National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for matter carbon monoxide

  1. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  2. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  3. What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    other material containing carbon such as gasoline, kerosene, oil, propane, coal, or wood. Forges, blast is the internal combustion engine. How does CO harm you? Carbon monoxide is harmful when breathed because

  4. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  5. Carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jong, T.; Chu, Shih-I; Dalgarno, A.

    1975-07-01

    Calculations are made for the energy loss rates, brightness temperatures, and line profiles of carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds. The most recent data for the H2-CO collision rates have been used in the calculations; a useful...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    usual, it probably would've put me to sleep and left me there -- it was just too much carbon monoxide coming out in the house," says Mark Pickartz, of Van Buren, Ark. Pickartz's...

  7. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  8. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Carbon Monoxide."Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Ammonia, CarbonPassive Badges, and Dosimeter Tubes." In: Air Sampling

  9. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  10. ILENR/RE-AQ-ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    #12;ILENR/RE-AQ- Printed: Contract: Project: ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON REMOTE SENSING. Repeat Measurements of the Same Vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 F

  11. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  12. A global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and anthropogenic incomplete combustion processes. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (COA global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission compare carbon monoxide (CO) products from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT

  13. Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

  14. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  15. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  16. A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kung, Yan

    Ni–Fe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns ...

  17. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  18. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  19. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture faqsCarbon

  1. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  2. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice O and 13 C18 O), carbon dioxide (12 C16 O2, 12 C18 O16 O, 12 C18 O2, 13 C16 O2, 13 C18 O16 O, and 13 and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition

  3. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    In. - Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. 3A,Monoxide Detection. Industrial Hygiene Journal Match-April,Monoxide." Applied Industrial Hygiene, 4,119-125. Jabara, J.

  4. Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western 2001), in combination with an optimal estimation inverse model, to improve emission estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) from Asia. A priori emissions and their errors are from a customized bottom-up Asian emission

  5. Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using use of inverse modeling to better quantify regional surface emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), which to or larger than the combustion source, optimizing the CO from NMVOC emissions on larger spatial scales than

  6. Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Dylan

    Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain- posphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Enhanced CO is observed over the Zagros mountains of Iran), Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting

  7. First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper Eric J. Walter a of carbon monoxide on a monolayer of copper adsorbed on the (1 1 1) face of cubic zirconia. For the bulk, oxidized and reduced (1 1 1) surfaces of cubic zirconia (c-ZrO2). For adsorption of copper

  8. Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    diameter of 30 nm and 20 layers. Nickel was observed in the tips of the nanotubes and played a crucial roleCarbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system

  9. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29

  10. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  11. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  12. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  13. NAST-I remote sensing and carbon monoxide Daniel K. Zhoua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (CH2O), with those of the hydroxyl radical (OH) often show elevated CO and O3, the latter resulting from photochemical production.2 The importance

  14. SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method Toshiaki NISHII1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    plants. Furthermore, carbon dioxide gas is exhausted from most industrial plants as one of Greenhouse. (2) R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, (1988 CVD SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method * Toshiaki

  15. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  16. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  17. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  18. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  19. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  20. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor is emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel and produced photochemically from the oxidation

  1. The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950; implications for the CO budget Supplementary Material2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950 as a supplement to `The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere23 atmospheric carbon monoxide since 1950 combustion, methane oxidation, NMHC oxidation, biofuel burning, biomass burning, direct57 biogenic

  2. Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses adaptive response induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses; adaptive response; zebrafish embryos Journal of Radiation Research, 2014, 55, i115 Supplement doi: 10 prepared medium with the chemical at different time points after the application of the priming dose. Our

  3. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

  4. Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    monoxide can lead to poisoning of platinum electrocatalysts used in the fuel cells [1,2]. The reforming are converted to hydrogen and carbon mon- oxide by reactions with air (partial oxidation), with water (steam. In the third step, the gas mixture is reacted with air over a preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst, so

  5. Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Jin

    2004-09-30

    Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH), also known as Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), is one of seven known Ni containing enzymes. CODH/ACS is a bifunctional enzyme which oxidizes CO to CO2 reversibly and synthesizes acetyl-CoA. Recently, X-ray crystal...

  6. Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jian

    2005-08-29

    The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

  7. Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou, and Houwen Xina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou: catalytic oxidation on a single sur- face, by analysis of the behavior of a set of ordinary differ- ential help researchers to find SR in this system experimentally. II. REACTION MODEL The catalytic oxidation

  8. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide in the patient compartment of ambulances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iglewicz, R.; Rosenman, K.D.; Iglewicz, B.; O'Leary, K.; Hockemeier, R.

    1984-05-01

    Six hundred and ninety New Jersey ambulances were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO); 27 per cent had CO levels of 10 ppm or more greater than ambient air in the breathing zone of the patient. Twenty-nine of these ambulances had levels of at least 35 ppm greater than ambient air. Results indicate that a CO exposure problem exists in ambulances.

  9. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product J. I of surface temperature and oxygen coverage. Both the velocity and angular distributions are bimodal without first accommodating on the surface, the velocity, angular, and internal state distributions may

  10. PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES stream after hydrocarbon fuel reforming and water-gas-shift reactions. This process, referred to as CO intermediate, which enhances the catalytic activity at temperatures below 200°C. With the same catalyst system

  11. Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications-grown and the O2-annealed TNT array electrodes. The improved biosensor properties of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were, particularly TiO2 nanotubes (TNT), which possess large surface areas, have been widely used as chemical sensors

  12. Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    . Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an impor- tant trace gas in the atmosphere. It is produced by both natural emissions and human activities and is formed primarily through natural atmospheric oxidation processes fields of CO on short time scales. An observing framework for atmospheric composition that is analogous

  13. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  14. Name __________________ Lab 8. Air pollution: carbon monoxide & dioxide lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    and other particles become embedded in the lungs and leads to chronic coughing and lung damage. Carbon

  15. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  16. Impact of Emissions, Chemistry, and Climate on Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide: 100-year Predictions from a Global Chemistry-Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of methane and the production of CO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosols and thus affects climate, while, producing formaldehyde (CH2O) and then carbon monoxide. This methane reaction, in combination with R1

  17. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  18. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture faqsCarbonProcess for its

  1. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  2. Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas R. Ayres; Claude Plymate; Christoph U. Keller

    2006-06-07

    A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.

  3. The Fourth Positive System of Carbon Monoxide in the Hubble Space Telescope Spectra of Comets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roxana E. Lupu; Paul D. Feldman; Harold A. Weaver; Gian-Paolo Tozzi

    2007-08-22

    The rich structure of the Fourth Positive System (A-X) of carbon monoxide accounts for many of the spectral features seen in long slit HST-STIS observations of comets 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), as well as in the HST-GHRS spectrum of comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. A detailed CO fluorescence model is developed to derive the CO abundances in these comets by simultaneously fitting all of the observed A-X bands. The model includes the latest values for the oscillator strengths and state parameters, and accounts for optical depth effects due to line overlap and self-absorption. The model fits yield radial profiles of CO column density that are consistent with a predominantly native source for all the comets observed by STIS. The derived CO abundances relative to water in these comets span a wide range, from 0.44% for C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), 7.2% for 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, 8.8% for C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to 20.9% for C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The subtraction of the CO spectral features using this model leads to the first identification of a molecular hydrogen line pumped by solar HI Lyman-beta longward of 1200A in the spectrum of comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. (Abridged)

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

  5. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  6. One-dimensional turbulence model simulations of autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide fuel mixtures in a turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Kamlesh G.; Echekki, Tarek [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide in a turbulent jet with preheated co-flow air is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. The simulations are performed at atmospheric pressure based on varying the jet Reynolds number and the oxidizer preheat temperature for two compositions corresponding to varying the ratios of H{sub 2} and CO in the fuel stream. Moreover, simulations for homogeneous autoignition are implemented for similar mixture conditions for comparison with the turbulent jet results. The results identify the key effects of differential diffusion and turbulence on the onset and eventual progress of autoignition in the turbulent jets. The differential diffusion of hydrogen fuels results in a reduction of the ignition delay relative to similar conditions of homogeneous autoignition. Turbulence may play an important role in delaying ignition at high-turbulence conditions, a process countered by the differential diffusion of hydrogen relative to carbon monoxide; however, when ignition is established, turbulence enhances the overall rates of combustion of the non-premixed flame downstream of the ignition point. (author)

  7. Line Broadening and Temperature Dependence in the 0 --> 3 Overtone Band of Carbon Monoxide Cyril Hnatovsky , Adriana Predoi-Cross , Kimberly Strong , James R. Drummond , and D. Chris Benner1 1 1 1 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Kimberly

    Line Broadening and Temperature Dependence in the 0 --> 3 Overtone Band of Carbon Monoxide Cyril. Introduction Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace constituent present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is produced, and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. The lifetime of an atmospheric CO molecule is relatively

  8. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

    1984-05-08

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

  9. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    - house gas, but also the hydroperoxide radical (HO2). HO2 converts nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxideContribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide. Chen, K. Carmody, S. Vutukuru, and D. Dabdub (2007), Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile

  10. Potentiometric CO titrations of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and CO-inhibition of the NI-removing reaction with 1,10--phenanthroline 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, William Kent

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzes two reactions involving redox chemistry (the reversible oxidation Of CO to C02, and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA) using three types of Ni and Fe-S structures called the A-, B...

  11. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 106, NO. D22, PAGES28,481-28,495, NOVEMBER 27, 2001 Source analysis of carbon monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Source analysis of carbon monoxide pollution during INDOEX 1999 A.T.J. de Laat, J. Lelieveld, G and higher hydrocarbons, and is directly emitted by combustion processes. Fossil fuel combustion pollution. However, the large number of possible sources in combination with the long photochemical lifetime

  12. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 µm spectral region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

    2005-02-17

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity ...

  13. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  14. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  15. An experimental investigation of the ignition properties of hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    dioxide (CO2) were performed using a rapid compression facility. Experiments were conducted using pressure for near zero pollutant emissions, including greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). In particular], complicating turbine operation and design. The high-temperatures associated with the hydro- gen kinetics can

  16. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

    1985-11-06

    A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  17. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 ?mol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  18. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 19 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 5 NOVEMBER 2001 Distinct Reaction Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy for catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a platinum surface [3]. In the latter case, the two different mechanisms calculations, we identify the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide

  19. Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millhone, J.

    2007-01-01

    transportation arteries and thus are capable of measuring impacts from mobile sources as well as stationary sources. Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter.... Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter, and ozone) as well as meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, wind direction variance, temperature, net...

  20. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  1. Carbon Nanotubes Potentialities in Directional Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. M. Capparelli; G. Cavoto; D. Mazzilli; A. D. Polosa

    2014-12-28

    We propose a new solution to the problem of dark matter directional detection based on large parallel arrays of carbon nanotubes. The phenomenon of ion channeling in single wall nanotubes is simulated to calculate the expected number of recoiling carbon ions, due to the hypothetical scattering with dark matter particles, subsequently being driven along their longitudinal extension. As shown by explicit calculation, the relative orientation of the carbon nanotube array with respect to the direction of motion of the Sun has an appreciable effect on the channeling probability of the struck ion and this provides the required detector anisotropic response.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26

    problems can stem from a number of common sources?automo- biles, furnaces, water heaters, fireplaces, wood stoves, charcoal grills, gas ranges, space heaters and portable generators. Serious problems can develop when these appliances are not in good working... from one type to another without proper knowledge, skills and tools. 3 Never use a gas range, oven or clothes dryer for heating your home. 3 Never operate unvented gas-burning appli- ances, such as kerosene or natural gas space heaters, in a closed room...

  3. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

  4. Novel Carbon Monoxide Sensor for PEM Fuel Cell Systems C.T. Holt, A.-M. Azad, S.L. Swartz, W.J. Dawson, and P.K. Dutta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Research has been conducted to develop a novel sensor for the detection of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen. The automotive fuel cell application requires a sensor to detect low levels will protect the PEM fuel cell stack; detection of CO is extremely important because too much CO will poison

  5. Near-ambient X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and kinetic approach to the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation over lanthanum substituted cobaltites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hueso, J. L.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Cabalerro, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin Rodriguez; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-07-31

    We have studied the oxidation of carbon monoxide over a lanthanum substituted perovskite (La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-d) catalyst prepared by spray pyrolysis. Under the assumption of a first-order kinetics mechanism for CO, it has been found that the activation energy barrier of the reaction changes from 80 to 40 kJ mol-1 at a threshold temperature of ca. 320 oC. In situ XPS near-ambient pressure ( 0.2 torr) shows that the gas phase oxygen concentration over the sample decreases sharply at ca. 300 oC. These two observations suggest that the oxidation of CO undergoes a change of mechanism at temperatures higher than 300 oC.

  6. Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

    2013-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

  7. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  8. Kinetics of the Reduction of Wüstite by Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide for the Chemical Looping Production of Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen; Lim, Jin Yang; Saucedo, Marco A.; Hayhurst, Allan N.; Scott, Stuart A.; Dennis, J. S.

    2014-08-13

    , carbon capture storage; CSTR, continuous stirred tank reactor; I.D, internal diameter; PEMFC, proton exchange membrane fuel cell; PFR, plug flow reactor; SEM, scanning electron microscopy n Corresponding author. E-mail address: wl247@cam.ac.uk (W. Liu... of unsupported wüstite, the complicating effects of supporting materials on the kinetics can be excluded. W. Liu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 120 (2014) 149–166150 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials preparation The method of wet-granulation (Bohn et al...

  9. Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. R. Gasques; A. V. Afanasjev; E. F. Aguilera; M. Beard; L. C. Chamon; P. Ring; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

    2005-06-16

    In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rate between equal nuclei for all five different nuclear burning regimes in dense matter (two thermonuclear regimes, two pycnonuclear ones, and the intermediate regime). The rate is determined by Coulomb barrier penetration in dense environments and by the astrophysical S-factor at low energies. We evaluate previous studies of the Coulomb barrier problem and propose a simple phenomenological formula for the reaction rate which covers all cases. The parameters of this formula can be varied, taking into account current theoretical uncertainties in the reaction rate. The results are illustrated for the example of the ^{12}C+^{12}C fusion reaction. This reaction is very important for the understanding of nuclear burning in evolved stars, in exploding white dwarfs producing type Ia supernovae, and in accreting neutron stars. The S-factor at stellar energies depends on a reliable fit and extrapolation of the experimental data. We calculate the energy dependence of the S-factor using a recently developed parameter-free model for the nuclear interaction, taking into account the effects of the Pauli nonlocality. For illustration, we analyze the efficiency of carbon burning in a wide range of densities and temperatures of stellar matter with the emphasis on carbon ignition at densities rho > 10^9 g/cc.

  10. Formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in interstellar analogous methane (CH{sub 4})-carbon monoxide (CO) ices: A combined FTIR and reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jones, Brant M.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in methane-carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}-CO) ices was investigated upon its exposure to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons at 5.5 K. The radiation-induced nonthermal equilibrium processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via infrared spectroscopy complimented with post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption studies exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ReTOF) coupled with single photon fragment-free photo ionization (PI) at 10.49 eV. The detection of ketene in irradiated (isotopically labeled) methane-carbon monoxide ices was confirmed via the ?{sub 2} infrared absorption band and substantiated during the warm-up phase based on sublimation profiles obtained from the ReTOF-PI spectra of the corresponding isotopic masses. The experiments conducted with the mixed isotopic ices of {sup 12}CD{sub 4}-{sup 13}CO provide clear evidence of the formation of at least two ketene isotopomers (D{sub 2} {sup 12}C{sup 13}CO and D{sub 2} {sup 13}C{sup 13}CO), allowing for the derivation of two competing formation pathways. We have also proposed underlying reaction mechanisms to the formation of ketene based on kinetic fitting of the temporal evolution of the ketene isotopomers.

  11. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  12. Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Christina Estefana

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was determined during the Northeast Gulf of Mexico Chemical Oceanography and Hydro-graphy program (NEGOM). The hydrography and physical forcing ...

  13. Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions: A matter of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J

    2011-01-01

    no. 21 | 8533–8534 COMMENTARY Accounting for carbon dioxidetime dimension into this accounting problem. They focus onwe must have a reason- able accounting system that allocates

  14. A DFT Study of Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Carbonaceous Materials Juan F. Espinal, Alejandro Montoya, Fanor Mondragon,*, and Thanh N. Truong*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    it is a clean and efficient alternative to the use of coal instead of combustion. The gasification process are important in carbon gasification processes as well as in carbon single-wall nanotubes formation from CO disproportionation reaction. In the case of gasification, adsorption of CO blocks the active sites

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 72, 025806 (2005) Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 72, 025806 (2005) Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon August 2005) In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rates among equal nuclei for all five different.025806 PACS number(s): 26.50.+x, 25.60.Pj, 97.10.Cv I. INTRODUCTION We study nuclear fusion rates of identical

  16. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  18. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and ab Initio Investigation of the Multichannel Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    in conventional carbon based jet fuel systems. The combustion of hydrocarbon based fuels can reach temperatures monoxide (11 BO; X2 + ) radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons are of importance in understanding the formation of small boron-oxygen bearing hydrocarbons in boron combustion processes. Over recent decades

  19. Predicting pyrogenic organic matter mineralization from its initial properties and implications for carbon management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    for carbon management Thea Whitman, Kelly Hanley, Akio Enders, Johannes Lehmann Department of Crop and Soil to higher pyrolysis temperatures is more stable. Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction combustion or pyrolysis (Bird and Ascough, 2012). While PyC can be degraded both chemically and biologically

  20. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paciorek, Chris

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data Lisa Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA Abstract Previous studies have identified associations between traffic

  1. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  2. Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    moment of the electron with thorium monoxide A C Vutha, W Cmoment of the electron with thorium monoxide A C Vutha 1 , WeEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules.

  3. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  4. Tropospheric carbon monoxide: satellite observations and their applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacCallum, Stuart Neil

    2008-01-01

    of greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. Consequently, CO has an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months, making it a good tracer for studying the long range transport of pollution. Satellite observations present a valuable tool to investigate tropospheric CO...

  5. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  6. Kinetics of the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction under microwave heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, W.L.; Katz, J.D.; Rees, D.; Paffett, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Datye, A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    915 MHz microwave heating has been used to drive the CO oxidation reaction over Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with out significantly affecting the reaction kinetics. As compared to an identical conventionally heated system, the activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order with respect to CO were unchanged. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple extrapolation technique. Microwave-induced thermal gradients were found to play a significant role in kinetic observations. The authors chose the CO oxidation reaction over a supported metal catalyst because the reaction kinetics are well known, and because of the diverse dielectric properties of the various elements in the system: CO is a polar molecule, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are non-polar, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a dielectric, and Pt and Pd are conductors.

  7. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D BUS 2401, B-2001 Leuven (Belgium); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dunne, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8410 (New Zealand); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakicevic, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Marti-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M{sub Sun} of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}. Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations.

  8. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    continue testing and evaluation of sensors, in collaborationCharacteristics General evaluation of sensor Standard MD-1on the CO sampler sensors. Evaluation ofsampler materials

  9. A new photocatalytic material was synthesized to investigate its performance for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of water vapor (H2O) to valuable products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of water vapor (H2O) to valuable products such as carbon monoxide-TiO2 nano-composite for the reduction of carbon dioxide in the presence of water vapor

  10. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  11. Plasmachemical Synthesis of Carbon Suboxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiger, Robert

    2012-12-11

    (DBD) containing pure carbon monoxide. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the plasma and models of the emission spectra were created to determine the plasma temperatures. Deposition rates were determined to be on the order of 0.2 mg...

  12. ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office provides funding to Charles D. Keeling to begin monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) at the South Pole and Mauna-seasonal data on carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases in a region where rapid climate

  13. EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be...

  14. The Relationships of Particulate Matter and Particulate Organic Carbon with Hypoxic Conditions Along the Texas-Louisiana Shelf 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuck, Nicole A

    2014-08-06

    riverine influences along the Texas- Louisiana coast and determine the limits of coastal and marine water masses [Dorado, 2011]. Determination of the d13C and d15N values of POM can give us information about discrete carbon and nitrogen sources... to the northern Gulf of Mexico [Dorado, 2011]. As water flows through an estuary, the ?13C derived from PO13C generally increases from -30‰ to -20‰ as salinity increases, however the ?15N from PO15N tends 28 to stay stable between 4‰ and 6‰ nearest...

  15. ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    when consumed in an internal combustion engine yields no SOX, NOX or carbon monoxide allButanol ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates environmentally harmful byproducts of combustion. CO2 is the combustion byproduct of butanol, and is considered

  16. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  17. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  18. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  19. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Palazzotto MC, Mann KR (1990) Electrochemistry and infraredPalazotto MC, Mann KR (1991) Electrochemistry and InfraredJ (2006) Analytical Electrochemistry (John Wiley & Sons,

  20. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    collected on a Bruker Equinox 55 spectrometer. Microanalysesacquired using the Bruker Equinox 55 spectrometer mentionedacquired using a Bruker Equinox 55 spectrometer. For the CO

  1. Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the Sgr A complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Roland; Hjalmarson, Åke; Winnberg, Anders; Fathi, Kambiz; Frisk, Urban; Olberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We observed OH, H$_2$O, HN$_3$, C$^{18}$O, and C$_I$ towards the +50 km/s cloud (M-0.02-0.07), the CND and the +20 km/s (M-0.13-0.08) cloud in the Sgr A complex with the VLA, Odin and SEST. Strong OH absorption, H$_2$O emission and absorption lines were seen at all three positions. Strong C$^{18}$O emissions were seen towards the +50 and +20 km/s clouds. The CND is rich in H$_2$O and OH, and these abundances are considerably higher than in the surrounding clouds, indicating that shocks, star formation and clump collisions prevail in those objects. A comparison with the literature reveals that it is likely that PDR chemistry including grain surface reactions, and perhaps also the influences of shocks has led to the observed abundances of the observed molecular species studied here. In the redward high-velocity line wings of both the +50 and +20 km/s clouds and the CND, the very high H$_2$O abundances are suggested to be caused by the combined action of shock desorption from icy grain mantles and high-temperatu...

  2. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    are on the decline of the peak oil production curve, and thedue to the impending peak in oil production and the threatoil production curves for those countries that have passed peak

  3. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Kubiak, C. P. “Artificial photosynthesis of CO: Kinetic andJM, et al. (2012) Artificial photosynthesis of CO: Kineticentitled “Artificial photosynthesis of CO: Kinetic and

  4. The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research topic that is at the forefront of current engineering and sustainability applications. Direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research studies indicate that titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing materials serve as the best photocatalyst for CO2O2 materials allows one to increase the yield of certain products such as carbon monoxide (CO

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  6. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. ORNL researchers improve soil carbon cycling models | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and releases carbon into the soil. Enzymes released by microbes in the soil degrade the organic matter, releasing carbon molecules, which the microbes absorb as food. Eventually,...

  8. Air quality at a snowmobile staging area and snow chemistry on and off trail in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), particu- late matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and non- combusted fuel vapors (USDI 2000). Combustion quality at this high elevation site by measuring levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO), carbon monoxide (CO, but numbers were difficult to quantify with an infrared sensor. Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of formation process of single-walled carbon nanotubes by CCVD method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method [4-7] has been contrived for a scalable, large-scale production of SWNTs, with various carbon-source molecules tested such as carbon monoxide [4, 7], methane [5 simulations [10, 11] with the Brenner potential [12] or tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) simulation [13

  10. This Issue: Forest Carbon Stocks and Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy Framework Managing Forests because Carbon Matters: Integrating Energy, Products, and Land's Note M.T. Goergen Jr. SAF TASK FORCE REPORT Managing Forests because Carbon Matters: Integrating EnergyThis Issue: Forest Carbon Stocks and Flows Climate­Forest Interactions Biomass Use and Feedstock

  11. Radiocarbon in particulate matter from the eastern sub-arctic Pacific Ocean; evidence of a source of terrestrial carbon to the deep sea.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druffel, Ellen R M; Honju, Susumu; Griffin, Sheila; Wong, C S

    1986-01-01

    in the sub-Arctic Pacific Ocean: Inter- natl North PacificSalmon of the North Pacific Ocean-Part II-Review of theproduced carbon-14 by the Pacific Ocean: Ph D dissert, Univ

  12. Carbonyl sulfide/carbon chemistry: Interim report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinckley, C.C.; Shiley, R.H.

    1986-05-01

    This interim report describes work performed during the first eight months of a continuing project, including descriptions of sample preparations and analyses. The objective of the study is to determine the effects of carbonyl sulfide, a product of the carbon monoxide/ethanol desulfurization process, on coal. A coal is first treated with carbon monoxide to reduce pyrite, and is then reacted with OCS and N/sub 2/ under various conditions. OCS is a potent resulfurization agent and appears to affect the formation of mesophase in chars derived from the coal. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ambient air quality standards for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead and nitrogen dioxide. Eligibility: Agricultural, Commercial, Construction, Fed....

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    standards for ambient air quality standards for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead and nitrogen dioxide. Eligibility: Agricultural, Commercial,...

  15. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R.E.; Wine, P.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl{sub 2}CO). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S({sup 3}P{sub j}) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2})+OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N{sub 2}+N{sub 2}O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases and Acetyl-CoA Synthases: Light at the End of the Tunnel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Lindahl

    2002-02-19

    OAK-B135 Metalloenzymes seem to ''come of age'' when their structures are known at atomic resolution, spectroscopic and catalytic properties are basically understood, and genetic expression systems are available. Such foundations allow detailed mechanistic and spectroscopic properties to be probed and correlated to structure. The objective of this article is to summarize what is known about the title group of enzymes, and show that, to a large degree, they have come of age.

  17. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  18. INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Robert Brian

    2011-01-01

    is proportional to the outgassing rate of the warm metalat temperature 1.6 K, outgassing ceases, and the only source

  19. Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia in brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S. E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov

    2014-12-10

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH{sub 4} over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH{sub 4} when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 ± 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH{sub 4}/CO, the NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH{sub 3} a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH{sub 4} reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and CO{sub 2} abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  20. Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

  1. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    1997), The ASAD atmospheric chemistry integration packageet al. (2001), Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases,J. -F. Lamarque, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National

  2. Delivering carbon monoxide froma prorous material with an entrapped photoactive manganese carbonyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Il Gu

    2013-01-01

    conducted. The control group of CBA mice with BALB/c heartsc mice were transplanted into CBA mice after treatment with

  3. A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVivo, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based control system utilizing a distributed intelligence architecture has been developed to control combustion in hydrocarbon fuel-fired boilers and heaters to significantly reduce fuel usage. The system incorporates a unique flue...

  4. TES carbon monoxide validation with DACOM aircraft measurements during INTEX-B 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , consistent with known features in the tracer fields due to transpacific transport of polluted air parcels in the Houston area. The comparisons of TES and DACOM CO profiles near Hawaii and Anchorage in April to May 2006, and Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX)-B in March to May 2006 near Houston, TX, Hawaii, HI

  5. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: Mechanisms and seasonaland its response to NOx emission controls, J. Atmos. Chem. ,Inversion of CO and NOx emissions using the adjoint of the

  6. Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    worldwide by outdoor air pollution caused by vehicles and industrial emissions (http://www.who.int; http:// www.infoforhealth.org). Notably, air pollution increases the risk of mortality from cardiovascular investigating the effects of urban air pollution in humans are mainly restricted to epide- miological studies

  7. Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring and autumn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    and autumn Huixiang Xie1 Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Rimouski, Rimouski, Que´bec G5L 3A1, Canada Simon Be´langer De´partement de biologie, chimie et ge´ographie, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Rimouski, Rimouski, Que´bec G5L 3A1, Canada Serge Demers Institut des sciences de

  8. Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    - based fuels is known to degrade the performance of a proton ex- change membrane fuel cell PEMFC effects of CO on the performance of a PEMFC, researchers have explored ways to modify fuel cell opera

  9. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. [Pretreatment of catalyst in carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present study shows that activation of a high surface area Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in CO in a (CSTR), continuously stirred tank reactor using tetralin as solvent results in an activated that is three times of material that is activated in H{sub 2} or directly in the syngas.

  10. Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

  11. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke in the development of cardiorespiratory disease in smokers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borland, Colin David Ross

    1988-10-18

    in the Department of Respiratory Physiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ. 2) The practical work was all performed by me excepting as follows. In Chapter 6 Karen Harmes ESc p~rformed the methaemoglobin analyses. In Chapter 5(2) Rachel... as to atmospheric po llution (Reid and Fletcher 1971) . Genetic susceptibility to obstructive lung disease, e.g. a 1 antitrypsin defic iency (Kueppers and Black 1974) is well recognised but it affects only a s mall proportion of s mokers. The relat ionshi p...

  12. PAST RESEARCH SUMMARY REDUCTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE DOE/ER/04949--1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctoberConsumptionPoweredE Contract No.No. 330

  13. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionfor carbon-monoxide hydrogen oxygen kinetics. Combustion

  14. Condensed Matter Physics 2010, Vol. 13, No 3, 34801: 1--5 http://www.icmp.lviv.ua/journal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Communication Chemical oscillations in catalytic CO oxidation reaction I.S. Bzovska, I.M. Mryglod Institute of the catalytic CO oxidation on Pt(110) sur­ face at low pressures, is investigated with taking into account activities, respectively. Key words: chemical oscillations, bifurcation, catalytic oxidation, carbon monoxide

  15. Condensed Matter Physics 2010, Vol. 13, No 3, 34801: 15 http://www.icmp.lviv.ua/journal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Communication Chemical oscillations in catalytic CO oxidation reaction I.S. Bzovska, I.M. Mryglod Institute of the catalytic CO oxidation on Pt(110) sur- face at low pressures, is investigated with taking into account activities, respectively. Key words: chemical oscillations, bifurcation, catalytic oxidation, carbon monoxide

  16. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Joseph Silk

    2010-01-08

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  17. Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    fossil fuel use and 40 Tg yrÀ1 from biomass burning. With the addition of isoprene oxidation, the total. In India, the preponderance of motorcycles with small, two-stroke engines and the practice of adulterating CO emissions were 67 Tg yrÀ1 from India and 87 Tg(CO) yrÀ1 from all of South Asia. These values

  18. High Performance Silicon Monoxide (SiO) Electrode for Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2015-02-27

    Berkeley Lab’s High Performance Silicon Monoxide Electrode has a capacity retention of more than 90% after ~500 cycles, which translates into a ~20% improvement over the limited energy density of conventional graphite anode-based lithium-ion batteries, enabling next-generation mobile electronics and electric/plug-in vehicles....

  19. Dissociation and excitation coefficients of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen monoxide generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Na, Young H.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The excitation coefficient ?{sub N2} is calculated for the excited metastable level of N{sub 2}(A{sub 3}?{sub u}{sup +}) in nitrogen molecules. In addition, the dissociation coefficient of nitrogen molecules is investigated by making use of the Boltzmann distribution of the electrons in atmospheric plasmas. The excitation and electron-impact dissociation coefficients of nitrogen molecules are analytically expressed in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} for evaluations of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in atmospheric plasmas. As an application example of these coefficients, the nitrogen monoxide generation through a microwave torch is carried out for a development of medical tool. The nitrogen monoxide concentration from a microwave plasma-torch can be easily controlled by the nitrogen flow rate, mole fraction of the oxygen gas, and the microwave power. A simple analytic expression of the nitrogen monoxide concentration is obtained in terms of the oxygen molecular density and gas flow rate. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results from the analytical expression. A microwave nitrogen-torch can easily provide an appropriate nitrogen monoxide concentration for the wound healings.

  20. Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    B. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and itsA. S. & Whitmore, A. P. Soil organic matter turnover isorganic matter in a cultivated soil. Org. Geochem. 33, 357–

  1. Carbon calculator tracks the climate benefits of managed private forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, William C; Sharma, Benktesh D

    2015-01-01

    to fossil fuel Regenerated forest energy used in the LoggingManaging forests because carbon matters: Integrating energy,Energy from post-consumer residues relevant private forest

  2. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  3. Anticipating Patentable Subject Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burk, DL

    2015-01-01

    February 2013] PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER patentability—imports into patent law’s subject matter provisions theunder either novelty or subject matter. The proper question

  4. Matter Field, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masayasu Tsuge

    2009-03-24

    A model concerning particle theory and cosmology is proposed. Matter field, dark matter and dark energy are created by an energy flow from space to primordial matter fields at the phase transition in the early universe.

  5. Light emission from an argon discharge containing an admixture of carbon G. Bekefi, P. Avivi, F. DothanDeutsch, L. Friedland, J. L. Hirshfield, and H. Keren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedland, Lazar

    Light emission from an argon discharge containing an admixture of carbon monoxide G. Bekefi, P Publishing Articles you may be interested in Light Emission of Argon Discharges: Importance of Heavy Particle Processes AIP Conf. Proc. 740, 353 (2004); 10.1063/1.1843519 Kinetic pathways to visible emission from

  6. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  7. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide originates from incomplete combustion ofcarbon monoxide poisoning caused by faulty combustion

  8. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Combustion of Classical and Alternative Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ulrich

    the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionthe combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionpects of combustion of hydrogen [29], carbon monoxide [29],

  9. Computational Studies of Flame Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    equation for combustion of carbon monoxide with oxygen isof combustion of hydrogen [19], carbon monoxide [19],and carbon monoxide is necessary to design combustion

  10. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01

    of hydrogen and carbon monoxide”, Combustion and Flame, 145,of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide”, Combustion and Flame, 145,hydrogen and carbon monoxide”, Combustion and Flame , 145,

  11. Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructures of cubic titanium monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, A. I.

    2013-08-15

    A cubic model is proposed for the Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (Ti{sub 5} Black-Small-Square O{sub 5}{open_square} {identical_to} Ti{sub 90} Black-Small-Square {sub 18}O{sub 90}{open_square}{sub 18}) superstructure of nonstoichiometric titanium monoxide Ti{sub x}O{sub z} with double imperfection. The unit cell of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure has the threefold lattice parameter of the unit cell of the basis disordered B1 structure of Ti{sub x}O{sub z} monoxide and belongs to space group Pm 3-bar m . The channel of the disorder-order transition, i.e., Ti{sub x}O{sub z} (space group Fm 3-bar m)-Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (space group Pm 3-bar m), includes 75 superstructure vectors of seven stars (k{sub 10}), (k{sub 7}), (k{sub 6(1)}), (k{sub 6(2)}), (k{sub 4(1)}), (k{sub 4(2)}), and (k{sub 1}). The distribution functions of Ti and O atoms over the sites of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure are calculated. A comparison of the X-ray and electron diffraction data obtained for ordered TiO{sub 1.087} monoxide with the theoretical simulation results supports the existence of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure. The cubic (space group Pm 3-bar m) Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure is shown to be a high-temperature structure relative to the well-known monoclinic (space group C2/m) superstructure of the same type.

  12. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  13. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  14. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  15. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  16. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  17. On the photoelectron velocity-map imaging of lutetium monoxide anion LuO{sup ?}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Hua; Qin, Zhengbo; Cong, Ran; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao, E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn; Fan, Hongjun, E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Quanjiang [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-01-21

    We report a combined photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation on lutetium monoxide anion. Transition between the X {sup 1}?{sup +} anion electronic ground state and the neutral X {sup 2}?{sup +} electronic ground state is observed. Vibrationally resolved spectra were obtained at four different photon energies, providing a wealth of spectroscopic information for the electronic ground states of the anionic lutetium monoxide and corresponding neutral species. Franck-Condon simulations of the ground-state transition are performed to assign vibrational structure in the spectra and to assist in identifying the observed spectral bands. The electronic ground state of LuO{sup ?} is found to have a vibrational frequency of 743 ± 10 cm{sup ?1} and an equilibrium bond length of 1.841 Å. The electron affinity of LuO is measured to be 1.624 ± 0.002 eV. The fundamental frequency of ground-state LuO is estimated to be 839 ± 10 cm{sup ?1}.

  18. Research Article Connecting Soil Organic Carbon and Root Biomass with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    of Earth's terrestrial organic carbon but are sensitive to land-use. Rangelands are important to carbon. Introduction Soils constitute the greatest stock of terrestrial organic carbon [1] and soil properties can major pathways of organic matter input--root tissue and exudates--directly involve plants [22]. Roots

  19. Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong-Yi Huang

    2015-02-12

    The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.

  20. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  1. Microbial community transcriptomes reveal microbes and metabolic pathways associated with dissolved organic matter turnover in the sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarren, Jay

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as the Earth's atmosphere, and represents a critical component of the global carbon cycle. To better define microbial processes and activities associated with ...

  2. Predict carbonation rate on iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    An experimental study of the coking rate in 5 cm ID fluidized-bed reactors, in which the feed gas composition, the total pressure, and the fresh feed/recycle gas ratios were varied over wide ranges, showed a strong correlation between the carbon deposition rate and the ratio of carbon monoxide partial pressure to the square of the hydrogen partial pressure at the reactor inlet over a wide gas-composition range. At a given fresh gas composition, the combination rate varied inversely with the total pressure of the system. Coking decreased as the moles of CO + CO/sub 2/ converted to hydrocarbon increased. A Fischer-Tropsch reaction scheme is proposed and is used to derive a rate expression for catalyst carbonation that was approximately confirmed.

  3. Environment matters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This year's annual review is devoted to the theme of environmental health. It contains: an overview by the Director of the World Bank's Environment Department, J. Warren Evans; viewpoints on health risks of environmental pollution, integrating health concerns into carbon planning, sanitation in the world's poorest countries and impacts of indoor air pollution on health; and reviews on the World Bank's efforts to adapt safeguards to demanding priorities and on the Banks' 2005 environmental portfolio. Feature articles include a review of the Bank's Clean Air Initiative (now active in Africa, South and East Asia and Latin America). Reviews of work in the Bank's six regions focus on efforts to address the linkages among poverty, environmental pollution and human health.

  4. Baryonic matter and beyond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Fukushima

    2014-10-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  5. Revised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2O..., Thiazyl ,,NS...,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    in the 4th edition of the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables. Updated enthalpies of formation were includedRevised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2 to compute the thermochemical tables for four ideal gases: mercapto HS , disulfur monox- ide (S2O), thiazyl

  6. Project title: Sources, supply and bioavailability of soluble organic matter in relation to mineralization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    and Food Research). Topic: Soluble organic matter is of interest due to its role in carbon and nitrogenProject title: Sources, supply and bioavailability of soluble organic matter in relation examined. The study will seek to understand the role that soluble organic matter plays in regulating

  7. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, John N.

    2010-01-01

    CO) oxidation (Figure 6) and the catalytic activity wascatalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,catalytic properties using ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,

  8. Comparison of adjoint and analytical Bayesian inversion methods for constraining Asian sources of carbon monoxide using satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    satellite fire data. Citation: Kopacz, M., D. J. Jacob, D. K. Henze, C. L. Heald, D. G. Streets, and Q of Gaussian errors [Rodgers, 2000]. The cost function describes the error- weighted mismatch between

  9. Detection of Far-Infrared Water Vapor, Hydroxyl, and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. Reach; Jeonghee Rho

    1998-09-01

    We report the detection of shock-excited far-infrared emission of H2O, OH, and CO from the supernova remnant 3C 391, using the ISO Long-Wavelength Spectrometer. This is the first detection of thermal H2O and OH emission from a supernova remnant. For two other remnants, W~28 and W~44, CO emission was detected but OH was only detected in absorption. The observed H2O and OH emission lines arise from levels within ~400 K of the ground state, consistent with collisional excitation in warm, dense gas created after the passage of the shock front through the dense clumps in the pre-shock cloud. The post-shock gas we observe has a density ~2x10^5 cm^{-3} and temperature 100-1000 K, and the relative abundances of CO:OH:H2O in the emitting region are 100:1:7 for a temperature of 200 K. The presence of a significant column of warm H2O suggests that the chemistry has been significantly changed by the shock. The existence of significant column densities of both OH and H2O, which is at odds with models for non-dissociative shocks into dense gas, could be due to photodissociation of H2O or a mix of fast and slow shocks through regions with different pre-shock density.

  10. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  11. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA * Correspondence to: Dylan B. Millet (dbm@umn.edu) Supporting. Turbulence is simulated by a Markov chain process. The evolution of particles backwards in time maps I(xr, tr

  12. Structural Changes in Self-Catalyzed Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on 1,4-Phenylene Diisocyanide Modified Au(111)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kestell, John; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Cheng, Lanxia; Garvey, Michael; Bennett, Dennis W.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2015-07-23

    The self-accelerated adsorption of CO on 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI)-derived oligomers on Au(111) is explored by reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. PDI incorporates gold adatoms from the Au(111) surface to form one-dimensional —(Au–PDI)n— chains that can also connect between gold nanoparticles on mica to form a conductive pathway between them. CO adsorption occurs in two stages; it first adsorbs adjacent to the oligomers that move to optimize CO adsorption. Further CO exposure induces PDI decoordination to form Au–PDI adatom complexes thereby causing the conductivity of a PDI-linked gold nanoparticle array on mica to decrease to act as a chemicallymore »drive molecular switch. This simple system enables the adsorption process to be explored in detail. DFT calculations reveal that both the —(Au–PDI)n— oligomer chain and the Au–PDI adatom complex are stabilized by coadsorbed CO. A kinetic “foot-in-the-door” model is proposed in which fluctuations in PDI coordination allow CO to diffuse into the gap between gold adatoms to prevent the PDI from reattaching, thereby allowing additional CO to adsorb, to provide kinetic model for allosteric CO adsorption on PDI-covered gold.« less

  13. Controlled synthesis of concave tetrahedral palladium nanocrystals by reducing Pd(acac){sub 2} with carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Hai; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Li, Chunya; Tang, Heqing; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan; Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. CO flow rate was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. Highlights: ? By using CO as a reducing agent, concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were obtained. ? CO flow rate is critical to the formation of concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals. ? The selective adsorption of CO on (1 1 0) facets is essential to concave Pd tetrahedra. -- Abstract: CO reducing strategy to control the morphologies of palladium nanocrystals was investigated. By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals with a mean size of about 55 ± 2 nm were readily synthesized with Pd(acac){sub 2} as a precursor and PVP as a stabilizer. The structures of the as-prepared Pd nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that CO was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral Pd nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. The most appropriate CO flow rate, temperature and time for the formation of the ideal concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals was 0.033 mL s{sup ?1}, 100 °C and 3 h, respectively.

  14. Adsorption and Co-adsorption of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide on Silica-Supported Monodisperse Pt Nanoparticles: Volumetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    on the poisoning of the heterogeneously catalyzed conversion of hydrocarbons. 1. Introduction Lateral interactions conventional theory, such as Langmuir-Hinshelwood hetero- geneous kinetics.1,2 Interactions between adsorbates roughness (nano- particle size) on adsorbate-adsorbate interactions is important. Conventional theories

  15. Zirconia-based potentiometric sensor using a pair of oxide electrodes for selective detection of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, Norio; Raisen, Takahisa; Lu, Geyu; Yamazoe, Noboru

    1997-07-01

    A high-performance solid-state compact gas sensor to detect CO has been needed for monitoring and controlling the combustion condition of gas appliances. By using a pair of oxide electrodes, a stabilized-zirconia-based sensor was developed for selective detection of CO at high temperature. Among the oxide pair examined, the combination of CdO and SnO{sub 2} was best suited for the electrode couple, giving quick and selective response to CO in air at 600 C. The 90% response and the 90% recovery times of the sensor to 200 ppm CO was as short as ca. 8 and 10 s, respectively, at 600 C. The EMF value was linearly related with the logarithm of CO concentration in the range of 20 to 4,000 ppm. Moreover, the cross-sensitivities to other gases, such as H{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, were small or insignificant.

  16. GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz) and prototype silicon carbide (SiC) FET based sensors show enhanced sensitivity at high temperature

  17. Carbon monoxide oxidation on bare and Pt-modified Ru(1010) and Ru(0001) single crystal electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brankovic, Stanko R.

    1010-01-01

    S.R. Brankovic a , N.S. Marinkovic b , J.X. Wang a , R.R. Adzic´ a, * a Materials Science Department

  18. Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camou, Alejandro

    2014-05-03

    concentration can be reduced by eliminating condensation within the gas lines. The sensor also proved to capture the fuel flow variations while showing room for improvement in the broadening behavior. These tests using direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS...

  19. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  20. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    combustion thus increase emissions of carbon monoxide andand carbon monoxide may also be generated from combustion and

  1. Hollow nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao-Chan Yong

    2015-12-18

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. And the size of inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. Existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  2. Hollow nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. And the size of inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. Existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  3. North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7409, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-513-7831 www.cleantransportation.org 8/13/13 Advancing Clean Energy for a Sustainable Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biodiesel perform? Because biodiesel is a better lubricant, using it reduces engine wear and tear. Ultra-low-sulfur particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. It can also reduce

  4. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and Ab Initio Investigation of the Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    ; X2 + ) with 1,3-Butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2; X1 Ag) and Its Deuterated Counterparts Surajit Maity, Beni B Information ABSTRACT: The reactions of the boron monoxide (11 BO; X2 + ) radical with 1,3- butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2; X1 Ag) and its partially deuterated counterparts, 1,3- butadiene-d2 (CH2CDCDCH2; X1 Ag) and 1

  5. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  6. Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amar C. Vutha; Wesley C. Campbell; Yulia V. Gurevich; Nicholas R. Hutzler; Maxwell Parsons; David Patterson; Elizabeth Petrik; Benjamin Spaun; John M. Doyle; Gerald Gabrielse; David DeMille

    2010-11-06

    The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is a signature of CP-violating physics beyond the Standard Model. We describe an ongoing experiment to measure or set improved limits to the eEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules. The metastable $H {}^3\\Delta_1$ state in ThO has important advantages for such an experiment. We argue that the statistical uncertainty of an eEDM measurement could be improved by as much as 3 orders of magnitude compared to the current experimental limit, in a first-generation apparatus using a cold ThO beam. We describe our measurements of the $H$ state lifetime and the production of ThO molecules in a beam, which provide crucial data for the eEDM sensitivity estimate. ThO also has ideal properties for the rejection of a number of known systematic errors; these properties and their implications are described.

  7. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  8. Design of programmable matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knaian, Ara N. (Ara Nerses), 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Programmable matter is a proposed digital material having computation, sensing, actuation, and display as continuous properties active over its whole extent. Programmable matter would have many exciting applications, like ...

  9. Hot-dark matter, cold dark matter and accelerating universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbas Farmany; Amin Farmany; Mohammad Mahmoodi

    2006-07-07

    The Friedman equation is solved for a universe contains hotdark matter and cold dark matter. In this scenario, hot-dark matter drives an accelerating universe no cold dark matter.

  10. Plant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research into plant and soil carbon storage capacities,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Plant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research into plant and soil carbon storage capacities, perform an urban land assessment in terms of these capacities matter in soils, as a result of accumulation of plant litter and other biomass. Indeed, carbon in soil

  11. Exotic Matter and Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidezumi Terazawa

    2015-04-15

    Exotic forms of matter such as carbon nanofoams, hexalambdas, super-hypernuclei, strange stars, pentaquarks, color-balls, etc. and their relations to current problems in cosmo-particle physics such as dark matter and energy are discussed in some details. This is an extended version of the invited talk presented at the International Conference on New Trends in High-Energy Physics , Yalta, Crimea(Ukraine), September 10-17, 2005, which has been published in the Proceedings, edited by P.N.Bogolyubov, P.O.Fedosenko, L.L.Jenkovszky, and Yu.A.Karpenko(Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, 2005). In an extended and up-dated version of the Chapters I and III, entitled "Exotic Nuclei and Strange Stars", which has been published in Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems 18(2015)25-30, new forms of matter such as exotic nuclei and strange stars are discussed in some detail.

  12. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  13. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  14. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  15. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-12-05

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  16. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  17. Geo-chemical and optical characterizations of suspended matter in European coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , generally, for the non- carbonatic inorganic matter (NCIM) because of the good correlation displayed are generally lacking in real data relative to the different coastal areas. Partic- ulate inorganic carbon (PIC

  18. The Role of Particulate Matter in the Development of Hypoxia on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran, Emma Mary

    2013-07-31

    Controlling Hypoxia program (hypoxia.tamu.edu). Discrete samples of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration were obtained for analysis and calibration of optical instruments interfaced with a profiling CTD, a towed undulating...

  19. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  20. 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Chapter 19 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the oceans are gaining sequestration programs emphasize storing carbon in soil organic matter in agri- cultural fields,in woody sequestration and management include the feasibil- ity and permanence of the carbon sequestered, the scale

  1. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  2. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  3. Matter: Space without Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2012-11-19

    While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

  4. Cosmology with Mimetic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de

    2014-06-01

    We consider minimal extensions of the recently proposed Mimetic Dark Matter and show that by introducing a potential for the mimetic non-dynamical scalar field we can mimic nearly any gravitational properties of the normal matter. In particular, the mimetic matter can provide us with inflaton, quintessence and even can lead to a bouncing nonsingular universe. We also investigate the behaviour of cosmological perturbations due to a mimetic matter. We demonstrate that simple mimetic inflation can produce red-tilted scalar perturbations which are largely enhanced over gravity waves.

  5. Energy Matters Mailbag

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This edition of the mailbag tackles follow-up questions from our Energy Matters discussion on breaking our reliance on foreign oil.

  6. Dipolar Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc Blanchet; Lavinia Heisenberg

    2015-05-19

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because the two types of dark matter interact through the vector field, a ghostly degree of freedom in the decoupling limit is reintroduced in the dark matter sector. Crucial questions to address in future work is whether the polarisation mechanism can be realized in absence of ghosts, and what are the cosmological implications of the model.

  7. Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organic carbon derived primarily from internal phytoplankton production is the dominant food supply of detrital and algal organic matter to the metazoan food web in this large estuarine ecosystem. BackgroundBioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal

  8. Mineral mesopore effects on nitrogenous organic matter Andrew R. Zimmermana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    as sequestration of pollutants in soils and sediments (Luthy et al., 1997), turnover of natural soil organic carbon that organic matter (OM) may be protected from enzymatic degradation by sequestration within mineral mesopores observations. These results provide a potential mechanism for the selective sequestration and preservation

  9. Water Research 37 (2003) 10151022 Heterogeneity of natural organic matter from the Chena River,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    2003-01-01

    continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py rights reserved. Keywords: Natural organic matter; Colloid; Stable isotope; Size fractionation; Pyrolysis that northern ecosystems have accumulated 25­33% of the world's soil carbon [8]. Carbon currently sequestered

  10. SYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    using pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils Pyrolysis GC/MS Á Soil organic carbon Introduction Boreal soils have been accumulating carbon (C) sinceSYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest

  11. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Nathaniel B.

    Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments for review August 29, 2005) The long-term burial of organic carbon in sediments results in the net and atmosphere. Sediment microbial activity plays a major role in determining whether particulate organic carbon

  12. Fusion reactions in multicomponent dense matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. G. Yakovlev; L. R. Gasques; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; A. V. Afanasjev

    2006-08-23

    We analyze thermonuclear and pycnonuclear fusion reactions in dense matter containing atomic nuclei of different types. We extend a phenomenological expression for the reaction rate, proposed recently by Gasques et al. (2005) for the one-component plasma of nuclei, to the multi-component plasma. The expression contains several fit parameters which we adjust to reproduce the best microscopic calculations available in the literature. Furthermore, we show that pycnonuclear burning is drastically affected by an (unknown) structure of the multi-component matter (a regular lattice, a uniform mix, etc.). We apply the results to study nuclear burning in a carbon_12-oxygen_16 mixture. In this context we present new calculations of the astrophysical S-factors for carbon-oxygen and oxygen-oxygen fusion reactions. We show that the presence of a CO lattice can strongly suppress carbon ignition in white dwarf cores and neutron star crusts at densities > 3e9 g cm^{-3} and temperatures T<1e8 K.

  13. Energy and matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato

    2015-01-01

    Our work is an approach between matter and energy. Using the famous equation E = mc^2, Einstein and the Law of Universal Gravitation of Newton, we estimate that a small amount matter converted into energy is needed to lift, using the gravitational potential energy equation on the surface, a mountain of solid iron or even Mount Everest.

  14. Predicted Abundances of Carbon Compounds in Volcanic Gases on Io

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2004-09-17

    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of carbon in volcanic gases on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K), pressure (10^-8 to 10^+2 bars), and composition ranges (bulk O/S atomic ratios \\~0 to 3), which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (1760 K, 0.01 bar, O/S ~ 1.5). Bulk C/S atomic ratios ranging from 10^-6 to 10^-1 in volcanic gases are used with a nominal value of 10^-3 based upon upper limits from Voyager for carbon in the Loki plume on Io. Carbon monoxide and CO2 are the two major carbon gases under all conditions studied. Carbonyl sulfide and CS2 are orders of magnitude less abundant. Consideration of different loss processes (photolysis, condensation, kinetic reactions in the plume) indicates that photolysis is probably the major loss process for all gases. Both CO and CO2 should be observable in volcanic plumes and in Io's atmosphere at abundances of several hundred parts per million by volume for a bulk C/S ratio of 10^-3.

  15. Dark matter searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudis, Laura

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges of modern physics is to decipher the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations provide ample evidence for the existence of an invisible and dominant mass component in the observable universe, from the scales of galaxies up to the largest cosmological scales. The dark matter could be made of new, yet undiscovered elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths with normal matter spanning an enormous range. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early universe, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which froze out of thermal equilibrium with a relic density matching the observations, represent two well-motivated, generic classes of dark matter candidates. Dark matter axions could be detected by exploiting their predicted coupling to two photons, where the highest sensitivity is reached by experiments using a microwave cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. WIMPs could be directly observed via scatters off atomic nuclei in underground, ultr...

  16. Dark matter axions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sikivie

    2009-09-04

    The hypothesis of an `invisible' axion was made by Misha Shifman and others, approximately thirty years ago. It has turned out to be an unusually fruitful idea, crossing boundaries between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. An axion with mass of order $10^{-5}$ eV (with large uncertainties) is one of the leading candidates for the dark matter of the universe. It was found recently that dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter (CDM) in the non-linear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles. Because there is evidence for these phenomena, unexplained with ordinary CDM, an argument can be made that the dark matter is axions.

  17. Dissipation of dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermano Velten; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2012-10-01

    Fluids often display dissipative properties. We explore dissipation in the form of bulk viscosity in the cold dark matter fluid. We constrain this model using current data from supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations and the cosmic microwave background. Considering the isotropic and homogeneous background only, viscous dark matter is allowed to have a bulk viscosity $\\lesssim 10^7$ Pa$\\cdot$s, also consistent with the expected integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (which plagues some models with bulk viscosity). We further investigate the small-scale formation of viscous dark matter halos, which turns out to place significantly stronger constraints on the dark matter viscosity. The existence of dwarf galaxies is guaranteed only for much smaller values of the dark matter viscosity, $\\lesssim 10^{-3}$ Pa$\\cdot$s.

  18. Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off Global Warming and to Combat Desertification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2001-12-31

    We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% carbon. Using agricultural management practices to increase the amount of organic matter and carbon in soils can be an effective strategy to offset carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.

  19. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    relative to carbon monoxide (CO) for combustion of differentcarbon monoxide emissions (Poulopou- los et al. , 2001), their combustion

  20. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  1. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  2. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575...

  3. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  4. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions from the combustioncombustion of biomass is dominated by emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide; EC/TC ratio is proposed as a better surrogate of combustion

  5. Axion BEC Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erken, Ozgur; Tam, Heywood; Yang, Qiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Cold dark matter axions thermalize through gravitational self-interactions and form a Bose-Einstein condensate when the photon temperature reaches approximately 500 eV. Axion Bose-Einstein condensation provides an opportunity to distinguish axions from the other dark matter candidates on the basis of observation. The rethermalization of axions that are about to fall in a galactic potential well causes them to acquire net overall rotation, whereas ordinary cold dark matter falls in with an irrotational velocity field. The inner caustics of galactic halos are different in the two cases.

  6. Axion BEC Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozgur Erken; Pierre Sikivie; Heywood Tam; Qiaoli Yang

    2011-11-16

    Cold dark matter axions thermalize through gravitational self-interactions and form a Bose-Einstein condensate when the photon temperature reaches approximately 500 eV. Axion Bose-Einstein condensation provides an opportunity to distinguish axions from the other dark matter candidates on the basis of observation. The rethermalization of axions that are about to fall in a galactic potential well causes them to acquire net overall rotation, whereas ordinary cold dark matter falls in with an irrotational velocity field. The inner caustics of galactic halos are different in the two cases.

  7. Dark Matter 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Schumann

    2015-01-06

    This article gives an overview on the status of experimental searches for dark matter at the end of 2014. The main focus is on direct searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using underground-based low-background detectors, especially on the new results published in 2014. WIMPs are excellent dark matter candidates, predicted by many theories beyond the standard model of particle physics, and are expected to interact with the target nuclei either via spin-independent (scalar) or spin-dependent (axial-vector) couplings. Non-WIMP dark matter candidates, especially axions and axion-like particles are also briefly discussed.

  8. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. Carbon monoxideCombustion Appliance Zone California Energy Commission Central Fan Integrated Supply Cubic Feet per Minute Carbon Monoxide

  9. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    cylinder mode Carbon Monoxide (ppm) Combustion Timing,combustion timing, higher emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxideand carbon monoxide emissions increase with delays in combustion

  10. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    kerosene combustion include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,combustion releases a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds, such as fine particulates (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (

  11. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  12. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  13. Matter & Energy Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Matter & Energy Detectors· Optics· Civil Engineering· Engineering· Nature of Water Yonggang Huang, Joseph Cummings Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering· Electronics· Reference Photography· Infrared· Mechanical engineering · Optics· ScienceDaily (Jan. 17, 2011

  14. Gaseous dark matter detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martoff, C. J.

    Dark matter (DM) detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic DM halo models. In this paper, we introduce the ...

  15. Matter & Energy Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    See also: Matter & Energy Detectors· Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Weapons Technology · Organic Chemistry· Reference Hydrogen chloride· Photography· Catalytic converter· Nanomedicine a series of tiny colored dots ­ each a different pigment ­ on an inert backing such as paper, plastic

  16. The Heart of Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohini M. Godbole

    2010-06-30

    In this article I trace the development of the human understanding of the "Heart of Matter" from early concepts of "elements" (or alternatively "Panchmahabhootas") to the current status of "quarks" and "leptons" as the fundamental constituents of matter, interacting together via exchange of the various force carrier particles called "gauge bosons" such as the photon, W/Z-boson etc. I would like to show how our understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter has gone hand in hand with our understanding of the fundamental forces in nature. I will also outline how the knowledge of particle physics at the "micro" scale of less than a Fermi(one millionth of a nanometer), enables us to offer explanations of Cosmological observations at the "macro" scale. Consequently these observations, may in turn, help us address some very fundamental questions of the Physics at the "Heart of the Matter".

  17. Hot and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Eramo, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we build new Effective Field Theory tools to describe the propagation of energetic partons in hot and dense media, and we propose two new reactions for dark matter in the early universe. In the first part, ...

  18. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

  19. Dark matter searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Baudis

    2015-09-02

    One of the major challenges of modern physics is to decipher the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations provide ample evidence for the existence of an invisible and dominant mass component in the observable universe, from the scales of galaxies up to the largest cosmological scales. The dark matter could be made of new, yet undiscovered elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths with normal matter spanning an enormous range. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early universe, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which froze out of thermal equilibrium with a relic density matching the observations, represent two well-motivated, generic classes of dark matter candidates. Dark matter axions could be detected by exploiting their predicted coupling to two photons, where the highest sensitivity is reached by experiments using a microwave cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. WIMPs could be directly observed via scatters off atomic nuclei in underground, ultra low-background detectors, or indirectly, via secondary radiation produced when they pair annihilate. They could also be generated at particle colliders such as the LHC, where associated particles produced in the same process are to be detected. After a brief motivation and an introduction to the phenomenology of particle dark matter detection, I will discuss the most promising experimental techniques to search for axions and WIMPs, addressing their current and future science reach, as well as their complementarity.

  20. Material Safety Data Sheet According to 93/112/EC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Hazardous Combustion Products Thermal decomposition may emit carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Upper

  1. Rev. Date: 25-Aug-11 Art: 715023-00D Material Safety Data Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Combustion Products Thermal decomposition may emit carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Upper Explosion Limit

  2. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  3. Nanotube array controlled carbon plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Shi; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong; Ding, Chuanxian

    2013-06-17

    Finding approaches to control the elementary processes of plasma-solid interactions and direct the fluxes of matter at nano-scales becomes an important aspect in science. This letter reports that, by taking advantages of the spacing characteristics of discrete TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, the flying trajectories and the subsequent implantation and deposition manner of energetic carbon ions can be directed and controlled to fabricate hollow conical arrays. The study provides an alternative method for plasma nano-manufacturing.

  4. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  5. TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    C Carbon TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon Active C Pool Indicated by Light, the relationship between carbon dynamics including total organic carbon (TOC) storage, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass carbon in subsoil 4 years after rehabilitation · Microbial biomass carbon had a positive

  6. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  7. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  8. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Stern

    2014-03-21

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  9. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, I

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  10. Thermodynamics of clusterized matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ad. R. Raduta; F. Gulminelli

    2009-08-26

    Thermodynamics of clusterized matter is studied in the framework of statistical models with non-interacting cluster degrees of freedom. At variance with the analytical Fisher model, exact Metropolis simulation results indicate that the transition from homogeneous to clusterized matter lies along the $\\rho=\\rho_0$ axis at all temperatures and the limiting point of the phase diagram is not a critical point even if the surface energy vanishes at this point. Sensitivity of the inferred phase diagram to the employed statistical framework in the case of finite systems is discussed by considering the grand-canonical and constant-pressure canonical ensembles. A Wigner-Seitz formalism in which the fragment charge is neutralized by an uniform electron distribution allows to build the phase diagram of neutron star matter.

  11. Natural minimal dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of $SU(2)_L$) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are non-supersymmetric. Non vanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV--a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.

  12. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Stern

    2015-11-17

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  13. Cold nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. O. Dorso; P. A. Giménez Molinelli; J. I. Nichols; J. A. López

    2013-05-09

    The behavior of nuclear matter is studied at low densities and temperatures using classical molecular dynamics with three different sets of potentials with different compressibility. Nuclear matter is found to arrange in crystalline structures around the saturation density and in non-homogeneous (i.e. pasta-like) structures at lower densities. Similar results were obtained with a simple Lennard-Jones potential. Finite size effects are analysed and the existence of the non-homogeneous structures is shown to be inherent to the use of periodic boundary conditions and the finitude of the system. For large enough systems the non-homogeneous structures are limited to one sphere, one rod or one slab per simulation cell, which are shown to be minimal surface structures under cubic periodic boundary conditions at the corresponding volume fraction. The relevance of these findings to the simulations of neutron star and supernovae matter is discussed.

  14. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  15. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  16. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  17. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Sannino; Ian M. Shoemaker

    2015-08-05

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting phenomenology of this "asymptotically safe DM" is quite distinct. One interesting effect of this is to partially offset the low-energy constraints from direct detection experiments without affecting thermal freeze-out processes which occur at higher energies. High-energy collider and indirect annihilation searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter.

  18. Safe Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Sannino; Ian M. Shoemaker

    2015-07-29

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting phenomenology of this "safe DM" is quite distinct. One interesting effect of this is to partially offset the low-energy constraints from direct detection experiments without affecting thermal freeze-out processes which occur at higher energies. High-energy collider and indirect annihilation searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover safe dark matter.

  19. Methanol Decomposition over Palladium Particles Supported on Silica: Role of Particle Size and Co-Feeding Carbon Dioxide on the Catalytic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokenek, Selma; Kuhn, John N. (USF)

    2012-10-23

    Monodisperse palladium particles of six distinct and controlled sizes between 4-16 nm were synthesized in a one-pot polyol process by varying the molar ratios of the two palladium precursors used, which contained palladium in different oxidation states. This difference permitted size control by regulation of the nucleation rate because low oxidation state metals ions nucleate quickly relative to high oxidation state ions. After immobilization of the Pd particles on silica by mild sonication, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and applied toward catalytic methanol decomposition. This reaction was determined as structure sensitive with the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency) increasing with increasing particle size. Moreover, observed catalytic deactivation was linked to product (carbon monoxide) poisoning. Co-feeding carbon dioxide caused the activity and the amount of deactivation to decrease substantially. A reaction mechanism based on the formation of the {pi}-bond between carbon and oxygen as the rate-limiting step is in agreement with antipathetic structure sensitivity and product poisoning by carbon monoxide.

  20. Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  1. Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  2. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass...

  3. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 27012711 Carbon structure and enzyme activities in alpine and forest ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    2007-01-01

    : Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Py-GC/MS; Enzymes; Microbe; Carbon; Chemistry; Soil organicSoil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 2701­2711 Carbon structure and enzyme activities in alpine of soil organic matter fractions and its relationship to biological processes remains uncertain. We used

  4. Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation to seeping fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation of carbon derived from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), the oxidation of organic matter and from sea water. Methane is the dominant component among other hydrocarbon gases in these sediments. Its

  5. Carbon Vol. 28, Nos. 213. pp. 261-279, 1990 Printed in Great Britain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and properties of carbon mo- lecular sieves. In each case, the importance of rate processes has been emphasized and properties involve the use of the same scientific principles. Carbon, because of its unique properties, fully. In par- ticular. we envisioned gasifying plentiful anthracite coal, with its attendant mineral matter

  6. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley of energy, the solar panels, can also harvest energy 100 times more effectively than plants. Other

  7. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  8. Tunguska Dark Matter Ball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Froggatt; H. B. Nielsen

    2015-05-10

    It is suggested that the Tunguska event in June 1908 cm-large was due to a cm-large ball of a condensate of bound states of 6 top and 6 anti-top quarks containing highly compressed ordinary matter. Such balls are supposed to make up the dark matter as we earlier proposed. The expected rate of impact of this kind of dark matter ball with the earth seems to crudely match a time scale of 200 years between the impacts. The main explosion of the Tunguska event is explained in our picture as material coming out from deep within the earth, where it has been heated and compressed by the ball penetrating to a depth of several thousand km. Thus the effect has some similarity with volcanic activity as suggested by Kundt. We discuss the possible identification of kimberlite pipes with earlier Tunguska-like events. A discussion of how the dark matter balls may have formed in the early universe is also given.

  9. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  10. Energy Matters - Fall 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. This issue focus of this edition of the Energy Matters Newsletter is on energy and environmental issues. Read more about compressed air's role in productivity, making good motor decisions, and more.

  11. Subject Matters Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subject Matters Introduction The AS and A Level subject choices you make when in Year 11 (or assessing applicants at the University of Cambridge, we consider not only the individual A Level subjects taken but also the combination of these. We generally prefer applicants to have taken certain subjects

  12. Matter & Energy Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Matter & Energy Solar Energy· Electronics· Materials Science· Earth & Climate Energy at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got brighter. Although silicon is the industry Electronics Over 1.2 Million Electronics Parts, Components and Equipment. www.AlliedElec.com solar energy

  13. Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Baudis

    2005-11-29

    More than 90% of matter in the Universe could be composed of heavy particles, which were non-relativistic, or 'cold', when they froze-out from the primordial soup. I will review current searches for these hypothetical particles, both via interactions with nuclei in deep underground detectors, and via the observation of their annihilation products in the Sun, galactic halo and galactic center.

  14. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  15. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  17. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  18. HCCI engine control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Killingsworth, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    combustion and increasing emissions of carbon monoxide (CO)the combustion chamber. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide areand carbon monoxide. The tradeo?s in heat transfer, pressure rise rate, and combustion

  19. Energy Matters in Washington State Page 1 Energy Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Energy Matters in Washington State ­ Page 1 Energy Matters in Washington State June 2008 Updated November 2009 Updated and Revised October 2013 Grand Coulee Dam #12;Energy Matters in Washington State ­ Page 2 Copyright © 2013 Washington State University Energy Program. 905 Plum Street SE, P.O. Box 43169

  20. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  1. The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2013-11-20

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  2. The Search for Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2014-07-24

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  3. Lesson Summary Students will learn about the carbon cycle and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Processes that Shape the Earth The Living Environment The Flow of Matter and Energy Human Society Global solid minerals (such as limestone), 'squishy' organisms (such as plants and animals), and can be dissolved in water or carried around the world through the atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. The attributes

  4. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a com

  6. Levitating Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemanja Kaloper; Antonio Padilla

    2009-10-07

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark $U(1)'$ charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic $wdark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  7. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  8. Self-Interacting Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin D. Wandelt; Romeel Dave; Glennys R. Farrar; Patrick C. McGuire; David N. Spergel; Paul J. Steinhardt

    2000-06-28

    Spergel and Steinhardt have recently proposed the concept of dark matter with strong self-interactions as a means to address numerous discrepancies between observations of dark matter halos on subgalactic scales and the predictions of the standard collisionless dark matter picture. We review the motivations for this scenario and discuss some recent, successful numerical tests. We also discuss the possibility that the dark matter interacts strongly with ordinary baryonic matter, as well as with itself. We present a new analysis of the experimental constraints and re-evaluate the allowed range of cross-section and mass.

  9. Measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratios in Houston using a compact high-power CW DFB-QCL-based QEPAS sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of 0.5­5 ppm are expected in homes in the absence of high-efficiency heaters and stoves. In spaces, selective, compact, and portable quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spec- troscopy (QEPAS)-based CO sensor and water heaters, stoves and other gasoline pow- ered equipment used in households. Typically, CO levels

  10. Near-ambient X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and kinetic approach to the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation over lanthanum substituted cobaltites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hueso, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    XPS measurements 2.3. Catalytic oxidation tests of CO 2.4.background [27] and [28]. 2.3. Catalytic oxidation testsof CO Catalytic oxidation experiments of CO were carried out

  11. ZIRCONIA-BASED MIXED POTENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE/HYDROCARBON SENSORS WITH LANTHANUM MAGNESIUM OXIDE, AND TERBIUM-DOPED YTTRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIA ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. L. BROSHA; R. MUKUNDAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    We have investigated the performance of dual metal oxide electrode mixed potential sensors in an engine-out, dynamometer environment. Sensors were fabricated by sputtering thin films of LaMnO{sub 3} and Tb-doped YSZ onto YSZ electrolyte. Au gauze held onto the metal oxide thin films with Au ink was used for current collection. The exhaust gas from a 4.8L, V8 engine operated in open loop, steady-state mode around stoichiometry at 1500 RPM and 50 Nm. The sensor showed a stable EMF response (with no hysteresis) to varying concentrations of total exhaust gas HC content. The sensor response was measured at 620 and 670 C and shows temperature behavior characteristic of mixed potential-type sensors. The results of these engine-dynamometer tests are encouraging; however, the limitations associated with Au current collection present the biggest impediment to automotive use.

  12. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  13. Hidden vector dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hambye

    2010-03-16

    We show that dark matter could be made of massive gauge bosons whose stability doesn't require to impose by hand any discrete or global symmetry. Stability of gauge bosons can be guaranteed by the custodial symmetry associated to the gauge symmetry and particle content of the model. The particle content we consider to this end is based on a hidden sector made of a vector multiplet associated to a non-abelian gauge group and of a scalar multiplet charged under this gauge group. The hidden sector interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal quartic scalar interaction in such a way that the gauge bosons behave as thermal WIMPS. This can lead easily to the observed dark matter relic density in agreement with the other various constraints, and can be tested experimentally in a large fraction of the parameter space. In this model the dark matter direct detection rate and the annihilation cross section can decouple if the Higgs portal interaction is weak.

  14. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field ? which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter ?. The standard ?CDM model can be recovered by setting ? = 0. If diffusion takes place (? > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  15. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  16. Z .Surface and Coatings Technology 127 2000 260 265 Characterization of carbon nitride thin films deposited by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    in the fields of condensed matter physics, material science, and chemistry. A vari- w xety of techniques 4 10 2. Experimental The carbon nitride thin films were deposited on Z .polished Si 100 in the microwave

  17. Materials Science and Engineering B78 (2000) 1115 On the structure and composition of crystalline carbon nitride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    2000-01-01

    and properties of such a hypothetical material is also significant to research in the fields of condensed matter-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. 2. Experimental The carbon nitride thin films were deposited on polished Si(100

  18. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  19. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the combustion products will produce carbon monoxide. Othercombustion is to stoichiometric conditions. This is limited by imperfect mixing, which then produces hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide.

  20. An Experimental Based Investigation of Oxycombustion in an SI Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Blarigan, Andrew Charles

    2012-01-01

    Combustion efficiency is computed by evaluating the energy of the carbon monoxide (and Carbon Monoxide Mixtures for Syngas Turbine Applications”. In: Pro- BIBLIOGRAPHY ceedings of the Combustion

  1. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies of Two-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    activity during the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide.activity during the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide.oxide support on the catalytic oxidation of CO is reported

  2. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  3. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major out a report or a web site about carbon footprint results of a product or of a company. Write a two

  4. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  5. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  6. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  7. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  8. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  9. Superconnections and Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roepstorff, G

    1998-01-01

    In a previous paper, the superconnection formalism was used to naturally fit the Higgs field into a U(n) gauge theory where we aimed at the reconstruction of the standard model. The approach provides an alternative to non-commutative geometry. This work is now continued by including matter field (leptons). The essentially new ingredient is the right-handed neutrino field and a new kind of interaction that goes with it. All interactions follow from one Dirac operator associated to a superconnection.

  10. Superconnections and Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Roepstorff

    2000-08-17

    In a previous paper (hep-th/9801040), the superconnection formalism was used to fit the Higgs field into a U(n) gauge theory with particular emphasis on the n=2 case, aiming at the reconstruction of certain parts of the Standard Model. The approach provides an alternative to the one bases on non-commutative geometry. This work is continued by including matter fields (leptons only). We extend the Standard Model by including the right-handed neutrino field. The possibility of a finite neutrino mass is thus accounted for.

  11. Discrete dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, M.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z{sub 2} subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while {theta}{sub 13}=0 gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  12. Thermodynamics of electroweak matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gynther

    2006-09-21

    This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a PhD thesis, also containing the articles hep-ph/0303019, hep-ph/0510375 and hep-ph/0512177. We provide a short history of the research of electroweak thermodynamics and a brief introduction to the theory as well as to the necessary theoretical tools needed to work at finite temperatures. We then review computations regarding the pressure of electroweak matter at high temperatures (the full expression of the perturbative expansion of the pressure is given in the appendix) and the electroweak phase diagram at finite chemical potentials. Finally, we compare electroweak and QCD thermodynamics.

  13. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric G. Speckhard; Kenny C. Y. Ng; John F. Beacom; Ranjan Laha

    2015-07-31

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will reach the required 0.1% level. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  14. Dark matter axions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikivie, P. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Theoretical Physics Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The physics of axions is briefly reviewed theoretically, and various constraints on the axion mass are recounted. Then the two main contributions to the present cosmological axion energy density, that due to the realignment of the vacuum during the QCD phase transition and that from axions radiated by cosmic axion strings, are discussed. Next, two detection schemes for axions that are sensitive to different mass ranges, an electromagnetic cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field and a system of superconducting wires embedded in a material transparent to microwave radiation, are described. Finally, the phase space structure of cold dark matter galactic halos is considered. (RWR)

  15. Dark matter axions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikivie, P. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Theoretical Physics]|[Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-09-01

    The physics of axions is briefly reviewed theoretically, and various constraints on the axion mass are recounted. Then the two main contributions to the present cosmological axion energy density, that due to the realignment of the vacuum during the QCD phase transition and that from axions radiated by cosmic axion strings, are discussed. Next, two detection schemes for axions that are sensitive to different mass ranges, an electromagnetic cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field and a system of superconducting wires embedded in a material transparent to microwave radiation, are described. Finally, the phase space structure of cold dark matter galactic halos is considered. (RWR)

  16. Materials/Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDSMaterials andMaterials/Condensed Matter Print

  17. Double-Disk Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, JiJi; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Based on observational tests and constraints on halo structure, dark matter is generally taken to be cold and essentially collisionless. On the other hand, given the large number of particles and forces in the visible world, a more complex dark sector could be a reasonable or even likely possibility. This hypothesis leads to testable consequences, perhaps portending the discovery of a rich hidden world neighboring our own. We consider a scenario that readily satisfies current bounds that we call Partially Interacting Dark Matter (PIDM). This scenario contains self-interacting dark matter, but it is not the dominant component. Even if PIDM contains only a fraction of the net dark matter density, comparable to the baryonic fraction, the subdominant component's interactions can lead to interesting and potentially observable consequences. Our primary focus will be the special case of Double-Disk Dark Matter (DDDM), in which self-interactions allow the dark matter to lose enough energy to lead to dynamics similar ...

  18. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, I V

    2006-01-01

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole can capture a large number of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) during its lifetime. WIMP annihilation energy release in low- to medium-mass stars is comparable with or even exceeds the luminosity of such stars due to thermonuclear burning. The excessive energy release in the stellar core may result in an evolution scenario different from what is expected for a regular star. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars within the central parsec of galactic nuclei. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter. The excess luminosity of such stars attributed to WIMP "burning" can be used to infer the local WIMP matter density. A white dwarf with a highly eccentric orbit around the central black hole may exhibit variations in brightness correlated with the orbital phase. On the other hand, white dwarfs shown to lack such orbital brightness variations can be used...

  19. Condensed Matter and Magnet Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    helimagnets and the development of a cryogen-free apparatus for spherical neutron polarimetry." Read more... Cutting-edge condensed matter physics research, high magnetic field...

  20. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baltz, Ted

    2009-09-01

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  1. Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Colonna

    2009-02-26

    Highlights on the recent research activity, carried out by the Italian Community involved in the "Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics" field, will be presented.

  2. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  3. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  4. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States); Lyon, W.G.; Ross, D.L. [Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluable organic matter content (that is, humin) as function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes. 56 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences laminated, Cenoma- nian­Santonian black shale sequences contain between 2% and 15% organic carbon about the depositional conditions leading to the black shale accumulations. The low d13 Corg values

  6. First limit from a surface run of a 10 liter Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Thomas S., Jr

    2009-01-01

    A 10 liter prototype Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) is operated on the surface of the earth at 75 Torr using carbon-tetrafluoride (CF4) as a target material to obtain a 24.57 gram-day exposure. A limit is set ...

  7. Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    42 Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling Sparks, D.L. & C. Chen Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Delaware@udel.edu) Abstract Organic matter (OM)-mineral complexation plays a critical role in soil carbon (C) stabilization

  8. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  9. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, I V; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

  10. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor V. Moskalenko; Lawrence L. Wai

    2007-02-24

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

  11. Energy Matters in Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Energy Matters in Washington State Energy Matters in Washington State www.energy.wsu.edu/library/ November 2009 #12;905 Plum Street SE, Building 3 P.O. Box 43169 Olympia, Washington 98504-3169 Energy University Extension Energy Program. 905 Plum Street SE, Building 3, P.O. Box 43169, Olympia, Washington

  12. Astronomical Evidence for Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golwala, Sunil

    dark matter (assumed non-baryonic) #12;A word about constitutes an energy density from the Friedmann Equation: (Assuming no curvature) #12;Definitions C Critical Density X X/C = 1 => flat universe, what Rotation curve: Virial Theorem: #12;Spiral Galaxies Luminous Matter ~ follows: Asymptotes to constant value

  13. dark matter dark energy inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wayne

    theory dark matter dark energy inflation The National Science Foundation The Kavli Foundation NSF Site Review November 28-29, 2005 #12;dark matter dark energy inflation NSF Site Visit ­ November 28 - 29, 2005The National Science Foundation The Kavli Foundation The Theoretical Web UHE cosmic rays B

  14. Dark matter on the lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randy Lewis

    2014-11-26

    Several collaborations have recently performed lattice calculations aimed specifically at dark matter, including work with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and SO(4) gauge theories to represent the dark sector. Highlights of these studies are presented here, after a reminder of how lattice calculations in QCD itself are helping with the hunt for dark matter.

  15. Charmonium mass in nuclear matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, S. H.; Ko, Che Ming.

    2003-01-01

    The mass shift of charmonium states in nuclear matter is studied in the perturbative QCD approach. The leading-order effect due to the change of gluon condensate in nuclear matter is evaluated using the leading-order QCD formula, while the higher...

  16. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  17. Quantum vacuum and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

    2011-11-21

    Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.

  18. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (combustion decreased. The concentration of carbon monoxidecombustion products that now include primarily carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N 2 ) with small amounts of carbon monoxide (

  19. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  20. Formation of carbon deposits from coal in an arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, B.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, K.

    2007-07-01

    The issue of deposited carbon (DC) on a reactor wall during the production of acetylene by the coal/arc plasma process is a potential obstacle for the industrialization process. The formation mechanism of DC is very difficult to reveal because the high complexity of coal and the volatile matter. Combining with quenching technique, the methane, liquid petroleum gas and benzene were employed as the model materials to roughly act as the light gas, chain and aromatic subcomponents of volatile matter, and then the reasonable formation mechanism of DC was subtly speculated accordingly.

  1. Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from Himalayan erosion Christian France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weathering and erosion can affect the long-term ocean­atmo- sphere budget of carbon dioxide both through of Neogene Himalayan erosion on the carbon cycle is an increase in the amount of organic carbon

  2. CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    constraint to these relationships, with the carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption pressingCARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson CSERGE GEC Working Paper 92-28 #12;CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson

  3. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and individuals wishing to reduce their carbon footprint while also delivering a range of other environmentalWoodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July of group schemes 8 2.6 Monitoring 9 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 9 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code

  4. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  5. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  6. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium...

  7. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  8. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  9. Nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram with strangeness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barz, H. W.; Friman, B. L.; Knoll, J.; Schulz, H.

    1989-07-01

    A phenomenological equation of state of strongly interacting matter, including strange degrees of freedom, is presented. It is shown that the hyperon and kaon interactions must be included, in order to obtain a reasonable description of the deconfinement transition at high baryon densities. The consequences of kaon condensation on the nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram are explored. The relative particle abundances obtained in an isentropic expansion of a blob of quark-gluon plasma are presented for different initial conditions. Implications for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.

  10. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  11. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  12. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  13. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  14. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of planet formation and structures as well as the evolution of an imploding inertial fusion capsule depends on our understanding of matter in the complex warm dense matter...

  15. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

  16. Crystalline carbon nitride thin films deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    of such a hypothetical ma- terial is also significant to the research in the fields of condensed matter physics compound. II. EXPERIMENTAL The carbon nitride thin films were deposited on polished Si (100) in the MPCVD

  17. Casting Light on Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ellis

    2011-06-15

    The prospects for detecting a candidate supersymmetric dark matter particle at the LHC are reviewed, and compared with the prospects for direct and indirect searches for astrophysical dark matter. The discussion is based on a frequentist analysis of the preferred regions of the Minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with universal soft supersymmetry breaking (the CMSSM). LHC searches may have good chances to observe supersymmetry in the near future - and so may direct searches for astrophysical dark matter particles, whereas indirect searches may require greater sensitivity, at least within the CMSSM.

  18. The Unification and Cogeneration of Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Barr

    2011-09-18

    In grand unified theories with gauge groups larger than SU(5), the multiplets that contain the known quarks and leptons also contain fermions that are singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Some of these could be the dark matter of the universe. Grand unified theories can also have accidental U(1) global symmetries (analogous to B-L in minimal SU(5)) that can stabilize dark matter. These ideas are illustrated in an SU(6) model.

  19. The Unification and Cogeneration of Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, S M

    2011-01-01

    In grand unified theories with gauge groups larger than SU(5), the multiplets that contain the known quarks and leptons also contain fermions that are singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Some of these could be the dark matter of the universe. Grand unified theories can also have accidental U(1) global symmetries (analogous to B-L in minimal SU(5)) that can stabilize dark matter. These ideas are illustrated in an SU(6) model.

  20. Dynamics and Disequilibrium Carbon Chemistry in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres, With Application to HD 209458b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis S. Cooper; Adam P. Showman

    2006-05-30

    Chemical equilibrium considerations suggest that, assuming solar elemental abundances, carbon on HD 209458b is sequestered primarily as carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The relative mole fractions of CO(g) and CH4(g) in chemical equilibrium are expected to vary greatly according to variations in local temperature and pressure. We show, however, that in the p = 1--1000 mbar range, chemical equilibrium does not hold. To explore disequilibrium effects, we couple the chemical kinetics of CO and CH4 to a three-dimensional numerical model of HD 209458b's atmospheric circulation. These simulations show that vigorous dynamics caused by uneven heating of this tidally locked planet homogenize the CO and CH4 concentrations at p < 1 bar, even in the presence of lateral temperature variations of ~500--1000 K. In the 1--1000 mbar pressure range, we find that over 98% of the carbon is in CO. This is true even in cool regions where CH4 is much more stable thermodynamically. Our work shows furthermore that planets 300--500 K cooler than HD 209458b can also have abundant CO in their upper layers due to disequilibrium effects. We demonstrate several interesting observational consequences of these results.

  1. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  2. Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park

  3. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  4. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  5. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  6. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  7. Physical Protection of Classified Matter

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-02-03

    The order establishes policy and objectives for physical protection of classified matter. This directive does not cancel another directive. Chg 1, 7-30-93. Canceled by 5632.1C.

  8. Lorentz-violating dark matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondragon, Antonio Richard

    2009-05-15

    was originally motivated by an unconventional fundamental theory, but which in this dissertation is defined as matter which has a nonzero minimum velocity. Furthermore, the present investigation evolved into the broader goal of exploring the properties of Lorentz...

  9. Energy Matters: Our Energy Independence

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this installment of the livechat series "Energy Matters," Dr. Arun Majumdar takes questions from the public about the investments we're making today that will move us off of foreign oil and...

  10. Strain-Engineered Manufacturing of Freeform Carbon Nanotube Microstructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Volder, M.; Park, S.; Tawfick, S.; Hart, A. J.

    2014-07-29

    or microsensors [45, 46]. Such applications could take 254 advantage of the thermal and mechanical durability of CNTs, as well as the anisotropic properties 255 arising from their alignment and collective curvature. 256 The ability to fabricate large arrays... . and C. Miller, Wafer-level CSP, wafer-level assembly/test: Integrating backend 480 processes. Solid State Technology, 2001. 44(2): p. 78-+. 481 45. De Volder, M., et al., Hydrogel-driven carbon nanotube microtransducers. Soft Matter, 2011. 482 7...

  11. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  12. Dark Matter Triggers of Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter W. Graham; Surjeet Rajendran; Jaime Varela

    2015-05-17

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ rules out primordial black holes with masses $\\sim 10^{19}$ gm - $10^{20}$ gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as $10^{24}$ gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range $10^{20}$ gm - $10^{22}$ gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large space-time volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  13. Cosmology, Thermodynamics and Matter Creation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. S. Lima; M. O. Calvao; I. Waga

    2007-08-24

    Several approaches to the matter creation problem in the context of cosmological models are summarily reviewed. A covariant formulation of the general relativistic imperfect simple fluid endowed with a process of matter creation is presented. By considering the standard big bang model, it is shown how the recent results of Prigogine et alii \\cite{1} can be recovered and, at the same time their limits of validity are explicited.

  14. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    monoxide,  methane  and  carbon  dioxide.     Next,  the  fuel  gas  is  burned  in  an  internal  combustion 

  15. IMPACT OF REDUCED INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    and Carbon Monoxide Several recent field and laboratory studies at various laboratories have focused on combustion-

  16. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide; Natural gas burners; Nitrogen dioxide; Range hood; Task ventilation; Unvented combustion.

  17. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Combustion of Classical and Alternative Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ulrich

    combustion of hydrogen [29], carbon monoxide [29], methane [30, 31], ethane [32], acetylene [33], propane [

  18. CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

  19. PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01

    shocked nuclear matter during the compression and expansionand isentropic expansion were valid in nuclear collisions.

  20. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect decomposition pathways and stabilization. These factors influence the stability of SOM in part by shaping its molecular characteristics, which play a fundamental role in nearly all processes governing SOM stability but are not the focus of this chapter. We review here the most important controls on the distribution and dynamics of SOM at plot to global scales, and methods used to study them. We also explore the concepts of controls, processes, and mechanisms, and how they operate across scales. The concept of SOM turnover, or mean residence time, is central to this chapter and so it is described in some detail. The Appendix details the use of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), a powerful isotopic tool for studying SOM dynamics. Much of the material here was originally presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on 'Soils and Global Change: Carbon Cycle, Trace Gas Exchange and Hydrology', held June 16-27, 1997, at the Chateau de Bonas, France.

  1. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2014-10-30

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous OC stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global C cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil OC stocks to changing climatic conditions. In this review,more »we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of OC stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this OC to permafrost thaw under a warming climate.« less

  2. Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

  3. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range.

  4. Double-Disk Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JiJi Fan; Andrey Katz; Lisa Randall; Matthew Reece

    2013-07-31

    Based on observational constraints on large scale structure and halo structure, dark matter is generally taken to be cold and essentially collisionless. On the other hand, given the large number of particles and forces in the visible world, a more complex dark sector could be a reasonable or even likely possibility. This hypothesis leads to testable consequences, perhaps portending the discovery of a rich hidden world neighboring our own. We consider a scenario that readily satisfies current bounds that we call Partially Interacting Dark Matter (PIDM). This scenario contains self-interacting dark matter, but it is not the dominant component. Even if PIDM contains only a fraction of the net dark matter density, comparable to the baryonic fraction, the subdominant component's interactions can lead to interesting and potentially observable consequences. Our primary focus will be the special case of Double-Disk Dark Matter (DDDM), in which self-interactions allow the dark matter to lose enough energy to lead to dynamics similar to those in the baryonic sector. We explore a simple model in which DDDM can cool efficiently and form a disk within galaxies, and we evaluate some of the possible observational signatures. The most prominent signal of such a scenario could be an enhanced indirect detection signature with a distinctive spatial distribution. Even though subdominant, the enhanced density at the center of the galaxy and possibly throughout the plane of the galaxy can lead to large boost factors, and could even explain a signature as large as the 130 GeV Fermi line. Such scenarios also predict additional dark radiation degrees of freedom that could soon be detectable and would influence the interpretation of future data, such as that from Planck and from the Gaia satellite. We consider this to be the first step toward exploring a rich array of new possibilities for dark matter dynamics.

  5. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

  6. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  7. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  8. Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, T.; Liebner, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ronald; Wagner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

  9. Carbon K-Edge XANES Spectromicroscopy of Natural Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes,J.; Cody, G.; Rumble, D.; Haberstroh, P.; Wirick, S.; Gelinas, Y.; Morais-Cabral, J.

    2008-01-01

    The black carbon continuum is composed of a series of carbon-rich components derived from combustion or metamorphism and characterized by contrasting environmental behavior and susceptibility to oxidation. In this work, we present a micro-scale density fractionation method that allows isolating the small quantities of soot-like and graphitic material usually found in natural samples. Organic carbon and {delta}{sup 13}C mass balance calculations were used to quantify the relative contributions of the two fractions to thermally-stable organic matter from a series of aquatic sediments. Varying proportions of soot-like and graphitic material were found in these samples, with large variations in {delta}{sup 13}C signatures suggesting important differences in their origin and/or dynamics in the environment.

  10. Bimetric gravity and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Bernard; Luc Blanchet; Lavinia Heisenberg

    2015-07-10

    We review some recent proposals for relativistic models of dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. The aim is to solve the problems of cold dark matter (CDM) at galactic scales, and to reproduce the phenomenology of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), while still being in agreement with the standard cosmological model $\\Lambda$-CDM at large scales. In this context a promising alternative is dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter particles are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. The phenomenology of MOND then results from a mechanism of gravitational polarization. Probably the best formulation of the model is within the framework of recently developed massive bigravity theories. Then the gravitational sector of the model is safe by construction, but a ghostly degree of freedom in the decoupling limit is still present in the dark matter sector. Future work should analyse the cosmological solutions of the model and check the post-Newtonian parameters in the solar system.

  11. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FCResearch Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry

  12. Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Lu, Fang; Wang, Joseph; Musameh, Mustafa; Tu, Yi; Ren, Zhifeng

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes the recent development of carbon nanotube based electrochemical biosensors work at PNNL.

  13. Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Lu, Fang; Wang, Joseph; Musameh, Mustafa; Tu, Yi; Ren, Zhifeng; J. A. Schwarz, C. Contescu, K. Putyera

    2004-04-01

    This invited review article summarizes recent work on biosensor development based on carbon nanotubes

  14. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  15. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  16. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony; Calayag, Bon

    2014-03-05

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  18. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  20. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  1. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01

    black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions. Energ. Policyreduces predicted carbon dioxide emissions estimation by upincrease rates of carbon dioxide emissions [135,136]. Due to

  2. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

  3. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  4. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  5. The DAMIC dark matter experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castañeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01

    The DAMIC (Dark Matter in CCDs) experiment uses high resistivity, scientific grade CCDs to search for dark matter. The CCD's low electronic noise allows an unprecedently low energy threshold of a few tens of eV that make it possible to detect silicon recoils resulting from interactions of low mass WIMPs. In addition the CCD's high spatial resolution and the excellent energy response results in very effective background identification techniques. The experiment has a unique sensitivity to dark matter particles with masses below 10 GeV/c$^2$. Previous results have demonstrated the potential of this technology, motivating the construction of DAMIC100, a 100 grams silicon target detector currently being installed at SNOLAB. In this contribution, the mode of operation and unique imaging capabilities of the CCDs, and how they may be exploited to characterize and suppress backgrounds will be discussed, as well as physics results after one year of data taking.

  6. Dark Matter in 3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Hedri, Sonia El; Wacker, Jay G.

    2012-04-01

    We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. We conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and constrain or measure the presence of anisotropies.

  7. Static Response of Neutron Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buraczynski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the problem of strongly interacting neutron matter by adding a periodic external modulation. This allows us to study from first principles a neutron system that is extended and inhomogeneous, with connections to the physics of both neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei. We carry out fully non-perturbative microscopic Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the energy of neutron matter at different densities, as well as different strengths and periodicities of the external potential. In order to remove systematic errors, we examine finite-size effects and the impact of the wave function ansatz. We also make contact with energy-density functional theories of nuclei and disentangle isovector gradient contributions from bulk properties. Finally, we calculate the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter and compare it with the response of other physical systems.

  8. Chiral condensate in neutron matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kaiser; W. Weise

    2008-08-06

    A recent chiral perturbation theory calculation of the in-medium quark condensate $$ is extended to the isospin-asymmetric case of pure neutron matter. In contrast to the behavior in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find only small deviations from the linear density approximation. This feature originates primarily from the reduced weight factors (e.g. 1/6 for the dominant contributions) of the $2\\pi$-exchange mechanisms in pure neutron matter. Our result suggests therefore that the tendencies for chiral symmetry restoration are actually favored in systems with large neutron excess (e.g. neutron stars). We also analyze the behavior of the density-dependent quark condensate $(\\rho_n)$ in the chiral limit $m_\\pi\\to 0$.

  9. PII S0016-7037(00)00511-1 Reaction of forest floor organic matter at goethite, birnessite and smectite surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    PII S0016-7037(00)00511-1 Reaction of forest floor organic matter at goethite, birnessite carbon (DOC) concentrations (0­140 g C m 3 ) for reaction with goethite ( -FeOOH), birnessite ( -MnO2 different NOM adsorption, fractionation and transformation patterns. Goethite exhibited a steep initial

  10. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Rodger A.

    2013-01-01

    same. Carbon monoxide ~s produced from incomplete combustionmonoxide, carbon dioxide, and many organic compounds are products of combustion.

  11. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  12. The Effect of Slowly Biodegradable Carbon on the Morphology, Integrity and Performance of Aerobic Granular Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraj, Rasha Attwan

    2014-08-31

    and phosphorus. For both experimental phases, the hydraulic loading rate was 1.32 kg COD/m3/day. For the 1st phase, the three reactors were fed soluble organic matter (sodium acetate) as the sole carbon source with an anaerobic-aerobic SBR cycle. To achieve...

  13. Sulphur-bearing carbon chains in IRC110216 T. J. Millar,1P

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Tom

    Sulphur-bearing carbon chains in IRC110216 T. J. Millar,1P J. R. Flores2 and A. J. Markwick1 1 the chemical model of IRC110216 developed by Millar, Herbst & Bettens to include recent routes to the formation. Key words: molecular data ­ molecular processes ­ circumstellar matter ­ stars: individual: IRC110216

  14. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell Liangbing Hu,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes Xing Xie,a Meng Ye to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC matter can also drive electron flow. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that exploit this understanding have

  15. Stability and stabilisation of biochar and green manure in soil with different organic carbon contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Stability and stabilisation of biochar and green manure in soil with different organic carbon-poor soil, whereas the difference was only 0.1 kg/m2 .year with Tithonia diversifolia green manure. Biochar of biochar exceeds that of a labile organic matter addition such as green manure. Additional keywords

  16. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    and health from people who are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide

  17. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

  18. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 50615079, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/5061/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ), carbon monoxide (CO) or sulfur dioxide (SO2), ships also emit various types of particulate matter (Eyring. Spe- cific emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) per kg of fuel emitted are higher than and thermal radiation and indirectly by changing cloud properties. Here we use ECHAM5/MESSy1-MADE, a global

  19. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  20. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Lovley, DR

    2014-08-26

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors for C. ljungdahlii include carbon monoxide, which can be derived from industrial waste gases or the conversion of recalcitrant biomass to syngas, as well as hydrogen, another syngas component. The finding that carbon and electron flow in C. ljungdahlii can be diverted from the production of acetate to butyrate synthesis is an important step toward the goal of renewable commodity production from carbon dioxide with this organism.

  1. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  2. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  3. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  4. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  5. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  6. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  7. Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ionofPumpSystemsMatter.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Pump Systems Matter Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization...

  8. Why Geology Matters: Decoding the Past, Anticipating the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2011-01-01

    Review: Why Geology Matters: Decoding the Past, AnticipatingUSA Macdougall, Doug. Why Geology Matters: Decoding theE-book available. Why Geology Matters pursues two goals: to

  9. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  10. Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Robin

    Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION Laser cooling of neutral atoms in the past decades has been a breakthrough in the understanding of their dy- namics and led to the seminal proposals of laser cooling-Doppler and subrecoil cooling, as well as new technologies, such as semiconductor diode lasers. Most of those

  11. States of Matter Deepak Dhar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    - logical classification of different animal species) or some mixture of these (e.g. books in a library answer in this case is that states of matter is a classification scheme, like filing cabinets classification schemes could be alphabetical (e.g. in a dictionary), or based on some common properties ( zoo

  12. Wino dark matter under siege

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Timothy; Lisanti, Mariangela; Pierce, Aaron; Slatyer, Tracy R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu

    2013-10-01

    A fermion triplet of SU(2){sub L} — a wino — is a well-motivated dark matter candidate. This work shows that present-day wino annihilations are constrained by indirect detection experiments, with the strongest limits coming from H.E.S.S. and Fermi. The bounds on wino dark matter are presented as a function of mass for two scenarios: thermal (winos constitute a subdominant component of the dark matter for masses less than 3.1 TeV) and non-thermal (winos comprise all the dark matter). Assuming the NFW halo model, the H.E.S.S. search for gamma-ray lines excludes the 3.1 TeV thermal wino; the combined H.E.S.S. and Fermi results completely exclude the non-thermal scenario. Uncertainties in the exclusions are explored. Indirect detection may provide the only probe for models of anomaly plus gravity mediation where the wino is the lightest superpartner and scalars reside at the 100 TeV scale.

  13. Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus

    2011-12-19

    Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  14. Neutrino Mass and Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David O. Caldwell

    1998-12-01

    Despite direct observations favoring a low mass density, a critical density universe with a neutrino component of dark matter provides the best existing model to explain the observed structure of the universe over more than three orders of magnitude in distance scale. In principle this hot dark matter could consist of one, two, or three species of active neutrinos. If all present indications for neutrino mass are correct, however, only the two-species (muon neutrino and tau neutrino) possibility works. This requires the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino to explain the solar electron neutrino deficit via nu(e)->nu(s), leaving nu(mu)->nu(tau) as the explanation for the anomalous nu(mu)/nu(e) ratio produced by atmospheric neutrinos, and having the LSND experiment demonstrating via anti-nu(mu)-> anti-nu(e) the mass difference between the light nu(e)-nu(s) pair and the heavier nu(mu)-nu(tau) pair required for dark matter. Other experiments do not conflict with the LSND results when all the experiments are analyzed in the same way, and when analyzed conservatively the LSND data is quite compatible with the mass difference needed for dark matter. Further support for this mass pattern is provided by the need for a sterile neutrino to rescue heavy-element nucleosynthesis in supernovae, and it could even aid the concordance in light element abundances from the early universe.

  15. Behavior of carbonate-rich fuels in ACFBC and PFBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A.; Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.

    1999-07-01

    Estonian oil shale is known as one of richest in carbonate fuels. High mineral matter content (60--75% in dry mass), moderate moisture (9--12%) and carbonate carbon dioxide content (17--19%), and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg as received) are characteristic for Estonian oil shale. Approximately half of the mineral matter is in the carbonate form, mainly as calcium carbonate. The sulfur content of dry mass is 1.5--1.7% and Ca/S molar ratio is 8--10. Due to limestone present in oil shale, the additional sorbent for sulfur retention during combustion is not needed. The behavior of carbonates as well as the formation of ash at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was the main topics to study. At Thermal Engineering Department (TED) of Tallinn Technical University a laboratory pressurized combustion facility was used for investigation the decomposition of soil shale carbonates in atmospheric and pressurized burning conditions. The experiments with oil shale were performed at pressures 0.1 MPa and 1.2 MPa and at the temperature 850 C. Based on the carbonate decomposition rate (CDR) 0.3--0.4 established experimentally at pressurized combustion, it may be concluded that the heating value of oil shale increases approximately by 5.5--8% and the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gas decreases by 13--20% compared with the conditions of the complete decomposition of carbonate. Combustion of oil shale was tested in 0.15--1.0 MW{sub th} test facilities. The tests confirmed the suitability of both ACFBC and PFBC technologies to utilize oil shale. The tests showed a nearly complete binding of sulfur by oil shale ash and a limited formation of NO{sub x} at combustion. Oil shale FBC is characterized by the formation of large amounts (40--85% from total) of fine-grained fly ash.

  16. FIA-12-0056 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeCommunication3-EDepartmentExerciseCarbon Capture and Storage NewsFEHBofa|matter

  17. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  18. Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons to hydrogen and high-value carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Naresh; Panjala, Devadas; Huffman, Gerald P.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention provides novel catalysts for accomplishing catalytic decomposition of undiluted light hydrocarbons to a hydrogen product, and methods for preparing such catalysts. In one aspect, a method is provided for preparing a catalyst by admixing an aqueous solution of an iron salt, at least one additional catalyst metal salt, and a suitable oxide substrate support, and precipitating metal oxyhydroxides onto the substrate support. An incipient wetness method, comprising addition of aqueous solutions of metal salts to a dry oxide substrate support, extruding the resulting paste to pellet form, and calcining the pellets in air is also discloses. In yet another aspect, a process is provided for producing hydrogen from an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant, comprising contacting the hydrocarbon reactant with a catalyst as described above in a reactor, and recovering a substantially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen product stream. In still yet another aspect, a process is provided for catalytic decomposition of an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant to obtain hydrogen and a valuable multi-walled carbon nanotube coproduct.

  19. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  20. Microfiltration of colloids and natural organic matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schäfer, Andrea; Schwicke, U.; Fischer, M. M.; Fane, Anthony G.; Waite, T. D.

    2000-01-01

    Surface waters contain colloids and natural organic matter, largely composed of humic substances. In this work the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) and humic substances (IHSS stream humic and fulvic acid reference ...

  1. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry McLerran

    2008-12-08

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition . At high baryon density and low temperature, large $N_c$ arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  2. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    On carbon footprints and growing energy use Curtis M.reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organizationhis own organization's carbon footprint and answers this

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of  American household carbon footprint. ” Ecological and  limitations) of carbon footprint estimates toward of the art in carbon footprint analyses for California, 

  4. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01

    induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,"and A. Izumi. "Carbon contamination of EL'V mask: filmEffect of Carbon Contamination on the Printing Performance

  5. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Raman spectrum of the carbon coating. Deconvoluted peaksConductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials Marca M.for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery

  6. Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

  7. Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deck, Christian Peter

    2009-01-01

    around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

  8. Indirect searches for neutralino dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Edsjo

    2002-11-15

    There is mounting evidence for dark matter in the Universe and one of the favourite dark matter candidates is the neutralino, which naturally appears as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in many supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The neutralino has the desired properties to be a good dark matter candidate and we will here review the different indirect searches for neutralino dark matter and discuss the implications on these from recent direct searches.

  9. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Front Matter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes the front matter of the Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: a Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.

  10. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  11. Catalyst-free carbon nanotubes from coal-based material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, R.B.; Lal, C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    2007-01-01

    DC-Arc Discharge technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal samples instead of graphite electrodes filled with metal catalysts. The adverse effect of the mineral matter present in coal may be, thus, avoided. The cathode deposits showed the presence of single walled carbon nanotubes as well, which are generally known to be formed only in presence of transition metal catalysts and lanthanides. The process also avoids the tedious purification treatments of carbon nanotubes by strong acids to get rid of metal catalysts produced as impurities along with nanotubes. Thus, coal may be refined and demineralized by an organorefining technique to obtain super clean coal, an ultra low ash coal which may be used for the production of carbon nanotubes. The residual coal obtained after the organorefining may be used as an energy source for raising steam for power generation. Thus, coal may afford its use as an inexpensive feedstock for the production of carbon nanotubes besides its conventional role as a fuel for power generation.

  12. Nuclear matter to strange matter transition in holographic QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngman Kim; Yunseok Seo; Sang-Jin Sin

    2009-11-19

    We construct a simple holographic QCD model to study nuclear matter to strange matter transition. The interaction of dense medium and hadrons is taken care of by imposing the force balancing condition for stable D4/D6/D6 configuration. By considering the intermediate and light flavor branes interacting with baryon vertex homogeneously distributed along R^3 space and requesting the energy minimization, we find that there is a well defined transition density as a function of current quark mass. We also find that as density goes up very high, intermediate (or heavy) and light quarks populate equally as expected from the Pauli principle. In this sense, the effect of the Pauli principle is realized as dynamics of D-branes.

  13. Dark Matter Searches with Representing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    · Supernova Remnants · Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources · Gamma-Ray Bursts · Solar Physics · Dark Matter #12;SCIPP talk Larry Wai / SLAC 4 Talk overview 1. What is GLAST? 2. How does dark matter shine in gamma rays? 3. Where should we look for dark matter with GLAST? #12;SCIPP talk Larry Wai / SLAC 5 GLAST

  14. Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Mark

    Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter Name: Registration number: Department: Year of study of your portfolio. #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter2 Contents Timetable Page 3 Introduction 16 #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter3 Timetable Friday 6.00 pm Introduction

  15. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

  16. Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trade LtdCarbon Jump

  17. Metaproteomics of a gutless marine worm and its symbiotic microbial community reveal unusual pathways for carbon and energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wentrop, C.; Lott, C.; Teeling, Hanno; Wetzel, Silke; Young, Jacque C; Chang, Y.; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Zarzycki, Jan; Fuchs, Georg; Markert, Stephanie; Hempel, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Low nutrient and energy availability has led to the evolution of numerous strategies for overcoming these limitations, of which symbiotic associations represent a key mechanism. Particularly striking are the associations between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine animals that thrive in nutrient-poor environments such as the deep-sea because the symbionts allow their hosts to grow on inorganic energy and carbon sources such as sulfide and CO2. Remarkably little is known about the physiological strategies that enable chemosynthetic symbioses to colonize oligotrophic environments. In this study, we used metaproteomics and metabolomics to investigate the intricate network of metabolic interactions in the chemosynthetic association between Olavius algarvensis, a gutless marine worm, and its bacterial symbionts. We propose novel pathways for coping with energy and nutrient limitation, some of which may be widespread in both free-living and symbiotic bacteria. These include (i) a pathway for symbiont assimilation of the host waste products acetate, propionate, succinate and malate, (ii) the potential use of carbon monoxide as an energy source, a substrate previously not known to play a role in marine invertebrate symbioses, (iii) the potential use of hydrogen as an energy source, (iv) the strong expression of high affinity uptake transporters, and (v) novel energy efficient steps in CO2 fixation and sulfate reduction. The high expression of proteins involved in pathways for energy and carbon uptake and conservation in the O. algarvensis symbiosis indicates that the oligotrophic nature of its environment exerted a strong selective pressure in shaping these associations.

  18. ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION examines biological carbon sequestration using a grassland restoration as a model system. Chapter 1 for biological carbon sequestration. In this analysis, we found that significantly greater soil carbon

  19. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goal for a theory of justice: first to reduce the growth rate of global carbon dioxide emissions such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions nations could continue emissions for much longer before exhausting theirfair share of the Carbon Commons

  20. Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushfeldt, Scott I

    2005-01-01

    A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

  1. Carbon nanotubes: synthesis and functionalization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Robert

    2007-01-01

    conditions were then used as the basis of several comparative CVD experiments showing that the quality of nanotubes and the yield of carbon depended on the availability of carbon to react. The availability could be controlled by the varying concentration...

  2. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics...

  3. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonit Hochberg; Yue Zhao; Kathryn M. Zurek

    2015-04-27

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  4. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  5. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonit Hochberg; Yue Zhao; Kathryn M. Zurek

    2015-11-11

    We propose and study a new class of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off of free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with terrestrial and cosmological/astrophysical constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  6. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-Jun Cai; Chun Shen; Che Ming Ko; Jun Xu; Bao-An Li

    2009-11-17

    The incompressibility $K_sat(\\delta)$ of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of $K_sat(\\delta)$ in powers of isospin asymmetry $\\delta$, i.e., $K_sat(\\delta )$=K_{0}+K_{sat,2}\\delta^{2}+K_{sat,4}\\delta^{4}+O(\\delta^{6})$, the magnitude of the 4th-order K_{sat,4} parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K_{sat,2} parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the K_{sat,2} can be expressed as K_{sat,2}=K_{sym}-6L-J_{0}/{K_{0}L in terms of the slope parameter $L$ and the curvature parameter $K_{\\mathrm{sym}}$ of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter $J_0$ of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order $J_0$ contribution to K_{sat,2} generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between K_{sym} and $L$ as well as between $J_{0}/K_{0}$ and $K_{0}$. Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on $K_{0}$ and $L$, the nuclear symmetry energy $E_sym(\\rho_{0})$ at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of K_{sat,2}=-370 +- 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density.

  7. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    the Australian National Green- house Gas Inventory (DCCEE,fuel emissions Carbon and green house gas (GHG) accounts are

  8. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  9. Carbon Footprint Calculator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

  10. CARBON -14 PHYSICAL DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    CARBON - 14 [14C] PHYSICAL DATA · Beta Energy: 156 keV (maximum) 49 keV (average) (100% abundance on wipes. #12;RADIATION MONITORING DOSIMETERS · Not needed (beta energy too low). · 14C Beta Dose Rate: 6) · Effective Half-Life: 40 days (unbound) · Specific Activity: 4460 mCi/gram · Maximum Beta Range in Air: 24

  11. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-09-01

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  12. Carbon-Fuelled Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-12

    Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The author¹s work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  13. Two-portal Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karim Ghorbani; Hossein Ghorbani

    2015-06-14

    We propose a renormalizable dark matter model in which a fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate communicates with the standard model particles through two distinct portals: Higgs and vector portals. The dark sector is charged under a $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry while the standard model has a leptophobic interaction with the dark vector boson. The leading contribution of DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section begins at one-loop level. The model meets all the constraints imposed by direct detection experiments provided by LUX and XENON100, observed relic abundance according to WMAP and Planck, and the invisible Higgs decay width measured at the LHC. It turns out that the dark matter mass in the viable parameter space can take values from a few GeV up to 1 TeV. This is a new feature which is absent in the models with only one portal. In addition, we can find in the constrained regions of the parameter space a DM mass of $\\sim 34$ GeV annihilating into $b$ quark pair, which explains the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray excess.

  14. On Math, Matter and Mind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piet Hut; Mark Alford; Max Tegmark

    2006-01-15

    We discuss the nature of reality in the ontological context of Penrose's math-matter-mind triangle. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the mind arises out of matter, and that matter can be explained in terms of math. Non-physicists should be wary of any claim that modern physics leads us to any particular resolution of this circularity, since even the sample of three theoretical physicists writing this paper hold three divergent views. Some physicists believe that current physics has already found the basic framework for a complete description of reality, and only has to fill in the details. Others suspect that no single framework, from physics or other sources, will ever capture reality. Yet others guess that reality might be approached arbitrarily closely by some form of future physics, but probably based on completely different frameworks. We will designate these three approaches as the fundamentalist, secular and mystic views of the world, as seen by practicing physicists. We present and contrast each of these views, which arguably form broad categories capturing most if not all interpretations of physics. We argue that this diversity in the physics community is more useful than an ontological monoculture, since it motivates physicists to tackle unsolved problems with a wide variety of approaches.

  15. OF CARBON FIBERS TURBINE BLADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE USE IN WIND DESIGN: OF CARBON FIBERS TURBINE BLADE A SERI-8BLADE EXAMPLE Cheng Printed March 2000 The Use of Carbon Fibers in Wind Turbine Blade Design: a SERI-8 Blade Example Cheng represent different volumes of carbon fibers in the blade, were also studied for two design options

  16. 4, 21112145, 2007 Enhanced carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are generally low in productivity and carbon (C) storage. We report, however, large increases in C sequestration . Carbon sequestration following afforestation was associated with increased N use efficiency as reflected of terrestrial ecosystems that leads to increased carbon (C) sequestration. One of those means is afforestation

  17. 4, 99123, 2007 Amazon carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , suggested much larger estimates for tropical forest carbon sequestration in the Ama- zon BasinBGD 4, 99­123, 2007 Amazon carbon balanc J. Lloyd et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences An airborne regional carbon balance

  18. 3, 409447, 2006 Modeling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    not only impaired the soil fertility but also increased the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted fromBGD 3, 409­447, 2006 Modeling carbon dynamics in farmland of China F. Zhang et al. Title Page impacts of management alternatives on soil carbon storage of farmland in Northwest China F. Zhang1,3 , C

  19. Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next- Generation ICs Hong Li, Chuan Xu-generation ICs. In this research, carbon nanomaterials, with their many attractive properties, are emerging-a`-vis optical and RF interconnects, and we illustrate why carbon nanomaterials constitute the ideal intercon

  20. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.