measured. The results of this study recognized that the thermal transmittance (UValue) has a major role in chosen the constructed materials. Also the thermal insulation considered the suitable manner for damping the thermal stresses through day time and makes the interior environment of the building near the comfort zone during most months of the year. Natural night and forced ventilation are more important in improving the internal conditions. The construction roof systems show that the indoor air temperature thermal damping reach to 96%, 90%, 89%, and 76% for insulated concrete, double, planted and uninsulated concrete roofs. The results also investigate the importance of using the earth as a cooling source through the active concrete system. Evaporative cooling and movable shading which are an integrated part of the guidelines for building design in hot dry region must be using.

Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S.; Morsey, M. S.; Fakhry, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Exposing the Nuclear Burning Ashes of Radius Expansion Type I X-ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve for the evolution of the vertical extent of the convective region of a neutron star atmosphere during a Type I X-ray burst. The convective region is well-mixed with ashes of nuclear burning and its extent determines the rise time of the burst light curve. Using a full nuclear reaction network, we show that the maximum vertical extent of the convective region during photospheric radius expansion (RE) bursts can be sufficiently great that: (1) some ashes of burning are ejected by the radiation driven wind during the RE phase and, (2) some ashes of burning are exposed at the neutron star surface following the RE phase. We find that ashes with mass number A ~ 30 - 60 are mixed in with the ejected material. We calculate the expected column density of ejected and surface ashes in hydrogen-like states and determine the equivalent widths of the resulting photoionization edges from both the wind and neutron star surface. We find that these can exceed 100 eV and are potentially detectable. A detection would probe the nuclear burning processes and might enable a measurement of the neutron star gravitational redshift. In addition, we find that in bursts with pure helium burning layers, protons from (alpha, p) reactions cause a rapid onset of the 12C(p, gamma)13N(alpha, p)16O reaction sequence. The sequence bypasses the relatively slow 12C(alpha, gamma)16O reaction and leads to a sudden surge in energy production that is directly observable as a rapid (~ ms) increase in flux during burst rise.

Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten; Hendrik Schatz

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

SciTech Connect

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

282

Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens  

SciTech Connect

During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past.

Kapaki, E.N.; Varelas, P.N.; Syrigou, A.I.; Spanaki, M.V.; Andreadou, E.; Kakami, A.E.; Papageorgiou, C.T. [Athens Univ. School of Medicine (Greece). Aeginition Hospital

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Plutonium Transport Through Lysimeters Exposed to Natural Weather Conditions for Two to Twelve Years  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most important factors influencing the subsurface transport of plutonium (Pu) is its oxidation state. Under similar geochemical conditions (e.g., groundwater pH) the mobility of reduced Pu, Pu(IV), is two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of oxidized Pu, Pu(V) and Pu(VI). However, due to a poor understanding of Pu oxidation state transformations, transport models typically employ conservative assumptions which can lead to overly conservative and costly decisions. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual geochemical transport model to describe Pu mobility through 52-L lysimeters established in 1980. The lysimeters contained E-Area sediment and various forms of well-characterized Pu sources of known oxidation state and were exposed to natural SRS weather conditions for up to 11 years. For this study, archived core sediments from the lysimeters were retrieved and Pu concentrations in depth-discrete samples were measured and then transport of Pu was modeled using a coupled reactive transport model. The geochemical conceptual model and input values included in the transport code were based on laboratory experiments. The single most important finding from this work was regardless of the Pu oxidation state added to SRS sediments, it quickly converted to the less mobile Pu(IV) form. In conclusion, it is expected that Pu will exist primarily in the SRS subsurface environment in the relatively less mobile Pu(IV) form, irrespective of the oxidation state that it first enters the ground. The lysimeter results provide important long-term data that support the removal of important overly conservative approaches presently used to calculate risk and performance assessment associated with groundwater Pu. These findings do not contradict previous Pu modeling efforts, including the E-Area Low-Level Waste Performance Assessment or the Special Analysis on Pu disposal in SRS trenches. Instead, the results from this work could be used in future calculations to improve accuracy and reduce uncertainty and conservatism.

Kaplan, D.I.

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

Arsenic alters monocyte superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in environmentally exposed children  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with alterations in the immune system, studies in experimental models and adults have shown that these effects involve macrophage function; however, limited information is available on what type of effects could be induced in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of As exposure, through the association of inorganic As (iAs) and its metabolites [monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] with basal levels of nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}-}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes, and NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} produced by activated monocytes. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 87 children (6-10 years old) who had been environmentally exposed to As through drinking water. Levels of urinary As species (iAs, MMA and DMA) were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, total As (tAs) represents the sum of iAs and its species; tAs urine levels ranged from 12.3 to 1411 {mu}g/g creatinine. Using multiple linear regression models, iAs presented a positive and statistical association with basal NO{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC ({beta} = 0.0048, p = 0.049) and monocytes ({beta} = 0.0044, p = 0.044), while basal O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} had a significant positive association with DMA ({beta} = 0.0025, p = 0.046). In activated monocytes, O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} showed a statistical and positive association with iAs ({beta} = 0.0108, p = 0.023), MMA ({beta} = 0.0066, p = 0.022), DMA ({beta} = 0.0018, p = 0.015), and tAs ({beta} = 0.0013, p = 0.015). We conclude that As exposure in the studied children was positively associated with basal levels of NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC and monocytes, suggesting that As induces oxidative stress in circulating blood cells. Additionally, this study showed a positive association of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production with iAs and its metabolites in stimulated monocytes, supporting previous data that suggests that these cells, and particularly the O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} activation pathway, are relevant targets for As toxicity.

Luna, Ana L.; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C. [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth [Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Conde, Patricia; Vera, Eunice; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Bastida, Mariana [Coordinacion de Investigacion de la Secretaria de Salud del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Calderon-Aranda, Emma S., E-mail: scalder@cinvestav.m [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Security of differential phase shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a proof of security for the Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution (DPSQKD) protocol under the assumption that Eve is restricted to individual attacks. The security proof is derived by bounding the average collision probability, which leads directly to a bound on Eve's mutual information on the final key. The security proof applies to realistic sources based on pulsed coherent light. We then compare individual attacks to sequential attacks and show that individual attacks are more powerful.

Edo Waks; Hiroki Takesue; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Propensity score analysis in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 simulated data set on independent individuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Workshop 17 simulated data set on independent individuals.Workshop 17 simulated data set on independent individualspower in this small data set by limiting the genomic

Lin, Chen; Sathirapongsasuti, Fah J; Kerner, Berit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Market-oriented Contribution of Individuals: Translating Strategy into Action.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research explores the management problem of how individuals can influence the development of a strategic orientation within a firm. A market orientation strategy builds… (more)

Schlosser, Francine

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Racial Identity Development and Psychological Adjustment in Biracial Individuals of Minority/Minority Racial Group Descent.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Based on the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism and race as a social construct, individuals with biological parents racially distinct from each other have biracial… (more)

Walker, Kizzie Paule

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Individual differences in categorization : exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and categorization behavior.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Individual differences are found in categorization behavior. For example, different people learn to categorize at different rates. Likewise, different people select different strategies to categorize… (more)

Craig, Stewart

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

GENII dose calculations for offsite maximum individual and populations from Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Document describes the potential dose consequences to the offsite maximum individual and population for ground and stack level releases at the offsite receptors from the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

Nguyen, L.V.

1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

291

Are individual forgiveness interventions for adults more effective than group interventions? A meta-analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Several questions remain unanswered to date: What type of forgiveness intervention is more effective, individual or group treatment, psychotherapeutic or psychoeducational approach, long-term or… (more)

Rainey, Cheryl A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Special Educators' Perspectives of Aligning Individual Education Program Goals of Students with Severe Disabilities with the General Education Curriculum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Aligning Individual Education Program (IEP) goals of students with severe disabilities with the general education curriculum is required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement… (more)

Tonga, Kristi Noel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Nano Letters 8, 4477-4482 (2008) NANO-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Letters 8, 4477- 4482 (2008) 1 NANO-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL CARBON NANOTUBES N. Bozovi 1 meV energy resolution and 1 nm spatial resolution.1 The later should enable nano-crystallography ­ XRD study of individual nano-particles. The commissioning of NSLS II will take some time -- the plan

Homes, Christopher C.

295

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at RENSSELEAR POLYTECHNIC from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. (ET). C51138 (12/11) TIAA-CREF does not offer tax advice. See your tax advisor with investing in securities. TIAA-CREF Individual & Institutional Services, LLC and Teachers Personal Investors

Linhardt, Robert J.

296

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC. Call 866 843-5640, Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. (ET). C51138 (4/12) TIAA-CREF does that there are always inherent risks associated with investing in securities. TIAA-CREF Individual & Institutional

Salama, Khaled

297

Transportation of Chemicals EHS has been made aware of two occurrences of individuals attempting to transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation of Chemicals EHS has been made aware of two occurrences of individuals attempting to transport chemicals improperly. These occurrences could have resulted in serious injury to the individuals or could have resulted in violations with the rules and regulations governing the transportation

Yener, Aylin

298

Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne lidar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646­655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne biomass and bio-energy feedstocks. The overall goal of this study was to develop a method for assessing aboveground biomass and component biomass for individual trees using airborne lidar data in forest settings

299

Systematic Approach to Compare the Inflammatory Response of Liver Cell Culture Systems Exposed to Silver, Copper, and Nickel Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although nano-sized metal colloids are used in industrial and medicinal applications, little is known about the potential liver toxicity of these materials after occupational or intentional exposures. To begin to resolve some outstanding hepatotoxicity concerns, the inflammatory response of hepatocytes after exposure to metal colloids was assessed. Four ~30-nm-sized metal colloids, including silver (nano-Ag), copper (nano-Cu) and nickel (nano-Ni) were examined in an effort to understand the induced cytokine expression in a murine liver cell line (AML12). Here we also utilized another system, co-cultures of hepatocytes, Kupffer’s cells, and lymphocytes isolated from C57BL6 mice. Cells were exposed to the materials over dose-response (0.1mg/L to 1000mg/L) and time-dependent (4 h, 48 h, and 1-week) studies. Cytotoxicity was measured via metabolism of resazurin and validated via MTT assay and cell counts. Inflammatory response was determined by cytokine profiles (TNF-a and IL-6), as well as by mRNA and protein expression of heat shock protein (Hsp70). Results from cells exposed to nano-Ag to doses of up to 100mg/L exhibited no significant changes in cytotoxicity, IL-6, or TNF-a production, or Hsp70 expression. Both nano-Cu and nano-Ni exposed cells exhibited decreased metabolism, increased Hsp70 induction, and increased inflammatory responses (IL-6 and TNF-a). Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy were used to characterize particle size and surface charge. All three metal colloidal systems demonstrated different particle size distributions, agglomerated sizes, and surface zeta potentials. Furthermore, each metal colloid system elicited different inflammatory biomarker responses and stress protein expression.

Banerjee, Nivedita

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Evaluation of materials exposed to scale-control/nozzle-exhaust experiments at the Salton Sea geothermal field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The erosion, corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Ti-, Co-, Ni-, and Fe-base alloys specimens that were used in scale-control tests performed at the Salton Sea geothermal field were evaluated. Specimens were exposed to high-velocity, two-phase, 104{sup 0}C nozzle exhaust that was produced by expanding acidified hypersaline, highly mineralized brine to atmospheric pressure through converging-diverging nozzles. The exposed specimens were evaluated using surface profilometer traces, light microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy ananlysis. The observed degradation was attributed largely to synergistic effects of erosion, corrosion, and stress. A principal mode of degradation appeared to be the formation and growth of corrosion-assisted erosion cavities; it was proposed that surface repassivation kinetics play a key role in the development of these cavities. It was also suggested that scale deposits on the metal surface may either alter the mode of attack or act as protective barriers. It was concluded that, of the potential turbine-blade materials tested, the Ti-base alloys exhibited the best combination of resistance to erosion, corrosion, and SCC.

Goldberg, A.; Kershaw, R.P.

1979-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

304

Determination of the Value of Weather Information to Individual Corn Producers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic weather events are critical to crop production by individual farmers. Using historic weather information, the probability of alternative weather outcomes is determined. Historic yields from research experiments were used with weather ...

Thomas F. Tice; Rodney L. Clouser

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Automated MRI measures identify individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mild cognitive impairment can represent a transitional state between normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Non-invasive diagnostic methods are needed to identify mild cognitive impairment individuals for early therapeutic ...

Desikan, Rahul S.

306

Daylight Spectra of Individual Lightning Flashes in the 370–690 nm Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An optical multichannel analyzer slit spectrometer coupled to a minicomputer was used to record lightning spectra. This is the first successful application of a slit spectrometer to the study of individual lightning flashes and it was ...

Richard E. Orville

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

An Electrodynamic Levitation System for Studying Individual Cloud Particles under Upper-Tropospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A laboratory system composed of an electrodynamic levitation cell within an environmental control chamber has been designed and built. The system is ideal for studies of individual particles, such as pure water droplets, aqueous solution droplets,...

Raymond A. Shaw; Dennis Lamb; Alfred M. Moyle

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Using disaggregation to link individual-tree and whole-stand growth models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

., and Newberry, J.D. 1994. Effects of inter- mediate silvicultural treatments on the distribution of within.A., and Newberry, J.D. 1993. Disaggregating stand volume growth to individual trees. For. Sci. 39: 295­308. © 2006

Cao, Quang V.

309

Mercury TMDLs - Significance to the Power Industry and Guidance for Individual Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was initiated by EPRI to provide guidance for individual power plants faced with mercury total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and to assess the significance of establishing mercury TMDLs.

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

310

Multiple-Stripe Lithiation of Individual SnO2 Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The atomic scale lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding ... Multinuclear Solid and Liquid State NMR Studies of Battery Materials ... Novel Design of Nanostructured Si Anode on Nanohair Array Polymer ...

311

Measurement of Individual Hydrometeor Absorption Cross Sections Utilizing Microwave Cavity Perturbation Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for measurement of individual hydrometeor absorption cross sections is presented. Cross sections are inferred by inserting the hydrometeor into a high Q resonant cavity and measuring the Q perturbation. Tests were conducted in a 10.64 ...

Robert John Hansman Jr.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal applications by inserting into this report a small part of the interpretation we have done with 3C3D data across Wister geothermal field in the Imperial Valley of California. This interpretation shows that P-SV data reveal faults (and by inference, also fractures) that cannot be easily, or confidently, seen with P-P data, and that the combination of P-P and P-SV data allows VP/VS velocity ratios to be estimated across a targeted reservoir interval to show where an interval has more sandstone (the preferred reservoir facies). The conclusion reached from this investigation is that S-wave seismic technology can be invaluable to geothermal operators. Thus we developed a strong interest in understanding the direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources, particularly vertical vibrators, because if it can be demonstrated that direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources can be used as effectively as the direct-S modes produced by horizontal-force sources, geothermal operators can acquire direct-S data across many more prospect areas than can be done with horizontal-force sources, which presently are limited to horizontal vibrators. We include some of our preliminary work in evaluating direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources.

Hardage, Bob A; DeAngelo, Michael V; Ermolaeva, Elena; Hardage, Bob A; Remington, Randy; Sava, Diana; Wagner, Donald; Wei, Shuijion

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Author manuscript, published in "IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC), Seoul: Korea, Republic of (2004)" Maximization of No-Load Flux Density in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—By using the analytical equations of the no-load flux density obtained with a two-dimensional model (2D) in polar coordinates, the authors proposed to interpolate a new analytical expression of the optimal thickness of the magnet which make it possible to maximize the no-load flux density in the air-gap. The interpolation function of the magnet optimal thickness could be utilized for surface mounted permanent magnet motors having a direction of parallel or radial magnetization [1]. I.

Frédéric Dubas; Christophe Espanet; Abdellatif Miraoui

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Parking and routing information system phase 1 evaluation -- Individual evaluation test plans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parking and routing information system (PARIS) is being designed and deployed at a test site on the Mountain Home Veterans Administration campus in Johnson City, Tennessee using three sensor technologies. The purpose of the PARIS project is to demonstrate innovative integration of vehicle sensing technologies with parking management strategies to improve mobility and relieve congestion associated with a growing medical/technology complex. This technical memorandum presents the four individual evaluation test plans, System Performance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, User Acceptance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, Institutional and Business Issues Individual Evaluation Test Plan, and Transportation Systems Individual Evaluation Test Plan, which were developed to support ORNL`s responsibilities and functions during the four studies. The plans define the level of effort required to satisfy the data collection, processing, and analysis requirements for the assessment of the system performance, user acceptance, institutional and business issues, and transportation systems components of the PARIS phase 1 evaluation. Each plan is divided into three subsections: executive summary, detailed study design, and study management.

Carter, R.J.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

2006 SitE ENvirONmENtAL rEPOrtv Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ronmental and worker safety risks. Initiatives to reduce, recycle, and reuse 13 million pounds of industrial. Radiological Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes

Homes, Christopher C.

317

iii 2011 Site environmental report Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in 2011. Radiological Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes. Radiological dose assessments at the Laboratory have consis- tently shown that the effective dose equivalent

Ohta, Shigemi

318

2008 Site environmental reportv Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential radiological to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes- diological dose assessments at the Laboratory have consistently shown that the effective dose equivalent from

Homes, Christopher C.

319

Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

Vance, L.M.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

From individual development accounts to community asset building : an exploration in bridging people-and place-based strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) are matched saving accounts for low-income individuals to save for the purchase of an asset. As one of many national initiatives that encourage homeownership, this thesis explores how ...

Rice, Solana

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Computational model, method, and system for kinetically-tailoring multi-drug chemotherapy for individuals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for tailoring treatment regimens to individual patients with diseased cells exhibiting evolution of resistance to such treatments. A mathematical model is provided which models rates of population change of proliferating and quiescent diseased cells using cell kinetics and evolution of resistance of the diseased cells, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. Cell kinetic parameters are obtained from an individual patient and applied to the mathematical model to solve for a plurality of treatment regimens, each having a quantitative efficacy value associated therewith. A treatment regimen may then be selected from the plurlaity of treatment options based on the efficacy value.

Gardner, Shea Nicole (San Leandro, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

322

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

SciTech Connect

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku (Japan))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Efficacy of Single-Suture Incision Closures in Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Turbine Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reductions in the size of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the use of a shorter incision-one that may warrant only a single suture for closure. However, it is not known whether a single suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed when fish are decompressed and when outward pressure is placed on the surgical site during turbine passage through hydroelectric dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of single-suture incision closures on five response variables in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were subjected to simulated turbine passage. An acoustic transmitter (0.43 g in air) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g in air) were implanted in each fish; the 6-mm incisions were closed with either one suture or two sutures. After exposure to simulated turbine passage, none of the fish exhibited expulsion of transmitters. In addition, the percentage of fish with suture tearing, incision tearing, or mortal injury did not differ between treatments. Expulsion of viscera through the incision was higher among fish that received one suture (12%) than among fish that received two sutures (1%). The higher incidence of visceral expulsion through single-suture incisions warrants concern. Consequently, for cases in which tagged juvenile salmonidsmay be exposed to turbine passage, we do not recommend the use of one suture to close 6-mm incisions associated with acoustic transmitter implantation.

Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Discontinuous phase formation and selective attack of SiC materials exposed to low oxygen partial pressure environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three SiC materials were exposed to gas mixtures containing N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO at 1000-1300C, 1-740 torr for a few to 1000 h. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that CO is the predominant oxidizing species. A variety of corrosion processes were observed, including surface and internal pit formation, needle growth, grain boundary attack, and attack of impurities and surrounding material. In the case of a siliconized SiC, impurities such as Ca, Al, and Fe diffused rapidly through the Si matrix forming complex calcium aluminosilicates on the surface, leaving behind internal voids. Evaluation of the mechanical properties, including fractography, revealed a variety of degradative phenomena. Efforts to identify causes of pit formation suggested that the overall process was complex. Pits formed during attack of grain boundaries and regions containing transition metal impurities. Studies of single crystals showed preferential attack near impurities and crystalline defects, indicating that damaged crystals or certain crystal orientations in the polycrystalline materials are susceptible to attack. In addition, under some conditions where pit formation was observed, the strength of certain materials increased apparently due to flaw healing. It is suggested that flaws can heal in the absence of mechanical stress due to their high surface energy. However, second phases observed within partially healed surface cracks suggest impurities also contribute to the flaw healing processes.

Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tressler, R.E.; Spear, K.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Experimental results for diffusion and infiltration of moisture in concrete masonry walls exposed to hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental test results for heat and moisture migration in walls exposed to hot and humid climates. The research was conducted to study the problem of mold and mildew caused by moisture transfer into walls of concrete masonry unit (CMU) type construction by diffusion and convective transport by air infiltration. This type of construction is common in commercial buildings in the southern US. The tests were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 evaluated heat and moisture transfer by diffusion. Phase 2 testing involved air infiltration through the test walls. Data were also collected to determine the rate at which the test walls would dry out without infiltration present. Test results indicate that an exterior vapor retarder will reduce the moisture migration into the wall and thereby lower the moisture accumulation due to infiltration when a vapor retarder (such as vinyl wallpaper) is used for the interior surface treatment. Testing also showed that while the exterior wall treatment does have an effect on reducing the total moisture accumulation in the test walls, the interior wall treatment has a much larger impact when infiltration is present. The data support a proposed criterion for the onset of mold and mildew, which requires a monthly average surface relative humidity of 80% with temperatures between 32 F and 105 F.

Hosni, M.H.; Sipes, J.M.; Wallis, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, China mcheng@seu.edu.cn Abstract-- Grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations and the individual pitch controller is designed. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy shortage, great efforts have been taken around the world to implement renewable energy projects

Chen, Zhe

327

Computer-mediated knowledge sharing and individual user differences: an exploratory study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior research has shown that individual differences in users' cognitive style and gender can have a significant effect on their usage and perceived usefulness of management information systems. We argue that these differences may also extend to computer-mediated ... Keywords: cognitive style, gender, knowledge management systems, knowledge sharing, perceived usefulness, usage, user differences

W. Andrew Taylor

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Bid Prices When Demand Is a Mix of Individual and Batch Bookings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industries such as aviation, hospitality, and package tours often face both individual and batch bookings, requiring one unit and multiple units of capacity, respectively. Using bid prices is a common practice in accepting or rejecting an incoming booking ... Keywords: air cargo, bid prices, nonlinear programming formulation, revenue management

Andreea Popescu, Earl Barnes, Ellis Johnson, Pinar Keskinocak

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Internet use and online social support among same sex attracted individuals of different ages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current research addressed age differences in internet use among Same Sex Attracted (SSA) individuals. In general, online communities are found to be a source of social support, especially for minority group members. However, it is unclear whether ... Keywords: Age differences, Coming out, Online communities, Online profiles, Sexual minorities, Social support

L. Baams; K. J. Jonas; S. Utz; H. M. W. Bos; L. van der Vuurst

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

A Human Reliability Analysis Approach Using Measurements for Individual Plant Examination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified approach has been developed for human reliability analysis (HRA) that will quantify the success/failure probabilities of control-room operator actions. Based on plant simulator measurements, the approach provides a state-of-the-art method to evaluate and thereby reduce plant risk as part of NRC's required individual plant examination (IPE).

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Chapter 2 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key Atomic mass: mass of an individual atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 2 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key 2.1 Atomic mass: mass of an individual atom Atomic;Chapter 3 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key 3.1 Atomic Structure: relates the # of protons and neutrons of intercepts 2 2 1 Reduction not necessary Enclosure (221) #12;Chapter 12 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key

Grunlan, Melissa A.

332

Individual differences in preferred steering effort for steer-by-wire systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steer-by-wire systems provide drivers with the opportunity to personalize steering settings in vehicles. Studies conducted in the past have indicated that preferences for steering effort, one of the factors which affect steering feel, vary based on individual ... Keywords: human machine interface, steer-by-wire, steering effort, steering feel, steering systems

Swethan Anand; Jacques Terken; Jeroen Hogema

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at UVA Medical Center personal financial situation with an experienced TIAA-CREF financial consultant on a confidential basis. Register at www.tiaa-cref.org/letstalk1 or call 866 843-5640, Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 8 p

Acton, Scott

334

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mark Your Calendar! TIAA-CREF announces Individual Counseling Sessions at Rensselaer Polytechnic as soon as you can. Register at www.tiaa-cref.org/letstalk1 or call 866 842-2046. SIGN UP TODAY: Space is limited, so please RSVP as soon as you can. Register at www.tiaa-cref.org/letstalk1 or call 866 842

Bystroff, Chris

335

Milk fat globules are individually sur-rounded by a membrane which maintains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and renders them compatible with the aqueous environment [7]. Milk fat globules membranes (MFGM) compositionMilk fat globules are individually sur- rounded by a membrane which maintains their integrity, including the main specific butyrophilin, would be 1. INTRODUCTION In milk, fat is predominantly present

Recanati, Catherine

336

Design of Individuation PDC Bit and its Application in Santanghu Basin Vocanics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Niudong and Malang area in Santanghu Basin is a typical reservoir of volcanics, there are basalt layers with the thickness from hundreds to thousands meters under Permian, so the drill ability of which was bad, choice of bit was limited, and the drilling ... Keywords: Drillability, Individuation PDC Bit, Optimization Design, Test Application

Wei Zhongliang; Guo Lichun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Automatic prediction of individual performance from "thin slices" of social behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper targets the automatic detection of individual performances in group tasks by means of short sequences, "thin slices", of nonverbal behavior. We designed our task as a classification one. We also investigated the relevance of social context ... Keywords: intelligent environments, performance prediction, small group interaction, support vector machines

Bruno Lepri; Nadia Mana; Alessandro Cappelletti; Fabio Pianesi

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A random graph model of kidney exchanges: efficiency, individual-rationality and incentives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In kidney exchanges, hospitals share patient lists and receive transplantations. A kidney-paired donation (KPD) mechanism needs to promote full sharing of information about donor-patient pairs, and identify a Pareto efficient outcome that also satisfies ... Keywords: individual rationality, kidney exchange, maximum matching, mechanism design, random graph theory

Panagiotis Toulis; David C. Parkes

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D  

SciTech Connect

An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source-term data and the change of the approach to individual internal dose estimation (90Sr-body burden measurements and family correlations vs. village averages). Our further plan is to upgrade the TRDS-2009D and to complete a stochastic version of the dosimetry system.

Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

340

SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION  

SciTech Connect

Instrumentation difficulties encountered in the previous reporting period were addressed early in this reporting period, resulting in a new instrumentation configuration that appears to be free of the noise issues found previously. This permitted the collection of flow calibration data to begin. The first issues in question are the effects of the type and location of the transducer mount. Data were collected for 15 different transducer positions (upstream and downstream of an elbow in the pipe), with both a stud mount and a magnetic transducer mount, for each of seven combinations of air and coal flow. Analysis of these data shows that the effects of the transducer mount type and location on the resulting dynamics are complicated, and not easily captured in a single analysis. To maximize the practical value of the calibration data, further detailed calibration data will be collected with both the magnetic and stud mounts, but at a single mounting location just downstream of a pipe elbow. This testing will be performed in the Coal Flow Test Facility in the next reporting period. The program progress in this reporting period was sufficient to put us essentially back on schedule.

Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Problems with Correct Traffic Differentiation in Line Topology IEEE 802.11 EDCA Networks in the Presence of Hidden and Exposed Nodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of content delivery with a required QoS is currently one of the most important. In ad-hoc networks it is IEEE 802.11 EDCA which tries to face this problem. This paper describes several EDCA line topology configurations with mixed priorities ... Keywords: EDCA, QoS, hidden and exposed nodes, simulations

Katarzyna Kosek; Marek Natkaniec; Luca Vollero

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure.

Tal, Tamara L. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa [Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Cho, Seung-Hyun [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Research Participation Program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Linak, William [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Reed, William; Bromberg, Philip A. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Samet, James M., E-mail: samet.james@epa.go [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

A SUBCHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO 0, 0.4, 1.4 OR 4.0 PPM ACROLEIN.  

SciTech Connect

Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 1.4, or 4.0 ppm acrolein for 62 days. The major objective of the study was to relate the results of a series of pulmonary function tests to biochemical and pathological alterations observed in the lung. Cytological and reproductive potential endpoints were also assessed after acrolein exposure. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 62 days. Mortality was observed only in the 4.0 ppm chamber where 32 of 57 exposed males died; however, none of the 8 exposed females died. Most of the mortality occurred within the first 10 exposure days. Histologic examination indicated that the animals died of acute bronchopneumonia. The surviving males and females exposed to 4.0 ppm acrolein gained weight at a significantly slower rate than control animals. The growth of both sexes in the 0.4 and 1.4 ppm groups was similar to that of their respective controls. Histopathologic examination of animals after 62 days of exposure revealed bronchiolar epithelial necrosis and sloughing, bronchiolar edema with macrophages, and focal pulmonary edema in the 4.0 ppm group. These lesions were, in some cases, associated with edema of the trachea and peribronchial lymph nodes, and acute rhinitis which indicated an upper respiratory tract effect of acrolein. Of particular interest was the variability of response between rats in the 4.0 ppm group, some not affected at all while others were moderately affected. Intragroup variability in toxicity was also apparent in the 1.4 ppm exposure group where only 3 of 31 animals examined had lesions directly related to acrolein exposure. Extra respiratory organs appeared unaffected.

KUTZMAN,R.S.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Argonne CNM News: STM of individual grains in CVD-grown graphene  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STM of individual grains in CVD-grown graphene STM of individual grains in CVD-grown graphene SEM of 3d supercrystals The first scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of graphene synthesized on copper foil. (b-d) show atomic-resolution images at various locations of the large graphene domain shown in (a). NMAT June 2011 Users from Purdue University, working collaboratively with staff in the Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Group, studied CVD-grown graphene on polycrystalline copper foil for the first time at the atomic-scale. The ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM) findings performed at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) will help to guide the optimization of synthesis towards defect-free graphene. The focus of this study was to investigate the quality of the films and

346

ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAK REPAIR CAPACITY IN HUMAN DIPLOID FIBROBLASTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN DNA DOUBLE-STRAND ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAK REPAIR CAPACITY IN HUMAN DIPLOID FIBROBLASTS Paul F. Wilson, John M. Hinz, Peter B. Nham, Salustra S. Urbin, Cynthia B. Thomas, Irene M. Jones, and Larry H. Thompson Biosciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA The induction of bi-stranded clustered DNA damage (BCD), which includes direct DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), is a hallmark of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Incorrectly repaired DSBs can cause chromosomal rearrangements and an increased risk of genomic instability and cancer. Because there is polymorphic variation in DNA repair genes and much of this variation is predicted to have a functional impact, healthy people likely vary in their capacity to repair DSBs and other BCD. This project

347

Electrophoretic Migration and Axial Diffusion of Individual Nanoparticles in Cylindrical Nanopores  

SciTech Connect

Membranes with straight, vertical nanopores have found widespread applications in chemical and biological sciences, including separation, detection, catalysis, and drug delivery. They can also serve as a model system to understand molecular behavior and fundamental mechanisms of separation, bridging the gap between conventional model systems such as flat surfaces and real chromatographic stationary phases such as micrometer-sized porous particles. We recently found that the axial motion of individual biomolecules inside nanopores can be significantly slower than in bulk solution. This suggests that either chromatographic adsorption was present and/or the viscosity inside the nanopores was unusually high. In this study, we measured the electrophoretic motion as well as the axial diffusion of individual nanoparticles in cylindrical alumina nanopores. We found that the electrophoretic mobilities and the diffusion coefficients of polystyrene nanoparticles were both substantially smaller compared to bulk solution independent of particle size or pore diameter. The results imply that the apparent solution viscosity in nanodomains is anomalous.

Han, Rui; Wang, Gufeng; Qi, Shengda; Ma, Changbei; Yeung, Edward S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Characterization of Individual Nanoparticles and Applications of Nanoparticles in Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemical characterization of individual nanoparticles (NPs) individual NPs by obtaining molecular information from single massive cluster impacts. The clusters used in this secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique are Au4004+ and C60+. The ionized ejecta from each impact are recorded individually which allows to identify ions emitted from a surface volume of ~10 nm in diameter and 5-10 nm in depth. The mode of analyzing ejecta individually from each single cluster impact gives insight into surface homogeneity, in our case NPs and their immediate surroundings. We show that when the NPs (50 nm Al) are larger than the size of the volume perturbed by the projectile, the secondary ion emission (SI) resembles that of a bulk surface. However, when the NP (5 nm Ag) is of the size range of the volume perturbed by projectile the SI emission is different from that of a bulk surface. As part of this sub-assay volume study, the influence of neighboring NP on the SI emission was examined by using a mixture of different types of NPs (5 nm Au and 5 nm Ag). The methodology of using cluster SIMS via a sequence of stochastic single impacts yield information on the surface coverage of the NPs, as well as the influence of the chemical environment on the type of SI emission. We also present a case of soft landing NPs for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. NPs enhance the SI emission in a manner that maintains the integrity of the spatial distribution of molecular species. The results indicate that the application can be extended to imaging mass spectrometry.

Rajagopal Achary, Sidhartha Raja

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Resting and Post Bronchial Challenge Testing Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure in Individuals with and without Asthma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective: There is conflicting evidence about resting carbon dioxide levels in asthmatic individuals. We wanted to determine if transcutaneously measured carbon dioxide levels prior and during bronchial provocation testing differ according to asthma status reflecting dysfunctional breathing. Methods: We investigated active firefighters and policemen by means of a validated questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, spirometry, bronchial challenge testing with methacholine (MCT) and measurement of transcutaneous blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO 2) at rest prior performing spirometry, one minute and five minutes after termination of MCT. A respiratory physician blinded to the PtcCO2 results assigned a diagnosis of asthma after reviewing the available study data and the files of the workers medical screening program. Results: The study sample consisted of 128 male and 10 female individuals. Fifteen individuals (11%) had physiciandiagnosed asthma. There was no clinically important difference in median PtcCO 2 at rest, one and five minutes after recovery from MCT in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (35.6 vs 35.7 mmHg, p = 0.466; 34.7 vs 33.4 mmHg, p = 0.245 and 37.4 vs 36.4 mmHg, p = 0.732). The median drop in PtcCO2 during MCT and the increase after MCT was lower in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (0.1 vs 3.2 mmHg, p = 0.014 and 1.9 vs 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.025). Conclusions: PtcCO2 levels at rest prior and during recovery after MCT do not differ in individuals with or without physician

David Miedinger; Anja Jochmann; Lucia Schoenenberger; Prashant N. Chhajed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Shaking things up: young infants' use of sound information for object individuation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Object individuation, the capacity to determine whether two perceptual encounters belong to the same object or two different objects, is one of the most basic cognitive abilities and provides a foundation for infants’ understanding of the physical world. Yet very little work has been done to explore infants’ use of auditory information to individuate objects. The first research to investigate infants’ use of sound information to individuate objects was reported by Wilcox et al. (2006), who used a violation-ofexpectation task to examine the extent to which 4.5-month-olds use differences in sound to individuate objects. The results suggested that 4.5-month-olds use property-rich sounds (sounds intimately related to an objects’ physical, amodal properties) but not property-poor sounds (sounds that are more contrived) to distinguish the identity of objects involved in occlusion events. The current study investigated infants’ sensitivity to these two types of sounds within the context of a search task. Three experiments were conducted with infants aged 5 to 7 months. The outcome of these experiments builds and extends on the findings of Wilcox et al. in three ways. First, converging evidence was obtained, using a search task, that young infants are more sensitive to property-rich than property-poor sounds. Second, more detailed information was obtained on infants’ interpretation of samesounds events (two identical, rather than two different, sounds). Finally, possible explanations for infants’ greater sensitivity to property-rich sounds were assessed. The outcome of these studies, collectively, provides insight into the types of sounds that infants use to identify objects and the reasons why some sounds are more salient to infants than others.

Smith, Tracy Rebecca

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997  

SciTech Connect

This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

NONE

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual napthenic acids in oil sands process water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. The chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water is described. The authors concluded that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters (auth)

Rowland, Steven J.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Jones, David; West, Charles E. (Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)); Frank, Richard A. (Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division-Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

File:Individual wastewater permit packet s-7.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Individual wastewater permit packet s-7.pdf Individual wastewater permit packet s-7.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Individual wastewater permit packet s-7.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: application/pdf, 33 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 09:34, 24 October 2012 Thumbnail for version as of 09:34, 24 October 2012 1,275 × 1,650, 33 pages (423 KB) Dklein2012 (Talk | contribs) You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external application (See the setup

354

User Instructions for the CiderF Individual Dose Code and Associated Utility Codes  

SciTech Connect

Historical activities at facilities producing nuclear materials for weapons released radioactivity into the air and water. Past studies in the United States have evaluated the release, atmospheric transport and environmental accumulation of 131I from the nuclear facilities at Hanford in Washington State and the resulting dose to members of the public (Farris et al. 1994). A multi-year dose reconstruction effort (Mokrov et al. 2004) is also being conducted to produce representative dose estimates for members of the public living near Mayak, Russia, from atmospheric releases of 131I at the facilities of the Mayak Production Association. The approach to calculating individual doses to members of the public from historical releases of airborne 131I has the following general steps: • Construct estimates of releases 131I to the air from production facilities. • Model the transport of 131I in the air and subsequent deposition on the ground and vegetation. • Model the accumulation of 131I in soil, water and food products (environmental media). • Calculate the dose for an individual by matching the appropriate lifestyle and consumption data for the individual to the concentrations of 131I in environmental media at their residence location. A number of computer codes were developed to facilitate the study of airborne 131I emissions at Hanford. The RATCHET code modeled movement of 131I in the atmosphere (Ramsdell Jr. et al. 1994). The DECARTES code modeled accumulation of 131I in environmental media (Miley et al. 1994). The CIDER computer code estimated annual doses to individuals (Eslinger et al. 1994) using the equations and parameters specific to Hanford (Snyder et al. 1994). Several of the computer codes developed to model 131I releases from Hanford are general enough to be used for other facilities. This document provides user instructions for computer codes calculating doses to members of the public from atmospheric 131I that have two major differences from the Hanford modeling sequence. First, the air transport code HYSPLIT (Draxler et al. 2012) is used instead of the RATCHET code. Second, the new individual dose code CiderF replaces the older CIDER code and five auxiliary codes.

Eslinger, Paul W.; Napier, Bruce A.

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

355

Facies architecture of the upper Calvert Bluff Formation exposed in the highwall of Big Brown Mine, Fairfield, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The facies architecture and geometry of stratigraphic surfaces within a lignite bearing interval of the Paleocene upper Calvert Bluff Formation is mapped on a photomosaic of the 150 ft (50 m) high and 12,000 ft (4km) long �C� area highwall of Big Brown Mine, near Fairfield, Texas. Observed bedding and facies architecture are interpreted in terms of temporal changes, depositional environments and sequence stratigraphic setting. A three dimensional grid of 89 subsurface logs is correlated to this photomosaic to characterize log response patterns of facies. Six facies are observed: 1) lignite, 2) interdistributary bay mud, 3) prograding delta, 4) delta top mud, 5) distributary channels, and 6) incised valley fill. The six facies were defined by a combination of mapped photomosaic observations and subsurface log correlations. The lignite deposit formed in a low depositional energy, low sediment input, high-organic productivity interchannel basin. Overlying mud records overbank flooding followed by avulsion and progradation of delta deposits. Tidal-flat deposits overlying prograding delta deposits record fluctuating energy conditions on the emerging delta top. Channel deposits cutting into the delta top record lateral channel migration across delta top floodplains. These regressive delta deposits are capped by a local incised sequence boundary overlain by fluvial channel deposits inferred to have allowed sediment to bypass further basinward during lowstand. A sheet of channel deposits capping this highwall exposure records more recent erosion, followed by development of modern soil horizons. The Big Brown Mine highwall exposes a relatively complete high-frequency Paleocene stratigraphic sequence developed in an area landward of the shoreline position during maximum transgression, that progresses upsection from: 1) highstand alluvial flood basin coals, 2) a thin condensed maximum flooding interdistributary shale, 3) a thick succession of regressive deltaic strata, and 4) a high-relief, sequence-bounding erosion surface overlain by a lowstand to transgressive fill of channel deposits. Correlations with regional Wilcox Group stratigraphic studies spanning coeval shoreline and shelf strata indicate that this high-frequency sequence is within the transgressive systems tract of a 3rd order stratigraphic sequence. It appears that high-frequency sequences of sub-regional extent control the complex distribution of coal seams within central Texas.

Sturdy, Michael Dale

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

In situ XRD Study of Ca2+ Saturated Montmorillonite (STX-1) Exposed to Anhydrous and Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Reactions involving scCO2 and a calcium saturated dioctahedral smectite (Ca-STX-1) were examined by in situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction over a range of temperatures (50° to 100°C) and pressures (90, 125, and 180 bar) relevant to long term geologic storage of CO2. Exposure of Ca-STX-1 containing one water of hydration (1W) to anhydrous scCO2 at 50°C and 90 bar produced an immediate increase of ~0.8 Ĺ in the d001 basal reflection that was sustained for the length of the experiment (~44 hours). Higher ordered basal reflections displayed similar shifts. Following depressurization, positions of basal reflections and FWHM values (d001) returned to initial values, with no measurable modification to the clay structure or water content. Similar results were obtained for tests conducted at 50°C and higher pressures (125 and 180 bar). Exposure of Ca-STX-1 containing two waters of hydration (2W) to scCO2 resulted in a decrease in the d001 reflection from 14.48 Ĺ to 12.52 Ĺ, after pressurization, indicating a partial loss of interlayer water. In addition, the hydration state of the clay became more homogeneous during contact with anhydrous scCO2 and after depressurization. In the presence of scCO2 and water, the clay achieved a 3W hydration state, based on a d001 spacing of 18.8 Ĺ. In contrast to scCO2, comparable testing with N2 gas indicated trivial changes in the d001 series regardless of hydration state (1W or 2W). In the presence of free water and N2, the basal spacing for the Ca-STX-1 expanded slightly, but remained in the 2W hydration state. These experiments indicate that scCO2 can intercalate hydrated clays, where the 1W hydrate state is stable when exposed to anhydrous scCO2 under conditions proposed for geologic storage of CO2. Consequently, clays can act as secondary CO2 traps where potential collapse or expansion of the interlayer spacing depends on the initial hydration state of the clay and scCO2.

Schaef, Herbert T.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Qafoku, Odeta; Martin, Paul F.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Influence of Woodlot Size and Location in Suburban and Rural Matrices on Bird Species Richness and Individual Abundance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study assessed the influence of woodlot area and matrix composition on bird species richness and individual abundance. Bird surveys were conducted in winter 2004… (more)

Chartier, Neil Allen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Maximizing available spectrum for cognitive radios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

located primary transmitter/receiver, FDD mode If the systemis Frequency Division Duplexed (FDD) (the two transmitter-

Mishra, Shridhar Mubaraq

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

2010-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Program II.G Hydrogen Production and Delivery Biological Melis - University of California, Berkeley G G G G G Introduction The goal of the research is to generate green...

362

Iterative Estimation Maximization for Stochastic Linear Programs ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spanning from May 23rd 2007 to May 22nd 2008, obtained from http://finance. google.com with adjustment for stock splitting. These stocks span a total of 10 ...

363

Welfare-Maximizing Correlated Equilibria using Kantorovich ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooperative game. Healthy data transfer rates throughout the system is reached when every link is achieving local optimality for its utility. Such a desirable ...

364

Dynamic Network Utility Maximization with Delivery Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 30, 2007 ... that the utility functions differ for different flows, and can be time-varying as well. The total traffic on link i at time t is the sum of the flow rates at ...

365

Maximal Quotient Rational Reconstruction - CECM - Simon Fraser ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that can be reconstructed is growing at an equal rate. Example: Running .... used in this range because the timings increase consistently by a factor of 3 as the ...

366

Maximizing the Availability of Distributed Software Services.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In a commercial Internet environment, the quality of service experienced by a user is critical to competitive advantage and business survivability. The availability and response… (more)

Clutterbuck, Peter

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Maximizing degrees of freedom in wireless networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider communication from a single source to a single destination in a wireless network with fading. Both source and destination have multiple antennas. The information reaches the destination through a sequence of ...

Borade, Shashibhushan Prataprao, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

MAXIMIZING NON-MONOTONE SUBMODULAR FUNCTIONS ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given a weight vector w for the ground set V , and a knapsack of capacity C, the associated ..... The desired map ? is then ?(b) = ? and ?(b?) = ??(b?).

369

Asynergistic regression based on maximized rank correlation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1998) or a constrained B-spline smoother for example. Wethen a constrained B-spline smoother monotone smoothed theby the constrained B-spline smoother. Global synergy was

Donohue, Michael; Abramson, Ian; Gamst, Anthony

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Maximizing the enzymic saccharification of corn stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. agricultural residues, wood, municipal solid waste, tree and yard t gs, sewage sludge, and waste paper) comprises three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It can contain as much as 75% polysaccharide; thus, biomass has considerable potential as a fermentation feedstock. Corn stover represents an especially important resource because it is the single largest source of agricultural residue in the United States. The best method to obtain fermentable sugars from biomass is by enzymic saccharification. Before biomass can be effectively saccharified, some pretreatment is required. Calcium hydroxide (Eme) is an effective pretreatment agent for corn stover and is less expensive and easier to recover than other alternatives. The reconunended process conditions for treating corn stover are 4 h at 120 'C using 0. 075 g Ca(OH)2/g dry biomass and 5 g H20/g dry biomass. The maximum sugar yield bv enzymic hydrolysis (25 FPU ceflulase/g dry biomass, 50 'C, 7 days) of pretreated corn stover is 88.0% of the glucose and 88.1% of the total sugars. The recommended enzyme loading is IO FPU ceUulase/g dry biomass. Tween 20 and Tween 80 are effective at improving the enzymic saccharification of corn stover. The recommended loading of Tween is 0. 15 g Tween/g dry biomass; the loading, rather than the concentration, is the critical parameter. Adding Tween to the hydrolytic medium increases the maximum sugar yield to I 00% and 94.8% of the glucose and 97.4% and 93.3 % of the total sugars for Tween 20 and Tween 80, respectively. Tween also reduces the recommended enzyme loading to 3 FPU ceflulase/g dry biomass. The action of Tween is three-fold: (1) Time profiles show that enzymes remain active at higher temperatures in the presence of Tween. (2) Kinetic analyses show that, although the theoretical maximum hydrolysis rate is unchanged by Tween, the adsorption and coverage parameters, a and c, in the HCH-1 model are reduced which results in higher effective hydrolysis rates. (3) The maximum enzymic digestion, which is independent of enzyme effects, is higher with Tween. Thus, the action of Tween is a combination of surfactant, enzyme effector, and fignoceflulose matrix disrupter.

Kaar, William Edward

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Maximizing fluorescence collection efficiency in multiphoton microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-depth limit in two-photon microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(12), 3139­3149 (2006). 9. D. Kobat, M. E. Durst

Levene, Michael J.

372

Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Routing Protocols to Maximize Battery Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks whose nodes are largely battery powered. The battery capacity of the nodes is viewed as a common resource of the system and its use is to be optimized. Results from a previous study on battery management have shown that: (1) pulsed current discharge outperforms constant current discharge, (2) battery capacity can be improved by using a bursty discharge pattern due to charge recovery effects that take place during idle periods, (3) given a certain value of current drawn off the battery, higher current impulses degrade battery performance, even if the percentage of higher current impulses is relatively small. We develop a network protocol based on these findings. This protocol favors routes whose links have a low energy cost. We also distribute multihop traffic in a manner that allows all nodes a good chance to recover their battery energy reserve.

Carla F. Chiasserini; Ramesh R. Rao

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Defining Conditions for Maximizing Bioreduction of Uranium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Correlations between modifying electron donor and acceptor accessibility, the in-situ microbial community, and bioreduction of Uranium at the FRC and UMTRA research sites indicated that significant modifications in the rate, amount and by inference the potential stability of immobilized Uranium are feasible in these environments. The in-situ microbial community at these sites was assessed with a combination of lipid and real-time molecular techniques providing quantitative insights of effects of electron donor and manipulations. Increased (9mM in 2003 vs 3mM 2002) donor amendment at the Old Rifle site resulted in the stimulation of anaerobic conditions downgradient of the injection gallery. Biomass within the test plot increased relative to the control well at 17 feet. Q-PCR specific for IRB/SRB showed increased copy numbers within the test plot and was the highest at the injection gallery. Q-PCR specific for Geobacter sp. showed increased copy numbers within the test plot but further downgradient from the injection gallery than the SRB/IRB. DNA and Lipid analysis confirm changes in the microbial community structure due to donor addition. See also the PNNL (Long) and UMASS (Anderson) posters for more information about this site.

David C. White; Aaron D. Peacock; Yun-Juan Chang; Roland Geyer; Philip E. Long; Jonathan D. Istok; Amanda N.; R. Todd Anderson; Dora Ogles

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

375

Planning combat outposts to maximize population security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combat outposts (COPs) are small, well-protected bases from which soldiers reside and conduct operations from. Used extensively during the "Surge" in Iraq, COPs are usually established in populated areas and are prevalent ...

Seidel, Scott B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Energy planning with solar and conservation: individual values and community choice  

SciTech Connect

Conflict among the priorities of individuals, private sector businesses, and government entities makes the transition to a renewable energy-resource base a difficult one. These conflicts are intensified by the overwhelming number of externalities created by the actions of each of these decision making groups. This paper explores the nature of some of these conflicts and externalities and gives an illustrative example of the benefits to be derived from community energy planning. Community energy programs have the potential to stimulate household and community income, create job opportunities, develop a more resilient energy economy, and help mitigate environmental deterioration.

Noll, S.A.; Roach, F.; Palmiter, L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Detection and Control of Individual Nuclear Spins Using a Weakly Coupled Electron Spin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We experimentally isolate, characterize, and coherently control up to six individual nuclear spins that are weakly coupled to an electron spin in diamond. Our method employs multipulse sequences on the electron spin that resonantly amplify the interaction with a selected nuclear spin and at the same time dynamically suppress decoherence caused by the rest of the spin bath. We are able to address nuclear spins with interaction strengths that are an order of magnitude smaller than the electron spin dephasing rate. Our results provide a route towards tomography with single-nuclear-spin sensitivity and greatly extend the number of available quantum bits for quantum information processing in diamond.

Taminiau, T.H.; Wagenaar, J.J.T.; van der Sar, T.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Hanson, R.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

378

Inhibition of IGA/SCC on Alloy 600 Surfaces Exposed to PWR Secondary Water: Volume 2: Titanium and Cerium Acetate Model Boiler Testi ng  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has devoted an extensive program to qualifying corrosion inhibitors for use in PWR steam generators. This report addresses one phase of model boiler testing using mill-annealed alloy 600 tubing with drilled-hole carbon steel tube support plate simulators in caustic environments. In two tests, investigators added inorganic inhibitors to the caustic environment. In another test, they exposed alloy 600 tubing to an acidic environment high in sulfates then to a caustic environment. Nondestructive and de...

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Program on Technology Innovation: Proceedings--2007 AECL/COG/EPRI Workshop on Cold Work in Iron- and Nickel-Base Alloys Exposed to H igh Temperature Water Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A workshop was held June 3-8, 2007 at the Delta Meadowvale Resort and Conference Center in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada to discuss the effects of cold work on the environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of structural materials exposed to high temperature water environments in water cooled nuclear power reactors. This report summarizes the presentations and subsequent discussions and includes the actual presentations as linked appendices.

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

380

The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: Estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans  

SciTech Connect

The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice.

Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Awa, A.A.; Satoh, C.; Kato, H.; Otake, M.; Yoshimoto, Y. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Individual Radiation Exposure Dose Due to Support Activities at Safe Shelters in Fukushima Prefecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Immediately after the accidents in the nuclear power stations in Fukushima on March 11, the Japanese Government ordered the evacuation of the residents within a 20-km radius from the station on March 12, and asked various institutions to monitor the contamination levels of the residents. Hirosaki University, which is located 355 km north of Fukushima City, decided to send support staff to Fukushima. This report summarizes the results of the exposure of 13 individual teams from March 15 to June 20. The support teams surveyed more than 5,000 people during this period. Almost all subjects had external contamination levels of less than 13 kcpm on Geiger-Müller (GM) survey meter, which is categorized as ‘‘no contamination level.’ ’ The 1 st team showed the highest external exposure dose, but the 4 th team onward showed no significant change. Subsequently, the internal radiation exposure was measured using a whole body counter that indicated undetectable levels in all staff members. Although the measured external radiation exposure dose cannot have serious biological effects on the health of an individual, a follow-up study of the residents in Fukushima and other regions where

Satoru Monzen; Masahiro Hosoda; Shinji Tokonami; Minoru Osanai; Hironori Yoshino; Mitsuaki A. Yoshida; Masatoshi Yamada; Yasushi Asari; Kei Satoh; Ikuo Kashiwakura

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Integrability-Nonintegrability Structures and Individual Photons' Description as Finite Field Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents an attempt to come to a natural field model of individual photons considered as finite entities and propagating along some distinguished direction in space in a consistent translational-rotational manner. The starting assumption reflects their most trustful property to propagate translationally in a uniform way along straight lines. The model gives correct energy-momentum characteristics and connects the rotational characteristics of photons with corresponding nonintegrability (or curvature) of some 2-dimensional distributions (or Pfaff systems) on $\\mathbb{R}^4$. It is obtained that the curvature is proportional to the corresponding energy-density. The field equations are obtained through a Lagrangian and they express a consistency condition between photon's translational and rotational propagation properties. The energy tensor is deduced directly from the equations since the corresponding Hilbert energy-tensor becomes zero on the solutions. Planck's formula $E=h\

Stoil Donev; Maria Tashkova

2005-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

383

Integrability-Nonintegrability Structures and Individual Photons' Description as Finite Field Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents an attempt to come to a natural field model of individual photons considered as finite entities and propagating along some distinguished direction in space in a consistent translational-rotational manner. The starting assumption reflects their most trustful property to propagate translationally in a uniform way along straight lines. The model gives correct energy-momentum characteristics and connects the rotational characteristics of photons with corresponding nonintegrability (or curvature) of some 2-dimensional distributions (or Pfaff systems) on $\\mathbb{R}^4$. It is obtained that the curvature is proportional to the corresponding energy-density. The field equations are obtained through a Lagrangian and they express a consistency condition between photon's translational and rotational propagation properties. The energy tensor is deduced directly from the equations since the corresponding Hilbert energy-tensor becomes zero on the solutions. Planck's formula $E=h\

Donev, S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Multiple-stripe lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding geometry  

SciTech Connect

The atomic scale lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding geometry with the entire wires being immersed in the electrolyte was revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. The lithiation initiated multiple stripes with width of a few nanometer parallel to {l_brace}020{r_brace} planes transversing the entire wires, serving as multiple reaction fronts for late stage of lithiation. Inside the stripes, we identified high density of dislocations and enlarged inter-planar spacing, which provide effective path for lithium ion transport. The density of the stripes increased with further lithiation, and eventually they merged with one another, causing a large enlongation and volume expansion and the crystalline to amorphous phase transformation. This multiple stripes and multiple reaction fronts lithiation mechanism is unexpected and differs completely from the expected core-shell lithiation mechanism.

Zhong, Li; Liu, Xiao H.; Wang, G. F.; Mao, Scott X.; Huang, Jian Yu

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

385

Individual Flip-Flops with Gated Clocks for Low Power Datapaths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy consumption has become one of the important factors in digital systems, because of the requirement to dissipate this energy in high-density circuits and to extend the battery life in portable systems such as devices with wireless communication capabilities. Flip-flops are one of the most energyconsuming components of digital circuits. This paper presents techniques to reduce energy consumption by individually deactivating the clock when flip-flops do not have to change their value. Flip-flop structures are proposed and selection criteria given to obtain minimum energy consumption. The structures have been evaluated using energy models and validated by switch-level simulations. For the applications considered, significant energy reductions are achieved. Index Terms---Flip-flop energy model, gated clocks, low power datapaths. I.

Tomas Lang Enric; Low Power Datapaths

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Recent progress towards acoustically mediated carrier injection into individual nanostructures for single photon generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on recent progress towards single photon sources based on quantum dot and quantum post nanostructures which are manipulated using surface acoustic waves. For this concept acoustic charge conveyance in a quantum well is used to spatially separate electron and hole pairs and transport these in the plane of the quantum well. When conveyed to the location of a quantum dot or quantum post these carriers are sequentially captured into the confined levels. Their radiative decays gives rise to the emission of a train of single photons. Three different approaches using (i) strain- induced and (ii) self-assembled quantum dots, and (iii) self-assembled quantum posts are discussed and their application potential is discussed. First devices and initial experiments towards the realization of such an acoustically driven single photon source are presented and remote acoustically triggered injection into few individual emitters is demonstrated.

Stefan Völk; Florian J. R. Schülein; Florian Knall; Achim Wixforth; Hubert. J. Krenner; Arne Laucht; Jonathan J. Finley; Juha Riikonen; Marco Mattila; Markku Sopanen; Harri Lipsanen; Jun He; Tuan A. Truong; Hyochul Kim; Pierre M. Petroff

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

387

Analysis of Crossovers in the Interbeat Sequences of Elderly Individuals and Heart Failure Patients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many physical and biological systems exhibit complex behavior characterized by long?range power?law correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a scaling analysis method that provides a scaling parameter to represent the correlation properties of a signal. The study of interbeat sequences with the DFA method has revealed the presence of crossovers associated with physiological aging and heart with failure; the hinges present in the crossover region from both the elderly healthy individuals and the patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are in opposite directions. The interbeat sequences of healthy young persons do not show crossovers. In this paper we study interbeat time series of healthy young and elderly persons and patients with CHF. We use the DFA?m method

A. Muńoz?Diosdado; J. L. del Río Correa

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Nanomanipulation and nanofabrication with multi-probe STM: From individual atoms to nanowires  

SciTech Connect

The wide variety of nanoscale structures and devices demands novel tools for handling, assembly, and fabrication at nanoscopic positioning precision. The manipulation tools should allow for in situ characterization and testing of fundamental building blocks, such as nanotubes and nanowires, as they are built into functional devices. In this paper, a bottom-up technique for nanomanipulation and nanofabrication is reported by using a 4-probe scanning tunneling microscope (STM) combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The applications of this technique are demonstrated in a variety of nanosystems, from manipulating individual atoms to bending, cutting, breaking carbon nanofibers, and constructing nanodevices for electrical characterizations. The combination of the wide field of view of SEM, the atomic position resolution of STM, and the flexibility of multiple scanning probes is expected to be a valuable tool for rapid prototyping in the nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Qin, Shengyong [ORNL; Kim, Tae Hwan [ORNL; Wang, Zhouhang [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and estimating the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for the Enewetak Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

The dynamics of individual nucleosomes controls the chromatin condensation pathway: direct AFM visualization of variant chromatin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chromatin organization and dynamics is studied in this work at scales ranging from single nucleosome to nucleosomal array by using a unique combination of biochemical assays, single molecule imaging technique and numerical modeling. We demonstrate that a subtle modification in the nucleosome structure induced by the histone variant H2A.Bbd drastically modifies the higher order organization of the nucleosomal arrays. Importantly, as directly visualized by AFM, conventional H2A nucleosomal arrays exhibit specific local organization, in contrast to H2A.Bbd arrays, which show ?beads on a string? structure. The combination of systematic image analysis and theoretical modeling allows a quantitative description relating the observed gross structural changes of the arrays to their local organization. Our results strongly suggest that higher-order organization of H1-free nucleosomal arrays is mainly determined by the fluctuation properties of individual nucleosomes. Moreover, numerical simulations suggest the existenc...

Montel, Fabien; Castelnovo, Martin; Bednar, Jan; Dimitrov, Stefan; Angelov, Dimitar; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES DUE TO MEDICAL EXPOSURES FOR MEMBERS OF THE TECHA RIVER COHORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe a methodology for reconstruction of doses due to medical exposures for members of the Techa River Cohort (TRC) who received diagnostic radiation at the clinic of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) in 1952–2005. To calculate doses of medical exposure for the TRC members and compare with the doses that resulted from radioactive contamination of the Techa River. Material and Methods: Reconstruction of individual medical doses is based on data on x-ray diagnostic procedures available for each person examined at the URCRM clinics and values of absorbed dose in 12 organs per typical x-ray procedure calculated with the use of a mathematical phantom. Personal data on x-ray diagnostic examinations have been complied in the computerized “Registry of x-ray diagnostic procedures.” Sources of information are archival registry books from the URCRM x-ray room (available since 1956) and records on x-ray diagnostic procedures in patient-case histories (since 1952). The absorbed doses for 12 organs of interest have been evaluated per unit typical x-ray procedure with account taken of the x-ray examination parameters characteristic for the diagnostic machines used at the URCRM clinics. These parameters have been evaluated from published data on technical characteristics of the x-ray diagnostic machines used at the URCRM clinics in 1952–1988 and taken from the x-ray room for machines used at the URCRM in 1989–2005. Absorbed doses in the 12 organs per unit typical x-ray procedure have been calculated with use of a special computer code, EDEREX, developed at the Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev. Individual accumulated doses of medical exposure have been calculated with a computer code, MEDS (Medical Exposure Dosimetry System), specifically developed at the URCRM. Results: At present, the “Registry of x-ray diagnostic procedures” contains information on individual x-ray examinations for over 9,500 persons including 6,415 TRC members. Statistical analysis of the Registry data showed that the more frequent types of examinations were fluoroscopy and radiography of the chest and fluoroscopy of the stomach and the esophagus. Average absorbed doses accumulated by year 2005 calculated for the 12 organs varied from 4 mGy for testes to 40 mGy for bone surfaces. Maximum individual medical doses could reach 500–650 mGy and in some cases exceeded doses from exposure at the Techa River. Conclusions: For the first time the doses of medical exposure were calculated and analyzed for members of the Techa River Cohort who received diagnostic radiation at the URCRM clinics. These results are being used in radiation-risk analysis to adjust for this source of confounding exposure in the TRC.

Shagina, N. B.; Golikov, V.; Degteva, M. O.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Rapid separation of individual rare-earth elements from fission products  

SciTech Connect

A microprocessor-controlled radiochemical separation system has been developed to rapidly separate rare-earth elements from gross fission products. The system is composed of two high performance liquid chromatography columns coupled in series by a stream-splitting injection valve. The first column separates the rare-earth group by extraction chromatography using dihexyldiethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate (DHDECMP) adsorbed on Vydac C/sub 8/ resin. The second column isolates the individual rare-earth elements by cation exchange using Aminex A-9 resin with ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyric acid (..cap alpha..-HIBA) as the eluent. With this system, fission-product rare-earth isotopes with half-lives as short as three minutes have been studied.

Baker, J.D.; Gehrke, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C.; Meikrantz, D.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Escaping the frozen lake: individual and social idealism manifest as forms of religion and religiosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role, basis for, and function of idealism in religion and religiosity are examined as both an individual and social phenomenon. Religion is divided into two manifestations of idealism that are described as conventional religion and unconventional religion. William James' frozen lake, used as a metaphor for religious personality types, is expanded to include a range of fear and depression based emotional forces that prompt various forms of idealism. Karl Marx's concept of utopia, Max Weber's protestant ethic, Emile Durkheim's anomie and totemic worship and Georg Simmel's social forms are described and compared as idealist manifestations. Robert Bellah's American civil religion is extrapolated to an institutional form of civil religion in Texas A&M University's Corps of Cadets as an organization utilizing totemic and philosophical ideals, collective representations, collective effervescence, civil ceremonies and intolerance as elements of the social solidarity. A personal, qualitative account of the indoctrination into this unconventionally religious organization, including quotations from members, is compared to the paradigms of religion as theorized by Bellah and Durkheim in order to display the use of idealism in the institutional setting. Theoretical perspectives of consumerism as described by George Ritzer and Campbell, as well as Thorstein Veblen's account of devotion are shown to have idealistic representations on both an individual and social level. This dissertation takes the reader from a concept of a non-supernatural existence to the use of idealism in various forms in order to assuage the awareness of painful aspects of reality. A method for a positive, naturalistic approach to the frozen lake is offered.

Stanford, Frank S.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

THE PHOTOECCENTRIC EFFECT AND PROTO-HOT JUPITERS. I. MEASURING PHOTOMETRIC ECCENTRICITIES OF INDIVIDUAL TRANSITING PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

Exoplanet orbital eccentricities offer valuable clues about the history of planetary systems. Eccentric, Jupiter-sized planets are particularly interesting: they may link the 'cold' Jupiters beyond the ice line to close-in hot Jupiters, which are unlikely to have formed in situ. To date, eccentricities of individual transiting planets primarily come from radial-velocity measurements. Kepler has discovered hundreds of transiting Jupiters spanning a range of periods, but the faintness of the host stars precludes radial-velocity follow-up of most. Here, we demonstrate a Bayesian method of measuring an individual planet's eccentricity solely from its transit light curve using prior knowledge of its host star's density. We show that eccentric Jupiters are readily identified by their short ingress/egress/total transit durations-part of the 'photoeccentric' light curve signature of a planet's eccentricity-even with long-cadence Kepler photometry and loosely constrained stellar parameters. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo exploration of parameter posteriors naturally marginalizes over the periapse angle and automatically accounts for the transit probability. To demonstrate, we use three published transit light curves of HD 17156 b to measure an eccentricity of e = 0.71{sup +0.16}{sub -0.09}, in good agreement with the discovery value e = 0.67 {+-} 0.08 based on 33 radial-velocity measurements. We present two additional tests using Kepler data. In each case, the technique proves to be a viable method of measuring exoplanet eccentricities and their confidence intervals. Finally, we argue that this method is the most efficient, effective means of identifying the extremely eccentric, proto-hot Jupiters predicted by Socrates et al.

Dawson, Rebekah I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: rdawson@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

Self-esteem and life satisfaction of aged individuals with and without access to computer training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research indicates that today?s aging population may obtain various benefits from using computer technology. These benefits include increased self-esteem, decreased depression, increased life satisfaction, and decreased loneliness; however, few of these studies have employed quantitative measures to quantify these results. This study focused on the possible benefits related to self-esteem and life satisfaction of older computer users. Participants belonged to either a control group or an experimental group. The experimental group participated in an eight-week computer training course. The control group did not receive computer training. All participants were administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index-Z at the beginning and the end of the study. The researcher hypothesized that participants who received computer training would have higher levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction when compared with the group of participants who did not receive computer training. Results of the study indicated life satisfaction for both the control and experimental group rose slightly, but was not statistically significant. Therefore it is impossible to say that the SeniorNet computer training course helped to increase aged individuals? life satisfaction. These results may indicate that any sort of meaningful activity (either participating in a computer class or involvement in social activities at a senior community center) may increase an individuals? life satisfaction. The results also indicated that self-esteem for the experimental group rose slightly after receiving computer training; however, these results were not statistically significant. It could be possible that the sense of mastery over a subject may have increased the participant?s self-esteem, as stated in the study by Hoot and Hayslip (1983). Further research needs to be conducted on this population, and such research may enhance an aging population?s outlook on life and themselves.

Brown, Cindy Ann

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Verification of General Circulation Models Applied to the Hamburg University GCM. Part I: Test of Individual Climate States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One objective of general circulation models is to simulate, e.g., a “January” which is not distinguishable from observed Januaries. A strategy to verify an individual simulated state is proposed. Its main elements are: data compression by means ...

Hans von Storch; Erich Roeckner

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Spectroscopic studies on the formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking particles: the effect of poisoning metal compounds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst particles was studied using UV/Vis microspectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, with n-hexane cracking as… (more)

Goetze, J.G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

Liao, C.-T. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ng, S.-H. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.-H. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Spatially explicit, individual-based modelling of pastoralists' mobility in the rangelands of east Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An agent based-model of mobility of pastoralists was developed and applied to the semi-arid rangeland region extending from southern Ethiopia to northern Kenya. This model was used to investigate temporal adaptation of pastoralists to the spatial heterogeneity of their environment. This dissertation describes the development, structure, and corroboration process of the simulation model, Pastoral Livestock Movement Model (PLMMO). PLMMO is a spatially explicit, individual-based pastoralists-animal foraging and movement model. It simultaneously simulates the foraging and movement behavior of individual pastoralists and their livestock in a rangeland ecosystem. Pastoralists?? herd mobility patterns and other measures of movement were compared to data from field studies. Predictions of the model correspond to observed mobility patterns across seasons. The distances moved were found to be significantly correlated (r2 = 0.927 to 0.977, pmodel therefore proved to be a useful tool for simulating general movement patterns of pastoralists relative to movement range sizes in the pastoral rangelands of southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. We then used the PLMMO model to explore the impact of emerging changes in rangeland use in the study area. The ways in which pastoralists?? mobility patterns adapt to emerging challenges in the study area were explored by simulating the following four scenarios: 1) climate change with concomitant reduction in forage yield, 2) climate change with concomitant improvement and higher variability in forage yield, 3) increased livestock population densities and 4) improved access to water. The climate induced change scenario with increased and more variable forage production resulted in the shortest distances moved by pastoralists in comparison to all other scenarios. The total search distances under this scenario were only 20% of normal season distances. The improved water access scenario also returned a significant (p=0.017) drop in distances moved. There was, however, no significant impact on either increase in livestock numbers or reduction in available forage on mobility. We judged the agent-based model PLMMO developed here as a robust system for emulating pastoral mobility in the rangelands of eastern Africa and for exploring the consequences of climate change and adaptive management scenarios.

MacOpiyo, Laban Adero

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

Borg, I.Y.

1987-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Measuring Transit Signal Recovery in the Kepler Pipeline I: Individual Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Kepler Mission was designed to measure the frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. A crucial component for recovering the underlying planet population from a sample of detected planets is understanding the completeness of that sample - what fraction of the planets that could have been discovered in a given data set were actually detected. Here we outline the information required to determine the sample completeness, and describe an experiment to address a specific aspect of that question, which is the issue of transit signal recovery. We investigate the extent to which the Kepler pipeline preserves individual transit signals by injecting simulated transits into the pixel-level data, processing the modified pixels through the pipeline, and comparing the measured transit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that expected without perturbation by the pipeline. We inject simulated transit signals across the full focal plane for a set of observations of length 89 days. On average, we ...

Christiansen, Jessie L; Burke, Christopher J; Jenkins, Jon M; Barclay, Thomas S; Ford, Eric B; Haas, Michael R; Seader, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; Thompson, Susan E; Twicken, Joseph D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Variability of North Atlantic hurricanes: seasonal versus individual-event features  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tropical cyclones are affected by a large number of climatic factors, which translates into complex patterns of occurrence. The variability of annual metrics of tropical-cyclone activity has been intensively studied, in particular since the sudden activation of the N Atl in the mid 1990's. We provide first a swift overview on previous work by diverse authors about these annual metrics for the NAtl basin, where the natural variability of the phenomenon, the existence of trends, the drawbacks of the records, and the influence of global warming have been the subject of interesting debates. Next, we present an alternative approach that does not focus on seasonal features but on the characteristics of single events [Corral et al Nature Phys 6, 693, 2010]. It is argued that the individual-storm power dissipation index (PDI) constitutes a natural way to describe each event, and further, that the PDI statistics yields a robust law for the occurrence of tropical cyclones in terms of a power law. In this context, metho...

Corral, Alvaro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Parameterization of the scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals  

SciTech Connect

We present parameterizations of the single-scattering properties for individual ice crystals of various habits based on the results computed from the accurate light scattering calculations. The projected area, volume, and single-scattering properties of ice crystals with various shapes and sizes are computed for 56 narrow spectral bands covering 0.2-5 {mu}m. The ice crystal habits considered in this study are hexagonal plates, solid and hollow columns, planar and spatial bullet rosette, and aggregates that are commonly observed in cirrus clouds. Using the observational relationships between the aspect ratios and the sizes of ice crystals, we can define the three-dimensional structure of these ice crystal habits with respect to their maximum dimensions for light scattering calculations. The volume and projected area of ice crystals, expressed in terms of the diameters of the corresponding equivalent spheres, are first parameterized by employing the ice crystal maximum dimensions. Further, various analytical expressions as functions of the effective dimensions of ice crystals have been developed to parameterize the extinction and absorption efficiencies, asymmetry factor, and the truncation of the forward peak energy in the phase function. The present parameterization scheme provides an efficient approach to obtain the basic scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical ice crystals. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

Yang, Ping [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Liou, K. N. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Wyser, Klaus [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Mitchell, David [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)

2000-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

The dynamics of individual nucleosomes controls the chromatin condensation pathway: direct AFM visualization of variant chromatin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chromatin organization and dynamics is studied in this work at scales ranging from single nucleosome to nucleosomal array by using a unique combination of biochemical assays, single molecule imaging technique and numerical modeling. We demonstrate that a subtle modification in the nucleosome structure induced by the histone variant H2A.Bbd drastically modifies the higher order organization of the nucleosomal arrays. Importantly, as directly visualized by AFM, conventional H2A nucleosomal arrays exhibit specific local organization, in contrast to H2A.Bbd arrays, which show ?beads on a string? structure. The combination of systematic image analysis and theoretical modeling allows a quantitative description relating the observed gross structural changes of the arrays to their local organization. Our results strongly suggest that higher-order organization of H1-free nucleosomal arrays is mainly determined by the fluctuation properties of individual nucleosomes. Moreover, numerical simulations suggest the existence of attractive interactions between nucleosomes to provide the degree of compaction observed for conventional chromatin fibers.

Fabien Montel; Hervé Menoni; Martin Castelnovo; Jan Bednar; Stefan Dimitrov; Dimitar Angelov; Cendrine Faivre-Moskalenko

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

Spatially Resolved Mapping of Electrical Conductivity around Individual Domain (Grain) Boundaries in Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphene films can now be produced on the scale of up to meters. However, all large-scale graphene films contain topological defects that can significantly affect the characteristic transport behaviors of graphene. Here, we spatially map the structures and electronic transport near specific domain and grain boundaries in graphene, and evaluate effects of different types of defect on the electronic conductivity in epitaxial graphene grown on SiC and CVD graphene on Cu subsequently transferred to a SiO2 substrate. We use a combined approach with a multi-probe scanning tunneling potentiometry to investigate both structures and transport at individual grain boundaries and domain boundaries that are defined by coalesced grains, surface steps, and changes in layer thickness. It is found that the substrate step on SiC presents a significant potential barrier for electron transport of epitaxial graphene due to the reduced charge transport from the substrate at the step edges, monolayer-bilayer boundaries exhibit a high resistivity that can change depending on directions of the current across the boundary, and the resistivity of grain boundaries changes with the transition width of the disordered region between two adjacent grains in graphene. The detailed understanding of graphene defects will provide the feedback for controlled engineering of defects in large-scale graphene films.

Li, An-Ping [ORNL; Clark, Kendal W [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL; He, Guowei [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Feenstra, Randall [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Investigation to Discover Most Effective Method of Teaching Target Costing to Construction-Minded Individuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The construction industry is in the midst of a progressive change in the way projects unfold from design and development to closeout and maintenance. There is a greater demand on contractors to build projects faster, with higher quality and an increased level of detail, while keeping costs lower than ever. Therefore, to meet such demands contractors must turn to an alternative approach of improving product and process with target costing. However, the adoption of target costing by the construction industry has been slow due to limitations in user understanding of the system. The objective of this paper is to identify an effective approach for teaching target costing to construction-focused individuals, by establishing improved user understanding with visual aids, and by determining if user comprehension is influenced by the complexity of the visual supports provided in the lessons. The study challenged the long-implied assumption that the construction community is composed of visual learners, while also differentiating between the levels of success for supporting figures based upon their degree of detail. Results of this study will provide the basis for the development of target costing material that is designed specifically for use in the education of construction industry professionals in Target Cost Estimating.

Hullum, Joshua James

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

Zhu, Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li, Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

408

Experimental simulation of crevice corrosion of a functionally graded composite system of F91 and Fe-12Cr-2Si exposed to high-temperature lead-bismuth eutectic coolant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a system in which metal corrosion is of concern to its long-term structural integrity, crevice corrosion can be a significant cause of damage. Small crevices in a metal exposed to a working fluid (such as a reactor's ...

Ferry, Sara Elizabeth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

MEASURING TRANSIT SIGNAL RECOVERY IN THE KEPLER PIPELINE. I. INDIVIDUAL EVENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Kepler mission was designed to measure the frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. A crucial component for recovering the underlying planet population from a sample of detected planets is understanding the completeness of that sample-the fraction of the planets that could have been discovered in a given data set that actually were detected. Here, we outline the information required to determine the sample completeness, and describe an experiment to address a specific aspect of that question, i.e., the issue of transit signal recovery. We investigate the extent to which the Kepler pipeline preserves individual transit signals by injecting simulated transits into the pixel-level data, processing the modified pixels through the pipeline, and comparing the measured transit signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to that expected without perturbation by the pipeline. We inject simulated transit signals across the full focal plane for a set of observations for a duration of 89 days. On average, we find that the S/N of the injected signal is recovered at MS = 0.9973({+-} 0.0012) Multiplication-Sign BS - 0.0151({+-} 0.0049), where MS is the measured S/N and BS is the baseline, or expected, S/N. The 1{sigma} width of the distribution around this correlation is {+-}2.64%. This indicates an extremely high fidelity in reproducing the expected detection statistics for single transit events, and provides teams performing their own periodic transit searches the confidence that there is no systematic reduction in transit signal strength introduced by the pipeline. We discuss the pipeline processes that cause the measured S/N to deviate significantly from the baseline S/N for a small fraction of targets; these are primarily the handling of data adjacent to spacecraft re-pointings and the removal of harmonics prior to the measurement of the S/N. Finally, we outline the further work required to characterize the completeness of the Kepler pipeline.

Christiansen, Jessie L.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Burke, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Haas, Michael R.; Seader, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Thompson, Susan E. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Barclay, Thomas S. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Sabale, Anima; Uddin, Akm Kamal, E-mail: jessie.l.christiansen@nasa.gov [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

No evidence for in vivo induction of genomic instability in bone marrow cells collected from mice exposed to low-dose 137Cs Îł rays:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rithidech et al, 2006 1 Rithidech et al, 2006 1 No evidence for in vivo induction of genomic instability in bone marrow cells collected from mice exposed to low-dose 137 Cs Îł rays: Kanokporn Noy Rithidech 1 , Chatchanok Loetchutinat 1 , Louise Honikel 1 , and Elbert B. Whorton 2 1 Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 2 Molecular Epidemiology Research Program, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77555-1153 Assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation (at doses below or equal to 0.1 Gy) is still a challenging public health issue. It is therefore important to improve our understanding of potential induction of genomic instability in vivo by this low-dose range because it has been widely suggested that elevation of genomic instability also elevates cancer

411

Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR  

SciTech Connect

Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (Vv{sub BAS}) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the Vv{sub BAS} increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals.

Zorita, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Bilbao, E. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Schad, A. [Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55101, Mainz (Germany); Cancio, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Soto, M. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, M.P. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

The Influence of Tag Presence on the Mortality of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Implications for Survival Estimates and Management of Hydroelectric Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each year, millions of fish have telemetry tags (acoustic, radio, inductive) surgically implanted to assess their passage and survival through hydropower facilities. One route of passage of particular concern is through hydro turbines, in which fish may be exposed to a range of potential injuries, including barotraumas from rapid decompression. The change in pressure from acclimation to exposure (nadir) has been found to be an important factor in predicting the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon undergoing rapid decompression associated with simulated turbine passage. The presence of telemetry tags has also been shown to influence the likelihood of injury and mortality for juvenile Chinook salmon. This research investigated the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon carrying telemetry tags and exposed to a range of simulated turbine passage. Several factors were examined as predictors of mortal injury for fish undergoing rapid decompression, and the ratio of pressure change and tag burden were determined to be the most predictive factors. As the ratio of pressure change and tag burden increase, the likelihood of mortal injury also increases. The results of this study suggest that previous survival estimates of juvenile Chinook salmon passing through hydro turbines may have been biased due to the presence of telemetry tags, and this has direct implications to the management of hydroelectric facilities. Realistic examples indicate how the bias in turbine passage survival estimates could be 20% or higher, depending on the mass of the implanted tags and the ratio of acclimation to exposure pressures. Bias would increase as the tag burden and pressure ratio increase, and have direct implications on survival estimates. It is recommended that future survival studies use the smallest telemetry tags possible to minimize the potential bias that may be associated with carrying the tag.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Brown, Richard S.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Benjamin, Piper L.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Microsoft Word - Chap6 - 5-15-05.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Six May 2005 Six May 2005 2004 Site Environmental Report 6-1 Results in Brief: 2004 Estimated Doses Airborne Emissions - The estimated maximum effective dose equivalent at the site fenceline from 2004 airborne emissions (excluding radon) was calculated to be 0.65 mrem (6.5E-03 millSievert [mSv]), which is 6.5 percent of the EPA NESHAP 10-mrem annual dose limit. Direct Radiation - The estimated 2004 effective dose equivalent at an off-site receptor location near the north-northeastern fenceline of the site was 10.4 mrem (1.04E-01 mSv). Dose to the Maximally Exposed Individual - The dose to the maximally exposed individual for 2004 was estimated to be 11.1 mrem (1.11E-01 mSv) at an off-site receptor location near the north-northeastern fenceline of the site.

415

Managing the Costs of Informational Privacy: Pure Bundling as a Strategy in the Individual Health Insurance Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in genetic testing and data mining technologies have increased the availability of genetic information to insurance companies and insureds (applicants and policy holders) in the individual health insurance market (IHIM). Regulators, concerned ... Keywords: Bundling Information Privacy Insurance Markets Insurey Words And Phrases Ance Policy Privacy Privacy Cost

Matt E. Thatcher; Eric K. Clemons

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

A comparison of central and individual systems for space conditioning and domestic hot water in new multifamily buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report compares the energy performance and life-cycle cost of central and individual heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as well as domestic hot water (DHW) systems in new multifamily buildings. The different systems were analyzed by using DOE-2.1C to model prototypical apartment buildings in Chicago and Atlanta with Weather Year for Energy Calculation weather data. The building is equipped with either a central chiller and gas-fired boiler, which supply four-pipe fan coils in each apartment, or is conditioned by individual packaged terminal air conditioners in each apartment. The building with central HVAC also has a central, gas-fired domestic hot water system; the building with individual units has electric water heaters in each apartment. The individual systems were modeled with and without a setback thermostat. The use of natural gas for space and water heating and the more efficient central chiller resulted in an annual energy cost savings for the central system in both cities. A life-cycle cost comparison of system types shows that apartment buildings with as few as five units in Chicago and as few as 30 units in Atlanta should be designed with central HVAC and DHW systems.

Byrne, S.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (US)); Fay, J.M. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Nonlocal, grating-coupled scattering-type near-field scanning optical microscopy of individual gold nano-particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nano-particles D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel*, and C. Lienau Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität nano-particles. We demonstrate sub-30-nm-resolution imaging of localized SPP fields. By comparison onto a photodetector. When imaging small individual gold nano-particles with

Park, Namkyoo

418

Effects of Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Channel Bandwidth on Performance of Individual Messages in Heterogeneous Communication Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Channel bandwidth available for a message on a communication network varies with time and link. This variation (heterogeneity) can have a significant effect on performance of an individual message and also that of the network as a whole. Therefore, it ... Keywords: Channel bandwidth, End-to-end delay, Multipath data transfer, Path selection, Spatial heterogeneity, Temporal heterogeneity, Throughput

Soo-Young Lee; Jun Huang

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Hole-burning techniques for isolation and study of individual hyperfine transitions in inhomogeneously broadened solids demonstrated in Pr3+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hole-burning techniques for isolation and study of individual hyperfine transitions been limited. However, here we present spectroscopic techniques, based on spectral hole burning of hole-burning pulses is used to isolate selected transitions between hyperfine levels, which makes

Suter, Dieter

420

Individualized Margins in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer: Analysis of Physiological Movements and Their Dosimetric Impacts  

SciTech Connect

In conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, respiratory movements are not taken into account when a single computed tomography (CT) scan is performed. This study examines tumor movements to design individualized margins to account for these movements and evaluates their dosimetric impacts on planning volume. Fifteen patients undergoing CT-based planning for radical radiotherapy for localized lung cancer formed the study cohort. A reference plan was constructed based on reference gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (rGTV, rCTV, and rPTV, respectively). The reference plans were compared with individualized plans using individualized margins obtained by using 5 serial CT scans to generate individualized target volumes (iGTV, iCTV, and iPTV). Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was used for plan generation using 6- and 23-MV photon beams. Ten plans for each patient were generated and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated. Comparisons of volumetric and dosimetric parameters were performed using paired Student t-tests. Relative to the rGTV, the total volume occupied by the superimposed GTVs increased progressively with each additional CT scans. With the use of all 5 scans, the average increase in GTV was 52.1%. For the plans with closest dosimetric coverage, target volume was smaller (iPTV/rPTV ratio 0.808) but lung irradiation was only slightly decreased. Reduction in the proportion of lung tissue that received 20 Gy or more outside the PTV (V20) was observed both for 6-MV plans (-0.73%) and 23-MV plans (-0.65%), with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conformal RT planning for the treatment of lung cancer, the use of serial CT scans to evaluate respiratory motion and to generate individualized margins to account for these motions produced only a limited lung sparing advantage.

Germain, Francois [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Laval University, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: fgermain@bccancer.bc.ca; Beaulieu, Luc; Fortin, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Laval University, Quebec (Canada)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Exposing the dressed quark's mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This snapshot of recent progress in hadron physics made in connection with QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations includes: a perspective on confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB); a pre'cis on the physics of in-hadron condensates; results on the hadron spectrum, including dressed-quark-core masses for the nucleon and Delta, their first radial excitations, and the parity-partners of these states; an illustration of the impact of DCSB on the electromagnetic pion form factor, thereby exemplifying how data can be used to chart the momentum-dependence of the dressed-quark mass function; and a prediction that F_1^{p,d}/F_1^{p,u} passes through zero at Q^2\\approx 5m_N^2 owing to the presence of nonpointlike scalar and axial-vector diquark correlations in the nucleon.

Roberts, H L L; Cloet, I C; Roberts, C D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Simulation and Analysis of Human Phantoms Exposed to Heavy Charged Particle Irradiations Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthropomorphic phantoms are commonly used for testing radiation fields without the need to expose human subjects. One of the most widely known is RANDO phantom. This phantom is used primarily for medical X-ray applications, but a similar design known as "MATROSHKA" is now being used for space research and exposed to heavy ion irradiations from the Galactic environment. Since the radiation field in the phantom should respond in a similar manner to how it would act in human tissues and organs under an irradiation, the tissue substitute chosen for soft tissue and the level of complexity of the entire phantom are crucial issues. The phantoms, and the materials used to create them, were developed mainly for photon irradiations and have not been heavily tested under the conditions of heavy ion exposures found in the space environment or external radiotherapy. The Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was used to test the phantoms and their materials for their potential as human surrogates for heavy ion irradiation. Stopping powers and depth-dose distributions of heavy charged particles (HCPs) important to space research and medical applications were first used in the simulations to test the suitability of current soft tissue substitutes. A detailed computational anthropomorphic phantom was then developed where tissue substitutes and ICRU-44 tissue could be interchanged to verify the validation of the soft tissue substitutes and and determine the required level of complexity of the entire phantom needed to achieve a specified precision as a replacement of the human body. The materials tested were common soft tissue substitutes in use and the materials which had a potential for the soft tissue substitute. Ceric sulfate dosimeter solution was closest to ICRU-44 tissue; however, it was not appropriate as the phantom material because it was a solution. A150 plastic, ED4C (fhw), Nylon (Du Pont Elvamide 8062), RM/SR4, Temex, and RW-2 were within 1% of the mean normalized difference of mass stopping powers (or stopping powers for RW-2) when compared to the ICRU-44 tissue, and their depth-dose distributions were close; therefore, they were the most suitable among the remaining solid materials. Overall, the soft tissue substitutes which were within 1% of ICRU-44 tissue in terms of stopping power produced reasonable results with respect to organ dose in the developed phantom. RM/SR4 is the best anthropomorphic phantom soft tissue substitute because it has similar interaction properties and identical density with ICRU-44 tissue and it is a rigid solid polymer giving practical advantages in manufacture of real phantoms.

Lee, Dongyoul

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

EMP Attachment 3 DOE-SC PNNL Site Dose Assessment Guidance  

SciTech Connect

This Dose Assessment Guidance (DAG) describes methods to use to determine the Maximally-Exposed Individual (MEI) location and to estimate dose impact to that individual under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). This guidance applies to public dose from radioactive material releases to the air from PNNL Site operations. This document is an attachment to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) and describes dose assessment guidance for radiological air emissions. The impact of radiological air emissions from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) PNNL Site is indicated by dose estimates to a maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Reporting requirements associated with dose to members of the public from radiological air emissions are in 40 CFR Part 61.94, WAC 246-247-080, and DOE Order 458.1. The DOE Order and state standards for dose from radioactive air emissions are consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards in 40 CFR 61.92 (i.e., 10 mrem/yr to a MEI). Despite the fact that the current Contract Requirements Document (CRD) for the DOE-SC PNNL Site operations does not include the requirement to meet DOE CRD 458.1, paragraph 2.b, public dose limits, the DOE dose limits would be met when EPA limits are met.

Snyder, Sandra F.

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

425

Three-dimensional correlated-fermion phase separation from analysis of the geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quasi-Gaussian approximation scheme is formulated to study the strongly correlated imbalanced fermions thermodynamics, where the mean-field theory is not applicable. The non-Gaussian correlation effects are understood to be captured by the statistical geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities. In the three-dimensional unitary fermions ground state, a {\\em universal} nonlinear scaling transformation relates the physical chemical potentials with the individual Fermi kinetic energies. For the partial polarization phase separation to full polarization, the calculated critical polarization ratio is $P_C={[1-(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}/{[1+(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}\\doteq 0.34$. The $\\xi=4/9$ defines the ratio of the symmetric ground state energy density to that of the ideal fermion gas.

Chen, Ji-sheng; Wang, Yan-ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Three-dimensional correlated-fermion phase separation from analysis of the geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quasi-Gaussian approximation scheme is formulated to study the strongly correlated imbalanced fermions thermodynamics, where the mean-field theory is not applicable. The non-Gaussian correlation effects are understood to be captured by the statistical geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities. In the three-dimensional unitary fermions ground state, an {\\em universal} non-linear scaling transformation relates the physical chemical potentials with the individual Fermi kinetic energies. For the partial polarization phase separation to full polarization, the calculated critical polarization ratio is $P_C={[1-(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}/{[1+(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}\\doteq 0.34$. The $\\xi=4/9$ defines the ratio of the symmetric ground state energy density to that of the ideal fermion gas.

Ji-sheng Chen; Fang Qin; Yan-ping Wang

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

427

Chromosome aberrations and loss of some cell functions following in vitro exposure to retorted oil shale. [Cultured cells were exposed to processes oil shale particles (spent shales)  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of cellular level effects of processed oil shale from a simulation of modified in situ retorting was undertaken as part of an assessment of the toxicity and mutagenicity of oil shale. Complete assessment of the health hazards associated with physical contact, inhalation, or ingestion of oil shale has not been examined in humans and until it becomes practical to assess these hazards in man, we must rely upon well established in vitro detection procedures in addition to whole animal testing. CHO cells and L-2 rat lung epithelial cell lines were exposed in vitro to processed oil shale particles at different intervals following exposure. Cells were analyzed for chromosome alterations, cell colony forming ability, DNA synthesis, and cell transformation. The results of these studies demonstrate that retorted oil shale, under these experimental conditions, does modify cells in vitro. Chromosome aberrations increased with dose, cell colony forming ability decreased exponentially with dose, and the rate of DNA synthesis was affected, however cell transformation was not demonstrated after 3 months.

Stroud, A.N.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

An Experimental Study of the Performance of PCM-Enhanced Cellulose Insulation Used in Residential Building Walls Exposed to Full Weather Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air conditioning energy consumption in summer represents a major concern in many areas with hot and humid climates. When incorporated into the walls of light-weight residential buildings, phase change materials (PCMs) can increase the effective thermal mass of the walls and shift part of the space cooling loads to off-peak hours. The thermal properties of pure phase change materials (PCMs) and those of the mixtures of PCMs with cellulose insulation were studied via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) tests and mass change tests. To directly prove the concept that PCM-enhanced insulation can reduce the peak heat flux across walls as well as its potential to shift part of the space cooling loads to a later time of the day, the performance of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation was studied using two small-scale testing houses exposed to full weather conditions during the summer seasons. The testing houses were air conditioned and independently metered. Both houses had identical thermal responses prior to any retrofits. Before the tests, the PCM enhanced insulation was blown into the wall cavities in one test house while plain cellulose insulation was installed in the other house for comparison purposes. Hourly heat fluxes and daily heat flow data for four walls are presented. Based on the results, important recommendations are provided for the optimal use of PCMs in insulation systems.

Fang, Y.; Medina, M.; Evers, A.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Fujikoshi, Yasunori [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Schull, W.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Chemical alteration of limestone and marble samples exposed to acid rain and weathering in the eastern United States, 1984--1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a long-term program that began in 1984, limestone and marble briquettes have been exposed to both anthropogenic acid deposition and natural weathering of four field sites in the eastern United States. Similar tests began at an Ohio site in 1986. Effects of exposure on the briquettes and other materials at the sites are evaluated periodically by several federal agencies cooperating in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). A primary contribution of Argonne National Laboratory to the NAPAP has been chemical analysis to determine changes in the samples caused by exposure to the environment. Wet chemical analysis was used to detect sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, chlorides, and a series of metal cations in sequential layers of stone removed from the briquettes after field exposure. Results from the first four years of the program indicate that rinsing by rain keeps skyward-facing stone relatively clean of reaction products, especially sulfate, the most abundant product. On groundward-facing samples, sulfate concentrations increased linearly with exposure time, and values were proportional to atmospheric SO{sub 2} concentrations at the site. Sulfate concentrations in groundward samples were much higher in limestone than in marble, because of the greater porosity of the limestone. A steep sulfate gradient was seen in both sample types from the surface to the interior. On skyward surfaces, material losses per rain event due to complete dissolution of accumulated sulfates were approximately equal to concentrations measured in runoff. Preexposed limestone samples had sulfate accumulations deep in their interiors, while fresh, unexposed limestone did not. No substantial changes in cation accumulations wee detected in either limestone or marble.

Reimann, K.J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Analysis of the frequency response of a TeO{sub 2} slow shear wave acousto-optic cell exposed to radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation testing of photonic components is not new, however component level testing to date has not completely addressed quantities which are important to system behavior. One characteristic that is of particular importance for optical processing systems is the frequency response. In this report, we present the analysis of data from an experiment designed to provide a preliminary understanding of the effects of radiation on the frequency response of acousto-optic devices. The goal of the analysis is to describe possible physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation effects and to discuss the effects on signal processing functionality. The experiment discussed in this report was designed by Sandia National Laboratories and performed by Sandia and Phillips Laboratory personnel at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). In the experiment, a TeO{sub 2} slow shear wave acousto-optic cell was exposed to radiation from the WSMR linear accelerator. The TeO{sub 2} cell was placed in an experimental configuration which allowed swept frequency diffracted power measurements to be taken during radiation exposure and recovery. A series of exposures was performed. Each exposure consisted of between 1 to 800, 1{mu}sec radiation pulses (yielding exposures of 2.25 kRad(Si) to 913 kRad(Si)), followed by recovery time. At low total and cumulative doses, the bandshape of the frequency response (i.e. diffracted power vs. frequency) remained almost identical during and after radiation. At the higher exposures, however, the amplitude and width of the frequency response changed as the radiation continued, but returned to the original shape slowly after the radiation stopped and recovery proceeded. It is interesting to note that the location of the Bragg degeneracy does not change significantly with radiation. In this report, we discuss these effects from the perspective of anisotropic Bragg diffraction and momentum mismatch, and we discuss the effect on the signal processing functionality.

Erteza, I.A.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

MARK YOUR CALENDAR!TIAA-CREF ANNOUNCES INDIVIDUAL COUNSELING SESSIONS AT FURMAN UNIVERSITY. PERSONALIZED, OBJECTIVE ADVICE. A TIAA-CREF consultant can objectively show  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MARK YOUR CALENDAR!TIAA-CREF ANNOUNCES INDIVIDUAL COUNSELING SESSIONS AT FURMAN UNIVERSITY. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELING PERSONALIZED, OBJECTIVE ADVICE. A TIAA-CREF consultant can objectively show you how a counseling session, please call Scheduling and Service Group at 1-800-732-8353 TIAA-CREF does not offer tax

433

Kinetics of the opening and closing of individual excitability-inducing material channels in a lipid bilayer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The kinetics of the opening and closing of individual ion-conducting channels in lipid bilayers doped with small amounts of excitability-inducing material (EIM) are determined from discrete fluctuations in ionic current. The kinetics for the approach to steady-state conductance during voltage clamp are determined for lipid bilayers containing many EIM channels. The two sets of measurements are found to be consistent, verifying that the voltage-dependent conductance of the many-channel EIM system arises from the opening and closing of individual EIM channels. The opening and closing of the channels are Poisson processes. Transition rates for these processes vary exponentially with applied potential, implying that the energy difference between the open and closed states of an EIM channel is linearly proportional to the transmembrane electric field. A model incorporating the above properties of the EIM channels predicts the observed voltage dependence of ionic conductance and conductance relaxation time, which are also characteristic of natural electrically excitable membranes.

Gerald Ehrenstein; Robert Blumenthal; Ramon Latorre; Harold Lecar

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Weather and Individual Happiness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the influence of weather on happiness. While previous studies have examined climatic influence by comparing the well-being of people living in different regions, this paper focuses on how daily changes in weather affect ...

Yoshiro Tsutsui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Prefabrication and the individual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis attempts to address the perceived failure of the manufactured housing industry to adequately speak to issues of universality and specificity. The universal is investigated and redefined according to two specific ...

Atkinson, Meredith, 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Assessing Diet and Seasonality in the Lower Pecos Canyonlands: An Evaluation of Coprolite Specimens as Records of Individual Dietary Decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation presents an evaluation of coprolite specimens from the Lower Pecos canyonlands as records of individual dietary decisions. Prior studies of coprolites from this region have greatly expanded our knowledge of Archaic subsistence patterns, but have not taken full advantage of the record of individual dietary decisions recorded in each coprolite specimen. The menu, or dietary combinations, reflected in individual coprolite specimens are assessed through the identification of several congruent botanical components derived from the same food resource, phytoliths, fiber ultimates, and epidermal sheets. The data is analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis, an exploratory statistical technique. The resultant menus reflected in these clusters are evaluated with reference to the diet-breadth model developed for the known staple resources of the canyonlands as well as the seasonal subsistence patterns observed in the ethnohistoric record of modern-day Mexico and Texas. This same technique is also applied to the coprolite data available from previous studies in the Lower Pecos canyonlands. Overall, the combined dietary data available for the Lower Pecos canyonlands presents a similar dependence on desertic plant resources throughout the Archaic. Three main menus are apparent in the specimens. The first menu consists of prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) cladodes, or nopales, and was principally, although not exclusively, consumed in the late spring. This menu is primarily consumed when other resources were not readily available and may be considered a dependable but undesirable meal. The second menu consists of pit-baked lechuguilla (Agave lechuguilla) and sotol (Dasylirion sp.) caudices, or hearts, common throughout the cool season. This menu entails high processing costs, but would provide a reliable caloric return. The third menu exhibits a monolithic reliance on prickly pear fruits, or tunas, during the summer. The ease of harvest and consumption is reflected in the seasonal dominance of this resource, which was assuredly a highly desirable meal. The dietary patterns recorded in the coprolite specimens from the Lower Pecos canyonlands demonstrate a seasonally variable diet-breadth that incorporated low-ranked resources during times of seasonal scarcity as well as a monolithic dependence on high-ranked resources when they were available in the local landscape.

Riley, Timothy

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

European Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Project RISC-RAD Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations Laure Sabatier 1 , L.H.F Mullenders 2 , Mike Atkinson 3 , Simon Bouffler 4 , Herwig Paretzke 5 1 Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, CEA, 18 route du panorama BP6 92265 Fontenay-aux- Roses, France 2 LUMC, Department of Toxicogenetics, Postal Zone S-4-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 3 GSF- Institute of Pathology, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg Germany 4 HPA Radiation Protection Division, Centre for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, UK 5 GSF- Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg, D-85764 Germany In radiological protection, the risks of inducing stochastic health effects (largely cancer) by a

438

Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Development of a kinetic model and calculation of radiation dose estimates for sodium iodide-{sup 131}I in athyroid individuals  

SciTech Connect

The treatment for some thyroid carcinomas involves surgically removing the thyroid gland and administering the radiopharmaceutical Sodium iodide-{sup 131}I (NaI). A diagnostic dose of NaI is given to the patient to determine if remnant tissue from the gland remains or larger doses are administered in order to treat the malignant tissue. Past research regarding NaI uptake and retention in euthyroid individuals (normal functioning thyroid) reveal that radioiodine concentrates mainly in the thyroid tissue and the remaining material is excreted from the body. The majority of radioiodine in athyroid (without thyroid) individuals is also eliminated from the body; however, there has been recent evidence of a long-term retention phase for individuals with no radioiodine concentrating tissue. The general purpose of this study was to develop a kinetic model and estimate the absorbed dose to athyroid individuals regarding the distribution and retention of NaI.

Rodriguez, M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

DNA repair in mammalian cells exposed to combinations of carcinogenic agents. [uv radiation; AAAF; 4-NQO; DMBA-epoxide; ICR-170  

SciTech Connect

Cells defective in one or more aspects of repair are killed and often mutagenized more readily than normal cells by DNA damaging agents, and humans whose cells are deficient in repair are at an increased carcinogenic risk compared to normal individuals. The excision repair of uv induced pyrimidine dimers is a well studied system, but the details of the steps in this repair system are far from being understood in human cells. We know that there are a number of chemicals that mimic uv in that normal human cells repair DNA damage from both these agents and from uv by a long patch excision repair system, and that xeroderma pigmentosum cells defective in repair of uv are also defective in the repair of damage from these chemicals. The chemicals we have investigated are AAAF, 4-NQO, DMBA-epoxide, and ICR-170. We describe experiments, using several techniques, in which DNA excision repair is measured after treatment of various human cell strains with combinations of uv and these agents. If two agents have a common rate limiting step then, at doses high enough to saturate the repair system, one would expect the observed repair after a treatment with a combination of agents to be equal to that from one agent alone. Such is not the case for normal human or excision-deficient XP cells. In the former repair is additive and in the latter repair is usually appreciably less than that observed with either agent alone. Models that attempt to explain these surprising results involve complexes of enzymes and cofactors.

Setlow, R.B.; Ahmed, F.E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "maximally exposed individual" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A New In Situ Method of Determining Relative Abundances and Charge States of Implanted Transition Metals in Individual Grains Using Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

We report on a new in situ method of determining relative abundances and charge states of implanted transition metals in individual grains using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. In order to determine in situ the relative abundances and charge states of the transition metals in implanted solar wind in individual lunar plagioclase grains, we have developed a new microbeam x-ray fluorescence method using the synchrotron x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source (GSECARS sector 13) at Argonne National Laboratory.

Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M. (NIU); (UofC)

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

442

A novel particle tracking method with individual particle size measurement and its application to ordering in glassy hard sphere colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle tracking is a key to single-particle-level confocal microscopy observation of colloidal suspensions, emulsions, and granular matter. The conventional tracking method has not been able to provide accurate information on the size of individual particle. Here we propose a novel method to localise spherical particles of arbitrary relative sizes from either 2D or 3D (confocal) images either in dilute or crowded environment. Moreover this method allows us to estimate the size of each particle reliably. We use this method to analyse local bond orientational ordering in a supercooled polydisperse colloidal suspension as well as the heterogeneous crystallisation induced by a substrate. For the former, we reveal non-trivial couplings of crystal-like bond orientational order and local icosahedral order with the spatial distribution of particle sizes: Crystal-like order tends to form in regions where very small particles are depleted and the slightly smaller size of the central particle stabilizes icosahedral order. For the latter, on the other hand, we found that very small particles are expelled from crystals and accumulated on the growth front of crystals. We emphasize that such information has not been accessible by conventional tracking methods.

Mathieu Leocmach; Hajime Tanaka

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

Borg, I.Y.

1987-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

444

Study of the oxidation state of arsenic and uranium in individual particles from uranium mine tailings, Hungary  

SciTech Connect

Uranium ore mining and milling have been terminated in the Mecsek Mountains (southwest Hungary) in 1997. Mine tailings ponds are located between two important water bases, which are resources of the drinking water of the city of Pecs and the neighbouring villages. The average U concentration of the tailings material is 71.73 {mu}g/g, but it is inhomogeneous. Some microscopic particles contain orders of magnitude more U than the rest of the tailings material. Other potentially toxic elements are As and Pb of which chemical state is important to estimate mobility, because in mobile form they can risk the water basis and the public health. Individual U-rich particles were selected with solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and after localisation the particles were investigated by synchrotron radiation based microanalytical techniques. The distribution of elements over the particles was studied by micro beam X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) and the oxidation state of uranium and arsenic was determined by micro X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) spectroscopy. Some of the measured U-rich particles were chosen for studying the heterogeneity with {mu}-XRF tomography. Arsenic was present mainly in As(V) and uranium in U(VI) form in the original uranium ore particles, but in the mine tailings samples uranium was present mainly in the less mobile U(IV) form. Correlation was found between the oxidation state of As and U in the same analyzed particles. These results suggest that dissolution of uranium is not expected in short term period. (authors)

Alsecz, A.; Osan, J.; Palfalvi, J.; Torok, Sz. [Hungarian Academy of Science, KFKI, Atomic Energy Research Institute, P. O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Sajo, I. [Chemical Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, H-1025 Budapest (Hungary); Mathe, Z. [Mecsek Ore Environment, H-7614 Pecs, P.O. Box 121 (Hungary); Simon, R. [Forschungsgruppe Synchrotronstrahlung, Research Centre, D-76021 Karlshruhe (Germany); Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstralungslabor (HASYLAB) at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

On the inverse problem of entropy maximizations (Corresp.)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The inverse isoperimetric problem of the entropy functional is considered in this Correspondence. This problem can be stated as follows: Given a known probability density function (pdf), what prior constraints are needed in order for this pdf to be the ...

J. Noonan; N. Tzannes; T. Costello

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Iterational retiming: Maximize iteration-level parallelism for nested loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nested loops are the most critical sections in many scientific and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications. It is important to study effective and efficient transformation techniques to increase parallelism for nested loops. In this paper, we propose a novel technique, iterational retiming, that can satisfy any given timing constraint by achieving full parallelism for iterations in a partition. Theorems and efficient algorithms are proposed for iterational retiming. The experimental results show that iterational retiming is a promising technique for parallel embedded systems. It can achieve 87% improvement over software pipelining and 88 % improvement over loop unfolding on average.

Chun Xue; Zili Shao; Meilin Liu; Edwin H. -m. Sha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

MAXIMIZING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE IN THE SOLAR CORONA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy that drives solar eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) almost certainly originates in coronal magnetic fields. Such energy may build up gradually on timescales of days or longer before its sudden release in an eruptive event, and the presence of free magnetic energy capable of rapid release requires nonpotential magnetic fields and associated electric currents. For magnetic energy to power a CME, that energy must be sufficient to open the magnetic field to interplanetary space, to lift the ejecta against solar gravity, and to accelerate the material to speeds of typically several hundred km s{sup -1}. Although CMEs are large-scale structures, many originate from relatively compact active regions on the solar surface-suggesting that magnetic energy storage may be enhanced when it takes place in smaller magnetic structures. This paper builds on our earlier work exploring energy storage in large-scale dipolar and related bipolar magnetic fields. Here we consider two additional cases: quadrupolar fields and concentrated magnetic bipoles intended to simulate active regions. Our models yield stored energies whose excess over that of the corresponding open field state can be greater than 100% of the associated potential field energy; this contrasts with maximum excess energies of only about 20% for dipolar and symmetric bipolar configurations. As in our previous work, energy storage is enhanced when we surround a nonpotential field with a strong overlying potential field that acts to 'hold down' the nonpotential flux as its magnetic energy increases.

Wolfson, Richard; Drake, Christina; Kennedy, Max, E-mail: wolfson@middlebury.edu [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Maximize Your Retirement Savings: The University System of Georgia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

through the University System of Georgia Optional Retirement Plan (ORP), as well as information about recent plan changes. Here's what you'll find inside: The University System of Georgia ORP at a Glance Optional Retirement Plan is an alternative to the Teachers Retirement System of Georgia (TRS). Both ORP

Hutcheon, James M.

449

A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Maximize Austenite Volume ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enrichment of austenite can be achieved through a two-step heat treatment. During ... Ab Initio Temperature-Dependent Lattice Dynamics for BCC Uranium.

450

Maximizing LBNL's Partnership with the East Bay Green Corridor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip messages Jump to page content Jump to page footer LBNL Home Environmental Energy Technologies Division Emergency Contacts Intranet A-Z Index Staff How Do I? License a...

451

A New Duality Approach to Solving Concave Vector Maximization Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a special class of monotonic functions with the help of support functions and polar sets, and use it to construct a scalarized problem and its dual for a vector optimization problem. The dual construction allows us to develop a new method ... Keywords: Duality, Multiobjective problem, Polar set, Weak efficient solution

Luc Dinh The; Phong Thai Quynh; Volle Michel

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Battery Allocation for Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wireless sensor network has been an area of interest among researchers. Designing a wireless sensor network involves multiple issues such as size and processing capacity… (more)

Khambete, Ketki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Maximally concentrating optics for photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of a two-stage concentrator with a fresnel lens primary and a non-imaging dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary, has unique advantages for photovoltaic concentration. This new design has a much larger acceptance angle than the conventional lens-cell concentrating system. In the continuation of this research, an optimally designed prototype which employs a 13.6-cm diameter flat fresnel tons as the primary focusing device, a dielectric compound hyperbolic concentrator (DCHC) as secondary and a 1-cm diameter high-concentration cell for electricity conversion has been built, tested and analyzed. Measurements under sunlight show that it has an angular acceptance of [plus minus]3.6 degrees, which is dramatically better than the [plus minus]0.5 degree achievable without a secondary concentrator. This performance agrees well with theoretical ray-tracing predictions. The secondary shows an optical efficiency of (91[plus minus]2)% at normal incidence. Combining with the primary fresnel tens which has an optical efficiency of (82[plus minus]2)%, tho two-stage system yields a total optical efficiency of (7l[plus minus]2)%. The measurement of the system electrical performance yielded a net electrical efficiency of 11.9%. No problems associated with non-uniform cell illumination were found, as evidenced by the excellent fill factor of (79[plus minus]2)% measured under concentration. The secondary geometrical properties and the optimal two-stage design procedures for various primary- cell combinations were systematical studied. A general design principle has been developed.

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.; Ning, X.

1986-02-27T23:59:59.000Z