National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for max flux monochromator

  1. Mirror monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOIs MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90 and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam energy of

  2. Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SSRL's Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library allows users to view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

  3. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, Jr., Herbert A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The wave are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  4. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, H.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The waves are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  5. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  6. Max Schulze

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Max Schulze June 9, 2015 Extreme unicycling The unicycle that Los Alamos student intern Max Schulze and his brother had given their dad for Father's Day in 2005 did not get much use until Schulze tried it and got hooked. Today, he is a three-time unicycling world champion, with world wins in New Zealand in 2010, Italy in 2012 and Canada in 2014. "My main competitive unicycling event is 'trials,'" Schulze explains, "which requires riders to navigate technically challenging obstacle

  7. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khounsary, Ali M.

    1994-01-01

    A double crystal monochromator including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced.

  8. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khounsary, A.M.

    1994-02-15

    A double crystal monochromator is described including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced. 11 figures.

  9. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-06-18

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution. 10 figs.

  10. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-01-01

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution.

  11. High resolution monochromator for inelastic scattering studies of high energy phonons using undulator radiation at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Hu, M.

    1997-08-01

    A monochromator for use at 13.84 keV with a calculated bandpass of 5.2 meV was designed built, and tested. Tuning was performed by rotating the inner crystal of a pair of nested silicon channel-cut crystals. The inner crystal employs the (884) reflection, and the outer crystal employs a collimating asymmetric (422) reflection (dynamical asymmetry factor, b, equal to {minus}17.5). Tests were done with a double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator situated upstream of the high resolution monochromator and a Si(777) backscattering crystal situated downstream. For this optical arrangement an ideal value of 6.3 meV as calculated by x-ray dynamical diffraction theory applies for the FWHM of the convolution of the net monochromator reflectivity function with that of the Si(777) reflection. This calculated value is to be compared to the value of 7.1 meV measured by tuning the high resolution monochromator. Measured efficiencies were less than ideal by a factor of 3.2 to 4.9, where the larger flux reduction factors were found with higher positron storage ring currents.

  12. Focusing monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suortti, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Bent crystals are introduced as monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation. The reflectivity of the crystal can be calculated reliably from a model where the bent crystal is approximated by a stack of lamellas, which have a gradually changing angle of reflection. The reflectivity curves of a 4 mm thick, asymmetrically cut ({chi}=9.5{degree}) Si(220) crystal are measured using 150 keV radiation and varying the bending radius from 25 to 140 m. The width of the reflectivity curve is up to 50 times the Darwin width of the reflection, and the maximum reflectivity exceeds 80%. The crystal is used as a monochromator in Compton scattering measurements. The source is on the focusing circle, so that the resolution is limited essentially by the detector/analyzer. A wide bandpass, sharply focused beam is attained when the source is outside the focusing circle in the transmission geometry. In a test experiment. 10{sup 12} photons on an area of 2 mm{sup 2} was observed. The energy band was about 4 keV centered at 40 keV. A powder diffraction pattern of a few reflections of interest was recorded by an intrinsic Ge detector, and this demonstrated that a structural transition can be followed at intervals of a few milliseconds.

  13. Asymmetrically cut crystals for synchrotron radiation monochromators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. ); Cerrina, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetrically cut crystals are interesting for use in synchrotron radiation monochromators because of their good energy resolution characteristics and their focusing properties. Ray tracing codes, such as SHADOW, are very efficient in the design and development of new optical devices. In order to determine the convenience of using asymmetrically cut crystals for x-ray monochromators, SHADOW has been extended to include these kinds of crystals. The physical approach to ray tracing asymmetrically cut crystals is based on the coexistence of two periodic structures. One of these is the bulk periodic structure of the Bragg planes. Such a structure determines the existence of a rocking curve near the Bragg condition, and is implemented in SHADOW following the Darwin--Prins formalism of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The second periodic structure is a one-dimensional grating on the crystal surface, formed by the truncation of the lattice planes with the surface. This grating is responsible for the focusing properties of these crystals and plays an essential role in determining the trajectory of the rays. The combination of an asymmetric crystal and a nonplanar surface can be easily achieved by bending (Johann case) to provide improved properties. More complex cases such as the ground-bent crystals (i.e., Johansson geometry) can be considered as a particular case of asymmetrical crystals in which the angle between the Bragg planes and the surface change along the crystal surface. All these cases have been implemented in SHADOW.

  14. Temporal characterization of a time-compensated monochromator for high-efficiency selection of extreme-ultraviolet pulses generated by high-order harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poletto, L.; Villoresi, P.; Benedetti, E.; Ferrari, F.; Stagira, S.; Sansone, G.; Nisoli, M.

    2008-07-15

    Ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses are spectrally selected by a time-delay-compensated grating monochromator. The intrinsic very short duration of the pulses is obtained by exploiting the high-order harmonic generation process. The temporal characterization of the harmonic pulses is obtained using a cross-correlation method: pulses as short as 8 fs are measured at the output of the monochromator in the case of the 23rd harmonic. This value is in agreement with the expected duration of such pulses, indicating that the influence of the monochromator is negligible. The photon flux has been measured with a calibrated photodiode, pointing out the good efficiency of the monochromator, derived by the exploitation for the two gratings of the conical diffraction mounting.

  15. A dynamic focusing x-ray monochromator for a wiggler beam line at the SRS of the SERC Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Bruijn, D.; Van Zuylen, P. ); Kruizinga, G. , P.O. Box 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag State University of Utrecht, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3508 TB Utrecht )

    1992-01-01

    A Si(220) double-crystal monochromator for the energy range 10--30 keV is presented. It will be used for EXAFS as well as powder diffraction measurements. To determine the requirements for this monochromator we looked, apart from mean considerations, at the requirements dictated by EXAFS in transmission mode. For good data analyses the proper shape, amplitude, and location at the energy axis of each wiggle is required. Moreover it is essential to separate the wiggles from background and noise. For the latter a high flux through the sample is desirable, which can be achieved by horizontal focusing of the beam. For that we have chosen to bend the second crystal sagitally. The sagittal bending radius is adjustable between 50 and 0.8 m, because for different energies different sagittal radii are necessary to focus the beam on the sample. The mean meridional radius of the second crystal is fixed at 130 m, which is an optimization for 20 keV. The meridional radius of the first crystal can be tuned between 100 and 500 m. When this radius is set to 130 m the energy resolution is calculated to be 6, 3, and 35 eV for 10, 20, and 30 keV (for perfectly bent crystals). By changing the meridional radius of the first crystal, future users of this monochromator can make the trade off between resolution and intensity. Movement of the monochromator exit beam, during a scan, will occur due to the monochromator geometry, but is reduced as much as possible by using an asymmetrically cut second crystal, with an asymmetry angle of 2.5{degree}. The average exit beam movement of the monochromator for a 1-keV scan is 20 {mu}m. For 40% of the energy range (10--30 keV) the exit beam position remains within 10 {mu}m. For the second crystal no translation stage is used.

  16. Holographic optical grating and method for optimizing monochromator configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masato (Moraga, CA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a novel apparatus for recording a holographic groove pattern on a diffraction grating blank. The recording apparatus is configured using newly developed groups of analytical equations. The invention further comprises the novel holographic diffraction grating made with the inventive recording apparatus. The invention additionally comprises monochromators and spectrometers equipped with the inventive holographic diffraction grating. Further, the invention comprises a monochromator configured to reduce aberrations using a newly developed group of analytical equations. Additionally, the invention comprises a method to reduce aberrations in monochromators and spectrometers using newly developed groups of analytical equations.

  17. MONO: A program to calculate synchrotron beamline monochromator throughputs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, D.

    1989-01-01

    A set of Fortran programs have been developed to calculate the expected throughput of x-ray monochromators with a filtered synchrotron source and is applicable to bending magnet and wiggler beamlines. These programs calculate the normalized throughput and filtered synchrotron spectrum passed by multiple element, flat un- focussed monochromator crystals of the Bragg or Laue type as a function of incident beam divergence, energy and polarization. The reflected and transmitted beam of each crystal is calculated using the dynamical theory of diffraction. Multiple crystal arrangements in the dispersive and non-dispersive mode are allowed as well as crystal asymmetry and energy or angle offsets. Filters or windows of arbitrary elemental composition may be used to filter the incident synchrotron beam. This program should be useful to predict the intensities available from many beamline configurations as well as assist in the design of new monochromator and analyzer systems. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  19. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E.; Mooney, Timothy M.; Toellner, Thomas

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  20. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  1. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, J.L.; Liedl, G.L.

    1983-12-02

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5/sup 0/ to 86.5/sup 0/, and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive.

  2. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, Jean-Louis; Liedl, Gerald L.

    1987-07-07

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5.degree. to 86.5.degree., and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive work.

  3. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.

  4. Optical system for high resolution spectrometer/monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hettrick, Michael C.; Underwood, James H.

    1988-01-01

    An optical system for use in a spectrometer or monochromator employing a mirror which reflects electromagnetic radiation from a source to converge with same in a plane. A straight grooved, varied-spaced diffraction grating receives the converging electromagnetic radiation from the mirror and produces a spectral image for capture by a detector, target or like receiver.

  5. Optical system for high resolution spectrometer/monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.

    1988-10-11

    An optical system for use in a spectrometer or monochromator employing a mirror which reflects electromagnetic radiation from a source to converge with same in a plane is disclosed. A straight grooved, varied-spaced diffraction grating receives the converging electromagnetic radiation from the mirror and produces a spectral image for capture by a detector, target or like receiver. 11 figs.

  6. Summary Max Total Units

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  7. Unfolding with Maxed and Gravel.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-07-12

    Version: 00 UMG (Unfolding with MAXED and GRAVEL) is a package of seven programs written for the analysis of data measured with spectrometers that require the use of unfolding techniques. See the developers’ website for information on training courses http://www.ptb.de/en/org/6/utc2006/intro.htm. The program MAXED applies the maximum entropy principle to the unfolding problem, and the program GRAVEL uses a modified SAND-II algorithm to do the unfolding. There are two versions of each: MXD_FC33 and GRV_FC33 formore » “few-channel” unfolding (e.g., Bonner sphere spectrometers) and MXD-MC33 and GRV_MC33 for “multi-channel” unfolding (e.g., NE-213). The program IQU can be used to calculate integral quantities for both MAXED and GRAVEL solution spectra and, in the case of MAXED solutions, it can also be used to calculate the uncertainty in these values as well as the uncertainty in the solution spectrum. The uncertainty calculation is handled in the following way: given a solution spectrum generated by MAXED, the program IQU considers variations in the measured data and in the default spectrum and uses standard methods to do sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation. There are two versions: IQU_FC33 for “few channel” unfolding and IQU_MC33 for “multi-channel” unfolding. The program UMGPlot can be used to display the results from the unfolding programs MAXED and GRAVEL in graphical form in a quick and easy way.« less

  8. Max Ambiental S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ambiental S A Jump to: navigation, search Name: Max Ambiental S.A. Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 01452-938 Sector: Carbon Product: Max Ambiental is a company involved in the...

  9. MaxWest Environmental Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MaxWest Environmental Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: MaxWest Environmental Systems Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77057 Product: MaxWest Environmental Systems designs,...

  10. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  11. Back-scattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.

    1997-08-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  12. A double crystal monochromator using tangentially bend crystals in combination with toroidal mirror focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jun, Thompson,A.C.; Padmore,H.A.

    2000-02-24

    In collaboration with the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley, the ALS is building a beamline for structural determination in materials chemistry. The system will be used for single crystal x-ray diffraction on crystals that are too small or disordered for examination on laboratory systems, and typically will be used for crystals in the 5 - 20 micron regime. As some of the materials being designed are of the size of small proteins, phasing using direct methods is problematic, and so use of multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion techniques will be employed in many cases. The production of new compounds has been revolutionized in recent years with the development of combinatorial synthesis techniques, and a major b2048 to further advances in this field is access to rapid measurement of structural parameters. The specification of the beamline follows from these points. It must have a small focal spot to match closely the size of the crystals, high resolution for MAD techniques, and a high flux in the small focus. The strategy for satisfying these constraints is to us a system which is compact and which uses the minimum number of components. This is done in this case by using a pseudo channel cut crystal monochromator with tangentially bent crystals, in combination with a 1:1 focusing toroidal mirror. The toroidal mirror at 1:1 magnification has only very small aberrations, and from a 220 (h) by 25 (v) [micro] m FWHM source, an image of 220 by 45 [micro]m FWHM should be produced for a 3 mrad horizontal aperture for a full vertical aperture. This has already been achieved on an existing beamline. The crystal monochromator uses tangentially bent crystals in a concave - convex configuration to achieve matching of Bragg angles to the divergent source, while maintaining zero focusing power. A useful feature of this arrangement is that while there is an optimum crystal curvature for each energy that gives the expected Darwin width limited

  13. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator along with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.

  14. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator alongmore » with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.« less

  15. Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition is an annual competition run by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that challenges students to design...

  16. SolarMax Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea (Republic) Zip: 445-912 Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer and engineer of solar heating systems and boilers. References: SolarMax Inc1 This article is a stub. You...

  17. max kwh | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is likely due to users not understanding the meaning of "Max kWh"--often I see things like: "300, 700, 1000" (derived from "first 300, next 700, greater than 1000") which...

  18. Bent Diamond Crystals and Multilayer Based Optics at the new 5-Station Protein Crystallography Beamline 'Cassiopeia' at MAX-lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mammen, Christian B.; Als-Nielsen, Jens; Ursby, Thomas; Thunnissen, Marjolein

    2004-05-12

    A new 5-station beamline for protein crystallography is being commissioned at the Swedish synchrotron light source MAX-II at Lund University. Of the 2K/{gamma} = 14 mrad horizontal wiggler fan, the central 2 mrad are used and split in three parts. The central 1 mrad will be used for a station optimized for MAD experiments and on each side of the central fan, from 0.5 mrad to 1 mrad, there are two fixed energy stations using different energies of the same part of the beam. These, in total five stations, can be used simultaneously and independently for diffraction data collection. The two upstream monochromators for the side stations are meridionally bent asymmetric diamond(111) crystals in Laue transmission geometry. The monochromators for the downstream side stations are bent Ge(111) crystals in asymmetric Bragg reflection geometry. Curved multilayer mirrors inserted in the monochromatic beams provide focusing in the vertical plane. The first side station is under commissioning, and a preliminary test protein data set has been collected.

  19. Rainer Held > Guest Researcher - Max-Planck Institute for Solid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rainer Held Guest Researcher - Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research heldrain@gmail.com Formerly a member of the Schlom Group, he joined the Max-Planck Institute for Solid ...

  20. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  1. Beamline 8.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal,...

  2. Beamline 8.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal, ...

  3. Single-crystal sapphire microstructure for high-resolution synchrotron X-ray monochromators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Asadchikov, Victor E.; Butashin, Andrey V.; Buzmakov, Alexey V.; Deryabin, Alexander N.; Kanevsky, Vladimir M.; Prokhorov, Igor A.; Roshchin, Boris S.; Volkov, Yuri O.; Zolotov, Dennis A.; Jafari, Atefeh; et al

    2016-03-22

    We report on the growth and characterization of several sapphire single crystals for the purpose of x-ray optics applications. Structural defects were studied by means of laboratory double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and white beam synchrotron-radiation topography. The investigations confirmed that the main defect types are dislocations. The best quality crystal was grown using the Kyropoulos technique with a dislocation density of 102-103 cm-2 and a small area with approximately 2*2 mm2 did not show dislocation contrast in many reflections and has suitable quality for application as a backscattering monochromator. As a result, a clear correlation between growth rate and dislocation densitymore » is observed, though growth rate is not the only parameter impacting the quality.« less

  4. The sapphire backscattering monochromator at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alexeev, P.; Asadchikov, V.; Bessas, D.; Butashin, A.; Deryabin, A.; Dill, F. -U.; Ehnes, A.; Herlitschke, M.; Hermann, R. P.; Jafari, A.; et al

    2016-02-23

    Here, we report on a high resolution sapphire backscattering monochromator installed at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III. The device enables nuclear resonance scattering experiments on M ossbauer isotopes with transition energies between 20 and 60 keV with sub-meV to meV resolution. In a first performance test with 119Sn nuclear resonance at a X-ray energy of 23.88 keV an energy resolution of 1.34 meV was achieved. Moreover, the device extends the field of nuclear resonance scattering at the PETRA III synchrotron light source to many further isotopes like 151Eu, 149Sm, 161Dy, 125Te and 121Sb.

  5. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Duaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  6. SolarMax Technology Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: SolarMax Technology Inc Place: City of Industry, California Zip: 91745 Product: PV module maker and residential and commercial PV...

  7. Incorporating the min-max mesh optimization method within the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Incorporating the min-max mesh optimization method within the Target-Matrix Paradigm. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  8. Incorporating the min-max mesh optimization method within the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Incorporating the min-max mesh optimization method within the Target-Matrix ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  9. AVTA: 2013 Ford C-MAX HEV Testing Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    VTO's National Laboratories have tested and collected both dynamometer and fleet data for the Ford C-MAX HEV (a hybrid electric vehicle).

  10. The MAX facility for CFD code validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomperski, S.; Merzari, E.; Obabko, A.; Pointer, W. D.; Fischer, P.

    2012-07-01

    ANL has recently completed construction of a fluid dynamics test facility devised to provide validation data for CFD simulation tools used to evaluate various aspects of nuclear power plant design and safety. Experiments with the facility involve mixing air jets within a 1x1x1.7m long glass tank at atmospheric pressure. A particle image velocimetry system measures flow velocity and turbulence quantities within the tank while a high-speed infrared camera records temperatures across the tank lid. The tandem of high fidelity thermal and turbulence data is particularly useful for benchmarking transient heat transfer phenomena such as thermal striping. This paper describes the MAX facility, preliminary data obtained during shakedown tests, and the results of companion CFD calculations employing RANS-based Star-CCM+ and large eddy simulations with Nek 5000. (authors)

  11. University of Maryland Wins Max Tech and Beyond Competition for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Efficient Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy University of Maryland Wins Max Tech and Beyond Competition for Ultra-Efficient Clothes Dryer University of Maryland Wins Max Tech and Beyond Competition for Ultra-Efficient Clothes Dryer September 10, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The Energy Department announced today that the University of Maryland won the second annual Max Tech and Beyond design competition for ultra-low energy use appliances and equipment for the second year in a row. The

  12. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow ...

  13. Zhejiang Max Solar Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhejiang Max Solar Energy Co Ltd Place: Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, China Zip: 313009 Product: A Zhejiang-based PV module...

  14. Subkilovolt response of Kodak T max XUV film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittmore, C.; Stoering, J.P. ); Gullikson, E. )

    1990-02-08

    A calibration of Kodak T max 100 XUV film at six x-ray energies ranging from 0.27 keV to 1.49 keV has been concluded. The primary purpose was to compare the sensitivity of this film to that of Kodak type 101-07 XUV film in order to appraise the feasibility of replacing the type 101-07 film with the type T max 100 film. In addition to being considerably less expensive, the T max 100 film is less disposed to abrasion from handling. A secondary objective was to provide a base for further response measurements should the T max 100 film prove to be an acceptable substitute for the type 101-07 film. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-11

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  16. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  17. The interactional foundations of MaxEnt: Open questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harr, Michael S.

    2014-12-05

    One of the simplest and potentially most useful techniques to be developed in the 20{sup th} century, a century noted for an ever more mathematically sophisticated formulation of the sciences, is that of maximising the entropy of a system in order to generate a descriptive, stochastic model of that system in closed form, often abbreviated to MaxEnt. The extension of MaxEnt to systems beyond the physics from which it originated is hampered by the fact that the microscopic physical interactions that are not justified or justifiable within the MaxEnt framework need to be falsifiably evaluated in each new field of application. It is not obvious that such justification exists for many systems in which the interactions are not directly based on physics. For example what is the justification for the use of MaxEnt in biology, climate modelling or economics? Is it simply a useful heuristic or is there some deeper connection with the foundations of some systems? Without further critical examination of the microscopic foundations that give rise to the success of the MaxEnt principle it is difficult to motivate the use of such techniques in other fields except through theoretically an practically unsatisfying analogical arguments. This article briefly presents the basis of MaxEnt principles as originally introduced in statistical mechanics in the Jaynes form, the Tsallis form and the Rnyi form. Several different applications are introduced including that of ecological diversity where maximising the different diversity measures is equivalent to maximising different entropic functionals.

  18. Paul Blom: Research Director, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Energy Efficient Materials Paul Blom: Research Director, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research Jan 22, 2014 | 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM Paul Blom Research Director, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research Transport and Recombination in Polymer:fullerene bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells January 22, 2014 | 2:00pm | ESB 2001 Faculty host: Thuc Quyen-Nguyen >>>Video and Slides available after the presentation* Abstract In solar cells, free charge carriers can recombine both via

  19. The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-12-28

    Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold Mmax gives rise to O(10272,000) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O(10–3000). The fourfold Mmax arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base Bmax, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E89 × F48 × (G 2 × SU(2))16, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune an SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in Mmax, or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E8 factor. Furthermore, the results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on Mmax.

  20. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  1. High temperature ion irradiation effects in MAX phase ceramics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clark, D. W.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Patel, Maulik K.; Parish, Chad M.

    2015-12-24

    The family of layered carbides and nitrides known as MAX phase ceramics combine many attractive properties of both ceramics and metals due to their nanolaminate crystal structure and are promising potential candidates for application in future nuclear reactors. This research examines the effects of energetic heavy ion (5.8 MeV Ni) irradiations on polycrystalline samples of Ti3SiC2, Ti3AlC2, and Ti2AlC. The irradiation conditions consisted of midrange ion doses between 10 and 30 displacements per atom at temperatures of 400 and 700⁰C, conditions relevant to application in future nuclear reactors and a relatively un-explored regime for this new class of materials. Followingmore » irradiation, a comprehensive analysis of radiation response properties was compiled using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In all cases, XRD and TEM analyses confirm the materials remain fully crystalline although the intense atomic collisions induce significant damage and disorder into the layered crystalline lattice. X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation show this damage is manifest in anisotropic swelling and hardening at all conditions and in all materials, with the aluminum based MAX phase exhibiting significantly more damage than their silicon counterpart. In all three materials there is little damage dependence on dose, suggesting saturation of radiation damage at levels below 10 displacements per atom, and significantly less retained damage at higher temperatures, suggesting radiation defect annealing. SEM surface analysis showed significant grain boundary cracking and loss of damage tolerance properties in the aluminum-based MAX phase irradiated at 400⁰C, but not in the silicon counterpart. TEM analysis of select samples suggest that interstitials are highly mobile while vacancies are immobile and that all three materials are in the so-called point defect swelling regime

  2. max walltime for "low" queue is increased to 24 hrs on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    max walltime for low queue is increased to 24 hrs on Hopper max walltime for low queue is increased to 24 hrs on Hopper May 31, 2012 by Helen He (0 Comments) We have increased the...

  3. WPPI GreenMax-Scheller Residence: Near Zero Energy Monitoring Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-19

    This report describes results of GreenMax 2 monitoring project referred to as the GreenMax Net Zero Home, a demonstration home that can provide a wealth of information for the building community.

  4. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane flux Vertical flux of methane near the surface due to turbulent transport. Categories Surface Properties, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  6. Commissioning of a Soft X-ray Beamline PF-BL-16A with a Variable-Included-Angle Varied-Line-Spacing Grating Monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amemiya, Kenta; Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kosuge, Takashi; Nigorikawa, Kazuyuki; Sumii, Ryohei; Ito, Kenji

    2010-06-23

    The design and commissioning of a new soft X-ray beamline, BL-16A, at the Photon Factory is presented. The beamline consists of a pre-focusing mirror, an entrance slit, a variable-included-angle varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, and a post-focusing system as usual, and provides circularly and linearly polarized soft X rays in the energy range 200-1500 eV with an APPLE-II type undulator. The commissioning procedure for the beamline optics is described in detail, especially the check of the focal position for the zero-th order and diffracted X rays.

  7. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  8. LCLS Spectral Flux Viewer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-25

    This application (FluxViewer) is a tool for displaying spectral flux data for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This tool allows the user to view sliced spatial and energy distributions of the photons selected for specific energies and positions transverse to the beam axis.

  9. HIGS Flux Performance Projection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HIGS flux performance table for high-flux, quasi-CW operation, DFELL/TUNL, Nov. 9, 2010 (Version 2.3). HIGS Flux Performance Projection (2010 - 2011) Total Flux [g/s] CW Operation Two-Bunch (*) Collimated Flux (∆E γ /E γ = 5% FWHM) (#), (@) FEL λ [nm] Comment No-loss Mode : < 20 MeV Linear Pol. with OK-4 Circular Pol with OK-5 E γ = 1 - 2 MeV (E e = 237 - 336 MeV) 1 x 10 8 - 4 x 10 8 6 x 10 6 - 2.4 x 10 7 1064 Linear and Circular (a), (b) E γ = 2 - 2.9 MeV (E e = 336 - 405 MeV) 4 x 10

  10. Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Docket No. ...

  11. ARM - Measurement - Actinic flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Actinic flux The quantity of light in the atmosphere available to molecules at a...

  12. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide ...

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - 2006 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - Mexico

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    City 6 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - Mexico City ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2006 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - Mexico City 2006.03.03 - 2006.03.28 Lead Scientist : Jeffrey Gaffney For data sets, see below. Abstract A 4-week field campaign was conducted in and downwind of Mexico City during March 2006. The Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - MEXico City (MAX-MEX)

  14. max walltime for low queue is increased to 24 hrs on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    max walltime for low queue is increased to 24 hrs on Hopper max walltime for low queue is increased to 24 hrs on Hopper May 31, 2012 by Helen He We have increased the max walltime for the low queue on Hopper from 12 to 24 hrs. Subscribe via RSS Subscribe Browse by Date February 2013 September 2012 August 2012 May 2012 April 2012 March 2012 February 2012 January 2012 November 2011 October 2011 September 2011 August 2011 July 2011 June 2011 May 2011 April 2011 March 2011 February 2011 January 2011

  15. runtime error message: "apsched: request exceeds max nodes, alloc"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    apsched: request exceeds max nodes, alloc" runtime error message: "apsched: request exceeds max nodes, alloc" September 12, 2014 Symptom: User jobs with single or multiple apruns in a batch script may get this runtime error. "apsched: request exceeds max nodes, alloc". This problem is intermittent, started in April, then mid July, and again since late August. Status: This problem is identified as a problem when Torque/Moab batch scheduler becomes out of sync with the

  16. Quantum flux parametron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hioe, W. ); Goto, E. )

    1991-01-01

    The quantum flux parametron (QFP) is an offspring of the parametron, an early flux-based logic device, and the Josephson junction. It is a single flux quantum device that works completely in the superconductive mode. While it has the speed of other Josephson devices that work on switching between the voltage and superconductive modes, its power is about one thousand times less. Hence, it promises to be an attractive alternative to both transistors and other Josephson devices. This book reports the latest research results on QFP applications as a logic device. In particular, a number of auxiliary circuits and a new logic gate are proposed for improving the device margin. Samples of these circuits and logic gate have been fabricated.

  17. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier5Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier5Max&oldid539754...

  18. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier1Max&oldid539766...

  19. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier4Max&oldid539751...

  20. text in "Max kWh" fields | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it should as we are trying to prevent users from writing "less than X", "greater than Y", etc. and follow the intention of the "Max kWh" field. Also there should be a warning...

  1. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerant | Department of Energy Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic

  2. Princeton, Max Planck Society launch new research center for plasma physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton, Max Planck Society launch new research center for plasma physics By John Greenwald March 30, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook (From left to right) Princeton University Professor of Astrophysical Sciences James Stone, Princeton University President Shirley M. Tilghman, Princeton University Dean for Research A. J. Stewart Smith, Max Planck Society President Peter Gruss, and Consul General of the Federal Republic of Germany in New

  3. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  4. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  5. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  6. ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sensible heat flux The time ...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time ...

  8. High flux reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  9. Band gap estimation from temperature dependent Seebeck measurementDeviations from the 2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max} relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Zachary M.; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-01-12

    In characterizing thermoelectric materials, electrical and thermal transport measurements are often used to estimate electronic band structure properties such as the effective mass and band gap. The Goldsmid-Sharp band gap, E{sub g}?=?2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max}, is a tool widely employed to estimate the band gap from temperature dependent Seebeck coefficient measurements. However, significant deviations of more than a factor of two are now known to occur. We find that this is when either the majority-to-minority weighted mobility ratio (A) becomes very different from 1.0 or as the band gap (E{sub g}) becomes significantly smaller than 10 k{sub B}T. For narrow gaps (E{sub g}???6 k{sub B}T), the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics applied by Goldsmid-Sharp break down and Fermi-Dirac statistics are required. We generate a chart that can be used to quickly estimate the expected correction to the Goldsmid-Sharp band gap depending on A and S{sub max}; however, additional errors can occur for S?

  10. Claire E. Max, 2004 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Claire E. Max, 2004 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 2000's Claire E. Max, 2004 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Physics: For her contributions to

  11. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  12. Beamline 8.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV (standard monochromator); 10-13 keV (multilayer) Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max

  13. Beamline 8.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV (standard monochromator); 10-13 keV (multilayer) Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max

  14. Beamline 8.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV (standard monochromator); 10-13 keV (multilayer) Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max

  15. Beamline 8.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV (standard monochromator); 10-13 keV (multilayer) Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max

  16. Beamline 8.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV (standard monochromator); 10-13 keV (multilayer) Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max

  17. Beamline 8.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV (standard monochromator); 10-13 keV (multilayer) Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max

  18. Beamline 8.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV (standard monochromator); 10-13 keV (multilayer) Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max

  19. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2)more » and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.« less

  20. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growthmore » in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.« less

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Max Zuckerman and Sons - IL 30

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - IL 30 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: MAX ZUCKERMAN & SONS (IL.30 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 1925 N. Kenmore Avenue , Chicago , Illinois IL.30-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 IL.30-2 Site Operations: Sample sized quantities of radioactive materials were shipped through this location; broker arranged purchases of materials for third party buyers. IL.30-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination

  2. Beamline 8.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and macromolecular crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 2.5 x 1011 at 11 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0 (h) x 0.35 (v) mrad Endstations Minihutch Detectors 3 x 3

  3. Beamline 8.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and macromolecular crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 2.5 x 1011 at 11 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0 (h) x 0.35 (v) mrad Endstations Minihutch Detectors 3 x 3

  4. Beamline 8.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and macromolecular crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 2.5 x 1011 at 11 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0 (h) x 0.35 (v) mrad Endstations Minihutch Detectors 3 x 3

  5. Beamline 8.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and macromolecular crystallography (MX) Scientific discipline: Structural biology GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 2.5 x 1011 at 11 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0 (h) x 0.35 (v) mrad Endstations Minihutch Detectors 3 x 3

  6. Max Schulze

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Matty Greene About Us Matty Greene - Former Videographer Matty Greene Matty joined the Department of Energy as a videographer in May 2013, producing, filming and editing online video content for Energy. Prior to joining the Department of Energy, her other video pursuits included interning at the White House in the Office of Digital Strategy, where she filmed the President and First Lady, and making short films that played at festivals including South by Southwest. A native Austinite and avid

  7. ~max0006

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... NNSA Headauarters. 1) For cyber security. direct assessment of NNSA contractors by NASA Ifeadquarters organizations consists of the following: a) Annual revieus of Site Office ...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moisture flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dq/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  9. Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine Preprint Tausif Husain, 1 ... Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine Tausif Husain (1) Yilmaz ...

  10. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growth in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Sta Saratoga

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ewers, Brent [University of Wyoming; Pendall, Elise [University of Wyoming

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Sta Saratoga. Site Description - Sagebrush steppe ecosystem

  12. AmeriFlux US-Wdn Walden

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ewers, Brent [University of Wyoming; Pendall, Elise [University of Wyoming

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wdn Walden. Site Description - Sagebrush steppe ecosystem

  13. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Max Zuckerman and Sons Inc - MD 04

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Inc - MD 04 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: MAX ZUCKERMAN & SONS, INC. (MD.04 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Maryland Alloys Corporation MD.04-1 Location: 5245 Fairlawn Avenue , Baltimore , Maryland MD.04-2 Evaluation Year: 1994 MD.04-1 MD.04-3 Site Operations: Scrap metals broker that arranged purchases of materials for third party buyers. MD.04-2 MD.04-4 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination remote MD.04-3

  15. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dT/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  17. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  18. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  19. Max Phase Materials And Coatings For High Temperature Heat Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Olson, L.; Fuentes, R.; Sindelar, R.

    2015-10-19

    Molten salts have been used as heat transfer fluids in a variety of applications within proposed Gen IV nuclear designs and in advanced power system such as Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). However, operating at elevated temperatures can cause corrosion in many materials. This work developed coating technologies for MAX phase materials on Haynes-230 and characterized the corrosion of the coatings in the presence of commercial MgCl2-KCl molten salt. Cold spraying of Ti2AlC and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Ti2AlC or Zr2AlC were tested to determine the most effective form of coating MAX phases on structural substrates. Corrosion testing at 850°C for 100 hrs showed that 3.9 μm Ti2AlC by PVD was slightly protective while 117 μm Ti2AlC by cold spray and 3.6 μm Zr2AlC by PVD were completely protective. None of the tests showed decomposition of the coating (Ti or Zr) into the salt

  20. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  1. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  2. Dedicated Max-Planck beamline for the in situ investigation of interfaces and thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stierle, A.; Steinhaeuser, A.; Ruehm, A.; Renner, F.U.; Weigel, R.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.

    2004-12-01

    A dedicated beamline for the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung was recently taken into operation at the Angstroemquelle Karlsruhe (ANKA). Here we describe the layout of the beamline optics and the experimental end-station, consisting of a heavy duty multiple circle diffractometer. For both a new design was realized, combining a maximum flexibility in the beam properties [white, pink (focused) monochromatic, energy range 6-20 keV] with a special diffractometer for heavy sample environments up to 500 kg, that can be run in different geometrical modes. In addition the angular-reciprocal space transformations for the diffractometer in use are derived, which allows an operation of the instrument in the convenient six circle mode. As an example, results from surface x-ray diffraction on a Cu{sub 3}Au(111) single crystal are presented.

  3. Boride-based nano-laminates with MAX-phase-like behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telle, Rainer . E-mail: telle@ghi.rwth-aachen.de; Momozawa, Ai; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-09-15

    MAX-phases being usually composed of transition metals, group A elements and carbon/nitrogen are considered interesting materials for many applications because of their tremendous bulk modulus, 'reversible' plasticity, and machinability. This is mainly due to their unique kind of bonding comprising covalent, ionic as well as metallic bonds providing 'easy' planes of rupture and deformability due to the layered crystal structures. In transition metal boride systems, similar types of bonding are available. In particular the W{sub 2}B{sub 5}-structure type and its stacking variations allow the synthesis of strongly layered crystal structures exhibiting unique delamination phenomena. The paper presents ab initio calculations showing the similarities of bonding between the ternary carbides and the corresponding ternary or quaternary borides. Formation of boride-based nano-laminates from auxiliary liquid phases, from the melt as well as during sintering and precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions will be discussed by means of SEM and TEM studies. The role of impurities weakening the interlayer bonding will be addressed in particular. The pronounced cleavage parallel to the basal plane gives rise for crack deflection and pull-out mechanisms if the laminates are dispersed in brittle matrices such as boron carbide, silicon carbide or other transition metal borides. - Graphical abstract: Some transition metal borides crystallise in a layered structure of alternating stacks of metal and boron atoms giving rise for strongly anisotropic properties. Their preferred cleavage parallel and the deformability perpendicular to the basal plan are similar to the peculiar mechanical behaviour recently described for MAX-phases. Ab initio calculations of the crystal structure prove the weak bonds between the layers for a variety of borides which can be used to reinforce ceramic materials on a nano-scale level.

  4. Vertical transport and sources in flux models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical transport in flux models in examined and shown to reproduce expected limits for densities and fluxes. Disparities with catalog distributions are derived and inverted to find the sources required to rectify them.

  5. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorents, D C; Narang, S; Huestis, D C; Mooney, J L; Mill, T; Song, H K; Ventura, S

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  6. Apparatus for measuring a flux of neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    A flux of neutrons is measured by disposing a detector in the flux and applying electronic correlation techniques to discriminate between the electrical signals generated by the neutron detector and the unwanted interfering electrical signals generated by the incidence of a neutron flux upon the cables connecting the detector to the electronic measuring equipment at a remote location.

  7. Category:Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Flux Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Gas Flux Sampling page? For detailed information on Gas Flux...

  8. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W.; Podey, Larry L.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  9. An In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth; Shapiro, Carl

    2012-04-01

    Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and lighting, appliance, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs) through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and LAMELs.

  10. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  11. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  12. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  13. AmeriFlux US-Ivo Ivotuk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ivo Ivotuk. Site Description - This site is 300 km south of Barrow and is located at the foothill of the Brooks Range and is classified as tussock sedge, dwarf-shrub, moss tundra.

  14. AmeriFlux US-Atq Atqasuk

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University; Zona, Donatella [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Atq Atqasuk. Site Description - This site is 100 km south of Barrow, Alaska, Variety of moist-wet coastal sedge tundra, and moist-tussock tundra surfaces in the more well-drained upland.

  15. AmeriFlux US-Brw Barrow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, Walt; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Brw Barrow. Site Description - The local landscape surrounding the Barrow site has a history absent of any disturbances. The terrain was not heavily glaciated during the last period of glaciation. The vegetation is mature in an unmanaged and undisturbed Arctic tundra.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Dia Diablo

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wharton, Sonia [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dia Diablo. Site Description - The site is on land owned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Site 300) and has no grazing or management history since the 1950's except for summer-time burning of selected acres for fire management (not included in the tower footprint).

  17. PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION AND THE BUILD-UP OF SIGMOIDAL FLUX ROPES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Green, L. M.

    2012-11-10

    In this study we explore the scenario of photospheric flux cancellation being the primary formation mechanism of sigmoidal flux ropes in decaying active regions. We analyze magnetogram and X-ray observations together with data-driven non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models of observed sigmoidal regions to test this idea. We measure the total and canceled fluxes in the regions from MDI magnetograms, as well as the axial and poloidal flux content of the modeled NLFFF flux ropes for three sigmoids-2007 February, 2007 December, and 2010 February. We infer that the sum of the poloidal and axial flux in the flux ropes for most models amounts to about 60%-70% of the canceled flux and 30%-50% of the total flux in the regions. The flux measurements and the analysis of the magnetic field structure show that the sigmoids first develop a strong axial field manifested as a sheared arcade and then, as flux cancellation proceeds, form long S-shaped field lines that contribute to the poloidal flux. In addition, the dips in the S-shaped field lines are located at the sites of flux cancellation that have been identified from the MDI magnetograms. We find that the line-of-sight-integrated free energy is also concentrated at these locations for all three regions, which can be liberated in the process of eruption. Flare-associated brightenings and flare loops coincide with the location of the X-line topology that develops at the site of most vigorous flux cancellation.

  18. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRadiative Flux Analysis ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Radiative Flux Analysis The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and

  19. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  20. MiniBooNE Flux Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Neutrino Flux Prediction at MiniBooNE", arXiv:0806.1449 [hep-ex], Phys. Rev. D. 79, 072002 (2009) The following MiniBooNE information from the large flux paper in 2009 is made available to the public: Text files containing flux information for each neutrino species Positive horn polarity (neutrino-enhanced mode) Negative horn polarity (anti neutrino-enhanced mode) Contact Information For clarifications on how to use MiniBooNE public data or for enquiries about additional data not linked

  1. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  2. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  3. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR)

    1989-01-01

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  4. Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the true flux of hydrothermal gases may affect the results of geochemical modeling of gas dispersion in the near-surface environment.3 References 1.0 1.1 Measuring...

  5. ARM - VAP Product - lblch2flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : LBLCH2FLUX AERI, line by line...

  6. AmeriFlux US-Bkg Brookings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bkg Brookings. Site Description - The Brookings site is located in a private pasture, consisting of a mixture of C3 and C4 species actively used for grazing. Belonging to the Northern Great Plains Rangelands, the grassland is representative of many in the north central United States, with seasonal winter conditions and a wet growing season.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN {nu}{sub max} AND AGE t FROM ZAMS TO RGB-TIP FOR LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Y. K.; Gai, N. E-mail: ning.gai@hotmail.com

    2013-07-10

    Stellar age is an important quantity in astrophysics, which is useful for many fields both in the universe and galaxies. It cannot be determined by direct measurements, but can only be estimated or inferred. We attempt to find a useful indicator of stellar age, which is accurate from the zero-age main sequence to the tip of red giant branch for low-mass stars. Using the Yale Rotation and Evolution Code (YREC), a grid of stellar models has been constructed. Meanwhile, the frequency of maximum oscillations' power {nu}{sub max} and the large frequency separation {Delta}{nu} are calculated using the scaling relations. For the stars, the masses of which are from 0.8 M{sub Sun} to 2.8 M{sub Sun }, we can obtain the {nu}{sub max} and stellar age by combing the scaling relations with the four sets of grid models (YREC, Dotter et al., Marigo et al., and YY isochrones). We find that {nu}{sub max} is tightly correlated and decreases monotonically with the age of the star from the main sequence to the red giant evolutionary stages. Moreover, we find that the line shapes of the curves in the Age versus {nu}{sub max} diagram, which is plotted by the four sets of grid models, are consistent for red giants with masses from 1.1 M{sub Sun} to 2.8 M{sub Sun }. For red giants, the differences of correlation coefficients between Age and {nu}{sub max} for different grid models are minor and can be ignored. Interestingly, we find two peaks that correspond to the subgiants and bump of red giants in the Age versus {nu}{sub max} diagram. By general linear least-squares, we make the polynomial fitting and deduce the relationship between log(Age) and log({nu}{sub max}) in red giants' evolutionary state.

  8. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge ...

  9. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    between chamber CO2 fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes...

  10. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  11. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  12. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of

  13. CURRENT BUILDUP IN EMERGING SERPENTINE FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pariat, E.; Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.

    2009-08-20

    The increase of magnetic flux in the solar atmosphere during active-region formation involves the transport of the magnetic field from the solar convection zone through the lowest layers of the solar atmosphere, through which the plasma {beta} changes from >1 to <1 with altitude. The crossing of this magnetic transition zone requires the magnetic field to adopt a serpentine shape also known as the sea-serpent topology. In the frame of the resistive flux-emergence model, the rising of the magnetic flux is believed to be dynamically driven by a succession of magnetic reconnections which are commonly observed in emerging flux regions as Ellerman bombs. Using a data-driven, three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation of flux emergence occurring in active region 10191 on 2002 November 16-17, we study the development of 3D electric current sheets. We show that these currents buildup along the 3D serpentine magnetic-field structure as a result of photospheric diverging horizontal line-tied motions that emulate the observed photospheric evolution. We observe that reconnection can not only develop following a pinching evolution of the serpentine field line, as usually assumed in two-dimensional geometry, but can also result from 3D shearing deformation of the magnetic structure. In addition, we report for the first time on the observation in the UV domain with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) of extremely transient loop-like features, appearing within the emerging flux domain, which link several Ellermam bombs with one another. We argue that these loop transients can be explained as a consequence of the currents that build up along the serpentine magnetic field.

  14. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) 2008.04.01, Ghan, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer 2008.03.31 - 2008.05.31 Lead Scientist : Dan Lubin For data sets, see below. Abstract In connection with ISDAC, this campaign further investigated the role of aerosol physics and chemistry

  16. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, John T.; Simpson, Marc L.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  17. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  18. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio; Cohen, Samuel A.; Bennett, Timothy; Timberlake, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  19. AmeriFlux US-Akn Aiken

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Akn Aiken. Site Description - The Aiken site is located within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Providence on a U.S. Department of Energy reservation (806 sq km) at Savannah River National Laboratory. Areas of the site not used for industrial purposes were planted with forests starting in the early 1950s, including the site of the Aiken tower. The site measurements are representative of the southeastern US within a mixed agricultural, residential, and industrial zone.

  20. AmeriFlux US-Los Lost Creek

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Desai, Ankur [University of Wisconsin

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Los Lost Creek. Site Description - Shrub wetland site, chosen to be representative of the wetlands within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. This is a deciduous shrub wetland. Coniferous and grassy stands also exist within the WLEF flux footprint. Solar power. The site has excellent micrometeorological characteristics.

  1. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  2. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Koros, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  3. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C. L.; Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A. E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu

    2013-03-10

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  4. Comparison of 10. 7 CM radio flux with SME solar Lyman alpha flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, C.A.; Tobiska, W.K.; Rottman, G.J. ); White, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of the solar Lyman alpha flux that were made over a seven-and-one-half-year period between October 11, 1981 and April 13, 1989 have been compared with ground-based measurements of the solar 10.7 cm radio flux made over the same time period. There is a long-term correlation between these two measures of solar flux during the declining part of the solar cycle. During the solar minimum period, there is only a poor correlation between the two solar fluxes because the 10.7 cm radio flux reaches a minimum of 65 {times} 10{sup {minus}22} W m{sup {minus}2} Hz{sup {minus}1} and does not vary below this value while the Lyman alpha flux continues to decline and show long-term and short-term variations. During the early ascending phase of the new solar cycle, there is again a correlation between the two fluxes, although the constant of proportionality between the two is different from the constant during the declining phase of the previous solar cycle. Somewhat later, during the period November 25, 1988-April 13, 1989 a medium-term correlation exists and the proportionality of the two indices is once again similar to what it was during the declining phase of the previous solar cycle. A study of the correlation of the 10.7 cm flux with the Lyman alpha for a 999-day period during the declining phase showed that for the short-term (27-day) variation there is a correlation between the two fluxes but the proportionality between them varies from one solar rotation to the next.

  5. Beamline 5.3.2.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 600-2000eV eV Monochromator Low-dispersion, spherical-grating monochromator, two gratings Calculated flux (1.9 GeV, 500 mA) 1 x...

  6. Beamline 5.3.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 250-780 eV Monochromator Low-dispersion, spherical-grating monochromator, one grating Calculated flux (1.9 GeV, 500 mA) 1 x...

  7. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size at sample (FWHM) 100 µm Endstations Minihutch

  8. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size at sample (FWHM) 100 µm Endstations Minihutch

  9. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size at sample (FWHM) 100 µm Endstations Minihutch

  10. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size at sample (FWHM) 100 µm Endstations Minihutch

  11. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size at sample (FWHM) 100 µm Endstations Minihutch

  12. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Beamline 8.2.2 Print Tuesday, 20 October 2009 08:54 Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size

  13. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size at sample (FWHM) 100 µm Endstations Minihutch

  14. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size at sample (FWHM) 100 µm Endstations Minihutch

  15. Beamline 8.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Beamline 8.2.2 Print Tuesday, 20 October 2009 08:54 Berkeley Center for Structural Biology (BCSB) Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD) and Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend (5.0 T, single pole) Energy range 5-16 keV Monochromator Double crystal, Si(111) Measured flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3.0 x 1011 photons/sec Resolving power (E/ΔE) 7,000 Divergence (max at sample) 3.0(h) x 0.5(v) mrad Measured spot size

  16. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  17. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  18. Energy flux density in a thermoacoustic couple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, N.; Chen, S. |; Olson, R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    The hydro- and thermodynamical processes near and within a thermoacoustic couple are simulated and analyzed by numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes, continuity, and energy equations for an ideal gas, concentrating on the time-averaged energy flux density in the gas. The numerical results show details of the heat sink at one end of the plates in the thermoacoustic couple. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression Title: Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression A traveling-wave device is provided with the conventional moving pistons ...

  20. Muon fluxes and showers from dark matter annihilation in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We consider both the upward muon flux, when muons are created in the rock below the detector, and the contained flux when muons are created in the (ice) detector. We also calculate ...

  1. OSTIblog Articles in the High Flux Isotope Reactor Topic | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Flux Isotope Reactor Topic The NXS Class of 2014 by Kathy Chambers 19 Nov, 2014 in ... National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor, National School on Neutron and X-ray ...

  2. AmeriFlux US-FR3 Freeman Ranch- Woodland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Heilman, Jim [Texas A& M University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-FR3 Freeman Ranch- Woodland. Site Description - Dense canopy of live oak and Ashe juniper

  3. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  4. Zero-flux planes, flux reversals and diffusion paths in ternary and quaternary diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayananda, M.A.

    1986-05-23

    During isothermal multicomponent diffusion, interdiffusion fluxes of individual components can go to zero at zero-flux planes (ZFP) and exhibit flux reversals from one side to the other of such planes. Interdiffusion fluxes as well as the locations and compositions of ZFPs for components are determined directly from the concentration profiles of diffusion couples without the need for prior knowledge of interdiffusion coefficients. The development and identification of ZFPs is reviewed with the aid of single phase and two-phase diffusion couples investigated in the Cu-Ni-Zn system at 775/sup 0/C. ZFP locations in the diffusion zone nearly correspond to sections where the activity of a component is the same as its activity in either of the terminal alloys of a couple. Path slopes at ZFPs are uniquely dictated by the atomic mobility and thermodynamic data for the components. Discontinuous flux reversals for the components can also occur at interfaces in multiphase couples. Identification of ZFPs is also presented for diffusion in the Cu-Ni-Zn-Mn quaternary system. Analytical representation of diffusion paths for both ternary and quaternary diffusion couples is presented with the aid of characteristic path parameters.

  5. Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, Tausif; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-08-24

    In this paper a novel E-Core axial flux machine is proposed. The machine has a double-stator, single-rotor configuration with flux-concentrating ferrite magnets and pole windings across each leg of an E-Core stator. E-Core stators with the proposed flux-concentrating rotor arrangement result in better magnet utilization and higher torque density. The machine also has a modular structure facilitating simpler construction. This paper presents a single-phase and a three-phase version of the E-Core machine. Case studies for a 1.1-kW, 400-rpm machine for both the single-phase and three-phase axial flux machines are presented. The results are verified through 3D finite element analysis. facilitating simpler construction. This paper presents a single-phase and a three-phase version of the E-Core machine. Case studies for a 1.1-kW, 400-rpm machine for both the single-phase and three-phase axial flux machines are presented. The results are verified through 3D finite element analysis.

  6. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P.; Janos, Alan C.; Uyama, Tadao; Yamada, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  7. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy ape034_hsu_2011_p.pdf (317.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles

  8. Borehole SASW testing to evaluate log(G{sub max}) - log({sigma}{prime}) relationships in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinski, M.E.; Stokoe, K.H. II; Young, Y.L.; Roesset, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    A new method is being developed for the in-situ measurement of shear wave velocity, V{sub s}, in the soil surrounding a borehole. The method involves the measurement of axially propagating surface waves inside an uncased borehole using the Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves (SASW) approach. Testing if performed with instrumentation housed inside an inflatable tool. Inflation pressures applied by the tool are used to vary radial stresses in the soil surrounding the borehole. Surface wave velocities over a range of frequencies are measured at each inflation pressure. These measurements are then theoretically modeled so that the variation in V{sub s} (an hence small-strain shear module, G{sub max}) with distance behind the borehole wall is determined at each pressure. The results of field tests with the borehole SASW tool at two sites composed of unsaturated clayey soil are presented. These results are compared with independent field seismic measurements and with laboratory tests on intact specimens using the torsional resonant column to assess the validity of the new field method.

  9. AmeriFlux Network Data from the ORNL AmeriFlux Website

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996 to provide continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. It is fed by sites from North America, Central America, and South America. DOE's CDIAC stores and maintains AmeriFlux data, and this web site explains the different levels of data available there, with links to the CDIAC ftp site. A separate web-based data interface is also provided; it allows users to graph, query, and download Level 2 data for up to four sites at a time. Data may be queried by site, measurement period, or parameter. More than 550 site-years of level 2 data are available from AmeriFlux sites through the interface.

  10. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  11. NuMI Low Energy Flux Prediction Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NuMI Low Energy Flux Prediction Release Neutrino Flux Predictions for the NuMI Beam hep-ex/1607.00704 Data Ancillary data files for this result are available on arXiv at http://arxiv.org/src/1607.00704/anc.< /li> Among the available data files are: pdf file describing format of all the available files root file of all the available fluxes python code to read and process MINERvA's flux predictions Text Files of the flux, uncertainties, and covariance matrix, with units of neutrinos/m^2/POT,

  12. AmeriFlux US-WCr Willow Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WCr Willow Creek. Site Description - Upland decduous broadleaf forest. Mainly sugar maple, also basswood. Uniform stand atop a very modest hill. Clearcut approximately 80 years ago. Chosen to be representative of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. It appears to be more heavily forested and more productive than most of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests in the WLEF flux footprint (see publications for more details). It is also important that SE winds are screened from the flux data (see Cook et al, 2004 for details). Propane generator power.

  13. AmeriFlux US-GLE GLEES

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Massman, Bill [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-GLE GLEES. Site Description - The Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site (GLEES) site is located on land owned by the U.S. government and managed by US Forest Service as part of the Medicine Bow National Forest. Many of the trees in the immediate vicinity of the site are older than 400 years, inter-dispersed among trees much younger in age. This widespread age distribution is most likely a derivation of one of two scenarios: 1) A widespread stand replacement about 400 years ago followed by a slow replacement; 2) Intermittent random disturbances over the past 400 years (Bradford et al. 2008). A decade long spruce beetle outbreak that peaked in 2008 resulted in the mortality of 85% of the forested basal area. There are a few private land holdings in the area, with scattered uncorked mining claims. Following the establishment of the National Forest, mining was banned and grazing was closed in the early 1990's in the upper portion of the GLEES site. Recreation in the winter, when snow can remain in patches into the summer months, snow mobiling and cross country skiing are popular. During the limited summer, hiking, camping and fishing are common activities. The site is accessible by vehicle only during the summer on Forest Road FDR 317, and in the winter, the tower is only reachable via snowmobile.

  14. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore » continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  15. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  16. The solar internetwork. I. Contribution to the network magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goi?, M.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Surez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 10{sup 24} Mx day{sup 1} over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  17. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  18. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  19. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  20. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  1. HFBR handbook, 1992: High flux beam reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axe, J.D.; Greenberg, R.

    1992-10-01

    Welcome to the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), one of the world premier neutron research facilities. This manual is intended primarily to acquaint outside users (and new Brookhaven staff members) with (almost) everything they need to know to work at the HFBR and to help make the stay at Brookhaven pleasant as well as profitable. Safety Training Programs to comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates are in progress at BNL. There are several safety training requirements which must be met before users can obtain unescorted access to the HFBR. The Reactor Division has prepared specific safety training manuals which are to be sent to experimenters well in advance of their expected arrival at BNL to conduct experiments. Please familiarize yourself with this material and carefully pay strict attention to all the safety and security procedures that are in force at the HFBR. Not only your safety, but the continued operation of the facility, depends upon compliance.

  2. AmeriFlux US-PFa Park Falls/WLEF

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Desai, Ankur [University of Wisconsin

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-PFa Park Falls/WLEF. Site Description - The flux footprint encompasses a highly heterogeneous landscape of upland forests and wetlands (forested and nonforested). The forests are mainly deciduous but also include substantial coniferous coverage. The upland/lowland variability occurs on spatial scales of a few hundred meters. This heterogeneous landscape is further complicated by a nonuniform, small scale mosaic of thinning and clearcutting of the forest. At larger scales (1 km or greater) the forest cover mosaic is quite homogeneous for many kilometers. The site was chosen not for study of a simple stand, but for upscaling experiments. The daytime fetch of flux measurements from the 396m level is on the order of 5-10 km, yielding a flux footprint roughly 100x the area of a typical stand-level flux tower. AC power (tower is a TV transmitter).

  3. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  4. ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux [ ARM Principal Investigator (PI) Data Product ] Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the

  5. AmeriFlux US-Wkg Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Scott, Russell [United States Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wkg Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands. Site Description - This site is located in a small, intensively-studied, experimental watershed within USDA-ARS's Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Eddy covariance measurements of energy, water and CO2 fluxes began in the spring of 2004, though meteorological (including Bowen ratio) and hydrological measurements are available much further back.

  6. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnets - U Machine Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer ...

  7. Gas Flux Sampling At Steamboat Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steamboat Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Steamboat Springs Area...

  8. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And...

  9. Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, ... Introduction Generally, radiation codes for general circulation models (GCMs) include, ...

  10. Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin-film silicon solar cells Prev Next Title: Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic thin-film silicon solar cells Authors: Chung, H. ...

  11. Gas Flux Sampling At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  12. Gas Flux Sampling At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Gas Flux Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  14. Gas Flux Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  15. Gas Flux Sampling At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. Gas Flux Sampling At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  17. Gas Flux Sampling At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  18. FLUX COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR TREATING URANIUM-CONTAINING METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, F.

    1958-08-26

    A flux composition is preseated for use with molten uranium and uranium alloys. It consists of about 60% calcium fluoride, 30% calcium chloride and 10% uranium tetrafluoride.

  19. The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these fields include cloud altitude, cloud amount, liquid and ice content, particle size spectra, and radiative fluxes at the surface and the TOA. Comparisons with Atmospheric...

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCarbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes 2012.03.26 - 2012.06.07 Lead Scientist : Elliott Campbell For data sets, see below. Abstract Regional flux partitioning represents a critical knowledge gap due to a lack of robust methods for regional-scale flux partitioning and large uncertainties in

  1. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas ...

  2. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (QCECOR) ProductsQuality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux (QCECOR) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux (QCECOR) Eddy correlation flux measurement systems (ECOR) are used by ARM to provide surface turbulence flux measurements. With the help of the

  3. Role of ion flux on alignment of carbon nanofibers synthesized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of carbon nanofibers synthesized by DC plasma on transparent insulating substrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of ion flux on alignment of carbon nanofibers ...

  4. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions

  5. A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection Neggers, Roel European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Category: Modeling A new convective boundary layer...

  6. Final Report - High Flux Microchannel Receiver Development with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Awardee: Oregon State University Location: Corvallis, OR Subprogram: Concentrating Solar Power Funding Program: SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D Project: High Flux ...

  7. John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles John Hsu, Oak Ridge National...

  8. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    During this field study, "direct" measurements of surface heat flux were made using point ... parameter (CT2) (sodar and minisodar), and line averages of CT2 (laser anemometer). ...

  9. FLUXNET. Database of fluxes, site characteristics, and flux-community information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R. J.; Holladay, S. K.; Cook, R. B.; Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Gu, L.

    2004-02-28

    FLUXNET is a “network of regional networks” created by international scientists to coordinate regional and global analysis of observations from micrometeorological tower sites. The flux tower sites use eddy covariance methods to measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. FLUXNET’S goals are to aid in understanding the mechanisms controlling the exchanges of CO2, water vapor, and energy across a range of time (0.5 hours to annual periods) and space scales. FLUXNET provides an infrastructure for the synthesis and analysis of world-wide, long-term flux data compiled from various regional flux networks. Information compiled by the FLUXNET project is being used to validate remote sensing products associated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites. FLUXNET provides access to ground information for validating estimates of net primary productivity, and energy absorption that are being generated by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. In addition, this information is also used to develop and validate ecosystem models.

  10. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichl, K.; Biraud, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    An AMC system was installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling PAR sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape. The soil VWC and temperature sensors used at NSA C1 are the Campbell Scientific CS650L and the sensors at NSA M1 use the Campbell Scientific CS655. The two sensors are nearly identical in function, and vendor specifications are based on the CS650 unless otherwise stated.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Wjs Willard Juniper Savannah

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wjs Willard Juniper Savannah. Site Description - The Juniper Savanna site is located in the Southwestern Tablelands in central New Mexico on a private ranch. Its vegetation is composed of Juniperus monosperma and intermittently grazed C4 perennial grasses of which the dominant species is Bouteloua gracilis.

  12. Flux-induced Isometry Gauging in Heterotic Strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Gao, Peng

    2007-01-05

    We study the effect of flux-induced isometry gauging of the scalar manifold in N = 2 heterotic string compactification with gauge fluxes. We show that a vanishing theorem by Witten provides the protection mechanism. The other ungauged isometries in hyper moduli space could also be protected, depending on the gauge bundle structure. We also discuss the related issue in IIB setting.

  13. AmeriFlux US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn. Site Description - An intermediate aged ponderosa pine forest that was severely burned in the 2002 Eyerly wildfire. All trees were killed (stand replacing event). Irvine et al (2007) GCB 13 (8), 1748–1760.

  14. AmeriFlux US-SRG Santa Rita Grassland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Scott, Russell [United States Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SRG Santa Rita Grassland. Site Description - Semidesert C4 grassland, lies in Pasture 1 on the Santa Rita Experimental Range. This is the companion site for US-SRM, but has much less mesquite encroachment.

  15. AmeriFlux US-Ro1 Rosemount- G21

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baker, John [USDA-ARS; Griffis, Tim [University of Minnesota; Griffis, Timothy [University of Minnesota

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ro1 Rosemount- G21. Site Description - This tower is located in a farm field farmed in accordance with the dominant farming practice in the region: a corn/soybean rotation with chisel plow tillage in the fall following corn harvest and in the spring following soybeans.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Ro3 Rosemount- G19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, John; Griffis, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ro3 Rosemount- G19. Site Description - This tower is located in a farm field farmed in accordance with the cominant farming practice in the region: a corn/soybean rotation with chisel plow tillage in the fall following corn harvest and in the spring following soybeans.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, David; Coulter, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg). Site Description - The Walnut River Watershed site rests on a C3/C4 mixed grassland, tallgrass prairie grazed by cattle. The land is owned by a local farmer and the land is leased on a year-to-year basis.

  18. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-03-10

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  19. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of

  20. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore » the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be

  1. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Changyong Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/q{sub max}, reaches to 2 × 10{sup −3} and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  2. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I.

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  3. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, B/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Shimizu, Toshifumi [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  4. Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  5. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn. Site Description - The Twitchell Corn site is a corn field on peat soil. The tower was installed on May 17, 2012 and was equipped to analyze energy, H2O and CO2 fluxes. The field was planted in early May 2012 and harvested in early November 2012. The field was fallow during the non-growing season. The variety of corn used was ES-7477 hybrid corn commercialized by Eureka seeds. The site is near US-Tw1, US-Tw3 and US-Twt sites.

  7. X{sub max}{sup μ} vs. N{sup μ} from extensive air showers as estimator for the mass of primary UHECR's. Application for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsene, Nicusor; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-24

    We study the possibility of primary mass estimation for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's) using the X{sub max}{sup μ} (the height where the number of muons produced on the core of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is maximum) and the number N{sup μ} of muons detected on ground. We use the 2D distribution - X{sub max}{sup μ} against N{sup μ} in order to find its sensitivity to the mass of the primary particle. For that, we construct a 2D Probability Function Prob(p,Fe | X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) which estimates the probability that a certain point from the plane (X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) corresponds to a shower induced by a proton, respectively an iron nucleus. To test the procedure, we analyze a set of simulated EAS induced by protons and iron nuclei at energies of 10{sup 19}eV and 20° zenith angle with CORSIKA. Using the Bayesian approach and taking into account the geometry of the infill detectors from the Pierre Auger Observatory, we observe an improvement in the accuracy of the primary mass reconstruction in comparison with the results obtained using only the X{sub max}{sup μ} distributions.

  8. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 ... Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment ... (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled nuclear research ...

  9. ARM - Evaluation Product - AmeriFlux and Methane VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IL 60439 Resource(s) Data Directory, ReadMe Data Format netcdf, csv Data Usage These files contain ecosystem fluxes of water, energy, CO2, and CH4 that have been fully corrected. ...

  10. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. ... Fusion 40, 557 2000 using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and ...

  11. AmeriFlux US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McFadden, Joe [University of California, Santa Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field. Site Description - The site was a low-maintenace lawn consisting of cool-season turfgrasses, typical of residential lawns or urban parks in the study area. It was mowed to a height of 70 mm approximately once per week with clippings left to decompose on the surface, was not irrigated, and received one application of inorganic N fertilizer per year. The surrounding suburban residential neighborhood experienced rapid residential development in the 1950s; prior to that time, farms and nurseries were the predominant land-use types. Note that the land management of the field site changed (removal of the turfgrass lawn and planting of trees) AFTER the flux study was completed--this means that imagery after 2009 does not show the land conditions during the flux study.

  12. Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  13. OBSERVATION OF FLUX-TUBE CROSSINGS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, L.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Yan, Y.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in the solar wind. They are a major source of the solar wind MHD turbulence intermittency. They may result from nonlinear interactions of the solar wind MHD turbulence or are the boundaries of flux tubes that originate from the solar surface. Some current sheets appear in pairs and are the boundaries of transient structures such as magnetic holes and reconnection exhausts or the edges of pulsed Alfven waves. For an individual current sheet, discerning whether it is a flux-tube boundary or due to nonlinear interactions or the boundary of a transient structure is difficult. In this work, using data from the Wind spacecraft, we identify two three-current-sheet events. Detailed examination of these two events suggests that they are best explained by the flux-tube-crossing scenario. Our study provides convincing evidence supporting the scenario that the solar wind consists of flux tubes where distinct plasmas reside.

  14. AmeriFlux US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area. Site Description - Old growth forest consisting primarily of sugar maple and eastern hemlock. Note that a small lake to the north and data analyses suggest that wind direction screening is appropriate (see Desai, A.R., Bolstad, P.V., Cook, B.D., Davis, K.J., and Carey, E.V., 2005. Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper midwest, USA. Ag. For. Met. 128(1-2): 33-55 (doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004). Site was chosen to represent an end member representative of the upland forests in the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. (Note, however, that old growth forests are not found within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint.)

  15. Muon fluxes from dark matter annihilation (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We calculate the muon flux from annihilation of the dark matter in the core of the Sun, in the ... We illustrate how muon energy distribution from dark matter annihilation ...

  16. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 more glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius...

  17. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions crane.pdf ...

  18. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    site near the Stillwater Fault to 0.1 t dayy1 from a 0.01-km2 location of steaming ground on the valley floor. Anomalous CO2 flux is positively correlated with shallow...

  19. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  20. Black Branes in Flux Compactifications (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Black Branes in Flux Compactifications Citation Details ... Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15462 arXiv:1306.3982 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  1. Updated flux information for neutron scattering and irradiation facilities at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Sengupta, S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Farrell, K.

    1997-08-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. While most reactors attempt to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9, used for neutron scattering and capture reactions, supporting physics, chemistry and biology experiments. All horizontal beam tubes were built tangential to the direction of the emerging neutrons, except for the H-2 beam tube, which looks directly at the core and has been used for neutron cross section measurements utilizing fast neutrons and for the TRISTAN fission product studies. In recent years, there have been some beam modifications and new instrumentation introduced at the HFBR. A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer instrument is now operating with a resolution of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at horizontal beam line H-1. To study scattering from liquid surfaces, a neutron reflection spectrometer was introduced on the CNF beam line at H-9. In the past year, a fourth beam line has been added to the CNF line at H-9. The existing beam plug at the H-6 beam line has recently been removed and a new plug, which will feature super mirrored surfaces, is now being installed. Last year, the vertical beam thimble, V-13, a fixed port filled with thirty year old samples used for HFBR material surveillance studies was replaced by a new thimble and charging station at the core edge creating an irradiation facility to substitute for the original V-13. A neutron dosimetry program has begun to measure and calculate the energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  2. Natural convection burnout heat flux limit for control rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, T.E.

    1986-04-14

    Technical Standard 105-3.05, Safety Circuits, does not require the Septifoil Supply Header Pressure Very Low safety circuit for current charges. This document develops a new requirement for this circuit based on the burnout heat flux of a control rod under natural convective cooling. Specifically, the Septifoil Supply Header Pressure Very Low safety circuit will be required whenever the calculated control rod operating heat flux exceeds 155,000 pcu/ft{sup 2}-hr.

  3. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  4. AmeriFlux US-Shd Shidler- Oklahoma

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska - Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Shd Shidler- Oklahoma. Site Description - Native tall grass prairie. A prairie management prescribed burn was conducted in the spring of 1997, but not in 1996. The site was not grazed from early August 1996-September 1997. almost all plants are warm season C4 species, grasslands, temperate continental climate

  5. AmeriFlux US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and site meteorology.

  6. AmeriFlux US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Lee/sheltered in soil and meteorology.

  7. AmeriFlux MX-Lpa La Paz

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walter [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site MX-Lpa La Paz. Site Description - As evident by some very large Cardon (5-7 meters), according to Coyle and Roberts, 1975, extent vegetation has likely been around at least 200 years. Until about 15 years ago from 1996, site was used for livestock production and selective firewood extraction. However, when I look over the fence where there has been livestock activity, not much difference

  8. AmeriFlux CR-Lse La Selva

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loescher, Hank

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CR-Lse La Selva. Site Description - Site was occupied by Native Americans since 3000 B.P. practicing shifting cultivation. Some selective cutting along rivers (heart of palm). Charcoal dating indicate fires 2400 B.P. and 1100 B.P. Some clearing for pasture/cocoa production, second growth, humid tropical rain forest. Site resides on land presently owned by the Organization for Tropical Studies.

  9. Project Profile: High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Project Profile: High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Oregon logo -- This project is inactive -- Oregon State University and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are working to develop an advanced heat exchanger for use in CSP receivers. The heat exchanger has the potential to significantly increase heat transfer and reduce the size of the receiver. Approach Illustration

  10. High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control | Department of Energy Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_drost.pdf (1.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Microchannel Receiver Development - FY12 Q4 Microchannel Receiver Development - FY13 Q2

  11. Neutron flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occured. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  12. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  13. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  14. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmosphere’s effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmosphere’s effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  15. AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont Title: AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for ...

  16. AmeriFlux US-Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AmeriFlux US-Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site ...

  17. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and InnovativeAtmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Carbon Flux ...

  18. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ecosystem-scale ...

  19. AmeriFlux US-Blo Blodgett Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goldstein, Allen [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blo Blodgett Forest. Site Description - The flux tower site at Blodgett Forest is on a 1200 ha parcel of land owned by Sierra Pacific Industries in the Sierra Nevada range near Georgetown, California. The field site was established in May 1997 with continuous operation since May 1999. The site is situated in a ponderosa pine plantation, mixed-evergreen coniferous forest, located adjacent to Blodgett Forest Research Station. The Mediterranean-type climate of California is characterized by a protracted summer drought, with precipitation occurring mainly from October through May. The infrastructure for the ecosystem scale flux measurements includes a walkup measurement tower, two temperature controlled instrument buildings, and an electrical generation system powered by a diesel generator. Typical wind patterns at the site include upslope flow during the day (from the west) and downslope flow at night (from the east). The plantation is relatively flat, and contains a homogenous mixture of evenly aged ponderosa pine with other trees and shrubs scattered throughout the ecosystem making up less than 30% of the biomass. The daytime fetch for the tower measurements extends approximately 200 m to the southwest of the tower (this region contributes ~90% of the daytime flux), thus remote sensing images to be used for modeling should probably be centered approximately 100 m from the tower at an angle of 225 deg.

  20. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  1. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliaga Soplin, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the fl ux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  2. Using ARM Data to Evaluate Satellite Surface Solar Flux Retrievals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkelman, L.M.; Stackhouse, P.W.; Young, D.F.; Long, C.N.; Rutan, D.

    2005-03-18

    The accurate, long-term radiometric data collected by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) has become essential to the evaluation of surface radiation budget data from satellites. Since the spatial and temporal characteristics of data from these two sources are very different, the comparisons are typically made for long-term average values. While such studies provide a general indication of the quality of satellite flux products, more detailed analysis is required to understand specific retrieval algorithm weaknesses. Here we show how data from the ARM shortwave flux analysis (SFA) value added product (VAP) are being used to assess solar fluxes in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), release 2.5.

  3. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  4. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  5. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  6. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  7. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; et al

    2016-06-10

    In muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ~10% due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We also isolated a sample of 135±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux frommore » 9% to 6%. Finally, our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.« less

  8. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Wrc Wind River Crane Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bible, Ken; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wrc Wind River Crane Site. Site Description - Wind River Field Station flux tower site is located in the T.T. Munger Research Area of the Wind River Ranger District in the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Protected since 1926, the T.T. Munger Research Natural Area (RNA) is administered by the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station and Gifford Pinchot National Forest. The Douglas-fir/western hemlock dominant stand is approximately 500 years old and represents end points of several ecological gradients including age, biomass, structural complexity, and density of the dominant overstory species. A complete stand replacement fire, approximately 450-500 years ago, resulted in the initial establishment. No significant disturbances have occurred since the fire aside from those confined to small groups of single trees, such as overturn from high wind activity and mechanical damage from winter precipitation.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Slt Silas Little- New Jersey

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Clark, Ken [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Slt Silas Little- New Jersey. Site Description - Wildfires, prescribed fires, insect defoliation events and windstorms are the common disturbances in the NJ Pinelands. The oak-dominated forest at Silas Little Experimental Forest was most recently defoliated by Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in 2006 to 2008, with complete defoliation occuring in 2007. Following this multi-year defoliation event, oak mortality was significant, and resulted in the death of approximately 20 % of the overstory oaks, and a similar reduction in stand biomass. Previous disturbances have included windstorms and earlier Gypsy moth defoliation events in the 1990's. The last major wildfire to occur at and near the Experimental Forest was in 1963. Since then, a number of prescribed fires have been conducted in the vicinity of the Silas Little flux site.

  11. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.

  12. AmeriFlux US-LPH Little Prospect Hill

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hadley, Julian [Ecovative Design, LLC

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-LPH Little Prospect Hill. Site Description - The site was cleared for pasture, but not deeply plowed or planted, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Agriculture on the site was abandoned near the end of the 19th century. The forest within 200 to 300 m of the eddy covariance tower to the NW, W, SW, and S burned in an intense fire in 1957, which left few or no surviving trees.

  13. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  14. Solar axion flux from the axion-electron coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redondo, Javier

    2013-12-01

    In non-hadronic axion models, where axions couple to electrons at tree level, the solar axion flux is completely dominated by the ABC reactions (Atomic recombination and deexcitation, Bremsstrahlung and Compton). In this paper the ABC flux is computed from available libraries of monochromatic photon radiative opacities (OP, LEDCOP and OPAS) by exploiting the relations between axion and photon emission cross sections. These results turn to be ? 30% larger than previous estimates due to atomic recombination (free-bound electron transitions) and deexcitation (bound-bound), which where not previously taken into account.

  15. AmeriFlux US-Ced Cedar Bridge

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Clark, Ken [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ced Cedar Bridge. Site Description - Wildfires and prescribed fires are a common occurrence in the NJ Pinelands. Prior to a 1995 nonstand replacing wildfire, the stand was last burned in the very large wildfire in 1963. Plow lines were installed for fire control in December of 2007, followed by a prescribed burns in 2008 and 2013, conducted by the New Jersey Forest Fire Service. Pine looper defoliated the stand in 1998, and Gypsy moth defoliated the understory and deciduos oaks in 2007. Pitch Pines are largely unaffected by defoliation by Gypsy moth.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer site is located in the 1200 km2 Jemez River basin in north-central New Mexico. Common to elevations ranging from 3040 to 2740 m in the region, the mixed conifer stand, within the entirety of the tower footprint in all directions, provides an excellent setting for studying the seasonal interaction between snow and vegetation.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine site is located in the 1200km2 Jemez River basin of the Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico at the southern margin of the Rocky Mountain ecoregion. The Ponderosa Pine forest is the warmest and lowest (below 2700m) zone of the forests in the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Its vegetation is composed of a Ponderosa Pine (Pinus Ponderosa) overstory and a Gambel Oak (Quercus gambelii) understory.

  18. Improved approximate formulas for flux from cylindrical and rectangular sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, O.J.; Bokharee, S.A.

    1993-03-01

    This report provides two new approximate formulas for the flux at detector points outside the radial and axial extensions of a homogeneous cylindrical source and improved approximate formulas for the flux at points opposite rectangular surface sources. These formulas extend the range of geometries for which analytic approximations may be used by shield design engineers to make rapid scoping studies and check more extensive calculations for reasonableness. These formulas can be used to support skeptical, independent evaluations and are also valuable teaching tools for introducing shield designers to complex shield analyses.

  19. CRAD, Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Management in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  20. CRAD, Training- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Training Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  1. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  2. Method of making superconducting cylinders for flux detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodkind, J.M.; Stolfa, D.L.

    1971-07-06

    A method of making superconducting cylinders of the ''weak link'' type is provided. The method allows the weak link to be made much smaller than was heretofore possible, thereby greatly increasing sensitivity and operating temperature range when the cylinder is used in a flux detector. The resistance of the weak link is monitored continuously as metal is removed from the link by electrochemical action.

  3. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of amore » $q$-$$\\bar q$$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $$\\Delta y$$ falling within the window of $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $$dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$$ on the near side at $$(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $$(\\Delta \\phi$$$$\\sim$$$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$$$\\sim$$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, but there is no such prohibition for $$|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.« less

  4. Revision of HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) operating procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinty, D.M.

    1987-01-23

    This report documents modifications to the facility and changes in some operating procedures for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The topics covered include: Reactor Operation, Reactor Start-up, Reactor Safety Systems, Reactor Control Systems, Reporting Requirements, and Administrative Procedures. (FI)

  5. Use of the fast flux test facility for tritium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drell, S.; Hammer, D.; Cornwall, J.M.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.

    1996-10-25

    This report provides the results of a JASON review of the technical feasibility of using the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to generate tritium needed for the enduring United States nuclear weapons stockpile.

  6. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of a $q$-$\\bar q$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $\\Delta y$ falling within the window of $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$ on the near side at $(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $(\\Delta \\phi$$\\sim$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$\\sim$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, but there is no such prohibition for $|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.

  7. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 11 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape005_hsu_2011_o.pdf (325.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets

  8. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Tucker C.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Iverson, Erik B.; Lu, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  9. Aspect Ratio Effects in the Driven, Flux-Core Spheromak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E B; Romero-Talam?s, C A; LoDestro, L L; Wood, R D; McLean, H S

    2009-03-02

    Resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to evaluate the effects of the aspect ratio, A (length to radius ratio) in a spheromak driven by coaxial helicity injection. The simulations are benchmarked against the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [R. D. Wood, et al., Nucl. Nucl. Fusion 45, 1582 (2005)]. Amplification of the bias ('gun') poloidal flux is fit well by a linear dependence (insensitive to A) on the ratio of gun current and bias flux above a threshold dependent on A. For low flux amplifications in the simulations the n = 1 mode is coherent and the mean-field geometry looks like a tilted spheromak. Because the mode has relatively large amplitude the field lines are open everywhere, allowing helicity penetration. Strongly-driven helicity injection at A {le} 1.4 in simulations generates reconnection events which open the magnetic field lines; this state is characteristic of SSPX. Near the spheromak tilt-mode limit, A {approx} 1.67 for a cylindrical flux conserver, the tilt approaches 90{sup o}; reconnection events are not generated up to the strongest drives simulated. The time-sequence of these events suggests that they are representative of a chaotic process. Implications for spheromak experiments are discussed.

  10. Influence of Arctic cloud thermodynamic phase on surface shortwave flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A.

    2010-03-15

    As part of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer was deployed at the Barrow NSA site during April and May of 2008, and in April-October of 2009. This instrument recorded one-minute averages of surface downwelling spectral flux in the wavelength interval 350-2200 nm, thus sampling the two major near infrared windows (1.6 and 2.2 microns) in which the flux is influenced by cloud microphysical properties including thermodynamic phase and effective particle size. Aircraft in situ measurements of cloud properties show mostly mixed-phase clouds over Barrow during the campaign, but with wide variability in relative liquid versus ice water content. At fixed total optical depth, this variability in phase composition can yield of order 5-10 Watts per square meter in surface flux variability, with greater cloud attenuation of the surface flux usually occurring under higher ice water content. Thus our data show that changes in cloud phase properties, even within the 'mixed-phase' category, can affect the surface energy balance at the same order of magnitude as greenhouse gas increases. Analysis of this spectral radiometric data provides suggestions for testing new mixed-phase parameterizations in climate models.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Myb Mayberry Wetland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Myb Mayberry Wetland. Site Description - The Mayberry Wetland site is a 300-acre restored wetland on Sherman Island, north of Mayberry Slough, that is on the property of Mayberry Farms and managed by the California Department of Water Resources and Ducks Unlimited. During Summer 2010, the site was restored from a pepperweed and annual grassland pasture to a wetland through a project managed by Bryan Brock (bpbrock@water.ca.gov). A flux tower equipped to analyze energy, H2O, CO2, and CH4 fluxes was installed on October 14, 2010. At the time of installation, flooding of the site had only recently begun after extensive reconstruction of the wetland bathymetry conducted during the summer. Although some small patches of tules remain within the site, the site is a patchwork of deep and shallow open water with some remaining vegetation. Currently, there is an intention to flood-to-kill the current pepperweed and upland grasses and let the wetland plants propagate naturally, so no additional plant manipulation will occur.

  12. CRAD, Maintenance- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Maintenance Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  13. CRAD, Engineering- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Engineering Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  14. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  15. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Wu, Qiao

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  16. The distribution of ion orbit loss fluxes of ions and energy from the plasma edge across the last closed flux surface into the scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.; Schumann, Matthew T.

    2015-04-15

    A more detailed calculation strategy for the evaluation of ion orbit loss of thermalized plasma ions in the edge of tokamaks is presented. In both this and previous papers, the direct loss of particles from internal flux surfaces is calculated from the conservation of canonical angular momentum, energy, and magnetic moment. The previous result that almost all of the ion energy and particle fluxes crossing the last closed flux surface are in the form of ion orbit fluxes is confirmed, and the new result that the distributions of these fluxes crossing the last closed flux surface into the scrape-off layer are very strongly peaked about the outboard midplane is demonstrated. Previous results of a preferential loss of counter current particles leading to a co-current intrinsic rotation peaking just inside of the last closed flux surface are confirmed. Various physical details are discussed.

  17. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatfield, Kirk

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under

  18. AmeriFlux US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Intermediate Hardwoods site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The intermediate hardwoods site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  19. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  20. AmeriFlux US-MRf Mary's River (Fir) site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Law, Bev [Oregon State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-MRf Mary's River (Fir) site. Site Description - The Marys River Fir site is part of the "Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon and Northern California (ORCA)". Located in the western region of Oregon the Marys River site represents the western extent of the climate gradient that spans eastward into the semi-arid basin of central Oregon. The sites that make up the eastern extent of the ORCA climate gradient is the Metolius site network (US-Me1, US-ME2, US-ME4, US-Me5) all of which are part of the TERRA PNW project at Oregon State University.

  1. Resonance at the Rabi frequency in a superconducting flux qubit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Ya. S.; Il'ichev, E.; Oelsner, G.; Shevchenko, S. N.

    2014-10-15

    We analyze a system composed of a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. The first strong signal is used for exciting the system to a high energetic state while a second weak signal is applied for probing effective eigenstates of the system. In the framework of doubly dressed states we showed the possibility of amplification and attenuation of the probe signal by direct transitions at the Rabi frequency. We present a brief review of theoretical and experimental works where a direct resonance at Rabi frequency have been investigated in superconducting flux qubits. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics has prospects to be used as a quantum amplifier (microwave laser) or an attenuator.

  2. Study of heat flux gages using sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowding, K.J.; Blackwell, B.F.; Cochran, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    The response and operation of a heat flux gage is studied using sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis is the process by which one determines the sensitivity of a model output to changes in the model parameters. This process uses sensitivity coefficients that are defined as partial derivatives of field variables--e.g., temperature--with respect to model parameters--e.g., thermal properties and boundary conditions. Computing sensitivity coefficients, in addition to the response of a heat flux gage, aids in identifying model parameters that significantly impact the temperature response. A control volume, finite element-based code is used to implement numerical sensitivity coefficient calculations, allowing general problems to be studied. Sensitivity coefficients are discussed for the well known Gardon gage.

  3. AmeriFlux US-UMd UMBS Disturbance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Peter; Gough, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-UMd UMBS Disturbance. Site Description - The UMBS Disturbance site is an artificial disturbance site that has recently been created as part of the Forest Accelerate Succession ExperimenT (FASET). In Spring 2008, every aspen and birch tree (>6,700, ~35% canopy LAI), the dominant early successional trees, were girdled over 39 ha of the FASET treatment plot to stimulate a disturbance that will move the forest into a later successional stage, dominated by maples, oaks, and white pine. This treatment caused aspen and birch mortality within 2 - 3 years. As a result of the changed canopy structure, there is a divergence in net ecosystem exchange between the control plot (enhanced carbon uptake) and the treatment plot (reduced carbon uptake).

  4. CO2-fluxing collapses metal mobility in magmatic vapour

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Hinsberg, V. J.; Berlo, K.; Migdisov, A. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-05-18

    Magmatic systems host many types of ore deposits, including world-class deposits of copper and gold. Magmas are commonly an important source of metals and ore-forming fluids in these systems. In many magmatic-hydrothermal systems, low-density aqueous fluids, or vapours, are significant metal carriers. Such vapours are water-dominated shallowly, but fluxing of CO2-rich vapour exsolved from deeper magma is now recognised as ubiquitous during open-system magma degassing. Furthermore, we show that such CO2-fluxing leads to a sharp drop in element solubility, up to a factor of 10,000 for Cu, and thereby provides a highly efficient, but as yet unrecognised mechanism for metalmore » deposition.« less

  5. AmeriFlux US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Mature Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. The mature hardwood stand represents a typical naturally regenerated second-growth forest, free of anthropogenic disturbances for at least 70 years.

  6. FLUX ROPE FORMATION PRECEDING CORONAL MASS EJECTION ONSET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, L. M.; Kliem, B. E-mail: bhk@mssl.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-08-01

    We analyze the evolution of a sigmoidal (S-shaped) active region toward eruption, which includes a coronal mass ejection (CME) but leaves part of the filament in place. The X-ray sigmoid is found to trace out three different magnetic topologies in succession: a highly sheared arcade of coronal loops in its long-lived phase, a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) in the hours before the CME, and the first flare loops in its major transient intensity enhancement. The coronal evolution is driven by photospheric changes which involve the convergence and cancellation of flux elements under the sigmoid and filament. The data yield unambiguous evidence for the existence of a BPSS, and hence a flux rope, in the corona prior to the onset of the CME.

  7. Electron flux at the surface of titanium tritide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kherani, N.P.; Shmayda, W.T. . Research Center)

    1992-03-01

    Certain metal tritides have been investigated as reliable and quasi-constant sources of electrons for a number of practical purposes with particular attention to the dependence of the electron emission rate as a function of temperature. The objective of this paper is to carry out simple calculations that illustrate the relative ranking of a numbed of binary metal tritides with respect to the maximum achievable electron flux; examine semi-empirically the energy spectrum of the electrons emanating from the surface of a titanium tritide film; and present experimental measurements of the electron emission rate from the surface of titanium tritide films. THe results suggest that beryllium tritide would yield the greatest electron emission rate of all the metal tritides; the emitted flux has a significant component of secondary electrons; and, the total electron emission rate is quite sensitive to the condition of the emitting surface.

  8. AmeriFlux US-Seg Sevilleta grassland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Seg Sevilleta grassland. Site Description - The Sevilleta Desert Grassland site is located within the McKenzie Flats area of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), central New Mexico. Historically, this area has been used for livestock grazing; however, the McKenzie Flats have not been grazed since 1973 and the effects of this previous grazing are considered negligible for the purposes of this study. As the name suggests, McKenzie Flats is an extensive (~130 km2), nearly flat, mixed-species desert grassland bounded on the east by Los Pinos Mountains and on the west by the Rio Grande.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Ses Sevilleta shrubland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ses Sevilleta shrubland. Site Description - The Sevilleta Desert Shrubland site is located within the McKenzie Flats area of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), central New Mexico. Historically, this area has been used for livestock grazing; however, the McKenzie Flats have not been grazed since 1973 and the effects of this previous grazing are considered negligible for the purposes of this study. As the name suggests, McKenzie Flats is an extensive (~130 km2), nearly flat, mixed-species desert grassland bounded on the east by Los Pinos Mountains and on the west by the Rio Grande.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Twt Twitchell Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Twt Twitchell Island. Site Description - The Twitchell Island site is a rice paddy that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. While Bare Peat field was leveled for rice planting, the tower was installed on April 3, 2009. The rice paddy was converted from corn in 2007. In Summer 2009, Bispyribac-sodium and Pendimethalin herbicides were applied to the fields prior to rice planting and flooding, then pesticide and fertilizer application took place. Each year after rice is planted in the spring by drilling, the field is flooded. Then, the field is drained in early fall, rice is harvested, and the field site is moved.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  12. AmeriFlux US-Snd Sherman Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Snd Sherman Island. Site Description - The Sherman Island site is a 38-ha peatland pasture, west of the Delta, that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. The site is degraded and heavily grazed with ~100 cattle in the area that circumscribes the main field and fetch. The island has been drained and farmed since the late 1800s. The soils of the Delta overlay deep peat that was sequestered over the Holocene period as sea-level rose and flooding of archaic wetlands prevented decomposition of roots and stems. Hence, the upper 10 m of peatland has been lost to decomposition, compaction, and subsidence. Today a mineral soil overlays a peat layer, which coincides with the general depth of the water table.

  13. AmeriFlux US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Rich; Novick, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest. Site Description - Owned by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), the Morgan Monroe State Forest, the site's namesake, is operated thanks to the long-term agreement between Indiana University and IDNR. The first settlers cleared the surrounding ridges for farming, but were largely unsuccessful. The state of Indiana purchased the land in 1929, creating the Morgan Monroe State Forest. Many of the trees in the tower footprint are 60-80 years old, surviving selective logging that ended over the past 10 years. Today, the forest is a secondary successional broadleaf forest within the maple-beech to oak hickory transition zone of the eastern deciduous forest.

  14. Vorticity Preserving Flux Corrected Transport Scheme for the Acoustic Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lung, Tyler B.; Roe, Phil; Morgan, Nathaniel R.

    2012-08-15

    Long term research goals are to develop an improved cell-centered Lagrangian Hydro algorithm with the following qualities: 1. Utilizes Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) to achieve second order accuracy with multidimensional physics; 2. Does not rely on the one-dimensional Riemann problem; and 3. Implements a form of vorticity control. Short term research goals are to devise and implement a 2D vorticity preserving FCT solver for the acoustic equations on an Eulerian mesh: 1. Develop a flux limiting mechanism for systems of governing equations with symmetric wave speeds; 2. Verify the vorticity preserving properties of the scheme; and 3. Compare the performance of the scheme to traditional MUSCL-Hancock and other algorithms.

  15. IS VOYAGER 1 INSIDE AN INTERSTELLAR FLUX TRANSFER EVENT?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma wave observations from Voyager 1 have recently shown large increases in plasma density, to about 0.1 cm{sup –3}, consistent with the density of the local interstellar medium. However, corresponding magnetic field observations continue to show the spiral magnetic field direction observed throughout the inner heliosheath. These apparently contradictory observations may be reconciled if Voyager 1 is inside an interstellar flux transfer event—similar to flux transfer events routinely seen at the Earth's magnetopause. If this were the case, Voyager 1 remains inside the heliopause and based on the Voyager 1 observations we can determine the polarity of the interstellar magnetic field for the first time.

  16. Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A traveling-wave device is provided with the conventional moving pistons eliminated. Acoustic energy circulates in a direction through a fluid within a torus. A side branch may be connected to the torus for transferring acoustic energy into or out of the torus. A regenerator is located in the torus with a first heat exchanger located on a first side of the regenerator downstream of the regenerator relative to the direction of the circulating acoustic energy; and a second heat exchanger located on an upstream side of the regenerator. The improvement is a mass flux suppressor located in the torus to minimize time-averaged mass flux of the fluid. In one embodiment, the device further includes a thermal buffer column in the torus to thermally isolate the heat exchanger that is at the operating temperature of the device.

  17. A field investigation of sulfate fluxes to a deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, B.B.; Matt, D.R.; McMillen, R.T.; Womack, J.D. ); Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.; Cook, D.R.; Lindberg, S.E.; de Pena, R.G.; Thomson, D.W.; and others

    1989-09-20

    An intensive investigation of particulate sulfur fluxes to a deciduous forest was conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during May 1983, as part of a multilaboratory program to study the dry deposition of airborne trace gases and aerosols to vegetated surfaces. At this time, the leaf area was approximately 50% of the maximum and was rapidly increasing. Eddy correlation methods were used to measure fluxes of submicron particulate sulfur (presumably sulfate), of submicron particles in three different size ranges, and of ozone above the forest canopy. The measured deposition velocities (v{sub d}) of particulate sulfur peaked at about 1 cm s{sup {minus}1} in daytime, but dropped to near zero at night, with a long-term average of about 0.6 cm s{sup {minus}1}. When scaled with friction velocity, these values of v{sub d} are consistent with similar measurements taken previously over different surfaces. Measurements and analyses indicate that the flux divergence of particulate sulfur should have caused an error no greater than {plus minus}0.05 cm s{sup {minus}1} in v{sub d} estimates. For very small particles (less than 0.1 {mu}m diameter), measured values of v{sub d} were similar to those for particulate sulfate, but deposition velocities for particles in the accumulation size range decreased as particle size increased, and upward components of fluxes were found in daytime convective conditions. During this study, measurements were also made of sulfur deposition to polycarbonate petrie dishes placed in the forest canopy, and to the bucket of a standard wet-dry collector in a forest clearing. These surrogate surface studies produced much smaller values of v{sub d} for sulfate than those derived from eddy correlation, when no scaling as a function of leaf area relative to ground area was applied. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  18. Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the Cabauw

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research, the Netherlands Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research, the Netherlands Knap, Wouter Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI Los, Alexander KNMI Boers, Reinout KNMI Category: Radiation The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR), the Netherlands (52.0N, 4.9E), contains an extensive set of instruments for atmospheric research, such as radar, lidar

  19. Fast Flux Test Facility Closure Project - Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEACH, R.R.

    2002-09-26

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Closure Project, Project Management Plan, Revision 5, provides the scope, cost, and schedule to achieve the most cost effective and expeditious closure of the FFTF to an assumed final end-state with the reactor vessel and the containment building, below the 5504 grade level, being entombed in place. Closure will be completed by December 2009 at a cost of $547 million.

  20. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2012-01-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. This report is one in a series documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors

  1. Startup Testing of the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Polzin, David L.

    2010-06-30

    This paper is one in a series documenting the current effort to retrieve, secure, and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors. . Information from this testing is being retrieved under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program conducted by the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) of the DOE. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to be designed, constructed, and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-11-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. This report provides a status update documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors.

  3. Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux New processing technique to develop ionic transport membranes with improved ionic and electronic conductivity Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Brinkman_MRS_Spring_v2.pdf (756 KB) Dr. Kyle Brinkman Dr. Kyle Brinkman

  4. Joint Downscale Fluxes of Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Rotating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stratified Boussinesq Flows | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Joint Downscale Fluxes of Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Rotating Stratified Boussinesq Flows Authors: Kurien, S., Aluie, H. We use high-resolution simulations of Boussinesq flows, forced in the large-scales, with fixed rotation and stable stratification along the vertical axis, to study the cascades of energy and potential enstrophy to small-scales in three different regimes of stratification and rotation. For strongly

  5. Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of

  6. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF)more » to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.« less

  7. TRANSIENT BRIGHTENINGS ASSOCIATED WITH FLUX CANCELLATION ALONG A FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K. E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov

    2013-02-15

    Filament channels coincide with large-scale polarity inversion lines of the photospheric magnetic field, where flux cancellation continually takes place. High-cadence Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) images recorded in He II 30.4 nm and Fe IX 17.1 nm during 2010 August 22 reveal numerous transient brightenings occurring along the edge of a filament channel within a decaying active region, where SDO line-of-sight magnetograms show strong opposite-polarity flux in close contact. The brightenings are elongated along the direction of the filament channel, with linear extents of several arcseconds, and typically last a few minutes; they sometimes have the form of multiple two-sided ejections with speeds on the order of 100 km s{sup -1}. Remarkably, some of the brightenings rapidly develop into larger scale events, forming sheetlike structures that are eventually torn apart by the diverging flows in the filament channel and ejected in opposite directions. We interpret the brightenings as resulting from reconnections among filament-channel field lines having one footpoint located in the region of canceling flux. In some cases, the flow patterns that develop in the channel may bring successive horizontal loops together and cause a cascade to larger scales.

  8. AmeriFlux US-An3 Anaktuvuk River Unburned

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hobbie, John [Marine Biological Laboratory; Rocha, Adrian [Marine Biological Laboratory; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-An3 Anaktuvuk River Unburned. Site Description - The Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska started on July 16, 2007 by lightning. It continued until the end of September when nearby lakes had already frozen over and burned >256,000 acres, creating a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. The Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn, Moderate Burn, and Unburned sites are 40 km to the west of the nearest road and were selected in late May 2008 to determine the effects of the fire on carbon, water, and energy exchanges during the growing season. Because the fire had burned through September of the previous year, initial deployment of flux towers occurred prior to any significant vegetative regrowth, and our sampling campaign captured the full growing season in 2008. The Unburned site was located in a large area of tundra that was unaffected by the fire.

  9. The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-12-28

    Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold Mmax gives rise to O(10272,000) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O(10–3000). The fourfold Mmax arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base Bmax, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E89 × F48 × (G 2 × SU(2))16, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune anmore » SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in Mmax, or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E8 factor. Furthermore, the results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on Mmax.« less

  10. Chemistry and Properties of Complex Intermetallics from Metallic Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-03-28

    This project investigated the reaction chemistry and synthesis of new intermetallic materials with complex compositions and structures using metallic fluxes as solvents. It was found that the metallic fluxes offer several key advantages in facilitating the formation and crystal growth of new materials. The fluxes mostly explored were liquid aluminum, gallium and indium. The main purpose of this project was to exploit the potential of metallic fluxes as high temperature solvent for materials discovery in the broad class of intermetallics. This work opened new paths to compound formation. We discovered many new Si (or Ge)-based compounds with novel structures, bonding and physicochemical properties. We created new insights about the reaction chemistry that is responsible for stabilizing the new materials. We also studied the structural and compositional relationships to understand their properties. We investigated the use of Group-13 metals Al, Ga and In as solvents and have generated a wide variety of new results including several new ternary and quaternary materials with fascinating structures and properties as well as new insights as to how these systems are stabilized in the fluxes. The project focused on reactions of metals from the rare earth element family in combination with transition metals with Si and Ge. For example molten gallium has serves both as a reactive and non-reactive solvent in the preparation and crystallization of intermetallics in the system RE/M/Ga/Ge(Si). Molten indium behaves similarly in that it too is an excellent reaction medium, but it gives compounds that are different from those obtained from gallium. Some of the new phase identified in the aluminide class are complex phases and may be present in many advanced Al-matrix alloys. Such phases play a key role in determining (either beneficially or detrimentally) the mechanical properties of advanced Al-matrix alloys. This project enhanced our basic knowledge of the solid state chemistry

  11. Evaluation of contaminant flux rates from sediments of Sinclair Inlet, WA, using a benthic flux sampling device. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, D.B.; Lieberman, S.H.; Reimers, C.E.; Young, D.

    1993-02-01

    A Benthic Flux Sampling Device (BFSD) was demonstrated on site to determine the mobility of contaminants in sediments off the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) in Sinclair Inlet, WA. Quantification of toxicant flux from the sediments will support ongoing assessment studies and facilitate the design of appropriate remediation strategies, if required. In general, where release of contaminants was found, the measured rates do not represent a significant source relative to other major inputs such as sewer discharges, nonpoint source runoff, and marinas. They may, however, represent an exposure pathway for benthic biota with a subsequent potential for toxicological effects and/or bioaccumulation. Environmental assessment, CIVAPP:Toxicity, CIVAPP:Marine chemistry, Hazardous waste.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Dk2 Duke Forest-hardwoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novick, Kim; Oishi, Chris; Stoy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dk2 Duke Forest-hardwoods. Site Description - private land adjacent to the Duke Forest in November 2002

  13. AmeriFlux US-ARM ARM Southern Great Plains site- Lamont

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ARM ARM Southern Great Plains site- Lamont. Site Description - Central facility tower crop field

  14. AmeriFlux BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulden, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest. Site Description - Cleared forest. Logged site is near km 83 along BR-183.

  15. AmeriFlux CA-TP3 Ontario - Turkey Point 1974 Plantation White Pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arain, M. Altaf

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP3 Ontario - Turkey Point 1974 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - White pine plantation established in 1974 over sandy abandoned land

  16. AmeriFlux CA-TP4 Ontario - Turkey Point 1939 Plantation White Pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arain, M. Altaf

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP4 Ontario - Turkey Point 1939 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - White pine plantation established in 1939 over sandy abandoned land

  17. AmeriFlux CA-TP2 Ontario - Turkey Point 1989 Plantation White Pine

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP2 Ontario - Turkey Point 1989 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - Plantation established in 1989 over sandy agriculture land

  18. Six-Week Time Series Of Eddy Covariance CO2 Flux At Mammoth Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    high, spatially heterogeneous CO2 emission rates. EC CO2 fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m- 2 d- 1 (mean 1346 g m- 2 d- 1). Using footprint modeling, EC CO2 fluxes were...

  19. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION OF THE IRAC INSTRUMENT ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FLUX STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Deustua, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Engelbracht, C.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ardila, D.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2011-05-15

    The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of {approx}2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 {mu}m band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% {+-} 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 {mu}m result.

  20. Neutrino Fluxes from NUHM LSP Annihilations in the Sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olive, Keith

    2011-08-12

    We extend our previous studies of the neutrino fluxes expected from neutralino LSP annihilations inside the Sun to include variants of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with squark, slepton and gaugino masses constrained to be universal at the GUT scale, but allowing one or two non-universal supersymmetry-breaking parameters contributing to the Higgs masses (NUHM1,2). As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM) with universal Higgs masses, there are large regions of the NUHM parameter space where the LSP density inside the Sun is not in equilibrium, so that the annihilation rate may be far below the capture rate, and there are also large regions where the capture rate is not dominated by spin-dependent LSP-proton scattering. The spectra possible in the NUHM are qualitatively similar to those in the CMSSM. We calculate neutrino-induced muon fluxes above a threshold energy of 10 GeV, appropriate for the IceCube/DeepCore detector, for points where the NUHM yields the correct cosmological relic density for representative choices of the NUHM parameters. We find that the IceCube/DeepCore detector can probe regions of the NUHM parameter space in addition to analogues of the focus-point strip and the tip of the coannihilation strip familiar from the CMSSM. These include regions with enhanced Higgsino-gaugino mixing in the LSP composition, that occurs where neutralino mass eigenstates cross over. On the other hand, rapid-annihilation funnel regions in general yield neutrino fluxes that are unobservably small.

  1. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  2. GRANULAR-SCALE MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, M.; Low, B. C.; Lites, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of five granular-scale magnetic flux cancellations just outside the moat region of a sunspot by using accurate spectropolarimetric measurements and G-band images with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard Hinode. The opposite-polarity magnetic elements approach a junction of the intergranular lanes and then collide with each other there. The intergranular junction has strong redshifts, darker intensities than the regular intergranular lanes, and surface converging flows. This clearly confirms that the converging and downward convective motions are essential for the approaching process of the opposite-polarity magnetic elements. However, the motion of the approaching magnetic elements does not always match with their surrounding surface flow patterns in our observations. This suggests that, in addition to the surface flows, subsurface downward convective motions and subsurface magnetic connectivities are important for understanding the approach and collision of the opposite-polarity elements observed in the photosphere. We find that the horizontal magnetic field appears between the canceling opposite-polarity elements in only one event. The horizontal fields are observed along the intergranular lanes with Doppler redshifts. This cancellation is most probably a result of the submergence (retraction) of low-lying photospheric magnetic flux. In the other four events, the horizontal field is not observed between the opposite-polarity elements at any time when they approach and cancel each other. These approaching magnetic elements are more concentrated rather than gradually diffused, and they have nearly vertical fields even while they are in contact each other. We thus infer that the actual flux cancellations are highly time-dependent events at scales less than a pixel of Hinode SOT (about 200 km) near the solar surface.

  3. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRCs current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols

  4. High-flux solar photon processes: Opportunities for applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, J.I.; Coy, S.L.; Herzog, H.; Shorter, J.A.; Schlamp, M.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall goal of this study was to identify new high-flux solar photon (HFSP) processes that show promise of being feasible and in the national interest. Electric power generation and hazardous waste destruction were excluded from this study at sponsor request. Our overall conclusion is that there is promise for new applications of concentrated solar photons, especially in certain aspects of materials processing and premium materials synthesis. Evaluation of the full potential of these and other possible applications, including opportunities for commercialization, requires further research and testing. 100 refs.

  5. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  6. Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogeshwar Sahai

    2007-07-31

    Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy

  7. Capacitively coupled RF voltage probe having optimized flux linkage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1999-02-02

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  8. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2006-08-15

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  9. Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartier, J.; Casoli, P.; Chappert, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

  10. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  11. Measurements and phenomenological modeling of magnetic flux buildup in spheromak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Hooper, E. B.; Jayakumar, R.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Moller, J. M.

    2008-04-15

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, and R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (i) the initial spheromak formation, i.e., when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form closed flux in the toroidal average sense, and (ii) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  12. HOMOLOGOUS FLUX ROPES OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-12-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of four homologous flux ropes in the active region (AR) 11745 on 2013 May 20-22. The four flux ropes are all above the neutral line of the AR, with endpoints anchoring at the same region, and have a generally similar morphology. The first three flux ropes rose with a velocity of less than 30km s{sup 1} after their appearance, and subsequently their intensities at 131 decreased and the flux ropes became obscure. The fourth flux rope erupted last, with a speed of about 130km s{sup 1} and formed a coronal mass ejection (CME). The associated filament showed an obvious anti-clockwise twist motion at the initial stage, and the twist was estimated at 4?. This indicates that kink instability possibly triggers the early rise of the fourth flux rope. The activated filament material was spatially within the flux rope and showed consistent evolution in the early stages. Our findings provide new clues for understanding the characteristics of flux ropes. Firstly, multiple flux ropes are successively formed at the same location during an AR evolution process. Secondly, a slow-rise flux rope does not necessarily result in a CME, and a fast-eruption flux rope does result in a CME.

  13. Stabilization of the fan instability: Electron flux relaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2006-12-15

    This paper presents some relevant simulation results on the interaction between electrostatic waves and suprathermal electron fluxes at anomalous cyclotron and Landau resonances. In particular, the case of a dense and continuous wave spectrum is studied. It is shown that, after the waves excited by the fan instability at anomalous cyclotron resonances have reached a first saturation stage due to particle trapping, the process of 'dynamical resonance merging' takes place, which leads to a strong amplification of the waves' amplitudes. The Landau resonances do not play an essential role in the total energy exchange between the particles and the waves, as they mainly help to smooth the peaks rising during the evolution of the electron parallel velocity distribution and contribute to damping. Moreover, the paper shows that at the asymptotic stage of the interaction, when the waves' amplitudes are saturated and the electron flux is relaxed, some physical features clearly do not fit the predictions of the well-known quasilinear theory. The careful examination of a huge number of trajectories of particles moving in the effective field of the wave packet allows to state that most of the particles involved in the resonant interactions are trapped by several waves simultaneously. In this so-called 'multitrapping' process, the particles perform complex oscillatory motions which are far from what is expected from the quasilinear theory, where the diffusive behavior of the particles in the velocity space results from small successive random steps.

  14. AmeriFlux US-Ton Tonzi Ranch

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ton Tonzi Ranch. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Tonzi Ranch site is classified as an oak savanna woodland on privately owned land. Managed by local rancher, Russell Tonzi, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. The overstory is dominated by blue oak trees (40% of total vegetation) with intermittent grey pine trees (3 trees/ha). Understory species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. These two distinctive layers operate in and out from one another. Growing season of the understory is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May. In contrast, the deciduous blue oak trees are dormant during the rainy winter months and reach maximum LAI in April. The blue oak ecosystem rings the Great Central Valley of California, inhabiting the lower reaches of the Sierra Nevada foothills.

  15. TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Vörös, Zoltán; Narita, Yasuhito; Bruno, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic flux tubes in the solar wind can be twisted as they are transported from the solar surface, where the tubes are twisted due to photospheric motions. It is suggested that the twisted magnetic tubes can be detected as the variation of total (thermal+magnetic) pressure during their passage through the observing satellite. We show that the total pressure of several observed twisted tubes resembles the theoretically expected profile. The twist of the isolated magnetic tube may explain the observed abrupt changes of magnetic field direction at tube walls. We have also found some evidence that the flux tube walls can be associated with local heating of the plasma and elevated proton and electron temperatures. For the tubes aligned with the Parker spiral, the twist angle can be estimated from the change of magnetic field direction. Stability analysis of twisted tubes shows that the critical twist angle of the tube with a homogeneous twist is 70°, but the angle can further decrease due to the motion of the tube with respect to the solar wind stream. The tubes with a stronger twist are unstable to the kink instability, therefore they probably cannot reach 1 AU.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Oho Oak Openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Oho Oak Openings. Site Description - The Ohio Oak Openings site is located within the Oak Openings Preserve Metropark of northwest Ohio, one of the few remaining oak woodlands/savanna/prairie complexes in the Midwest. Declared one of the "One of America's Last Great Places" by the Nature Conservancy the area consists of four main vegetation types: Oak Woodlands, Oak Savanna, Floodplain Forests and Wet Prairies. The stand surrounding the tower is mainly Oak Woodlands dominated by red, white and black oaks with a relatively abundant population of red maples indicating high soil moisture retention and a history of limited fire disturbances. Most of the area was cleared for agriculture at the time of Euro-American settlements in the mid to late-19th century. A large fraction of the cleared land was later abandoned due to the poor sandy soils. These areas reverted to Oak Savannas and in cases where fire was limited progressively made the transition to Oak Woodlands. Today patches of the forest are burned every few years as part of prescribed burning cycle to control stand density.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Dix Fort Dix

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Clark, Ken [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dix Fort Dix. Site Description - The Fort Dix site is located in the upland forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens, the largest continuous forested landscape on the Northeastern coastal plain. Upland forests occupy 62% of the 1.1 million acre Pine Barrens and can be divided into three dominant stand types, Oak/Pine (19.1%), Pine/Oak (13.1%), and Pitch Pine/Scrub oak (14.3%). The majority of mature upland forests are the product of regeneration following late 19th century logging and charcoaling activities. Gypsy moths first appeared in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey in 1966. Since the time of arrival, the upland forest stands have undergone several episodes of defoliation, the most significant occurred in 1972, 1981, and 1990. In recent years, the overstory oaks and understory oaks and shrubs of the Fort Dix stand, underwent two periods of defoliation by Gypsy moth, in 2006 and 2007. During these two years, maximum leaf area reached only 70% of the 2005 summer maximum.

  18. Radiation dosimetry at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.

    1998-02-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. The core is 53 cm high and 48 cm in diameter and has an active volume of 97 liters. The HFBR, which was designed to operate at forty mega-watts, 40 NW, was upgraded to operate at 60 NW. Since 1991, it has operated at 30 MW. In a normal 30 MW operating cycle the HFBR operates 24 hours a day for thirty days, with a six to fourteen day shutdown period for refueling and maintenance work. While most reactors attempts to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9. The HFBR neutron dosimetry effort described here compares measured and calculated energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  19. AmeriFlux US-WPT Winous Point North Marsh

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo / Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WPT Winous Point North Marsh. Site Description - The marsh site has been owned by the Winous Point Shooting Club since 1856 and has been managed by wildlife biologists since 1946. The hydrology of the marsh is relatively isolated by the surrounding dikes and drainages and only receives drainage from nearby croplands through three connecting ditches. Since 2001, the marsh has been managed to maintain year-round inundation with the lowest water levels in September. Within the 0–250 m fetch of the tower, the marsh comprises 42.9% of floating-leaved vegetation, 52.7% of emergent vegetation, and 4.4% of dike and upland during the growing season. Dominant emergent plants include narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia), rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos), and bur reed (Sparganium americanum). Common floating-leaved species are water lily (Nymphaea odorata) and American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) with foliage usually covering the water surface from late May to early October.

  20. AmeriFlux US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest. Site Description - The Bartlett Experimental Forest (448170 N, 71830 W) is located within the White Mountains National Forest in north-central New Hampshire, USA. The 1050 ha forest extends across an elevational range from 200 to 900 m a.s.l. It was established in 1931 and is managed by the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station in Durham, NH. The climate is humid continental with short, cool summers (mean July temperature, 19.8C) and long, cold winters (mean January temperature, 9.8C). Annual precipitation averages 130 cm and is distributed evenly throughout the year. Soils are developed from glacial till and are predominantly shallow, well-drained spodosols. At lowto mid-elevation, vegetation is dominated by northern hardwoods (American beech, Fagus grandifolia; sugar maple, Acer saccharum; yellow birch, Betula alleghaniensis; with some red maple, Acer rubrum and paper birch, Betula papyrifera). Conifers (eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis; eastern white pine, Pinus strobus; red spruce, Picea rubens) are occasionally found intermixed with the more abundant deciduous species but are generally confined to the highest (red spruce) and lowest (hemlock and pine) elevations. In 2003, the site was adopted as a NASA North American Carbon Program (NACP) Tier-2 field research and validation site. A 26.5 m high tower was installed in a low-elevation northern hardwood stand in November, 2003, for the purpose of making eddy covariance measurements of the forest–atmosphere exchange of CO2, H2O and radiant energy. Continuous flux and meteorological measurements began in January, 2004, and are ongoing. Average canopy height in the vicinity of the tower is approximately 20–22 m. In the tower footprint, the forest is predominantly classified into red maple, sugar maple, and American beech forest types. Leaf area index in the vicinity of the tower is 3.6 as measured

  1. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang Gao, Dong

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  2. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  3. An advective atmospheric mixed layer model for ocean modeling purposes: Global simulation of surface heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, jR., Benno Blumenthal, M.; Kushnir, Y.

    1995-08-01

    A simple model of the lowest layer of the atmosphere is developed for coupling to ocean models used to simulate sea surface temperature (SST). The model calculates the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat in terms of variables that an ocean model either calculates (SST) or is forced by (winds). It is designed to avoid the need to specify observed atmospheric data (other than surface winds), or the SST, in the surface flux calculations of ocean models and, hence, to allow a realistic representation of the feedbacks between SST and the fluxes. The modeled layer is considered to be either a dry convective layer or the subcloud layer that underlies marine clouds. The turbulent fluxes are determined through a balance of horizontal advection and diffusion, the surface flux and the flux at the mixed layer top, and, for temperature, radiative cooling. Reasonable simulations of the global distribution of latent and sensible heat flux are obtained. This includes the large fluxes that occur east of the Northern Hemisphere continents in winter that were found to be related to both diffusion (taken to be a parameterization of baroclinic eddies) and advection of cold, dry air from the continent. However, east of North America during winter the sensible heat flux is underestimated and, generally, the region of enhanced fluxes does not extend far enough east compared to observations. Reasons for these discrepancies are discussed and remedies suggested. 47 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Large-volume flux closure during plasmoid-mediated reconnection in coaxial helicity injection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.

    2016-03-23

    A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form amore » narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. Furthermore, these results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.« less

  5. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-05-07

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.

  6. Performance and safety parameters for the high flux isotope reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm III, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm Consulting, LLC, 945 Laurel Hill Road, Knoxville, TN 37923 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDF/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data. (authors)

  7. Performance and Safety Parameters for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [Primm Consulting, LLC

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDV/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared when available with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data.

  8. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  9. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  10. Fast Flux Test Facility Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS, J.A.

    1999-04-13

    Procedure Number HNF-PRO-408, revision 0, paragraph 1.0, ''Purpose,'' and paragraph 2.0, ''Requirements for Facility Management of Asbestos,'' relate building inspection and requirements for documentation of existing asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) per each building assessment. This documentation shall be available to all personnel (including contractor personnel) entering the facility at their request. Corrective action was required by 400 Area Integrated Annual Appraisal/Audit for Fiscal Year 1992 (IAA-92-0007) to provide this notification documentation. No formal method had been developed to communicate the location and nature of ACBM to maintenance personnel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) 400 Area. The scope of this Data Package Document is to locate and evaluate any ACBM found at FFTF which constitutes a baseline. This includes all buildings within the protected area. These findings are compiled from earlier reports, numerous work packages and engineering evaluations of employee findings.

  11. Five years operating experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumhardt, R. J.; Bechtold, R. A.

    1987-04-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 Mw(t), loop-type, sodium-cooled, fast neutron reactor. It is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the United States Department of Energy at Richland, Washington. The FFTF is a multipurpose test reactor used to irradiate fuels and materials for programs such as Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) research, fusion research, space power systems, isotope production and international research. FFTF is also used for testing concepts to be used in Advanced Reactors which will be designed to maximize passive safety features and not require complex shutdown systems to assure safe shutdown and heat removal. The FFTF also provides experience in the operation and maintenance of a reactor having prototypic components and systems typical of large LMR (LMFBR) power plants. The 5 year operational performance of the FFTF reactor is discussed in this report. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Benchmarking transition costs for the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a government-owned, 400-MW(thermal), sodium-cooled test reactor operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company. The reactor is shut down and is undergoing a transition to a long-term surveillance and maintenance state. The mission strategy for the FFTF transition project is to place the FFTF in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, completing the transition phase activities as soon as possible to drive down the current annual surveillance and maintenance costs from approximately $26 million/yr to roughly $1.5 million/yr. The effort to establish the shutdown and transition costs for this 7-yr, $260 million activity is a first of a kind for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

  14. Pair creation in an electric flux tube and chiral anomaly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwazaki, Aiichi [International Economics and Politics, Nishogakusha University, Ohi Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Using the chiral anomaly, we discuss the pair creation of massless fermions under the effect of a magnetic field B-vector when an electric flux tube E-vector parallel to B-vector is switched on. The tube is axially symmetric and infinitely long. For the constraint B>>E, we can analytically obtain the spatial and temporal behaviors of the number density of the fermions, the azimuthal magnetic field generated by the fermions, and so on. We find that the lifetime t{sub c} of the electric field becomes shorter as the width of the tube becomes narrower. Applying it to the plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, we find that the color electric field decays quickly such that t{sub c}{approx_equal}Q{sub s}{sup -1}, in which Q{sub s} is the saturation momentum.

  15. Pyroprocessing of Fast Flux Test Facility Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; G.L. Fredrickson; G.G. Galbreth; D. Vaden; M.D. Elliott; J.C. Price; E.M. Honeyfield; M.N. Patterson; L. A. Wurth

    2013-10-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electrorefined uranium products exceeded 99%.

  16. Pyroprocessing of fast flux test facility nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B.R.; Wurth, L.A.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Galbreth, G.G.; Vaden, D.; Elliott, M.D.; Price, J.C.; Honeyfield, E.M.; Patterson, M.N.

    2013-07-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electro-refined uranium products exceeded 99%. (authors)

  17. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  18. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselinovi?, N. Dragi?, A. Maleti?, D. Jokovi?, D. Savi?, M. Banjanac, R. Udovi?i?, V. Ani?in, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  19. Theory of the Knight Shift and Flux Quantization in Superconductors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cooper, L. N.; Lee, H. J.; Schwartz, B. B.; Silvert, W.

    1962-05-01

    Consequences of a generalization of the theory of superconductivity that yields a finite Knight shift are presented. In this theory, by introducing an electron-electron interaction that is not spatially invariant, the pairing of electrons with varying total momentum is made possible. An expression for Xs (the spin susceptibility in the superconducting state) is derived. In general Xs is smaller than Xn, but is not necessarily zero. The precise magnitude of Xs will vary from sample to sample and will depend on the nonuniformity of the samples. There should be no marked size dependence and no marked dependence on the strength of the magnetic field; this is in accord with observation. The basic superconducting properties are retained, but there are modifications in the various electromagnetic and thermal properties since the electrons paired are not time sequences of this generalized theory on flux quantization arguments are presented.(auth)

  20. On the level of the cosmic ray sea flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casanova, S.; Aharonian, F. A.; Gabici, S.; Torii, K.; Fukui, Y.; Onishi, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawamura, A.

    2009-04-08

    The study of Galactic diffuse {gamma} radiation combined with the knowledge of the distribution of the molecular hydrogen in the Galaxy offers a unique tool to probe the cosmic ray flux in the Galaxy. A methodology to study the level of the cosmic ray 'sea' and to unveil target-accelerator systems in the Galaxy, which makes use of the data from the high resolution survey of the Galactic molecular clouds performed with the NANTEN telescope and of the data from {gamma}-ray instruments, has been developed. Some predictions concerning the level of the cosmic ray 'sea' and the {gamma}-ray emission close to cosmic ray sources for instruments such as Fermi and Cherenkov Telescope Array are presented.

  1. Relativistic MHD simulations of poynting flux-driven jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2014-01-20

    Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGNs. These jets are already assumed to be being launched from the vicinity (?10{sup 3} gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al., and we follow the propagation of these jets to ?parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When ?, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to nonaxisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability being convective and the fact that the jet magnetic fields are rapidly evolving on Alfvnic time scales. We present the detailed jet properties and show that far from the jet launching region, a substantial amount of magnetic energy has been transformed into kinetic energy and thermal energy, producing a jet magnetization number ? < 1. In addition, we have also studied the effects of a gas pressure supported 'disk' surrounding the injection region, and qualitatively similar global jet behaviors were observed. We stress that jet collimation, CDIs, and the subsequent energy transitions are intrinsic features of current-carrying jets.

  2. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  3. In-core flux sensor evaluations at the ATR critical facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois Villard

    2014-09-01

    Flux detector evaluations were completed as part of a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / French Atomic Energy commission (CEA) ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to compare the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of several flux detectors. Special fixturing developed by INL allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various ATRC core positions and perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector cross-calibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program include the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers; specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) developed by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA); specially developed commercial SPNDs from Argonne National Laboratory. As shown in this article, data obtained from this program provides important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and flux data required for bench-marking models in the ATR V&V Upgrade Initiative.

  4. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali Meidianti, Rahma Wildian, Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto

    2014-09-30

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.

  5. Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

    1983-03-01

    This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

  6. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Facilities » High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Neutron Scattering Facilities High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Quick

  7. AmeriFlux US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Suzuki, Rikie [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest. Site Description - This site is located in a blackspruce forest within the property of the Poker Flat Research Range, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Time-lapse image of the canopy is measured at the same time to relate flux data to satellite images.

  8. Gas Flux Sampling At Brady Hot Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brady Hot Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Brady Hot Springs Area...

  9. Advective Flux in Relation to Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange at the NIWOT Ridge Ameriflux Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell K. Monson

    2005-06-09

    This report describes final progress made on measurements of advective CO2 flux to the overall forest carbon budget at the Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site in Colorado.

  10. Gas Flux Sampling At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  11. Gas Flux Sampling At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  12. Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  13. Gas Flux Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Maui Area...

  14. Gas Flux Sampling At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  15. ECOR VAP Flux Corrections, Gap-filling, and Results David R....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECOR VAP Flux Corrections, Gap-filling, and Results David R. Cook, Meredith Franklin, Donna J. Holdridge Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL This work was supported by the...

  16. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Fluor Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility Recertification- October 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Fluor Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  17. Observed and modeled ecosystem isoprene fluxes from an oak-dominated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ecosystem isoprene fluxes from an oak-dominated temperate forest and the influence of drought stress Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observed and modeled ecosystem ...

  18. Enhancing the precision and accuracy within and among AmeriFlux site measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2013-11-25

    This is the final report for AmeriFlux QA/QC at Oregon State University. The major objective of this project is to contribute to the AmeriFlux network by continuing to build consistency in AmeriFlux measurements by addressing objectives stated in the AmeriFlux strategic plan and self evaluation, the North American Carbon Program, and the US Carbon Cycle Science Program. The project directly contributes to NACP and CCSP goals to establish an integrated, near-real time network of observations to inform climate change science.

  19. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  20. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  1. AmeriFlux US-Tw1 Twitchell Wetland West Pond

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw1 Twitchell Wetland West Pond. Site Description - The Twitchell Wetland site is a 7.4-acre restored wetland on Twitchell Island, that is managed by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In the fall of 1997, the site was permanently flooded to a depth of approximately 25 cm. The wetland was almost completely covered by cattails and tules by the third growing season. A flux tower equipped to analyze energy, H2O, CO2, and CH4 fluxes was installed on May 17, 2012.

  2. Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  3. Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Detailed images of deposits identified inside automotive DPFs using neutrons show how the deposits of soot, ...

  4. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  5. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stange, Sy; Esch, Ernst I; Burgett, Eric A; May, Iain; Muenchausen, Ross E; Taw, Felicia; Tovesson, Fredrik K

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on nanocomposite-based scintillators for gamma-ray detection indicates that this approach can be extended to load nanoparticles of fissionable material into a scintillating matrix, with up to three orders of magnitude higher loading than typical fission chambers. This will result in a rugged, cost-efficient detector with high efficiency, a short signal rise time, and the ability to be used in low neutron-flux environments. Initial efforts to utilize the luminescence of uranyl oxide to eliminate the need for wavelength-shifting dyes were unsuccessful. Excitation of uranyl compounds has been reported at wavelengths ranging from 266 nm to 532 nm. However, neither the 300 nm emission of toluene, nor the 350 nm emission of PPO, nor the 410 nm emission of POPOP resulted in significant excitation of and emission by uranyl oxide. As indicated by UV/visible spectroscopy, light emitted at these wavelengths was absorbed by the colored solution. {sup 235}U remains the most attractive candidate for a fissionable scintillator, due to its high fission cross-section and lack of a threshold fission energy, but all solutions containing molecular uranium compounds will be colored, most more highly than the U{sup 6+} compounds used here. Research is therefore continuing toward the fabrication of uranium nanoparticles, in which, due to Rayleigh scattering, the coloration should be less pronounced. The characterization of the thorium-loaded liquid scintillator and the fabrication of the 100 mL detectors for use at LANSCE demonstrated the feasibility of loading fissionable

  6. The bonding, charge distribution, spin ordering, optical, and elastic properties of four MAX phases Cr{sub 2}AX (A = Al or Ge, X = C or N): From density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Neng; Mo, Yuxiang; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2013-11-14

    In this work, we assess a full spectrum of properties (chemical bonding, charge distribution, spin ordering, optical, and elastic properties) of Cr{sub 2}AC (A = Al, Ge) and their hypothetical nitride counterparts Cr{sub 2}AN (A = Al, Ge) based on density functional theory calculations. The calculated total energy values indicate that a variety of spin ordering of these four compounds depending on interlayer-interactions between M-A and M-X within the sublattice, which is supported by bonding analysis. MAX phase materials are discovered to possess exotic magnetic properties which indicates that these materials could serve as promising candidates for novel layered magnetic materials for various electronic and spintronic applications. Further analysis of optical properties for two polarization vectors of Cr{sub 2}AX shows that the reflectivity is high in the visible-ultraviolet region up to ∼15 eV suggesting Cr{sub 2}AX as a promising candidate for use as a coating material. The elastic coefficients (C{sub ij}) and bulk mechanical properties [bulk modulus (K), shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (η), and Pugh ratio (G/K)] of these four Cr{sub 2}AX compounds are also calculated and analyzed, which pave the way to predict or design new MAX phases that are less brittle or tougher by having a lower G/K value or higher η.

  7. Dense plasma focus powered by flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.

    1992-12-01

    A short summary is given of earlier Los Alamos work in which a Dense Plasma Focus was powered by Flux Compression Generators. Neutron yields obtained in the shot series scaled well with the fifth power of the current. The shot parameters were modeled surprisingly well through the plasma rundown phase by a simple snowplow model. It is shown, with the use of this model, that DPF currents in excess of 10 MA should be obtained with existing generators and initial energy sources. One new element is needed -- a high energy opening switch such as a fuse. Much more is known about fuse operation since the Los Alamos program was stopped, so development of this component should be relatively straightforward. If the yield-current scaling relation holds to this current level, then D-T neutron yields in excess of 10{sup 16} per burst would result, sufficient for some interesting pulsed radiography applications that involve rapidly moving components. Finally, in a sheer flight of fancy, it is shown that D-T yields approaching 10{sup 20} could be obtained, using FCGs not too much beyond the state of the art, provided the simple modeling and neutron-current scaling relations continue to hold, a rather unlikely supposition.

  8. Dense plasma focus powered by flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    A short summary is given of earlier Los Alamos work in which a Dense Plasma Focus was powered by Flux Compression Generators. Neutron yields obtained in the shot series scaled well with the fifth power of the current. The shot parameters were modeled surprisingly well through the plasma rundown phase by a simple snowplow model. It is shown, with the use of this model, that DPF currents in excess of 10 MA should be obtained with existing generators and initial energy sources. One new element is needed -- a high energy opening switch such as a fuse. Much more is known about fuse operation since the Los Alamos program was stopped, so development of this component should be relatively straightforward. If the yield-current scaling relation holds to this current level, then D-T neutron yields in excess of 10[sup 16] per burst would result, sufficient for some interesting pulsed radiography applications that involve rapidly moving components. Finally, in a sheer flight of fancy, it is shown that D-T yields approaching 10[sup 20] could be obtained, using FCGs not too much beyond the state of the art, provided the simple modeling and neutron-current scaling relations continue to hold, a rather unlikely supposition.

  9. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  10. High Flux Isotope Reactor system RELAP5 input model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic computational model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been developed using the RELAP5 program. The purpose of the model is to provide a state-of-the art thermal-hydraulic simulation tool for analyzing selected hypothetical accident scenarios for a revised HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The model includes (1) a detailed representation of the reactor core and other vessel components, (2) three heat exchanger/pump cells, (3) pressurizing pumps and letdown valves, and (4) secondary coolant system (with less detail than the primary system). Data from HFIR operation, component tests, tests in facility mockups and the HFIR, HFIR specific experiments, and other pertinent experiments performed independent of HFIR were used to construct the model and validate it to the extent permitted by the data. The detailed version of the model has been used to simulate loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), while the abbreviated version has been developed for the operational transients that allow use of a less detailed nodalization. Analysis of station blackout with core long-term decay heat removal via natural convection has been performed using the core and vessel portions of the detailed model.

  11. Fast flux test facility radioisotope production and medical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenter, R.E.; Smith, S.G.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400-MW, sodium-cooled reactor that operated successfully from 1982 to 1992, conducting work in support of the liquid-metal reactor industry by developing and testing fuel assemblies, control rods, and other core reactor components. Upon termination of this program, the primary mission of FFTF ended, and it was placed in a standby mode in 1993. However, in January 1997 the U.S. Secretary of Energy requested that FFTF be evaluated for a future mission that would consist of a primary goal of producing tritium for nuclear defense applications and a secondary goal of supplying medical isotopes for research and clinical applications. Production by FFTF of tritium for U.S. nuclear weapons would augment the dual-track strategy now under consideration for providing a long-term tritium supply in the United States (consisting of a light water reactor option and an accelerator option). A decision by the Secretary of Energy on proceeding with steps leading toward the possible reactivation of FFTF will be made before the end of 1998.

  12. The Fast Flux Test Facility shutdown program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guttenberg, S.; Jones, D.H.; Midgett, J.C.; Nielsen, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 MWt sodium-cooled research reactor owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The decision was made by the DOE in December, 1993, to initiate shutdown of the FFTF. This paper describes the FFTF Transition Project Plan (1) (formerly the FFTF Shutdown Program Plan) which provides the strategy, major elements, and project baseline for transitioning the FFTF to an industrially and radiologically safe shutdown condition. The Plan, and its resource loaded schedule, indicate this transition can be achieved in a period of six to seven years at a cost of approximately $359 million. The transition activities include reactor defueling, fuel offload to dry cask storage, sodium drain and reaction, management of sodium residuals, shutdown of auxiliary systems, and preparation of appropriate environmental and regulatory documentation. Completion of these activities will involve resolution of many challenging and unique issues associated with shutdown of a large sodium reactor facility. At the conclusion of these activities, the FFTF will be in a safe condition for turnover to the Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Contractor for a long term surveillance and maintenance phase and decommissioning.

  13. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2011-12-30

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. A disciplined and orderly approach has been developed to respond to client's requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated.

  14. Preserving physics knowledge at the fast flux test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, D.; Omberg, R.; Makenas, B. J.; Polzin, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    One of the goals of the Dept. of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy, initiated under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) and continued under the Advanced Reactor Concepts Program (ARC) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. The 10 years of operation of the FFTF provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in LMR safety technology based on passive safety features that may be of increased importance to new designs after the events at Fukushima. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. A disciplined and orderly approach has been developed to respond to client's requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated. (authors)

  15. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  16. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-02-16

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of –170 to 900 °C using a 10 MeV Au3+ ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 × 1012 cm–2 s–1. Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggestsmore » that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. Furthermore, a simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beamanalysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect.« less

  17. A multiscale two-point flux-approximation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myner, Olav Lie, Knut-Andreas

    2014-10-15

    A large number of multiscale finite-volume methods have been developed over the past decade to compute conservative approximations to multiphase flow problems in heterogeneous porous media. In particular, several iterative and algebraic multiscale frameworks that seek to reduce the fine-scale residual towards machine precision have been presented. Common for all such methods is that they rely on a compatible primaldual coarse partition, which makes it challenging to extend them to stratigraphic and unstructured grids. Herein, we propose a general idea for how one can formulate multiscale finite-volume methods using only a primal coarse partition. To this end, we use two key ingredients that are computed numerically: (i) elementary functions that correspond to flow solutions used in transmissibility upscaling, and (ii) partition-of-unity functions used to combine elementary functions into basis functions. We exemplify the idea by deriving a multiscale two-point flux-approximation (MsTPFA) method, which is robust with regards to strong heterogeneities in the permeability field and can easily handle general grids with unstructured fine- and coarse-scale connections. The method can easily be adapted to arbitrary levels of coarsening, and can be used both as a standalone solver and as a preconditioner. Several numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate that the MsTPFA method can be used to solve elliptic pressure problems on a wide variety of geological models in a robust and efficient manner.

  18. Richards Equation Solver; Rectangular Finite Volume Flux Updating Solution.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-18

    Version: 00 POLYRES solves the transient, two-dimensional, Richards equation for water flow in unsaturated-saturated soils. The package is specifically designed to allow the user to easily model complex polygon-shaped regions. Flux, head, and unit gradient boundary conditions can be used. Spatial variation of the hydraulic properties can be defined across individual polygon-shaped subdomains, called objects. These objects combine to form a polygon-shaped model domain. Each object can have its own distribution of hydraulic parameters. Themore » resulting model domain and polygon-shaped internal objects are mapped onto a rectangular, finite-volume, computational grid by a preprocessor. This allows the user to specify model geometry independently of the underlying grid and greatly simplifies user input for complex geometries. In addition, this approach significantly reduces the computational requirements since complex geometries are actually modeled on a rectangular grid. This results in well-structured, finite difference-like systems of equations that require minimal storage and are very efficient to solve.« less

  19. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-08-23

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ∼ 0.19, and that over oceans is ∼ 0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations tomore » show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3  <  AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), −0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), −0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD − MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments

  20. AmeriFlux CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce. Site Description - 49.69247° N / 74.34204° W, elevation of 387 mm, 90 - 100 yr old Black Spruce, Jack Pine, feather moss

  1. AmeriFlux CA-TP1 Ontario - Turkey Point 2002 Plantation White Pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arain, M. Altaf

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP1 Ontario - Turkey Point 2002 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - Plantation established in 2002 on a former sandy agricultural field, which was abandoned three years prior to planting

  2. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST H? data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11Mm, and the estimated twist is 1?. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in H? images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 , and as a bright structure in 171 and 131 images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  3. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-06-20

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 {+-} 12 and 102 {+-} 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx to 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx and 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  4. AmeriFlux US-SP1 Slashpine-Austin Cary- 65yrs nat regen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SP1 Slashpine-Austin Cary- 65yrs nat regen. Site Description - The ACMF site is a 67 hectare naturally regenerated Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii mixed stand.

  5. AmeriFlux US-Me3 Metolius-second young aged pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me3 Metolius-second young aged pine. Site Description - This site is located on a Forest Service mensuration plot (various seed sources) that was planted in 1987. Deer browsing is prevented by a fence.

  6. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional multiple open magnetic flux tubes in the stratified solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gent, F. A.; Erdélyi, R.; Fedun, V.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  7. IN-CORE FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois VIllard

    2014-12-01

    As part of an Idaho State University (ISU)–led Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) collaborative project that includes Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), flux detector evaluations were completed to compare their accuracy, response time, and longduration performance. Special fixturing, developed by INL, allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) core positions to perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector crosscalibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program included miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs), and specially developed commercial SPNDs. Results from this program provide important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and yield new flux data required for benchmarking models in the ATR Life Extension Program (LEP) Modeling Update Project.

  8. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  9. Transport of radial heat flux and second sound in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guercan, Oe. D.; Berionni, V.; Hennequin, P.; Morel, P.; Vermare, L.; Diamond, P. H.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kosuga, Y.

    2013-02-15

    Simple flux-gradient relations that involve time delay and radial coupling are discussed. Such a formulation leads to a rather simple description of avalanches and may explain breaking of gyroBohm transport scaling. The generalization of the flux-gradient relation (i.e., constitutive relation), which involve both time delay and spatial coupling, is derived from drift-kinetic equation, leading to kinetic definitions of constitutive elements such as the flux of radial heat flux. This allows numerical simulations to compute these cubic quantities directly. The formulation introduced here can be viewed as an extension of turbulence spreading to include the effect of spreading of cross-phase as well as turbulence intensity, combined in such a way to give the flux. The link between turbulence spreading and entropy production is highlighted. An extension of this formulation to general quasi-linear theory for the distribution function in the phase space of radial position and parallel velocity is also discussed.

  10. Plasma focus ion beam fluence and fluxFor various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Saw, S. H. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A recent paper derived benchmarks for deuteron beam fluence and flux in a plasma focus (PF) [S. Lee and S. H. Saw, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112703 (2012)]. In the present work we start from first principles, derive the flux equation of the ion beam of any gas; link to the Lee Model code and hence compute the ion beam properties of the PF. The results show that, for a given PF, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow, and damage factors are relatively constant from H{sub 2} to N{sub 2} but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper provides much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a PF operated in any gas.

  11. Effect of rolling motion on critical heat flux for subcooled flow boiling in vertical tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J. S.; Park, I. U.; Park, M. Y.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents defining characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube operation under rolling motion in marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor having the rolling motion in order to increase the safety of the reactor. Marine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) tests are conducted to measure the critical heat flux using R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. MARMS was rotated by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass fluxes range from 285 to 1300 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, inlet subcooling from 3 to 38 deg. C and outlet pressures from 13 to 24 bar. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 to 40 degrees and periods from 6 to 12 sec. To convert the test conditions of CHF test using R-134a in water, Katto's fluid-to-fluid modeling was used in present investigation. A CHF correlation is presented which accounts for the effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling and rolling angle over all conditions tested. Unlike existing transient CHF experiments, CHF ratio of certain mass flux and pressure are different in rolling motion. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 13, 16 (region of relative low mass flux), CHF ratio was decreased but was increased above that mass flux (region of relative high mass flux). Moreover, CHF tend to enhance in entire mass flux at 24 bar. (authors)

  12. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  13. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Briefing Book 1 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WJ Apley

    1997-12-01

    This report documents the results of evaluations preformed during 1997 to determine what, if an, future role the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) might have in support of the Department of Energy’s tritium productions strategy. An evaluation was also conducted to assess the potential for the FFTF to produce medical isotopes. No safety, environmental, or technical issues associated with producing 1.5 kilograms of tritium per year in the FFTF have been identified that would change the previous evaluations by the Department of Energy, the JASON panel, or Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett. The FFTF can be refitted and restated by July 2002 for a total expenditure of $371 million, with an additional $64 million of startup expense necessary to incorporate the production of medical isotopes. Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of reactor-generated medical isotopes will increase dramatically over the next decade. Essential medical isotopes can be produced in the FFTF simultaneously with tritium production, and while a stand-alone medical isotope mission for the facility cannot be economically justified given current marker conditions, conservative estimates based on a report by Frost &Sullivan indicate that 60% of the annual operational costs (reactor and fuel supply) could be offset by revenues from medical isotope production within 10 yeas of restart. The recommendation of the report is for the Department of Energy to continue to maintain the FFTF in standby and proceed with preparation of appropriate Nations Environmental Policy Act documentation in full consultation with the public to consider the FFTF as an interim tritium production option (1.5 kilograms/year) with a secondary mission of producing medical isotopes.

  14. Preserving Physics Knowledge at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, initiated under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) and continued under the Advanced Reactor Concepts Program (ARC) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. The 10 years of operation of the FFTF provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in LMR safety technology based on passive safety features that may be of increased importance to new designs after the events at Fukushima. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. A disciplined and orderly approach has been developed to respond to client’s requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated.

  15. The Mark 101 flux compression generator: Development progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, B.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Hodgdon, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Mark 101 explosive flux compression generator is a line-initiated, helical generator that offers the possibility of a theoretical dL/dt greater than or equal to 0.5 ..cap omega... The design and initial tests were reported by Fowler, et al. and Freeman, et al. Subsequent to the early results, which demonstrated current gains of only /approximately/1.2:1, the generator design was modified and now includes a low-density foam staging layer between the PBX 9501 explosive and the aluminum armature and a vinyl coating on the stator winding. This redesigned Mark 101 has an initial working inductance of 5.36 ..mu..H and a load inductance of 0.60 ..mu..H. The lossless current gain of this unit is 9.9:1, and the estimated practical gain is /approximately/5.5. Experiments have been performed using SF/sub 6/ and vacuum as the insulating media between the armature and stator. Measured current gains of /approximately/5.0:1 have been achieved. The maximum measured dI/dt of /approximately/1.2 /times/ 10/sup 11/ Amps/sec and V of /approximately/62 kV were significantly less than expected during high-current tests. However, a case motion experiment has shown that the armature is probably disintegrating during the last few microseconds of the armature run. Thus, the configuration of the staging layer between the explosive and the armature has been the subject of study. The results of the generator tests are presented. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Knowledge Management at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2013-06-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, initiated under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) and continued under the Advanced Reactor Concepts Program (ARC) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. The 10 years of operation of the FFTF provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in LMR safety technology based on passive safety features that may be of increased importance to new designs after the events at Fukushima. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. The FFTF knowledge management program includes a disciplined and orderly approach to respond to client’s requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated.

  17. Energy propagation by transverse waves in multiple flux tube systems using filling factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gijsen, S. E.; Andries, J.; Verth, G. E-mail: stief.gijsen@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, it has been found that transverse waves are present at all times in coronal loops or spicules. Their energy has been estimated with an expression derived for bulk Alfvn waves in homogeneous media, with correspondingly uniform wave energy density and flux. The kink mode, however, is localized in space with the energy density and flux dependent on the position in the cross-sectional plane. The more relevant quantities for the kink mode are the integrals of the energy density and flux over the cross-sectional plane. The present paper provides an approximation to the energy propagated by kink modes in an ensemble of flux tubes by means of combining the analysis of single flux tube kink oscillations with a filling factor for the tube cross-sectional area. This finally allows one to compare the expressions for energy flux of Alfvn waves with an ensemble of kink waves. We find that the correction factor for the energy in kink waves, compared to the bulk Alfvn waves, is between f and 2f, where f is the density filling factor of the ensemble of flux tubes.

  18. Transcript abundance on its own cannot be used to infer fluxes in central metabolism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwender, Jorg; Konig, Christina; Klapperstuck, Matthias; Heinzel, Nicolas; Munz, Eberhard; Hebbelmann, Inga; Hay, Jordan O.; Denolf, Peter; De Bodt, Stefanie; Redestig, Henning; et al

    2014-11-28

    An attempt has been made to define the extent to which metabolic flux in central plant metabolism is reflected by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, based on an analysis of in vitro cultured immature embryos of two oilseed rape (Brassica napus) accessions which contrast for seed lipid accumulation. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used to constrain a flux balance metabolic model which included 671 biochemical and transport reactions within the central metabolism. This highly confident flux information was eventually used for comparative analysis of flux vs. transcript (metabolite). Metabolite profiling succeeded in identifying 79 intermediates within the central metabolism,more » some of which differed quantitatively between the two accessions and displayed a significant shift corresponding to flux. An RNA-Seq based transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes which were differentially transcribed in the two accessions, including some enzymes/proteins active in major metabolic pathways. With a few exceptions, differential activity in the major pathways (glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acid, and fatty acid synthesis) was not reflected in contrasting abundances of the relevant transcripts. The conclusion was that transcript abundance on its own cannot be used to infer metabolic activity/fluxes in central plant metabolism. Lastly, this limitation needs to be borne in mind in evaluating transcriptome data and designing metabolic engineering experiments.« less

  19. Transcript abundance on its own cannot be used to infer fluxes in central metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwender, Jorg; Konig, Christina; Klapperstuck, Matthias; Heinzel, Nicolas; Munz, Eberhard; Hebbelmann, Inga; Hay, Jordan O.; Denolf, Peter; De Bodt, Stefanie; Redestig, Henning; Caestecker, Evelyne; Jakob, Peter M.; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2014-11-28

    An attempt has been made to define the extent to which metabolic flux in central plant metabolism is reflected by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, based on an analysis of in vitro cultured immature embryos of two oilseed rape (Brassica napus) accessions which contrast for seed lipid accumulation. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used to constrain a flux balance metabolic model which included 671 biochemical and transport reactions within the central metabolism. This highly confident flux information was eventually used for comparative analysis of flux vs. transcript (metabolite). Metabolite profiling succeeded in identifying 79 intermediates within the central metabolism, some of which differed quantitatively between the two accessions and displayed a significant shift corresponding to flux. An RNA-Seq based transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes which were differentially transcribed in the two accessions, including some enzymes/proteins active in major metabolic pathways. With a few exceptions, differential activity in the major pathways (glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acid, and fatty acid synthesis) was not reflected in contrasting abundances of the relevant transcripts. The conclusion was that transcript abundance on its own cannot be used to infer metabolic activity/fluxes in central plant metabolism. Lastly, this limitation needs to be borne in mind in evaluating transcriptome data and designing metabolic engineering experiments.

  20. Simulation study of solar plasma eruptions caused by interactions between emerging flux and coronal arcade fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Takafumi; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the triggering mechanisms of plasma eruptions in the solar atmosphere due to interactions between emerging flux and coronal arcade fields by using two-dimensional MHD simulations. We perform parameter surveys with respect to arcade field height, magnetic field strength, and emerging flux location. Our results show that two possible mechanisms exist, and which mechanism is dominant depends mostly on emerging flux location. One mechanism appears when the location of emerging flux is close to the polarity inversion line (PIL) of an arcade field. This mechanism requires reconnection between the emerging flux and the arcade field, as pointed out by previous studies. The other mechanism appears when the location of emerging flux is around the edge of an arcade field. This mechanism does not require reconnection between the emerging flux and the arcade field but does demand reconnection in the arcade field above the PIL. Furthermore, we found that the eruptive condition for this mechanism can be represented by a simple formula.

  1. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  3. DRIFT ORBITS OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN AN INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krittinatham, W.; Ruffolo, D. E-mail: scdjr@mahidol.ac.t

    2009-10-10

    Interplanetary magnetic flux ropes have significant effects on the distribution of energetic particles in space. Flux ropes can confine solar energetic particles (SEPs) for hours, and have relatively low densities of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as seen during second-stage Forbush decreases. As particle diffusion is apparently inhibited across the flux rope boundary, we suggest that guiding center drifts could play a significant role in particle motion into and out of the flux ropes. We develop an analytic model of the magnetic field in an interplanetary magnetic flux rope attached to the Sun at both ends, in quasi-toroidal coordinates, with the realistic features of a flux rope cross section that is small near the Sun, expanding with distance from the Sun, and field lines that are wound less tightly close to the Sun due to stretching by the solar wind. We calculate the particle drift velocity field due to the magnetic field curvature and gradient as a function of position and pitch-angle cosine, and trace particle guiding center orbits numerically, assuming conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. We find that SEPs in the interior of a flux rope can have drift orbits that are trapped for long times, as in a tokamak configuration, with resonant escape features as a function of the winding number. For Forbush decreases of GCRs, the drifts should contribute to a unidirectional anisotropy and net flow from one leg of the loop to the other, in a direction determined by the poloidal field direction.

  4. Maintenance implementation plan for the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.A.

    1997-01-30

    This plan implements the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (1994), at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF is a research and test reactor located near Richland, Washington, and is operated under contract for the DOE by the B&W Hanford Company (BWHC). The intent of this Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is to describe the manner in which the activities of the maintenance function are executed and controlled at the FFTF and how this compares to the requirements of DOE 4330.4B. The MIP ii a living document that is updated through a Facility Maintenance Self- Assessment Program. During the continuing self-assessment program, any discrepancies found are resolved to meet DOE 4330.4B requirements and existing practices. The philosophy of maintenance management at the FFTF is also describe within this MIP. This MIP has been developed based on information obtained from various sources including the following: * A continuing self-assessment against the requirements of the Conduct of Maintenance Order * In-depth reviews conducted by the members of the task team that assembled this MIP * Inputs from routine audits and appraisals conducted at the facility The information from these sources is used to identify those areas in which improvements could be made in the manner in which the facility conducts maintenance activities. The action items identified in Rev. 1 of the MIP have been completed. The MIP is arranged in six sections. Section I is this Executive Summary. Section 2 describes the facility and its 0683 history. Section 3 describes the philosophy of the graded approach and how it is applied at FFTF. Section 3 also discusses the strategy and the basis for the prioritizing resources. Section 4 contains the detailed discussion of `the elements of DOE 4330.4B and their state of implementation. Section 5 is for waivers and requested deviations from the requirements of the order. Section 6 contains a copy of the Maintenance

  5. AmeriFlux US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkin, Tim; Prueger, John

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 11 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 10 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  6. Heat flux characteristics in an atmospheric double arc argon plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu Xin; Yu Liang; Yan Jianhua; Cen Kefa; Cheron, Bruno

    2008-10-13

    In this study, the axial evolution of heat flux excited by a double arc argon plasma jet impinging on a flat plate is determined, while the nonstationary behavior of the heat flux is investigated by combined means of the fast Fourier transform, Wigner distribution, and short-time Fourier transform. Two frequency groups (<1 and 2-10 kHz) are identified in both the Fourier spectrum and the time-frequency distributions, which suggest that the nature of fluctuations in the heat flux is strongly associated with the dynamic behavior of the plasma arc and the engulfment of ambient air into different plasma jet regions.

  7. AmeriFlux US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Parkin, Tim [USDA; Prueger, John [National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 10 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 11 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  8. AmeriFlux US-NR1 Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanken, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-NR1 Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1). Site Description - The Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site is located in a subalpine forest ecosystem just below the Continental Divide near Nederland, CO. The site is located at 3050 m elevation, within 600m of the NOAA C1 long-term monitoring station, approximately 8 km east of the Continental Divide. The surrounding subalpine forest is ~97 years old and in a state of aggradation, having recovered from early twentieth century logging (Monson, et al. Global Change Biology (2002), 8 459-478).

  9. Design of a Pulsed Flux Concentrator for the ILC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronberg, J; Abbott, R; Brown, C; Javedani, J; Piggott, W T; Clarke, J

    2010-05-17

    The Positron Source for the International Linear Collider requires an optical matching device after the target to increase the capture efficiency for positrons. Pulsed flux concentrators have been used by previous machines to improve the capture efficiency but the ILC has a 1 ms long pulse train which is too long for a standard flux concentrator. A pulsed flux concentrator with a 40 ms flat top was created for a hyperon experiment in 1965 which used liquid nitrogen cooling to reduce the resistance of the concentrating plates and extend the lifetime of the pulse. We report on a design for a 1 ms device based on this concept.

  10. RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    1999-09-10

    RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

  11. ARM: Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Krista Gaustad; Laura Riihimaki

    Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.

  12. ARM: Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Krista Gaustad; Laura Riihimaki

    1997-01-01

    Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.

  13. Beamline 8.0.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    range 80-1250 eV Monochromator SGM (gratings: 150, 380, 925 linesmm) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1011 to 6 x 1015 photonss (resolution and energy dependent) Resolving power (EE)...

  14. Beamline 8.3.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (1.9 GeV, 4.37 tesla) Energy range 6-46 keV ML mode Monochromator None or two ML or two Si(111) Flux (1.9...

  15. Calculates Flux and Dose Rate from the Scattering of Radiation in Air.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-08-01

    Version 00 The program LSHINSE is used to calculate flux and dose rate caused by gamma radiation emanating from a point source and being scattered in the surrounding air.

  16. A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge High Flux...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge ...

  17. Divertor Heat Flux Amelioration in Highly-Shaped Plasma in NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    edge andor scrape-off layer (SOL) power and momentum loss, such as the radiative ... region have achieved the outer strike point (OSP) peak heat flux reduction from 4-6 ...

  18. Analyzing Surface Solar Flux Data in Oregon for Changes Due to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar irradiance could be caused by decreasing aerosol concentrations. 4. Clear-sky periods determined with Long and Ackerman SW Flux Analysis 1,2 . Burns, OR -- Irradiance Data ...

  19. Seasonal and Intra-annual Controls on CO2 Flux in Arctic Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, Walter; Kalhori, Aram

    2015-12-01

    In order to advance the understanding of the patterns and controls on the carbon budget in the Arctic region, San Diego State University has maintained eddy covariance flux towers at three sites in Arctic Alaska, starting in 1997.

  20. EA-0993: Shutdown of the Fast Flux Testing Facility, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site's proposal to place the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown...

  1. Finite ballooning angle effects on ion temperature gradient driven mode in gyrokinetic flux tube simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rameswar, E-mail: rameswar.singh@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Brunner, S. [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents effects of finite ballooning angles on linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven mode and associated heat and momentum flux in Gyrokinetic flux tube simulation GENE. It is found that zero ballooning angle is not always the one at which the linear growth rate is maximum. The ITG mode acquires a short wavelength (SW) branch (k{sub ?}?{sub i}?>?1) when growth rates maximized over all ballooning angles are considered. However, the SW branch disappears on reducing temperature gradient showing characteristics of zero ballooning angle SWITG in case of extremely high temperature gradient. Associated heat flux is even with respect to ballooning angle and maximizes at nonzero ballooning angle while the parallel momentum flux is odd with respect to the ballooning angle.

  2. Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-GaN Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dislocation confinement in the growth ...

  3. Fast flux test reactor fuel canister. (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast flux test reactor fuel canister. Citation Details ... 952779 Report Number(s): SAND2004-2604J TRN: US0902577 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal ...

  4. Plasma β scaling of anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind flux tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Aveek; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima E-mail: amitava@princeton.edu

    2014-03-10

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of 'spaghetti'-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma β dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma β. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  5. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas ...

  6. Evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail: A three-dimensional global hybrid simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, S.; Lin, Y.; Wang, X. Y.; Lu, Q. M. Huang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, R. S.

    2015-05-15

    Flux ropes in the Earth's magnetotail are widely believed to play a crucial role in energy transport during substorms and the generation of energetic particles. Previous kinetic simulations are limited to the local-scale regime, and thus cannot be used to study the structure associated with the geomagnetic field and the global-scale evolution of the flux ropes. Here, the evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail under a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field are studied with a newly developed three-dimensional global hybrid simulation model for dynamics ranging from the ion Larmor radius to the global convection time scales. Magnetic reconnection with multiple X-lines is found to take place in the near-tail current sheet at geocentric solar magnetospheric distances x=?30R{sub E}??15R{sub E} around the equatorial plane (z=0). The magnetotail reconnection layer is turbulent, with a nonuniform structure and unsteady evolution, and exhibits properties of typical collisionless fast reconnection with the Hall effect. A number of small-scale flux ropes are generated through the multiple X-line reconnection. The diameter of the flux ropes is several R{sub E}, and the spatial scale of the flux ropes in the dawn-dusk direction is on the order of several R{sub E} and does not extend across the entire section of the magnetotail, contrary to previous models and MHD simulation results and showing the importance of the three-dimensional effects. The nonuniform and unsteady multiple X-line reconnection with particle kinetic effects leads to various kinds of flux rope evolution: The small-scale flux ropes propagate earthward or tailward after formation, and eventually merge into the near-Earth region or the mid-/distant-tail plasmoid, respectively. During the propagation, some of the flux ropes can be tilted in the geocentric solar magnetospheric (x,y) plane with respect to the y (dawn-dusk) axis. Coalescence between flux ropes is also observed. At the same time, the

  7. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  8. Neutron-flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.

    1981-09-15

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occurred. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  9. AmeriFlux US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand. Site Description - The jack pine site is owned by Michigan Technological University. The stand is managed, and thus thinned and harvested depending on stand age. This jack pine site is naturally regenerating following a clearcut around 1989. Heavy snow in December 2001 c

  10. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  11. Validation of CERES/SARB Data Product Using ARM Surface Flux Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CERES/SARB Data Product Using ARM Surface Flux Observations D. A. Rutan Analytical Services and Materials Inc. Hampton, Virginia T. P. Charlock National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction This paper uses surface observed broadband fluxes from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP), ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and a number of other sites to validate model results from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant

  12. Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX Chuck Long Jay Mace Intent * Provide downwelling broadband radiation measurements at Thunderhead * Physically small footprint portable system * Designed to provide inputs necessary for Radiative Flux Analysis Basic RFA System COPS Hornisgrinde Deployment 1200m elevation System Components * Eppley ventilated PSP * Eppley ventilated PIR * Delta-T SPN-1 * Vaisala HMP-50 T/RH probe * Campbell CR23X datalogger SPN-1

  13. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  14. Apparatus for high flux photocatalytic pollution control using a rotating fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim Z.; Martin, Eric

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus based on optimizing photoprocess energetics by decoupling of the process energy efficiency from the DRE for target contaminants. The technique is applicable to both low- and high-flux photoreactor design and scale-up. An apparatus for high-flux photocatalytic pollution control is based on the implementation of multifunctional metal oxide aerogels and other media in conjunction with a novel rotating fluidized particle bed reactor.

  15. AmeriFlux US-Mpj Mountainair Pinyon-Juniper Woodland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Mpj Mountainair Pinyon-Juniper Woodland. Site Description - The Pinon Juniper site is located in Deer Canyon Preserve in central New Mexico. It is situated on an extensive mesa at an elevation of 2100m. The predominant tree species are Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma with an understory composed of the C4 perennial grass Bouteloua gracilis.

  16. Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes R. L. Coulter Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Surface layer estimates of surface sensible heat flux have been made at 10 - 14 locations within the Central Facility (CF) of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program site by using energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations located mostly in uncultivated areas. The advent of the Oklahoma

  17. Analysis of Piston Heat Flux for Highly Complex Piston Shapes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Piston Heat Flux for Highly Complex Piston Shapes Analysis of Piston Heat Flux for Highly Complex Piston Shapes Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-10_lee.pdf (301.36 KB) More Documents & Publications Optical Measurement Methods used in Calibration and Validation of Modeled Injection Spray Characteristics The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and

  18. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  19. Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Detailed images of deposits identified inside automotive DPFs using neutrons show how the deposits of soot, ash, and washcoat occurs within the filter. p-14_toops.pdf (380.82 KB) More Documents & Publications Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Non-Destructive Neutron

  20. AmeriFlux US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper. Site Description - Freeman Ranch is a 4200 ha research area owned by Texas State University. It is located on the easter Edwards Plateau in central Texas and overlies and recharges the Edwards Aquifer. Most of the ranch is occupied by upland habitats.