Sample records for materials synthesis self-assembly

  1. Self-assembly of nanocomposite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Sellinger, Alan (Palo Alto, CA); Lu, Yunfeng (New Orleans, LA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a nanocomposite self-assembly is provided where at least one hydrophilic compound, at least one hydrophobic compound, and at least one amphiphilic surfactant are mixed in an aqueous solvent with the solvent subsequently evaporated to form a self-assembled liquid crystalline mesophase material. Upon polymerization of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds, a robust nanocomposite self-assembled material is formed. Importantly, in the reaction mixture, the amphiphilic surfactant has an initial concentration below the critical micelle concentration to allow formation of the liquid-phase micellar mesophase material. A variety of nanocomposite structures can be formed, depending upon the solvent evaporazation process, including layered mesophases, tubular mesophases, and a hierarchical composite coating composed of an isotropic worm-like micellar overlayer bonded to an oriented, nanolaminated underlayer.

  2. Self-assembled lipid bilayer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Waggoner, Tina A.; Last, Julie A.

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a self-assembling material comprised of stacks of lipid bilayers formed in a columnar structure, where the assembly process is mediated and regulated by chemical recognition events. The material, through the chemical recognition interactions, has a self-regulating system that corrects the radial size of the assembly creating a uniform diameter throughout most of the structure. The materials form and are stable in aqueous solution. These materials are useful as structural elements for the architecture of materials and components in nanotechnology, efficient light harvesting systems for optical sensing, chemical processing centers, and drug delivery vehicles.

  3. Mesoscale Self-Assembly of Hexagonal Plates Using Lateral Capillary Forces: Synthesis Using the "Capillary Bond"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Mesoscale Self-Assembly of Hexagonal Plates Using Lateral Capillary Forces: Synthesis Using examines self-assembly in a quasi-two-dimensional, mesoscale system. The system studied here involves-assembly from the molecular to the mesoscale, (ii) the demonstration of a system in which small objects can

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Stimuli Responsive Block Copolymers, Self-Assembly Behavior and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Duane Determan

    2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The central theme of this thesis work is to develop new block copolymer materials for biomedical applications. While there are many reports of stimuli-responsive amphiphilic [19-21] and crosslinked hydrogel materials [22], the development of an in situ gel forming, pH responsive pentablock copolymer is a novel contribution to the field, Figure 1.1 is a sketch of an ABCBA pentablock copolymer. The A blocks are cationic tertiary amine methacrylates blocked to a central Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. In addition to the prerequisite synthetic and macromolecular characterization of these new materials, the self-assembled supramolecular structures formed by the pentablock were experimentally evaluated. This synthesis and characterization process serves to elucidate the important structure property relationships of these novel materials, The pH and temperature responsive behavior of the pentablock copolymer were explored especially with consideration towards injectable drug delivery applications. Future synthesis work will focus on enhancing and tuning the cell specific targeting of DNA/pentablock copolymer polyplexes. The specific goals of this research are: (1) Develop a synthetic route for gel forming pentablock block copolymers with pH and temperature sensitive properties. Synthesis of these novel copolymers is accomplished with ATRP, yielding low polydispersity and control of the block copolymer architecture. Well defined macromolecular characteristics are required to tailor the phase behavior of these materials. (2) Characterize relationship between the size and shape of pentablock copolymer micelles and gel structure and the pH and temperature of the copolymer solutions with SAXS, SANS and CryoTEM. (3) Evaluate the temperature and pH induced phase separation and macroscopic self-assembly phenomenon of the pentablock copolymer. (4) Utilize the knowledge gained from first three goals to design and formulate drug delivery formulations based on the multi-responsive properties of the pentablock copolymer. Demonstrate potential biomedical applications of these materials with in vitro drug release studies from pentablock copolymer hydrogels. The intent of this work is to contribute to the knowledge necessary for further tailoring of these, and other functional block copolymer materials for biomedical applications.

  5. RPM-2: A recyclable porous material with unusual adsorption capability: self assembly via structural transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    RPM-2: A recyclable porous material with unusual adsorption capability: self assembly via, fully recyclable porous material (RPM-2) with a very high sorption capability. Self recent explora- tory study on such a structure, the 3D porous RPM-1 (RPM: Rutgers Recyclable Porous

  6. Self-assembled photosynthesis-inspired light harvesting material and solar cells containing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC); Chinnasamy, Muthiah (Raleigh, NC); Fan, Dazhong (Raleigh, NC)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell is described that comprises: (a) a semiconductor charge separation material; (b) at least one electrode connected to the charge separation material; and (c) a light-harvesting film on the charge separation material, the light-harvesting film comprising non-covalently coupled, self-assembled units of porphyrinic macrocycles. The porphyrinic macrocycles preferably comprise: (i) an intramolecularly coordinated metal; (ii) a first coordinating substituent; and (iii) a second coordinating substituent opposite the first coordinating substituent. The porphyrinic macrocycles can be assembled by repeating intermolecular coordination complexes of the metal, the first coordinating substituent and the second coordinating substituent.

  7. Polar self-assembled thin films for non-linear optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, XiaoGuang (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM); Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and synthesis of a family of calix[4]arene-based nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores are discussed. The calixarene chromophores are macrocyclic compounds consisting of four simple D-.pi.-A units bridged by methylene groups. These molecules were synthesized such that four D-.pi.-A units of the calix[4]arene were aligned along the same direction with the calixarene in a cone conformation. These nonlinear optical super-chromophores were subsequently fabricated into covalently bound self-assembled monolayers on the surfaces of fused silica and silicon. Spectroscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements were carried out to determine the absolute value of the dominant element of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility, d.sub.33, and the average molecular alignment, .PSI.. A value of d.sub.33 =60 pm/V at a fundamental wavelength of 890 nm, and .PSI..about.36.degree. was found with respect to the surface normal.

  8. Synthesis and solution state self-assembly of linear-dendritic block copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Kristoffer Keith

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear-dendritic block copolymers consisting of a poly(styrene) linear block and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer block were synthesized and examined for their ability to self-assemble in both aqueous environments and organic/aqueous ...

  9. Molecular Modeling of Self-assembling Hybrid Materials (PhD Thesis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Patti

    2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lattice Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the phase behavior of self-assembling ordered mesoporous materials formed by an organic template with amphiphilic properties and an inorganic precursor in a model solvent. Three classes of inorganic precursors have been modeled: terminal (R-Si-(OEt)3) and bridging ((EtO)3-Si-R-Si-(OEt)3)) organosilica precursors (OSPs), along with pure silica precursors (Si-(OEt)4). Each class has been studied by analyzing its solubility in the solvent and the solvophobicity of the inorganic group. At high surfactant concentrations, periodic ordered structures, such as hexagonally-ordered cylinders or lamellas, can be obtained depending on the OSPs used. Ordered structures were obtained in a wider range of conditions when bridging hydrophilic OSPs have been used, because a higher surfactant concentration was reached in the phase where the material was formed. Terminal and bridging OSPs produced ordered structures only when the organic group is solvophilic. In this case, a partial solubility between the precursor and the solvent or a lower temperature favored the formation of ordered phases. With particular interest, we have analyzed the range of conditions leaving to the formation of cylindrical structures, which have been evaluated according to the pore size distribution, the pore wall thickness, the distribution and the accessibility of the functional organic groups around the pores. The phase behavior has been also evaluated by applying the quasi-chemical theory, which cannot predict the formation of ordered structures, but confirmed the results of simulations when no ordered structures were observed. The study of the phase and aggregation behavior of two different surfactants, one modeled by a linear chain of head segments and the other modeled by a branched-head, permitted us to evaluate some structural differences of the materials obtained.

  10. Self assembling magnetic tiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabl, Jessica A. (Jessica Ann)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self assembly is an emerging technology in the field of manufacturing. Inspired by nature's ability to self assembly proteins from amino acids, this thesis attempts to demonstrate self assembly on the macro-scale. The ...

  11. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  12. Fluorine-Containing ABC Linear Triblock Terpolymers: Synthesis and Self-assembly in Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Lihong [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Zhang, Shanju [Georgia Institute of Technology; Bucknall, David G. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a fluorine-containing monomer, 2-fluroroethyl methacrylate (2FEMA) was used to synthesize the linear triblock terpolymer poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBMA-PMMA-P2FEMA). A kinetic study of the homopolymerization of 2FEMA by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization showed that it demonstrates living character and produces well defined polymers with reasonably narrow polydispersities (~1.30). Triblock terpolymers were prepared sequentially using a purified Macro-CTA at 70 oC, resulting in final terpolymers with high Dp for each block (>150) and with polydispersities between 1.6 and 2.1. The structure and molecular weights of the resultant PnBMA-PMMA-P2FEMA triblock terpolymers were characterized via 1H NMR, 19F NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Self-assembly of these polymers was carried out in a selective solvent and the micellar aggregates (MAs) thereby formed were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was confirmed from SEM that these copolymers could directly self-organize into large compound micelles in tetrahydrofuran/methanol with different diameters, depending on polymer composition.

  13. Studies of block copolypeptide synthesis, self-assembly, and structure-directing ability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Jeng-Shiung

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    (Porosimetry) .............................................................31 2.6. Circular Dichroism (CD) ..............................................................37 III BIOMIMETIC SYNTHESIS OF INORGANIC NANOSPHERES .........40 3... diameter as measured by DLS...................................................................................................55 3.3 Hydrodynamic diameter of AgBr and AgBr/silica core-shell nanospheres measured by DLS...

  14. Palladium catalyzed reactions executed on solid-phase peptide synthesis supports for the production of self-assembling peptides embedded with complex organic electronic subunits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tovar, John D; Sanders, Allix M

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods to synthesize self-assembling peptides embedded with complex organic electronic subunits are provided.

  15. Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, D.E.; Herdt, G.C.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium. 9 figs.

  16. Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Herdt, Gregory C. (Denver, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium.

  17. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  18. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  19. Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

  20. Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    arrays, and energy storage devices. Increased surface areas are generally achieved through the synthesis for the self-assembly of high surface area nanostructured materials and devices. One approach is templating for the fabrication of oriented high surface area materials. Introduction High surface area nanostructured materials

  1. Towards a Catalytic Asymmetric Cope Rearrangement and the Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Metal-Coordinated Hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moehlig, Melissa Padilla

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A: Synthesis of dipyrromethanes To a solution of pyrrole (Synthesis of Bis(indolyl)Alkanes and Bis(pyrrolyl)Alkanes by Cu(OTf) 2 -Catalyzed Addition of Indole and Pyrroleonto pyrrole. Scheme 4.3: Synthesis of dipyrromethane 76.

  2. Self assembling proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  3. Directed Self-Assembly of Nanodispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, Eric M [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Directed self-assembly promises to be the technologically and economically optimal approach to industrial-scale nanotechnology, and will enable the realization of inexpensive, reproducible and active nanostructured materials with tailored photonic, transport and mechanical properties. These new nanomaterials will play a critical role in meeting the 21st century grand challenges of the US, including energy diversity and sustainability, national security and economic competitiveness. The goal of this work was to develop and fundamentally validate methods of directed selfassembly of nanomaterials and nanodispersion processing. The specific aims were: 1. Nanocolloid self-assembly and interactions in AC electric fields. In an effort to reduce the particle sizes used in AC electric field self-assembly to lengthscales, we propose detailed characterizations of field-driven structures and studies of the fundamental underlying particle interactions. We will utilize microscopy and light scattering to assess order-disorder transitions and self-assembled structures under a variety of field and physicochemical conditions. Optical trapping will be used to measure particle interactions. These experiments will be synergetic with calculations of the particle polarizability, enabling us to both validate interactions and predict the order-disorder transition for nanocolloids. 2. Assembly of anisotropic nanocolloids. Particle shape has profound effects on structure and flow behavior of dispersions, and greatly complicates their processing and self-assembly. The methods developed to study the self-assembled structures and underlying particle interactions for dispersions of isotropic nanocolloids will be extended to systems composed of anisotropic particles. This report reviews several key advances that have been made during this project, including, (1) advances in the measurement of particle polarization mechanisms underlying field-directed self-assembly, and (2) progress in the directed self-assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles and their unique physical properties.

  4. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber, UAV, UCAV, etc.). The SANC technologies will establish LMA and related US manufacturing capability for commercial and military applications therefore reducing reliance on off-shore development and production of related critical technologies. If these technologies are successfully licensed, production of these coatings in manufactory will create significant technical employment opportunities.

  5. Colloidal Manipulation of Nanostructures: Stable Dispersion and Self-assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dazhi

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation work addresses two important aspects of nanotechnology - stable dispersion and self-assembly of colloidal nanostructures. Three distinctly different types of nano-scaled materials have been studied: 0-dimensional ZnO quantum dots...

  6. Assessment of colloidal self-assembly for photonic crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Chan Hoe

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A suspension of monodisperse colloids has an interesting property of self-assembling into a three-dimensional ordered structure. This crystalline material has attracted significant interest on the implementation of photonic ...

  7. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Colvin, V.L.

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed. 10 figs.

  8. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Colvin, Vicki L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed.

  9. Materials Synthesis and Characterization | Center for Functional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility materials synthesis The Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility includes laboratories for producing nanostructured...

  10. Solder self-assembly for MEMS fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Au, Hin Meng, 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines and demonstrates self-assembly of MEMS components on the 25 micron scale onto substrates using the capillary force of solder. This is an order of magnitude smaller than current solder self-assembly in ...

  11. Molecular Variables in the Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    for materials in order to understand some of the central issues in the creation of supramolecular materi- alsMolecular Variables in the Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Nanostructures Martin U. Pralle, Craig M. Whitaker, Paul V. Braun, and Samuel I. Stupp* Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department

  12. Nano-engineering by optically directed self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, Eric (University of Delaware, Newark, DE); Dunn, Elissa (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Park, Jin-Gyu (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Sainis, Sunil (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Merrill, Jason (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Dufresne, Eric (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Reichert, Matthew D.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Molecke, Ryan A.; Koehler, Timothy P.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Grillet, Anne Mary; Gorby, Allen D.; Singh, John (University of Delaware, Newark, DE); Lele, Pushkar (University of Delaware, Newark, DE); Mittal, Manish (University of Delaware, Newark, DE)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lack of robust manufacturing capabilities have limited our ability to make tailored materials with useful optical and thermal properties. For example, traditional methods such as spontaneous self-assembly of spheres cannot generate the complex structures required to produce a full bandgap photonic crystals. The goal of this work was to develop and demonstrate novel methods of directed self-assembly of nanomaterials using optical and electric fields. To achieve this aim, our work employed laser tweezers, a technology that enables non-invasive optical manipulation of particles, from glass microspheres to gold nanoparticles. Laser tweezers were used to create ordered materials with either complex crystal structures or using aspherical building blocks.

  13. The influence of void space on antireflection coatings of silica nanoparticle self-assembled films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    The influence of void space on antireflection coatings of silica nanoparticle self-assembled films This study investigates the deposition by ionic self-assembly of alternating silica nanoparticle and poly allyamine hydrochloride layers with the goal to create a single-material antireflection coating

  14. Synthesis of self-assembled layered double hydroxides/carbon composites by in situ solvothermal method and their application in capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Jinbo [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: junwangzhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Song, Yanchao; Li, Zhanshuang; Gao, Zan; Mann, Tom; Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxides/carbon (Ni-Al LDHs/C) composites have been successfully fabricated via a facile in situ water-ethanol system. LDHs nanosheets could highly disperse on the surface of colloidal carbonaceous spheres through the interfacial electrostatic force. Ni-Al LDHs/C composite electrode prepared at 50% ethanol system exhibits the highest capacitance of 1064 F g{sup -1} at a current of 2.5 A g{sup -1}, leading to a significant improvement in relation to each individual counterpart (3.5 and 463 F g{sup -1} for carbon and Ni-Al LDHs at 2.5 A g{sup -1}, respectively). And a possible mechanism was proposed for the formation of the composites. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Al LDHs/C composites have been self-assembled by an in situ solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible growth mechanism to explain the composite is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Al LDHs/C composites display better electrochemical performance.

  15. Templated self-assembly for complex pattern fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Jae-Byum

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term goal of my Ph.D. study has been controlling the self-assembly of various materials using state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques. Electron-beam lithography has been used for decades to generate nanoscale ...

  16. Adsorption of Amelogenin onto Self-Assembled and Fluoroapatite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amelogenin onto Self-Assembled and Fluoroapatite Surfaces. Adsorption of Amelogenin onto Self-Assembled and Fluoroapatite Surfaces. Abstract: Abstract. The interactions of proteins...

  17. Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in aqueous glucose solutions. Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in...

  18. Self assembly of acetylcholinesterase on a gold nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self assembly of acetylcholinesterase on a gold nanoparticles-graphene nanosheet hybrid for organophosphate pesticide detection Self assembly of acetylcholinesterase on a gold...

  19. Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Silicon. Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Silicon....

  20. Self-assembly of polyhedral shells: A molecular dynamics study D. C. Rapaport*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapaport, Dennis C.

    in spherical viruses is described. The spontaneous self-assembly of these polyhedral, supramolecular structures in the growth but not affecting stability), without the genetic material that is essential to the virus in vivo

  1. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk HeterojunctionNano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation October 20, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Alan Heeger Department of Chemistry,...

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 26, NO. 3, AUGUST 2003 233 Using Self-Assembly for the Fabrication of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    and the demanding material and structural requirements of integrated photonic and microelectromechanical systems-assembling systems are discussed: 1) self-assembled molecular monolayers; 2) self-assembly in supramolecular and materials requirements imposed on present day solid-state microfabrication technolo- gies by the scaling

  3. Self-Assembly of Organic Nanostructures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Albert

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on investigating the morphologies, optical and photoluminescence properties of porphyrin nanostructures prepared by the self-assembly method. The study is divided into three main parts. In the first part, a large variety...

  4. Self-Assembly of Bifunctional Patchy Particles with Anisotropic Shape into Polymers Chains: Theory, Simulations, and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    is achieved through covalent bonds, supramolecular aggregates spontaneously form in a self- assembly process and biophysics.1-3 Understanding and thus controlling self- assembly is important for devising new materials or microemulsions of water and oil which are stabilized by amphiphilic molecules. If supramolecular aggregates

  5. Experimental study of the residual stress-induced self-assembly of MEMS structures during deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    three layers (b doped Si, Ge, B doped Si) to deform (or ?roll up?) into cylinders with radii of curvature from 0.3 to 2 micrometers. 9 It would be useful if intrinsic stresses could be used to enable a structure to assemble itself during processing... of [29]. 10 II. ANALYTICAL MODELING The possibility of usefully using residual (or intrinsic) stresses as a means of self- assembling MEMS during material deposition is analytically investigated. A. Self-Assembly and Residual Stress Suppose...

  6. University of Kentucky Chemical and Materials Engineering Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, Stephen E.

    synthesis and characterization of materials with advanced nanostructure and properties. Examples and control the "bottom- up" formation of these inorganic materials by polymerization, controlled. Understand self-assembly and its use for materials synthesis 6. Be able to apply physical chemical

  7. University of Kentucky Chemical and Materials Engineering Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, Stephen E.

    the chemical synthesis and characterization of materials with advanced nanostructure and properties. Examples and control the "bottom-up" formation of these inorganic materials by polymerization, controlled precipitation. Understand self-assembly and its use for materials synthesis 6. Be able to apply physical chemical

  8. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical,...

  9. A design for self-assembling robots in a system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Myunghee, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the design, construction, control, and application for a novel concept of self-assembling robots in a system. The system is composed of multiple cooperative robots that are designed to self-assemble ...

  10. Final Report for Grant # DE-FG02-02ER46000 Simulations of Self-Assembly of Tethered Nanoparticle Shape Amphiphiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glotzer, Sharon C. [The University of Michigan

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembly of nanoparticle building blocks including nanospheres, nanorods, nanocubes, nano plates, nanoprisms, etc., may provide a promising means for manipulating these building blocks into functional and useful materials. One increasingly popular method for self-assembly involves functionalizing nanoparticles and nanostructured molecules with “tethers” of organic polymers or biomolecules with specific or nonspecific interactions to facilitate their assembly. However, there is little theory and little understanding of the general principles underlying self-assembly in these complex materials. Using computer simulation to elucidate the principles of self-assembly and develop a predictive theoretical framework was the central goal of this project.

  11. Self-assembling membranes and related methods thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capito, Ramille M; Azevedo, Helena S; Stupp, Samuel L

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to self-assembling membranes. In particular, the present invention provides self-assembling membranes configured for securing and/or delivering bioactive agents. In some embodiments, the self-assembling membranes are used in the treatment of diseases, and related methods (e.g., diagnostic methods, research methods, drug screening).

  12. Self assembly in soft matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The term “soft matter” applies to a variety of physical systems, such as liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, and granular materials. The most fascinating aspect of soft matter lies in the fact that they are not ...

  13. Self Assembly in Soft Matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The term “soft matter” applies to a variety of physical systems, such as liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, and granular materials. The most fascinating aspect of soft matter lies in the fact that they are not ...

  14. Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Porous Materials Thin Film Deposition Single Crystal Growth Texture Control Additive Manufacturing Nanomaterials Synthesis Designer Organic Molecules Related Research Materials...

  15. Templated Self Assemble of Nano-Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo, Zhigang [Harvard University

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will identify and model mechanisms that template the self-assembly of nanostructures. We focus on a class of systems involving a two-phase monolayer of molecules adsorbed on a solid surface. At a suitably elevated temperature, the molecules diffuse on the surface to reduce the combined free energy of mixing, phase boundary, elastic field, and electrostatic field. With no template, the phases may form a pattern of stripes or disks. The feature size is on the order of 1-100 nm, selected to compromise the phase boundary energy and the long-range elastic or electrostatic interaction. Both experimental observations and our theoretical simulations have shown that the pattern resembles a periodic lattice, but has abundant imperfections. To form a perfect periodic pattern, or a designed aperiodic pattern, one must introduce a template to guide the assembly. For example, a coarse-scale pattern, lithographically defined on the substrate, will guide the assembly of the nanoscale pattern. As another example, if the molecules on the substrate surface carry strong electric dipoles, a charged object, placed in the space above the monolayer, will guide the assembly of the molecular dipoles. In particular, the charged object can be a mask with a designed nanoscale topographic pattern. A serial process (e.g., e-beam lithography) is necessary to make the mask, but the pattern transfer to the molecules on the substrate is a parallel process. The technique is potentially a high throughput, low cost process to pattern a monolayer. The monolayer pattern itself may serve as a template to fabricate a functional structure. This project will model fundamental aspects of these processes, including thermodynamics and kinetics of self-assembly, templated self-assembly, and self-assembly on unconventional substrates. It is envisioned that the theory will not only explain the available experimental observations, but also motivate new experiments.

  16. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 ?m in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup ?2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  17. Multiplexed supramolecular self-assembly for non-viral gene delivery Nathan P. Gabrielson, Jianjun Cheng*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    Multiplexed supramolecular self-assembly for non-viral gene delivery Nathan P. Gabrielson, Jianjun Cheng* Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbanae to construct libraries of materials with unique molecular structures. In this approach, it is hoped

  18. Supramolecular self-assembly of conjugated diblock copolymers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; You, W.; Jiang, P.; Yu, L.; Wang, H. H.; Univ. of Chicago

    2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of copolymers with different lengths of oligo(phenylene vinylene) (OPV) as the rod block, and poly(propylene oxide) as the coil block. Detailed characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) revealed the strong tendency of these copolymers to self-assemble into cylindrical micelles in solution and as-casted films on a nanometer scale. These micelles have a cylindrical OPV core surrounded by a poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) corona and readily align with each other to form parallel packed structures when mica is used as the substrate. A packing model has been proposed for these cylindrical micelles.

  19. Programming Self-assembly of Virus-like Shells via Colloidal Bond Hybridization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris H. J. Evers; Jurriaan A. Luiken; Peter G. Bolhuis; Willem K. Kegel

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloids with directional interactions are promising building blocks for new functional materials and models for biological structures[1-3]. Using rigid patches, for example, particles have been programmed to self-assemble into kagome lattices and colloidal equivalents of molecules and micelles[4-6]. Self-assembly into more complex structures such as virus-like shells, however, requires more complex patch geometries [7], which$-$to the best of our knowledge$-$have not been experimentally realized yet. Protein building blocks of real viruses, on the other hand, can undergo conformational changes upon self-assembly[8-9]. Here we demonstrate, by combining experiments and simulations, that conformationally changeable colloids self-assemble into complex structures such as virus-like shells. These floppy colloids contain both mutually attractive and repulsive surface groups that are mobile. Analogous to the simplest chemical bond, where two isotropic orbitals hybridize into the molecular orbital of H$_24, these mobile groups redistribute upon binding. By introducing bond hybridization in the colloidal domain, we programmed relatively simple flexible building blocks to self-assemble into dramatically more complex structures than would have been anticipated based on their rigid geometry.

  20. This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010 Chem. Commun. Self-assembled Ni/TiO2 nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless plating and atomic layer deposition on biological scaffoldsw in electroless plating reactions. As a result, self-assembled metallic nanorods can be fabricated, which have advantage of the proposed structure lies in the self-assembly of the viral materials. Nickel- coated TMV can

  1. Customized Electronic Coupling in Self-Assembled DonorAcceptor Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Enrique

    and irrefutable proof for the fascinating poten- tial of supramolecular chemistry and self- assembly, which for optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaic cells.[9] Studies on binary supramolecular assemblies therefore do´n (Spain) E-mail: d_g_oteyza@ehu.es Dr. D. G. de Oteyza, Dr. Y. Wakayama Advanced Electronic Materials

  2. Full paper / Mmoire Self-assembly of hybrid solids consisting of 2D supramolecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Full paper / Mémoire Self-assembly of hybrid solids consisting of 2D supramolecular networks- selected molecular building blocks may yield designed supramolecular structure in one-pot process. We have been interested in construction of the materials, where two species with different properties coexist

  3. Topochemical polymerization in self-assembled rodlike micelles of bisurea bolaamphiphiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyss, Hans

    mechanical properties of bio- logical brous materials.1 Although the reversibility of self- assembled interactions and form viscous solutions that become viscoelastic gels by the addition of supramolecular cross of diacetylenes has been used extensively to xate supramolecular assemblies such as single crystals,7 self

  4. Polymer Photonic Crystals by Self-Assembly From the Resnick Sustainability Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Polymer Photonic Crystals by Self-Assembly From the Resnick Sustainability such as paints and films. An array of polymer photonic crystals, synthesized by blending the two samples on each temperature of building materials compared to plants. image per www.sciencemediacentre.co.nz Polymer Photonic

  5. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Electronic and Optical Devices via Additive Driven Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Electronic and Optical Devices via Additive Driven Self) technologies offer the potential for continuous and cost-efficient production of materials and devices for nanoscale device fabrication that includes nanoparticle driven self-assembly to produce well-ordered polymer

  6. Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposites for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy-assembled nanostructures, but success has been lim- ited to two-phase organic/inorganic hybrid materials, nanoparticles, or polymer-based nanocomposites.4,5,16,17 Recently, a range of nanoscale building blocks, including carbon

  7. Fast Generation of Potentials for Self-Assembly of Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip du Toit

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    May 12, 2009 ... Fast Generation of Potentials for Self-Assembly of Particles. Philip du Toit(pdutoit ***at*** cds.caltech.edu) Katalin Grubits(katalin ***at*** ...

  8. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    macroscopic arrays of nanoscopic elements will revolutionize the microelectronic and storage industries and perhaps others, such as photovoltaics. Self-Assembling Molecular Legos...

  9. Self-assembled software and method of overriding software execution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer-implemented software self-assembled system and method for providing an external override and monitoring capability to dynamically self-assembling software containing machines that self-assemble execution sequences and data structures. The method provides an external override machine that can be introduced into a system of self-assembling machines while the machines are executing such that the functionality of the executing software can be changed or paused without stopping the code execution and modifying the existing code. Additionally, a monitoring machine can be introduced without stopping code execution that can monitor specified code execution functions by designated machines and communicate the status to an output device.

  10. DNA Guided Self-Assembly of Nanocrystals for Optoelectronic Devices /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Hyunwoo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithographically Confined DNA Origami. Nat. Nanotech. 2010,and Orientation of Individual DNA Shapes on LithographicallyB. ; Yan, H. ; Liu, Y. DNA-Origami-Directed Self- Assembly

  11. Shattering of Peptide Ions on Self-Assembled Monolayer Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surface was studied using a novel Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially equipped to...

  12. BNL | CFN Strategic Plan | Self-Assembled Nanomaterials by Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    symmetry. Dynamically tunable and reconfigurable self-assembled systems, mimicking protein folding. Controlling and switching the linkages between specific particles on a DNA...

  13. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  14. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  15. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  16. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

    1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  17. Dynamic self-assembly in living systems as computation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biochemical reactions taking place in living systems that map different inputs to specific outputs are intuitively recognized as performing information processing. Conventional wisdom distinguishes such proteins, whose primary function is to transfer and process information, from proteins that perform the vast majority of the construction, maintenance, and actuation tasks of the cell (assembling and disassembling macromolecular structures, producing movement, and synthesizing and degrading molecules). In this paper, we examine the computing capabilities of biological processes in the context of the formal model of computing known as the random access machine (RAM) [Dewdney AK (1993) The New Turing Omnibus. Computer Science Press, New York], which is equivalent to a Turing machine [Minsky ML (1967) Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ]. When viewed from the RAM perspective, we observe that many of these dynamic self-assembly processes - synthesis, degradation, assembly, movement - do carry out computational operations. We also show that the same computing model is applicable at other hierarchical levels of biological systems (e.g., cellular or organism networks as well as molecular networks). We present stochastic simulations of idealized protein networks designed explicitly to carry out a numeric calculation. We explore the reliability of such computations and discuss error-correction strategies (algorithms) employed by living systems. Finally, we discuss some real examples of dynamic self-assembly processes that occur in living systems, and describe the RAM computer programs they implement. Thus, by viewing the processes of living systems from the RAM perspective, a far greater fraction of these processes can be understood as computing than has been previously recognized.

  18. Synthesis of refractory materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractory metal nitrides are synthesized during a self-propagating combustion process utilizing a solid source of nitrogen. For this purpose, a metal azide is employed, preferably NaN/sub 3/. The azide is combusted with Mg or Ca, and a metal oxide is selected from Groups III-A, IV-A, III-B, IV-B, or a rare earth metal oxide. The mixture of azide, Ca or Mg and metal oxide is heated to the mixture's ignition temperature. At that temperature the mixture is ignited and undergoes self-sustaining combustion until the starter materials are exhausted, producing the metal nitride.

  19. Self-AssembledMonolayersof AlkanethiolatesPresentingTri(propylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    pr NE CffiM SOCIEry' Self-AssembledMonolayersof AlkanethiolatesPresentingTri(propylene sulloxidel.5136-5137 Self-AssembledMonolayersof Alkanethiolates PresentingTri(propylene sulfoxide)Groups Resist chose oligomers of the propylene sulfoxide group [-CH2CH2CH2S(O)-I ascandidatesthat shared

  20. Molecule-Mimetic Chemistry and Mesoscale Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Molecule-Mimetic Chemistry and Mesoscale Self-Assembly NED B. BOWDEN, MARCUS WECK, INSUNG S. CHOI, and possible uses for these processes and assemblies.6-22 Mesoscale Self-Assembly (MESA) Mesoscale Self technically, and especially in physics, a mesoscale object is one whose dimensions are comparable to the scale

  1. Self-assembled magnetic surface swimmers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snezhko, A.; Belkin, M.; Aranson, I. S.; Kwok, W.-K.; Materials Science Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report studies of novel self-assembled magnetic surface swimmers (magnetic snakes) formed from a dispersion of magnetic microparticles at a liquid-air interface and energized by an alternating magnetic field. We show that under certain conditions the snakes spontaneously break the symmetry of surface flows and turn into self-propelled objects. Parameters of the driving magnetic field tune the propulsion velocity of these snakelike swimmers. We find that the symmetry of the surface flows can also be broken in a controlled fashion by attaching a large bead to a magnetic snake (bead-snake hybrid), transforming it into a self-locomoting entity. The observed phenomena have been successfully described by a phenomenological model based on the amplitude equation for surface waves coupled to a large-scale hydrodynamic mean flow equation.

  2. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  3. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  4. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

  5. COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS Arvind Varma, Alexander S. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products of Thermite-vpe SHS D. Commercial Aspects IV. Theoretical Considerations A. Combustion Wave Propagation Theory

  6. Self-assembly of helical ribbons from chiral amphiphiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya Vladimirovna, 1971-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of the self-assembly of helical structures has been motivated by their newly found biological and technological importance. In many systems, helical ribbons are precursors to the formation of tubules, which may ...

  7. Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Woon Ik

    Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their ...

  8. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of...

  9. Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device Mila Boncheva, David H a biomimetic strategy for the fabrication of asymmetrical, three-dimensional electronic devices modeled distinct microelectronic elements into a multidomain electronic device with asymmet- rical structure

  10. Argonne scientists design self-assembled "micro-robots" | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    self-assembled "micro-robots" By Louise Lerner * August 8, 2011 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. -Alexey Snezhko and Igor Aronson, physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's...

  11. Self-assembly of globular protein-polymer diblock copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Carla S. (Carla Stephanie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembly of protein-polymer block copolymers provides a simple bottom-up approach towards protein nanopatteming for the fabrication of more effective and efficient bioelectronic and biocatalytic devices. Changes in ...

  12. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Nano Self-Assembly Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of...

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 051917 (2012) Molecular dynamics simulation of reversibly self-assembling shells in solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapaport, Dennis C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coun- terparts. While direct experimental observation of the details of supramolecular self of the capsid shells enclosing the genetic material of spherical viruses [1,2] is a well-known example of self of genetic material [4­7], remains opaque. The robustness of self-assembly [8] makes understanding

  14. A molecular simulation approach to the prediction of the morphology of self-assembled nanoparticles in diblock copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    -separating diblock copolymers and nanoparticles can lead to the self-assembly of organic/inorganic hybrid materials­particle nanocomposites with ad hoc, tailored properties. Introduction According to the International Union for Pure is in a continuous phase''. IUPAC also extends its defi- nition to nanocomposite materials as those composites ``in

  15. Synthesis of Functional Nanomaterials Nanocarbon Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Indranath

    nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application for formic acid oxidation." Chemistry of Materials 23 on Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes, Nanoparticles, and Nanowires." Chapter 4 in Handbook of ElectrochemicalSynthesis of Functional Nanomaterials Nanocarbon Materials o Graphene · Zhang S, Y Shao, H Liao, MH

  16. This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010 Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 73497351 7349 Self-assembled Ni/TiO2 nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson-Prior, Linda

    -assembled Ni/TiO2 nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless plating and atomic layer deposition-binding affinity in electroless plating reactions. As a result, self-assembled metallic nanorods can be fabricated advantage of the proposed structure lies in the self-assembly of the viral materials. Nickel- coated TMV can

  17. Self-assembled monolayer and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA

    2003-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  18. Self-Assembled Monolayer And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA)

    2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  19. Self-Assembled Monolayer And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA)

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  20. Self-assembled monolayer and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Liu, Jun; Shin, Yongsoon

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  1. Synthesis of a Cationic Inorganic Layered Material for Trapping Anionic Pharmaceutical Pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergo, Kevin Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CRUZ SYNTHESIS OF A CATIONIC INORGANIC LAYERED MATERIAL FORAbstract Synthesis of a Cationic Inorganic Layered Material

  2. STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITIES SYNTHETIC SELF-ASSEMBLING NANOMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    applications in catalysis, next-generation energy production and storage devices, optical metamaterials for the formation of metal-based nanostructures from designer blocked macromolecules. Finally, a facile synthesis

  3. Self-assembled multilayers and photoluminescence properties of a new water-soluble poly(para-phenylene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, X.; Li, D.Q.; Luett, M.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Van Patten, G.P.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterizations of a new water-soluble poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) and its applications in preparing self-assembled multilayer films. This new water-soluble conducting polymer was prepared through the sulfonation reaction of poly(p-quarterphenylene-2,2{prime}-dicarboxylic acid). The incorporation of sulfonate groups has dramatically improved PPP`s solubility in water at a wide pH range, whereas previous PPP is only slightly soluble in basic solutions. Dilute aqueous solutions of this polymer with acidic, neutral or basic pH emit brilliant blue light while irradiated with UV light. The sulfonated PPP emits from 350 nm to 455 nm with a maximum intensity at 380 nm. Self-assembled multilayers of this sulfonated PPP were constructed with a positively charged polymer poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and characterized with various surface analyses. Conductive (RuO{sub 2} and ITO), semiconductive (Si wafer), and non-conductive (SiO{sub 2}) substrates were used in the preparation of self-assembled multilayers. Electrical, optical and structural properties of these novel self-assembled thin films will be discussed.

  4. Self-assembled multilayers and photoluminescence properties of a new water-soluble poly(para-phenylene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, X.; Li, D.; Luett, M.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Van Patten, G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterizations of a new water-soluble poly(paraphenylene) (PPP) and its applications in preparing self-assembled multi-layer films. This new water-soluble conducting polymer was prepared through the sulfonation reaction of poly(p-quarterphenylene-2,2{prime}-dicarboxylic acid). The incorporation of sulfonate groups has dramatically improved PPP's solubility in water at a wide pH range, whereas previous PPP is only slightly soluble in basic solutions. Dilute aqueous solutions of this polymer with acidic, neutral or basic pH emit brilliant blue light while irradiated with UV light. The sulfonated PPP emits from 350 nm to 455 nm with a maximum intensity at 380 nm. Self-assembled multilayers of this sulfonated PPP were constructed with a positively charged polymer poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and characterized with various surface analyses. Conductive (RuO{sub 2} and ITO), semiconductive (Si wafer), and non-conductive (SiO{sub 2}) substrates were used in the preparation of self-assembled multilayers. Electrical, optical and structural properties of these novel self-assembled thin films will be discussed.

  5. STM Study of Terephthalic Acid Self-Assembly on Au(111): Hydrogen-Bonded Sheets on an Inhomogeneous Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brune, Harald

    ¨rich, Max-Planck-Institut fu¨r Festko¨rperforschung, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany, and AdVanced Materials-dimensional (2D) self-assembled supramolecular domains evolve, wherein the well-known one-dimensional (1D site and the supramolecular ordering usually extends over several substrate reconstruction domains

  6. Self-Assembly of Arbitrary Shapes Using RNAse Enzymes: Meeting the Kolmogorov Bound with Small Scale Factor (extended abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik D.

    We consider a model of algorithmic self-assembly of geometric shapes out of square Wang tiles studied in SODA 2010, in which there are two types of tiles (e.g., constructed out of DNA and RNA material) and one operation ...

  7. Imaging of self-assembly and self-assembled materials P. V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    of the microscope. Thus real time imaging is possible. The multiphoton imaging is performed using a mode locked Ti, is used to control the growth of a hard, inorganic phase, in this case CdS. The growth process in some. Space between spheres filled with 1x10-4 molar Rhodamine-6G in DMF, Excitation wavelength: 488nm

  8. High-pressure synthesis of electronic materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, George B. S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure techniques have become increasingly important in the synthesis of ceramic and metallic solids allowing the discovery of new materials with interesting properties. In this research dense solid oxides have ...

  9. Self-assembly of DNA-functionalized Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panagiotis E. Theodorakis; Nikolaos G. Fytas; Gerhard Kahl; Christoph Dellago

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal particles grafted with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) chains can self-assemble into a number of different crystalline structures, where hybridization of the ssDNA chains creates links between colloids stabilizing their structure. Depending on the geometry and the size of the particles, the grafting density of the ssDNA chains, and the length and choice of DNA sequences, a number of different crystalline structures can be fabricated. However, understanding how these factors contribute synergistically to the self-assembly process of DNA-functionalized nano- or micro-sized particles remains an intensive field of research. Moreover, the fabrication of long-range structures due to kinetic bottlenecks in the self-assembly are additional challenges. Here, we discuss the most recent advances from theory and experiment with particular focus put on recent simulation studies.

  10. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant and growing interest is being exhibited in the novel and enhanced properties of nanostructured materials. These materials, with their constituent phase or grain structures modulated on a length scale less than 100 nm, are artificially synthesized by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, where mechanical behavior is emphasized, nanostructured materials with modulation dimensionalities from one (multilayers) to three (nanophase materials) are mainly considered. No attempt is made in this review to cover in detail all of the diverse methods available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rather, the basic principles involved in their synthesis are discussed in terms of the special properties sought using examples of particular synthesis and processing methodologies. Some examples of the property changes that can result from one of these methods, cluster assembly of nanophase materials, are presented.

  11. Structural simulations of nanomaterials self-assembled from ionic macrocycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank B.; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research at Sandia has discovered a new class of organic binary ionic solids with tunable optical, electronic, and photochemical properties. These nanomaterials, consisting of a novel class of organic binary ionic solids, are currently being developed at Sandia for applications in batteries, supercapacitors, and solar energy technologies. They are composed of self-assembled oligomeric arrays of very large anions and large cations, but their crucial internal arrangement is thus far unknown. This report describes (a) the development of a relevant model of nonconvex particles decorated with ions interacting through short-ranged Yukawa potentials, and (b) the results of initial Monte Carlo simulations of the self-assembly binary ionic solids.

  12. Nanotechnology and Quasicrystals: From self assembly to photonic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ron Lifshitz

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    After providing a concise overview on quasicrystals and their discovery more than a quarter of a century ago, I consider the unexpected interplay between nanotechnology and quasiperiodic crystals. Of particular relevance are efforts to fabricate artificial functional micro- or nanostructures, as well as efforts to control the self-assembly of nanostructures, where current knowledge about the possibility of having long-range order without periodicity can provide significant advantages. I discuss examples of systems ranging from artificial metamaterials for photonic applications, through self-assembled soft matter, to surface waves and optically-induced nonlinear photonic quasicrystals.

  13. COMPLEX MATERIALS SCATTERING SCIENTIFIC SCOPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    solar cell, batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells #12; optimize synthesis (e.g. of nanoparticles) Assembly: Tuning the self-assembly energy landscape with applied

  14. Photo-Definable Self Assembled Maerials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DOSHI, DHAVAL; [et al

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a mesoporous material comprising at least one region of mesoporous material patterned at a lithographic scale. The present invention also provides a a method for forming a patterned mesoporous material comprising: coating a sol on a substrate to form a film, the sol comprising: a templating molecule, a photoactivator generator, a material capable of being sol-gel processed, water, and a solvent; and exposing the film to light to form a patterned mesoporous material.

  15. Electrochemical phenomena provide unique methods for materials synthesis and surface modification. Within this framework, the group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    components for information storage, sensors and energy conversion devices. "Further the understanding to tailor to specification materials and components for a variety of devices, focusing on micro of a variety of self-assembled nanostructures, as well as the development and integration of suitable

  16. Self-Assembled Nanoparticle Drumhead Resonators Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    ABSTRACT: The self-assembly of nanoscale structures from functional nanoparticles has provided a powerful functionality of the nanoparticle building blocks to nanomechanical motion. KEYWORDS: Self to fabricate various freestanding nanoparticle membranes, including oleic acid capped CoO monolayers, DNA

  17. Kinetically driven self assembly of highly ordered nanoparticle monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    with lace-like patterns or clumps of particles in the interior1­6 . These non-uniform mass distributions-range ordering and compactness of the monolayer, the fact that there are no lace- or ring-like patterns reported previously for late-stage drying-mediated assembly3­6,9 , or for self assembly mediated by both

  18. Phenotypic Characterization of Self- Assembling Protein Fragments Using Negative Dominance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zweifel, Adrienne Elizabeth

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -FtsN............................................. 75 3.10 recA Dependence of the Chaining Phenotype.......................................... 78 3.11 Effect of lexA3 on the ParC333-485 Chaining Phenotype........................ 80 4.1 Proposed Targets for Self-Assembling Fragments...

  19. BULK TITANIUM MICROFLUIDIC NETWORKS FOR PROTEIN SELF-ASSEMBLY STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    BULK TITANIUM MICROFLUIDIC NETWORKS FOR PROTEIN SELF-ASSEMBLY STUDIES E.R. Parker1 , L.S. Hirst2 developed micromachining technique to fabricate microfluidic networks in thin titanium foils. These devices been integrated into the fabrication process in order to minimize protein adsorption to the titanium

  20. Motor transport of self-assembled cargos in crowded environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jennifer

    Motor transport of self-assembled cargos in crowded environments Leslie Conwaya , Derek Woodb is performed by multiple motors working in concert. However, the mechanism of motor association to cargos is unknown. It is also unknown how long individual motors stay attached, how many are active, and how

  1. Supplementary Information Programming Biomolecular Self-Assembly Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Niles A.

    Supplementary Information Programming Biomolecular Self-Assembly Pathways Peng Yin1,2 , Harry M.T. Choi1 , Colby R. Calvert1 & Niles A. Pierce1,3, 1Department of Bioengineering, 2Department of Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 S6.7 Statistical analysis

  2. Nanostructured gene and drug delivery systems based on molecular self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Kris Cameron

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular self-assembly describes the assembly of molecular components into complex, supramolecular structures governed by weak, non-covalent interactions. In recent years, molecular self-assembly has been used extensively ...

  3. Heirarchical Self Assembly: Self Organized nano-structures in a nematically ordered matrix of self assembled polymeric chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh Mubeena; Apratim Chatterji

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report many different nano-structures which are formed when model nano-particles of different sizes (diameter {\\sigma} n ) are allowed to aggregate in a background matrix of semi-flexible self assembled polymeric worm like micellar chains. The different nano-structures are formed by the dynamical arrest of phase-separating mixtures of micellar monomers and nano-particles. The different mor- phologies obtained are the result of an interplay of the available free volume, the elastic energy of deformation of polymers, the density (chemical potential) of the nano-particles in the polymer ma- trix and, of course, the ratio of the size of self assembling nano-particles and self avoidance diameter of polymeric chains. We have used a hybrid semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation scheme to obtain the (non-equilibrium) phase diagram of the self-assembled nano-structures. We observe rod-like structures of nano-particles which get self assembled in the gaps between the nematically ordered chains as well as percolating gel-like network of conjoined nanotubes. We also find a totally unexpected interlocked crystalline phase of nano-particles and monomers, in which each crytal plane of nanoparticles is separated by planes of perfectly organized polymer chains. We identified the con- dition which leads to such interlocked crystal structure. We suggest experimental possibilities of how the results presented in this paper could be used to obtain different nano-structures in the lab.

  4. Self-Assembly of Mesoscale Isomers: The Role of Pathways and Degrees of Freedom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Govind

    Self-Assembly of Mesoscale Isomers: The Role of Pathways and Degrees of Freedom Shivendra Pandey1 geometric path sampling and a mesoscale experimental model to investigate the self-assembly of a model. Citation: Pandey S, Johnson D, Kaplan R, Klobusicky J, Menon G, et al. (2014) Self-Assembly of Mesoscale

  5. Inorganic Nanoarchitectures by Organic Self Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guldin, Stefan

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    -assembly to control material arrangement on the nanometre scale into highly ordered morphologies is promising for technological applications. Many (opto- )electronic devices such as batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic cells and supercapacitors are highly interface... is subject of Chapter 2, an important aspect of many results presented in the following chapters. Dye-sensitised solar cells were a main device platform for the implemen- tation and validation of the proposed material functionality. Chapter 3 is therefore...

  6. Combinatorial synthesis of ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A combinatorial library includes a gelcast substrate defining a plurality of cavities in at least one surface thereof; and a plurality of gelcast test materials in the cavities, at least two of the test materials differing from the substrate in at least one compositional characteristic, the two test materials differing from each other in at least one compositional characteristic.

  7. Combinatorial synthesis of ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Walls, Claudia A.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A combinatorial library includes a gelcast substrate defining a plurality of cavities in at least one surface thereof; and a plurality of gelcast test materials in the cavities, at least two of the test materials differing from the substrate in at least one compositional characteristic, the two test materials differing from each other in at least one compositional characteristic.

  8. Robust, self-assembled, biocompatible films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swanson, Basil I; Anderson, Aaron S.; Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a composite material including a substrate having an oxide surface, and, a continuous monolayer on the oxide surface, the monolayer including a silicon atom from a trifunctional alkyl/alkenyl/alkynyl silane group that attaches to the oxide surface, an alkyl/alkenyl/alkynyl portion of at least three carbon atoms, a polyalkylene glycol spacer group, and either a reactive site (e.g., a recognition ligand) or a site resistant to non-specific binding (e.g., a methoxy or the like) at the terminus of each modified SAM. The present invention further provides a sensor element, a sensor array and a method of sensing, each employing the composite material. Patterning is also provided together with backfilling to minimize non-specific binding.

  9. Self-assembled porous media from particle-stabilized emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Frijters; Jens Harting

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new mechanism to create self-assembled porous media with highly tunable geometrical properties and permeabilities: We first allow a particle-stabilized emulsion to form from a mixture of two fluids and colloidal particles. Then, either one fluid phase or the particle layer is solidified, which can be achieved by techniques such as polymerization or freezing. Based on computer simulations we demonstrate that modifying only the particle wettability or concentration results in porous structures with a wide range of pore sizes and a permeability that can be varied by up to three orders of magnitude. We then discuss optimization of these properties for self-assembled filters or reactors and conclude that structures based on so-called "bijels" are most suitable candidates.

  10. Spatially resolved mineral deposition on patterned self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieke, P.C.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Wood, L.L.; Engelhard, M.H.; Baer, D.R.; Fryxell, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); John, C.M. (Charles Evans Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)); Laken, D.A.; Jaehnig, M.C. (FEI Corp., Beaverton, OR (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron and ion beam lithographic techniques were used to pattern self-assembled monolayers with organic functional groups. Nucleation and growth of minerals from aqueous solution were confined to the patterned regions. A vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was selectively deposited in ion and electron beam etched regions of a methyl-terminated SAM. Sulfonation of the vinyl groups produced a surface patterned in either hydrophobic methyl groups or hydrophilic sulfonate groups. Subsequent growth of FeOOH films was confined to the sulfonated regions. Condensation images were used to image each step in the lithographic scheme. Resolution of the SAM patterning step was 1-3 [mu]m, while resolution of the mineral deposition step was 10-15 [mu]m. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Stable doping of carbon nanotubes via molecular self assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B.; Chen, Y.; Podzorov, V., E-mail: podzorov@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Materials and Devices for Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Cook, A.; Zakhidov, A. [Department of Physics and NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a novel method for stable doping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) based on methods of molecular self assembly. A conformal growth of a self-assembled monolayer of fluoroalkyl trichloro-silane (FTS) at CNT surfaces results in a strong increase of the sheet conductivity of CNT electrodes by 60–300%, depending on the CNT chirality and composition. The charge carrier mobility of undoped partially aligned CNT films was independently estimated in a field-effect transistor geometry (~100 cm˛V?ąs?ą). The hole density induced by the FTS monolayer in CNT sheets is estimated to be ~1.8 ×10ą?cm?˛. We also show that FTS doping of CNT anodes greatly improves the performance of organic solar cells. This large and stable doping effect, easily achieved in large-area samples, makes this approach very attractive for applications of CNTs in transparent and flexible electronics.

  12. Degradation versus self-assembly of block copolymer micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Muratov; Vladimir A. Baulin

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of micelles self-assembled from block copolymers can be altered by the degradation of the blocks. Slow degradation shifts the equilibrium size distribution of block copolymer micelles and change their properties. Quasi-equilibrium scaling theory shows that the degradation of hydrophobic blocks in the core of micelles destabilize the micelles reducing their size, while the degradation of hydrophilic blocks forming coronas of micelles favors larger micelles and may, at certain conditions, induce the formation of micelles from individual chains.

  13. Computation via dynamic self-assembly of idealized protein networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe stochastic agent-based simulations of protein-emulating agents to perform computation via dynamic self-assembly. The binding and actuation properties of the types of agents required to construct a RAM machine (equivalent to a Turing machine) are described. We present an example computation and describe the molecular biology and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, and information science properties of this system.

  14. Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  15. Transformations of Molecular Frameworks by HostGuest Response: Novel Routes toward Two-Dimensional Self-Assembly at the SolidLiquid Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the formation of 2D and 3D supramolecular networks and ordered films that can be used as active materials opened new pathways for supramolecular self-assembly in two dimensions by immobilizing molecules of nano- structured materials as well as for possible applications in electronics, catalysis, photonics

  16. Confined Self-Assembly of Toric Focal Conic Domains (The Effects of Confined Geometry on the Feature Size of Toric Focal Conic Domains)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    of Physics, Korea AdVanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea, Material Research that are too shallow or too narrow. 1. Introduction Self-assembling materials such as colloids, block copolymers, supramolecular dendrimers, and surfactants have been shown

  17. Metal-Driven Hierarchical Self-Assembled One-Dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    helical inorganic materials. In preliminary attempts, helical silica and ZnS nanomaterials have been helical inorganic nanomaterials (i.e., SiO2 and ZnS) have been prepared based on metal to fabricate helical as- semblies from artificial molecules considering complicated organic synthesis

  18. Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a New 183-GHzMARSecurityMaterialsMPA » MPA-11

  19. Fabrication of polyhedral particles from spherical colloids and their self-assembly into rotator phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanumantha Rao Vutukuri; Arnout Imhof; Alfons van Blaaderen

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle shape is a critical parameter that plays an important role in self-assembly, for example, in designing targeted complex structures with desired properties. In the last decades an unprecedented range of monodisperse nanoparticle systems with control over the shape of the particles have become available. In contrast, the choice of micron-sized colloidal building blocks of particles with flat facets, i.e., particles with polygonal shapes, is significantly more limited. This can be attributed to the fact that, contrary to nanoparticles, the larger colloids are significantly harder to synthesize as single crystals. Herein, we demonstrate that the simplest building block, such as the micron-sized polymeric spherical colloidal particle, is already enough to fabricate particles with regularly placed flat facets, including completely polygonal shapes with sharp edges. As an illustration that the yields are high enough for further self-assembly studies we demonstrate the formation of 3D rotator phases of fluorescently labelled, micron-sized and charged rhombic dodecahedron particles. Our method for fabricating polyhedral particles opens a new avenue for designing new materials.

  20. Phase Separation and Liquid Crystal Self-Assembly in Surfactant-Inorganic-Solvent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siperstein, Flor R.

    on the formation of surfactant-silica liquid crystals and the synthesis of MCM-41 type materials. The effects the introduction of MCM-41 type materials,1 the synthesis of surfactant-templated nanostructured materials has surfactant concentration in the initial surfactant solution. The synthesis of ordered nanoporous materials

  1. Customizing mesoscale self-assembly with 3D printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Poty; G. Lumay; N. Vandewalle

    2013-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembly due to capillary forces is a common method for generating 2D mesoscale structures from identical floating particles at the liquid-air interface. Designing building blocks to obtain a desired mesoscopic structure is a scientific challenge. We show herein that it is possible to shape the particles with a low cost 3D printer, for composing specific mesoscopic structures. Our method is based on the creation of capillary multipoles inducing either attractive or repulsive forces. Since capillary interactions can be downscaled, our method opens new ways to low cost microfabrication.

  2. Model for dynamic self-assembled magnetic surface structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkin, M.; Glatz, A.; Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a first-principles model for the dynamic self-assembly of magnetic structures at a water-air interface reported in earlier experiments. The model is based on the Navier-Stokes equation for liquids in shallow water approximation coupled to Newton equations for interacting magnetic particles suspended at a water-air interface. The model reproduces most of the observed phenomenology, including spontaneous formation of magnetic snakelike structures, generation of large-scale vortex flows, complex ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic ordering of the snake, and self-propulsion of bead-snake hybrids.

  3. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments SignExcitonics AssembledSelf-Assembly

  4. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz is Taking OverEvaluating ' How doThe AmesSelf-Assembly

  5. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz is Taking OverEvaluating ' How doTheSelf-Assembly of

  6. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz is Taking OverEvaluating ' How doTheSelf-Assembly

  7. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz is Taking OverEvaluating ' HowSelf-Assembly of Polymer

  8. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed- DeepGuide toGuided Self-Assembly of

  9. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed- DeepGuide toGuided Self-Assembly

  10. Shock compression synthesis of hard materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.

  11. Oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) amphiphiles and methods for self-assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Hulvat, James F. (Chicago, IL); Sofos, Marina (Evanston, IL); Tajima, Keisuke (Evanston, IL)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Amphiphilic oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) compounds and methods of use en route to self-assembled composites and device fabrication.

  12. Soft-Landing of Peptide IOns Onto Self-Assembled Monolayer Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    self-assembled monolayer surfaces (SAMs). Peptide ions are particularly attractive model systems that provide important insights on the behavior of soft landed proteins, while...

  13. Developing novel polymer architectures for applications In magnetic resonance imaging and self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCombs, Jessica R. (Jessica Rose)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Macromolecular scaffolds for drug delivery, self-assembly, and imaging applications have attracted significant attention over the last several decades. As polymerization techniques become more sophisticated, it becomes ...

  14. Soft-Landing of Peptides onto Self-Assembled Monolayer Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and hydrogenated self-assembled monolayer surfaces (FSAM and HSAM) surfaces using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially designed...

  15. Self-assembly scenarios of patchy colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Doppelbauer; E. G. Noya; E. Bianchi; G. Kahl

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid progress in precisely designing the surface decoration of patchy colloidal particles offers a new, yet unexperienced freedom to create building entities for larger, more complex structures in soft matter systems. However, it is extremely difficult to predict the large variety of ordered equilibrium structures that these particles are able to undergo under the variation of external parameters, such as temperature or pressure. Here we show that, by a novel combination of two theoretical tools, it is indeed possible to predict the self-assembly scenario of patchy colloidal particles: on one hand, a reliable and efficient optimization tool based on ideas of evolutionary algorithms helps to identify the ordered equilibrium structures to be expected at T = 0; on the other hand, suitable simulation techniques allow to estimate via free energy calculations the phase diagram at finite temperature. With these powerful approaches we are able to identify the broad variety of emerging self-assembly scenarios for spherical colloids decorated by four patches and we investigate and discuss the stability of the crystal structures on modifying in a controlled way the tetrahedral arrangement of the patches.

  16. Cyclization and Catenation Directed by Molecular Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Li Q.; Palmer, Bruce J.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Li, Alexander D.

    2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here that molecular self-assembly can effectively direct and enhance specific reaction pathways. Using perylene??-??stacking weak attractive forces, we succeeded in synthesizing perylene bisimide macrocyclic dimer and a concatenated dimer-dimer ring from dynamic self-assembly of monomeric bis-N, N’-(2-(2-(2-(2-thioacetyl ethoxy) ethoxy) ethoxy) ethyl) perylene tetracarboxylic diimide. The monocyclic ring closure and the dimer-dimer ring concatenation were accomplished through formation of disulfide bonds, which was readily triggered by air oxidization under basic deacetylation conditions. The perylene cyclic dimer and its concatenated tetramer were characterized using both structural methods (NMR, mass spectroscopy) and photophysical measurements (UV-vis spectroscopy). Kinetic analyses offer informative insights about reaction pathways and possible mechanisms, which lead to the formation of fascinating concatenated rings. Molecular dynamic behaviors of both the monocyclic dimer and the concatenated dimer-dimer ring were modeled with the NWChem molecular dynamics software module, which shows distinct stacking activities for the monocyclic dimer and the concatenated tetramer.

  17. 2012 BIOINSPIRED MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 24-29, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2013-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The emerging, interdisciplinary field of Bioinspired Materials focuses on developing a fundamental understanding of the synthesis, directed self-assembly and hierarchical organization of natural occurring materials, and uses this understanding to engineer new bioinspired artificial materials for diverse applications. The inaugural 2012 Gordon Conference on Bioinspired Materials seeks to capture the excitement of this burgeoning field by a cutting-edge scientific program and roster of distinguished invited speakers and discussion leaders who will address the key issues in the field. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, such as materials and devices from DNA, reprogramming the genetic code for design of new materials, peptide, protein and carbohydrate based materials, biomimetic systems, complexity in self-assembly, and biomedical applications of bioinspired materials.

  18. Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials S.D. Bakrania *, C., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA Abstract Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide (SnO2) was studied using: Combustion synthesis; Nanoparticles; Tin dioxide; Metals 1. Introduction Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most

  19. Self-assembly of resins and asphaltenes facilitates asphaltene dissolution by an organic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Self-assembly of resins and asphaltenes facilitates asphaltene dissolution by an organic acid Sara Accepted 28 November 2012 Available online 28 December 2012 Keywords: Asphaltenes Self-assembly Colloidal stability Non-polar electrostatics a b s t r a c t Asphaltene precipitation occurs in petroleum fluids under

  20. Synthetic diamond and wurtzite structures self-assemble with isotropic pair interactions Mikael C. Rechtsman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    Synthetic diamond and wurtzite structures self-assemble with isotropic pair interactions Mikael C with strongly repulsive cores that cause the tetrahedrally coordinated diamond and wurtzite lattices-dimensional diamond and wurtzite structures can self-assemble with isotropic in- teractions possessing a strongly

  1. Theoretical Investigation of Self-Assembled Peptide Nanostructures for Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvajal Diaz, Jennifer Andrea

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELF-ASSEMBLED PEPTIDE NANOSTRUCTURES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS A Dissertation... THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELF-ASSEMBLED PEPTIDE NANOSTRUCTURES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS A Dissertation by JENNIFER ANDREA CARVAJAL DIAZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  2. Novel Polymer Patterns Formed by Lithographically Induced Self-Assembly (LISA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Polymer Patterns Formed by Lithographically Induced Self-Assembly (LISA) Lei Chen,* Lei, 2004 A variety of self-assembly patterns, e.g., concentric rings, rods, and pillars, in polymer thin of the LISA patterns are controlled by many operation factors, such as the choice of the polymers, mask

  3. Hydrotropic salt promotes anionic surfactant self-assembly into vesicles and ultralong fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Hydrotropic salt promotes anionic surfactant self-assembly into vesicles and ultralong fibers November 2011 Available online 6 December 2011 Keywords: Surfactant self-assembly Hydrotropic salt Fiber dodecylbenzene sulfo- nate, SDBS) and a hydrotropic salt (benzylamine hydrochloride, BzCl) in aqueous solution

  4. Guided self-assembly of Au nanocluster arrays electronically coupled to semiconductor device layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    Guided self-assembly of Au nanocluster arrays electronically coupled to semiconductor device layers clusters within patterned regions on GaAs device layers, thus demonstrating guided self-assembly on a substrate which can provide interesting semiconductor device characteristics. Uniform nanometer scale

  5. Geometric Binding Site Design for Surface-Tension Driven Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geometric Binding Site Design for Surface-Tension Driven Self-Assembly Xiaorong Xiong, Sheng 98195-2500 Email: xrxiong@u.washington.edu Abstract-- Surface-tension driven self-assembly techniques-assembly, micro assembly, MEMS, hy- drophobic, hydrophilic, surface energy, surface tension force, binding site

  6. Self-assembly of anisotropic soft particles in two dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Salgado-Blanco; Carlos I. Mendoza

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The self assembly of core-corona discs interacting via anisotropic potentials is investigated using Monte Carlo computer simulations. A minimal interaction potential that incorporates anisotropy in a simple way is introduced. It consists in a core-corona architecture in which the center of the core is shifted with respect to the center of the corona. Anisotropy can thus be tuned by progressively shifting the position of the core. Despite its simplicity, the system self organize in a rich variety of structures including stripes, triangular and rectangular lattices, and unusual plastic crystals. Our results indicate that the amount of anisotropy does not alter the lattice spacing and only influences the type of clustering (stripes, micells, etc.) of the individual particles.

  7. Using Markov State Models to Study Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkett, Matthew R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude.

  8. Model for Dynamic Self-Assembled Magnetic Surface Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Belkin; A. Glatz; A. Snezhko; I. S. Aranson

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a first-principles model for self-assembled magnetic surface structures on the water-air interface reported in earlier experiments \\cite{snezhko2,snezhko4}. The model is based on the Navier-Stokes equation for liquids in shallow water approximation coupled to Newton equations for interacting magnetic particles suspended on the water-air interface. The model reproduces most of the observed phenomenology, including spontaneous formation of magnetic snake-like structures, generation of large-scale vortex flows, complex ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic ordering of the snake, and self-propulsion of bead-snake hybrids. The model provides valuable insights into self-organization phenomena in a broad range of non-equilibrium magnetic and electrostatic systems with competing interactions.

  9. Self-assembly of photo-reduced graphene-titania films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Chavez, Carlos A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Washburn, Cody M.; Brumbach, Michael Todd; Wheeler, David Roger; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an aim to develop photo-responsive composites, the UV photo-reduction of aqueous titanium oxide nanoparticle-graphene oxide (TiO{sub 2}-GO) dispersions (Lambert et al. J Phys. Chem. 2010 113 (46), 19812-19823) was undertaken. Photo-reduction led to the formation of a black precipitate as well as a soluble portion, comprised of titanium oxide nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide (TiO{sub 2}-RGO). When allowed to slowly evaporate, self assembled titanium oxide nanoparticle-graphene oxide (SA-TiO{sub 2}-RGO) films formed at the air-liquid interface of the solution. The thickness of SARGO-TiO{sub 2} films range from {approx}30-100 nm when deposited on substrates, and appear to be comprised of a mosaic assembly of graphene nanosheets and TiO{sub 2}, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that the graphene oxide is only partially reduced in the SA-TiO{sub 2}-RGO material. These films were also deposited onto inter-digitated electrodes and their photo-responsive behavior was examined. UV-exposure lead to a {approx} 200 kOhm decrease in resistance across the device, resulting in a cathodically biased film. The cathodic bias of the films was utilized for the subsequent reduction of Ag(NO{sub 3}) into silver (Ag) nanoparticles, forming a ternary Ag-(SA-RGO-TiO{sub 2}) composite. Various aspects of the self assembled films, their photoconductive properties as well as potential applications will be presented.

  10. Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches (474th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang, Oleg (Center for Functional Nanomaterials) [Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the field of nanoscience, if you can control how nanoparticles self-assemble in particular structures — joining each other, for example, as molecules can form, atom-by-atom — you can design new materials that have unique properties that industry needs. Nature already uses the DNA genetic code to instruct the building of specific proteins and whole organisms in both plants and people. Taking a cue from nature, scientists at BNL devised a way of using strands of synthetic DNA attached to the surface of nanoparticles to instruct them to self-assemble into specific nanoscale structures, clusters, and three-dimensional organizations. Novel materials designed and fabricated this way promise use in photovoltaics, energy storage, catalysis, cell-targeted systems for more effective medical treatments, and biomolecular sensing for environmental monitoring and medical applications. To find out more about the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method and its applications, join Physicist Oleg Gang of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) as he gives the 474th Brookhaven Lecture, titled “Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches." Gang, who has led this work at the CFN, will explain the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method, and discuss its present and future applications in highly specific biosensors, optically active nano-materials, and new ways to fabricate complex architectures in a rational manner via self-assembly. Gang and his colleagues used the CFN and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facilities to perform their groundbreaking research. At the CFN, the scientists used electron microscopes and optical methods to visualize the clusters that they fabricated. At the NSLS, they applied x-rays to study a particles-assembly process in solution, DNA’s natural environment. Gang earned a Ph.D. in soft matter physics from Bar-Ilan University in 2000, and he was a Rothschild Fellow at Harvard University from 1999 to 2002. After joining BNL as a Goldhaber Fellow in 2002, he became an assistant scientist at the CFN in 2004. He became the CFN’s leader for Soft and Biological Nanomaterials Theme Group in 2006, and earned the title of scientist in 2009. Gang has received numerous honors and recognitions, including the 2010 Gordon Battelle Prize for Scientific Discovery.

  11. Energy, Charge, and Spin Transport in Molecules and Self-Assembled Nanostructures Inspired by Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron transfer in biological molecules provides both insight and inspiration for developing chemical systems having similar functionality. Photosynthesis is an example of an integrated system in which light harvesting, photoinduced charge separation, and catalysis combine to carry out two thermodynamically demanding processes, the oxidation of water and the reduction of carbon dioxide. The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for solar energy conversion requires a fundamental understanding of electron-transfer reactions between organic molecules. Since these reactions most often involve single-electron transfers, the spin dynamics of photogenerated radical ion pairs provide important information on how the rates and efficiencies of these reactions depend on molecular structure. Given this knowledge, the design and synthesis of large integrated structures to carry out artificial photosynthesis is moving forward. An important approach to achieving this goal is the development of small, functional building blocks, having a minimum number of covalent bonds, which also have the appropriate molecular recognition sites to facilitate self-assembly into a complete, functional artificial photosynthetic system.

  12. Tribological properties of alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Chandross, Michael Evan; Grest, Gary Stephen; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of adhesive contact and friction between alkylsilane Si(OH){sub 3}(CX{sub 2}){sub 10}CX{sub 3} and alkoxylsilane Si(OH){sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub 10}CX{sub 3} (where X = H or F) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on an amorphous silica substrate. The alkylsilane SAMs are primarily hydrogen-bonded or physisorbed to the surface. The alkoxylsilane SAMs are covalently bonded or chemisorbed to the surface. Previously, we studied the chemisorbed systems. In this work, we study the physisorbed systems and compare the tribological properties with the chemisorbed systems. Furthermore, we examine how water at the interface of the SAMs and substrate affects the tribological properties of the physisorbed systems. When less than a third of a monolayer is present, very little difference in the microscopic friction coefficient {mu} or shear stresses is observed. For increasing amounts of water, the values of {mu} and the shear stresses decrease; this effect is somewhat more pronounced for fluorocarbon alkylsilane SAMs than for the hydrocarbon SAMs. The observed decrease in friction is a consequence of a slip plane that occurs in the water as the amount of water is increased. We studied the frictional behavior using relative shear velocities ranging from v = 2 cm/s to 2 m/s. Similar to previously reported results for alkoxylsilane SAMs, the values of the measured stress and {mu} for the alkylsilane SAM systems decrease monotonically with v.

  13. Self Assembled Clusters of Spheres Related to Spherical Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carolyn L. Phillips; Eric Jankowski; Michelle Marval; Sharon C. Glotzer

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the thermodynamically driven self-assembly of spheres onto the surface of a central sphere. This assembly process forms self-limiting, or terminal, anisotropic clusters (N-clusters) with well defined structures. We use Brownian dynamics to model the assembly of N-clusters varying in size from two to twelve outer spheres, and free energy calculations to predict the expected cluster sizes and shapes as a function of temperature and inner particle diameter. We show that the arrangements of outer spheres at finite temperatures are related to spherical codes, an ideal mathematical sequence of points corresponding to densest possible sphere packings. We demonstrate that temperature and the ratio of the diameters of the inner and outer spheres dictate cluster morphology and dynamics. We find that some N-clusters exhibit collective particle rearrangements, and these collective modes are unique to a given cluster size N. We present a surprising result for the equilibrium structure of a 5-cluster, which prefers an asymmetric square pyramid arrangement over a more symmetric arrangement. Our results suggest a promising way to assemble anisotropic building blocks from constituent colloidal spheres.

  14. Stoichiometric control of DNA-grafted colloid self-assembly

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vo, Thi; Gang, Oleg; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Kumar, Sanat; Srinivasan, Babji; Pal, Suchetan; Zhang, Yugang

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been considerable interest in understanding the self-assembly of DNA-grafted nanoparticles into different crystal structures, e.g., CsCl, AlB?, and Cr?Si. Although there are important exceptions, a generally accepted view is that the right stoichiometry of the two building block colloids needs to be mixed to form the desired crystal structure. To incisively probe this issue, we combine experiments and theory on a series of DNA-grafted nanoparticles at varying stoichiometries, including noninteger values. We show that stoichiometry can couple with the geometries of the building blocks to tune the resulting equilibrium crystal morphology. As a concrete example, a stoichiometric ratiomore »of 3:1 typically results in the Cr?Si structure. However, AlB? can form when appropriate building blocks are used so that the AlB? standard-state free energy is low enough to overcome the entropic preference for Cr?Si. These situations can also lead to an undesirable phase coexistence between crystal polymorphs. Thus, whereas stoichiometry can be a powerful handle for direct control of lattice formation, care must be taken in its design and selection to avoid polymorph coexistence.« less

  15. Theory of self-assembled smectic-A "crenellated disks"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao Tu; Robert A. Pelcovits

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Smectic-A monolayers self-assembled in aqueous solutions of chiral fd viruses and a polymer depletant have been shown to exhibit a variety of structures including large, flat disks and twisted ribbons. The virus particles twist near the edge of the structure in a direction determined by the chirality of the viruses. When fd viruses and their mutants of opposite chirality are mixed together in nearly equal amounts unusual structures referred to as "crenellated disks" can appear. These disks are achiral overall but the twist at the edge alternates between left- and right-handedness. To minimize the mismatch where the two regions of opposing twist meet, the "crenellated" structure exhibits cusps rising out of the plane of the monolayer. We use a phenomenological elastic theory previously applied to flat disks and twisted ribbons to analyze an analytic model proposed to describe the "crenellated" structure . When compared with flat, circular disks, we find that the model "crenellated disks" are stable or at least metastable in a wide region of the phase diagram spanned by the Gaussian curvature modulus and the edge energy modulus, with a large energy barrier separating the two structures. The director pattern and geometric parameters of the "crenellated disks" are found to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations.

  16. Molecular design of conjugated polymers for the control of conformation, electronics and self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouffard, Jean, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, synthesis and characterization of organic electronic materials, in particular luminescent conjugated polymers, with structural motifs that allow for the controlled modulation of their photophysical properties ...

  17. BE.442 Molecular Structure of Biological Materials, Fall 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shuguang, Dr.

    Basic molecular structural principles of biological materials. Molecular structures of various materials of biological origin, including collagen, silk, bone, protein adhesives, GFP, self-assembling peptides. Molecular ...

  18. Effect of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Charge Injection and Transport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (rr-P3HT) based field-effect transistors (FETs), wherein the Au source and drain contacts are modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), is reported at different...

  19. Block copolymers for vesicles: self-assembled behavior for use in biomimicry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaspard, Jeffery Simon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to investigate synthetic and polypeptide block copolymers, the structures they form, their response to various stimuli in solution and their capabilities for use in biomimicry. The self-assembled structures of both...

  20. The Amphiphilic Self-Assembling Peptide EAK16-I as a Potential Hydrophobic Drug Carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jing

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is crucial for hydrophobic drugs to be dissolved and stabilized by carriers in aqueous systems and then to be delivered into target cells. An amphiphilic self-assembling peptide EAK16-I (Ac-AEAKAEAKAEAKAEAK-NH2) is ...

  1. Using Self-Assembled Block Copolymer Macrostructures for Creating a Model System for Cell Mimicry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaspard, Jeffery Simon

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to investigate three classes of block copolymers, the vesicle structures they form, their response to stimuli in solution and their capabilities for use in biomimicry. The self-assembled ...

  2. Development of Advanced Nanomanufacturing: 3D Integration and High Speed Directed Self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Huifeng

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    the self-assembly process of nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). By introducing the surface functionalization, electric field and ultrasonic agitation into the process, we develop a rapid and robust approach for effective...

  3. Applications of Self-assembly for Molecular Electronics, Plasmon Coupling, and Ion Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Yang-Hsiang

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focused on the applications of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) technique for the investigation of molecule based electronics, plasmon coupling between CdSe quantum dots and metal nanoparticles (MNPs), and copper ion detection...

  4. DNA-Templated Self-Assembly of Metallic Nanocomponent Arrays on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiehl, Richard A.

    DNA-Templated Self-Assembly of Metallic Nanocomponent Arrays on a Surface John D. Le, Yariv Pinto,, Nadrian C. Seeman,§ Karin Musier-Forsyth, T. Andrew Taton, and Richard A. Kiehl*, Department of Electrical

  5. Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion . Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion . Abstract: We used anionic...

  6. Sacrificial-Post Templating Method for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    A sacrificial-post templating method is presented for directing block copolymer self-assembly to form nanostructures consisting of monolayers and bilayers of microdomains. In this approach, the topographical post template ...

  7. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructures from self-assembled block copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Joy, 1974-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale magnetic dot arrays have attracted considerable interest, both for fundamental studies of micromagnetism and for possible applications in high-density magnetic data storage. Self-assembled block copolymers provide ...

  8. Complexity of Graph Self-Assembly in Accretive Systems and Self-Destructible Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    ]. Self-assembly is also used for mesoscale construction, for example, via the use of capillary forces [29] or magnetic forces [1] to provide attraction and repulsion between mesoscale tiles and other objects. Building

  9. Preferred Presentation Mode: Oral Poster Self-assembly of microdevices onto silicon substrate via complementary shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Flow chart of direct self-assembly process by shape matchingsystem Fig. 2. Optical photographs, while too gentle agitation cannot provide enough energy for chips to overcome the surface friction

  10. Geometric and elastic properties and mechanical phase separation phenomena in self-assembling mesoscopic helical springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Brice Christopher, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Helical ribbons with pitch angles of either 11? or 54? self-assemble in a wide variety of quaternary surfactant-phospholipid/fatty acid-sterol-water systems. In all of the systems studied, the thermodynamically stable state ...

  11. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels modulate in vitro chondrogenesis of bovine bone marrow stromal cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopesky, Paul Wayne

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that self-assembling peptide hydrogel scaffolds provide cues that enhance the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were encapsulated within two ...

  12. Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au Soonwoo Chah, Challa 06269-4060 We have made surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mea- surements of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (Cyt

  13. Self-Organized Translational Wheeling Motion in Stochastic Self-Assembling Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Shuhei

    Self-organization is a phenomenon found in biomolecular self-assembly by which proteins are spontaneously driven to assemble and attain various functionalities. This study reports on self-organized behavior in which ...

  14. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers And Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.; Ma, B.; Segalman, R.A.

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  15. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers and Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Yuefei; Ma, Biwu; Segalman, Rachel A. (UCB); (LBNL)

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  16. COMPLEX MATERIALS SCATTERING ( ) Proposal Team: C. Burger1, K. Cavicchi2, E. DiMasi3, A. Fluerasu3, S. Fraden4, M. Fukuto3, O. Gang3,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    .g., organic solar cell, batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells #12; optimize synthesis (e.g. of nanoparticles) Assembly: Tuning the self- assembly energy landscape

  17. 3D Design of self-assembled nanoporous colloids I. Sokolova,b,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Igor

    (meso)structured silica, materials science has moved into the area of design and synthesis of inorganics with complex form counteranion, for example, chloride, with a mineralizable inorganic anion, protonated silicate. Synthesis, Potsdam, NY, 13699-5810, USA c Center for Advanced Material Processing (CAMP), Clarkson University

  18. Quantitative multiplexing with nano-self-assemblies in SERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasera, Setu; Herrmann, Lars O.; del Barrio, Jesús; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Scherman, Oren A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ‘hot- spots’1. Noble metal nanoparticles are favoured for small molecule analysis as they allow in situ detection within liquid media, compatible with microfluidic devices.2. Furthermore, their low cost, commercial availability and ease of synthesis...

  19. From ripples to spikes: a hydro-dynamical physical mechanism to interpret femtosecond laser induced self-assembled structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsibidis, George D; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials irradiated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses in sub-ablation conditions are observed to develop various types of self-assembled morphologies that range from nano-ripples to periodic micro-grooves and quasi-periodic micro-spikes. Here, we present a physical scenario that couples electrodynamics, describing surface plasmon excitation, with hydrodynamics, describing Marangoni convection, to elucidate this important sub-ablation regime of light matter interaction in which matter is being modified, however, the underlying process is not yet fully understood. The proposed physical mechanism could be generally applicable to practically any conductive material structured by ultrashort laser pulses, therefore it can be useful for the interpretation of further critical aspects of light matter interaction.

  20. Electron Transfer within Self-Assembling Cyclic Tetramers Using Chlorophyll-Based Donor?Acceptor Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Victoria L.; Smeigh, Amanda L.; Kim, Chul Hoon; Co, Dick T.; Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and photoinduced charge transfer properties of a series of Chl-based donor-acceptor triad building blocks that self-assemble into cyclic tetramers are reported. Chlorophyll a was converted into zinc methyl 3-ethylpyrochlorophyllide a (Chl) and then further modified at its 20-position to covalently attach a pyromellitimide (PI) acceptor bearing a pyridine ligand and one or two naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (NDI) secondary electron acceptors to give Chl-PI-NDI and Chl-PI-NDI2. The pyridine ligand within each ambident triad enables intermolecular Chl metal-ligand coordination in dry toluene, which results in the formation of cyclic tetramers in solution, as determined using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering at a synchrotron source. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of the monomers in toluene-1% pyridine and the cyclic tetramers in toluene shows that the selective photoexcitation of Chl results in intramolecular electron transfer from 1*Chl to PI to form Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-{lg_bullet}-NDI and Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-{lg_bullet}-NDI2. This initial charge separation is followed by a rapid charge shift from PI-{lg_bullet} to NDI and subsequent charge recombination of Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-NDI-{lg_bullet} and Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-(NDI)NDI-{lg_bullet} on a 5-30 ns time scale. Charge recombination in the Chl-PI-NDI2 cyclic tetramer ({tau}CR = 30 {+-} 1 ns in toluene) is slower by a factor of 3 relative to the monomeric building blocks ({tau}CR = 10 {+-} 1 ns in toluene-1% pyridine). This indicates that the self-assembly of these building blocks into the cyclic tetramers alters their structures in a way that lengthens their charge separation lifetimes, which is an advantageous strategy for artificial photosynthetic systems.

  1. Synthetic Diamond and Wurtzite Structures Self-Assemble with Isotropic Pair Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikael C. Rechtsman; Frank H. Stillinger; Salvatore Torquato

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Using inverse statistical-mechanical optimization techniques, we have discovered isotropic pair interaction potentials with strongly repulsive cores that cause the tetrahedrally coordinated diamond and wurtzite lattices to stabilize, as evidenced by lattice sums, phonon spectra, positive-energy defects, and self-assembly in classical molecular dynamics simulations. These results challenge conventional thinking that such open lattices can only be created via directional covalent interactions observed in nature. Thus, our discovery adds to fundamental understanding of the nature of the solid state by showing that isotropic interactions enable the self-assembly of open crystal structures with a broader range of coordination number than previously thought. Our work is important technologically because of its direct relevance generally to the science of self-assembly and specifically to photonic crystal fabrication.

  2. Viscosity control of the dynamic self-assembly in ferromagnetic suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Piet; A. V. Straube; A. Snezhko; I. S. Aranson

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies of dynamic self-assembly in ferromagnetic colloids suspended in liquid-air or liquid-liquid interfaces revealed a rich variety of dynamic structures ranging from linear snakes to axisymmetric asters, which exhibit novel morphology of the magnetic ordering accompanied by large-scale hydrodynamic flows. Based on controlled experiments and first principle theory, we argue that the transition from snakes to asters is governed by the viscosity of the suspending liquid where less viscous liquids favor snakes and more viscous, asters. By obtaining analytic solutions of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, we gain insights into the role of mean hydrodynamic flows and an overall balance of forces governing the self-assembly. Our results illustrate that the viscosity can be used to control the outcome of the dynamic self-assembly in magnetic colloidal suspensions.

  3. Self-assembly of multicomponent structures in and out of equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Whitelam; Rebecca Schulman; Lester Hedges

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Theories of phase change and self-assembly often invoke the idea of a `quasiequilibrium', a regime in which the nonequilibrium association of building blocks results nonetheless in a structure whose properties are determined solely by an underlying free energy landscape. Here we study a prototypical example of multicomponent self-assembly, a one-dimensional fiber grown from red and blue blocks. If the equilibrium structure possesses compositional correlations different from those characteristic of random mixing, then it cannot be generated without error at any finite growth rate: there is no quasiequilibrium regime. However, by exploiting dynamic scaling, structures characteristic of equilibrium at one point in phase space can be generated, without error, arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Our results thus suggest a `nonperturbative' strategy for multicomponent self-assembly in which the target structure is, by design, not the equilibrium one.

  4. Engineered biomolecular interactions with inorganic materials : sequence, binding, and assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peelle, Beau R

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanobiotechnology aims to exploit biomolecular recognition and self-assembly capabilities for integrating advanced materials into medicine and electronics. In particular, peptides have exhibited the ability to specifically ...

  5. Strain-induced self-assembly of Ge nanodashes, nanodumbbells, and dot chains on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J. J. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany) [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany) [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the growth of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on top of embedded Ge nanowires on Si(001) substrates. Ge nanostructures, such as nanodashes, nanodumbbells, and dot chains are observed simply by tuning the growth temperature and thickness of the Si spacer between the Ge layers. The self-assembly process is governed by the surface strain fields generated by the embedded Ge nanowires and is well-described by our theoretical calculations. The catalyst-free and horizontal growth of such Ge nanostructures directly on Si(001) is attractive for investigating exotic transport properties through Si/Ge-based quantum devices.

  6. Novel polymer nanocomposite composed of organic nanoparticles via self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dequan Xiao; Kunhua Lin; Qiang Fu; Qinjian Yin

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a novel class of polymer nanocomposite composed of organic nanoparticles dispersed in polymer matrix, with the particle sizes of 30-120 nm in radius. The organic nanoparticles were formed by the self-assembly of protonated poly(4-vinyl-pyridine)-r-poly(acrylonitrile) and amphiphilic metanil yellow dye molecules through electrostatic interactions in aqueous solution. A strongly broadened Raman shift band was probed, suggesting the presence of enhanced optoelectronic property from the polymer nanocomposite. Here, using random-copolymer polyelectrolytes and mesogenic amphiphiles as the designed building blocks for self-assembly, a new approach is acutally provided to fabricate organic nanoparticles.

  7. Periodic arrays of epitaxial self-assembled SiGe quantum dot molecules grown on patterned Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J. L.; Hull, R.; Floro, J. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, 848 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1415 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ex situ focused ion-beam (FIB) patterning of arrays of holes on Si (001) substrates results in the subsequent formation of SiGe quantum dot molecules at each of the patterned sites during heteroepitaxial growth under kinetically limited growth conditions where island formation is constrained. These quantum dot molecules are fourfold self-assembled island nanostructures bound by a central pit. During growth, material is ejected from the patterned sites forming the pits that in turn provide favorable sites for the cooperative nucleation of (105) faceted islands. The degree of order and quality of the resulting structures depend on many factors including growth temperature, ion-beam milling depth, Si buffer thickness, and spacings between FIB exposed sites. This technique provides a method for controlling the lateral placement of semiconductor nanostructures, which could be used in applications such as complex nanoelectronic architectures.

  8. arXiv:cond-mat/0607317v113Jul2006 Programmable control of nucleation for algorithmic self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    a significant reduction in assembly speed. I. INTRODUCTION Molecular self-assembly is an emerging low-cost alter-up fabrication of complex nanostruc- tures. A `program' for growing a desired structure consists of a set toward understanding how algorithmic self-assembly can be performed with low error rates without

  9. Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries . Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for...

  10. Infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy of p-doped self-assembled Ge dots on Si

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy of p-doped self-assembled Ge dots on Si L. P Received 14 June 1999; accepted for publication 17 August 1999 We report infrared photocurrent PC-8 Quantum well infrared photodetector QWIP technol- ogy has matured rapidly in the last several years.1

  11. Study of DNA coated nanoparticles as possible programmable self-assembly building blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Högberg, Björn

    Author's personal copy Study of DNA coated nanoparticles as possible programmable self Available online 3 April 2006 Abstract Nanoparticles coated with single stranded DNA have been shown (or algorithmic) self-assembly to build nanoparticle structures. However, we argue that a DNA coated

  12. Self-assembly on Demand in a Group of Physical Autonomous Mobile Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    robotics addresses the design, implementation and study of multi- robotic systems. Swarm robotics' and 'cold' zones in a simple simulation environment. Over the last decade, much of the research involving incapable of self-assembly. Yim et al.'s system [16] can climb near vertical walls. Individual modules

  13. Self-Assembled Monolayers of Alkanethiolates Presenting Tri(propylene sulfoxide) Groups Resist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    Self-Assembled Monolayers of Alkanethiolates Presenting Tri(propylene sulfoxide) Groups Resist-assembled mono- layers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold that present tri- (propylene sulfoxide) groups prevent. We chose oligomers of the propylene sulfoxide group [-CH2CH2CH2S(O)-] as candidates that shared

  14. Adsorption of Proteins to Hydrophobic Sites on Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Adsorption of Proteins to Hydrophobic Sites on Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers Emanuele Ostuni adsorption of proteins at solid-liquid interfaces. Detailed results were obtained for -galactosidase is used to rationalize the adsorption; this model, although very approximate, helps to interpret

  15. Surface Science Letters Self-assembled growth of ordered Ge nanoclusters on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Surface Science Letters Self-assembled growth of ordered Ge nanoclusters on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 Â 7-assembled growth of submonolayer Ge on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 Â 7) surface grown by solid phase epitaxy has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. Ordered Ge nanoclusters on the surface are formed by the deposition

  16. Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers (ISAM) of a Polyviologena-Galva´n, Harry W. Gibson, James R. Heflin* Introduction Electrochromic (EC) devices undergo reversible absorbance/ transmittance change on application of external voltage.[1] Since the first major report on electrochromism

  17. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800135 Directed Self-Assembly of Gradient Concentric Carbon Nanotube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800135 Directed Self-Assembly of Gradient Concentric Carbon Nanotube Rings the need for lithography or an external field over large surface areas using a facile routine. Carbon stripes of iron catalyst,[31] and blown bubble film process[32] to fabricate nanotube-based devices, e

  18. Self-Assembled Metal/Molecule/Semiconductor Nanostructures for Electronic Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    565 Self-Assembled Metal/Molecule/Semiconductor Nanostructures for Electronic Device and Contact attracted interest for electronic device and ma- terials applications. The first class involves the for-assembled semiconductor structures, the electronic device functionality has been limited by the difficulty in achieving

  19. Using Self-Assembled Monolayers to Pattern ECM Proteins and Cells on Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Using Self-Assembled Monolayers to Pattern ECM Proteins and Cells on Substrates Christopher S. Chen, investigations of cellular responses to various adhesive envi- ronments were limited by a lack of control over (or more properly, to proteins adsorbed on the metals), but not the pHEMA; however, the edge reso

  20. Atomistic Simulation Approach to a Continuum Description of Self-Assembled b-Sheet Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamm, Roger D.

    be applicable to developing continuum elastic ribbon models of other b-sheet filaments and amyloid fibrils promise as a three-dimensional cell culture matrix or as a tissue engi- neering scaffold. Due to the short). Another important aspect of b-sheet peptide self-assembly is its similarity to amyloid fibrils found

  1. Infiltrating Semiconducting Polymers into Self-Assembled Mesoporous Titania Films for Photovoltaic Applications**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Infiltrating Semiconducting Polymers into Self-Assembled Mesoporous Titania Films for Photovoltaic. Introduction A promising approach for making inexpensive photovoltaic cells is to fill nanoporous titania films there have been several reports on photovoltaic cells made in this way, there have been no studies that show

  2. Ternary Oil-Water-Amphiphile Systems: Self-Assembly and Phase Equilibria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ternary Oil-Water-Amphiphile Systems: Self-Assembly and Phase Equilibria Seung-Yeon Kim surfactant - oil - water systems were studied by grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations assisted H represents hydrophilic and T hydrophobic groups. In contrast to earlier studies, we studied oil

  3. From self-assembly to engines: Simulating the nanoscale D. C. Rapaport, Bar-Ilan University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    a small fraction of the most highly bonded forms. The second is the Stirling engine, an externalFrom self-assembly to engines: Simulating the nanoscale D. C. Rapaport, Bar-Ilan University Two combustion engine with a history dating back to the industrial revolution. The model considered here employs

  4. Two-dimensional 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene self-assembly at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Two-dimensional 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene self-assembly at the 1-phenyloctane-assembly of star-shaped 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene molecules is investigated. Scanning tunneling microscopy.22 showed that 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene star-shaped molecules can form two distinc self

  5. DOI: 10.1002/adem.201400414 Self-Assembled Recyclable Hierarchical Bucky Aerogels**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    DOI: 10.1002/adem.201400414 Self-Assembled Recyclable Hierarchical Bucky Aerogels** By Mehmet, and recyclable multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) based light weight (density aerogels (BAGs than the energy dissipated by commercial foams with similar densities. 1. Introduction Aerogels

  6. Evaporative self-assembly of nanowires on superhydrophobic surfaces of nanotip latching structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    Evaporative self-assembly of nanowires on superhydrophobic surfaces of nanotip latching structures-assembly of nanowires during the evaporation of a colloid droplet of nanowires on nanoengineered superhydrophobic and the superhydrophobic surface engineered with sharp-tip latching nanostructures of micropillars, provided

  7. Spectroscopic Properties of a Self-Assembled Zinc Porphyrin Tetramer II. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Spectroscopic Properties of a Self-Assembled Zinc Porphyrin Tetramer II. Time-Resolved Fluorescence tetramer [Part I], with a 1 ns rotational correlation time at 10 °C. The initial fluorescence anisotropy of the monomer is found to be 0.1. In the tetramer an additional depolarization process occurs with a correlation

  8. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  9. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries.

  10. Transport and Self-Assembly in Molecular Nanosystems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances »Contact-Information Sign

  11. Secondary battery material and synthesis method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongjian; Kepler, Keith Douglas; Wang, Yu

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite Li.sub.1+xMn.sub.2-x-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 cathode material stabilized by treatment with a second transition metal oxide phase that is highly suitable for use in high power and energy density Li-ion cells and batteries. A method for treating a Li.sub.1+xMn.sub.2-x-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 cathode material utilizing a dry mixing and firing process.

  12. Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Bryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in dye/polymer blend photovoltaic cells. Advanced MaterialsA. J. , Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies2-Layer Organic Photovoltaic Cell. Applied Physics Letters

  13. DNA Guided Self-Assembly of Nanocrystals for Optoelectronic Devices /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Hyunwoo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3D nanocrystal superlattices 68 4.1 Introduction 68 4.2 Materials and Methods .68 4.2.1 Dual subtraction printing ..

  14. BrickandMortar SelfAssembly Approach to Graphitic Mesoporous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    percolation. 11 Carbon materials that are used for applications such as supercapacitor electrodes include activated carbon, carbide derived carbon, templated carbon, ...

  15. Direct synthesis of ordered mesoporous materials constructed with polymersilica hybrid frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    to obtain the organic­inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials. The post-synthesis procedure via graftingDirect synthesis of ordered mesoporous materials constructed with polymer­silica hybrid frameworks for pore surface modification.5 Second is the one-pot synthesis of mesoporous materials with an organically

  16. Self-assembly of water-soluble nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Lopez, Gabriel P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming an ordered array of nanocrystals where a hydrophobic precursor solution with a hydrophobic core material in an organic solvent is added to a solution of a surfactant in water, followed by removal of a least a portion of the organic solvent to form a micellar solution of nanocrystals. A precursor co-assembling material, generally water-soluble, that can co-assemble with individual micelles formed in the micellar solution of nanocrystals can be added to this micellar solution under specified reaction conditions (for example, pH conditions) to form an ordered-array mesophase material. For example, basic conditions are used to precipitate an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material in bulk form and acidic conditions are used to form an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material as a thin film.

  17. Polymer arrays from the combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  18. Synthesis, processing and properties of materials for SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.L.; Armstrong, T.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and processing methods of complex oxide materials can significantly influence use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper discusses (1) effects of powder synthesis and conditioning on fabrication, i.e., sintering, where close, reproducible control of composition and structure are required, and (2) influences on electrical, mechanical, structural and electrochemical properties that can influence SOFC performance. Examples are given for chromites, manganites and related oxides used as interconnections and electrodes in SOFCs. Materials, from source to incorporation into the fuel cell and generator, is a major issue in the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). An integral part of this is the synthesis from chemicals and other virgin materials, generally as an oxide or metal powder, which can become a SOFC component. In some instances, such as with electrochemical vapor deposition, the component is formed directly from the chemicals. The synthesized materials are then conditioned and processes prior to fabrication into the fuel cell component, either separately or in conjunction with other material components.

  19. Argonne's Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    don't want to take on the financial risk of process scale-up and development for materials that haven in battery, fuel cell, and other budding technologies supporting the nation's energy and portable development, Argonne researchers use proven industrial software programs to create simulations and unit

  20. Method of synthesis of proton conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando Henry; Einsla, Melinda Lou; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a proton conducting material, comprising adding a pyrophosphate salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved pyrophosphate salt; adding an inorganic acid salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved inorganic acid salt; adding the dissolved inorganic acid salt to the dissolved pyrophosphate salt to produce a mixture; substantially evaporating the solvent from the mixture to produce a precipitate; and calcining the precipitate at a temperature of from about 400.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C.

  1. Magnetic spectroscopy and microscopy of functional materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, C.A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the classical Heusler material Co 2 FeSi (Appendix B).plated self-assembly. Nature Materials, 3:823–828, 2004.1 Concepts Functional materials are those with an industrial

  2. Lower pressure synthesis of diamond material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Gutierrez, Humberto (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA); Burgess Clifford, Caroline E. (State College, PA); Jain, Puja (King Of Prussia, PA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of synthesizing a diamond material, particularly nanocrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon and bucky diamond are provided. In particular embodiments, a composition including a carbon source, such as coal, is subjected to addition of energy, such as high energy reactive milling, producing a milling product enriched in hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon compared to the coal. A milling product is treated with heat, acid and/or base to produce nanocrystalline diamond and/or crystalline diamond-like carbon. Energy is added to produced crystalline diamond-like carbon in particular embodiments to produce bucky diamonds.

  3. Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a New 183-GHzMARSecurityMaterialsMPA » MPA-11

  4. Controlling self-assembly within nanospace for peptide nanoparticle fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Ying

    ,5 Moreover, short peptide building blocks can be designed to enable a bottom-up construction of smart provide natural building blocks for the fabrication of well-ordered structures and advanced materials.4 simultaneously be obtained from the same building blocks.9 Different nanostructure morphologies are desired

  5. Heteroepitaxial Self Assembling Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Monocrystalline Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Michael S.

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    , such as measuring X-rays emitted by U-235, by selecting materials that have high absorption related to electron energy level transitions at selected energies. For instance, it might be possible to make depleted uranium nanoparticles in silicon, which could have...

  6. Grained composite materials prepared by combustion synthesis under mechanical pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  7. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Halverson, Danny C. (Modesto, CA); Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  8. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  9. Interfacial Properties and Design of Functional Energy Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liangbo [ORNL] [ORNL; Nicolai, Adrien [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)] [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)] [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vital importance of energy to society continues to demand a relentless pursuit of energy responsive materials that can bridge fundamental chemical structures at the molecular level and achieve improved functionality, such as efficient energy conversion/storage/transmission, over multiple length scales. This demand can potentially be realized by harnessing the power of self-assembly a spontaneous process where molecules or much larger entities form ordered aggregates as a consequence of predominately non-covalent (weak) interactions. Self-assembly is the key to bottom-up design of molecular devices, because the nearly atomic-level control is very difficult to realize in a top-down, e.g., lithographic approach. However, while function (e.g., charge mobility) in simple systems such as single crystals can often be predicted, predicting the function of the great variety of self-assembled molecular architectures is complicated by the lack of understanding and control over nanoscale interactions, mesoscale architectures, and macroscale (long-range) order. To establish a foundation toward delivering practical solutions, it is critical to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms responsible for the self-assembly of molecular and hybrid materials on various substrates. Typically molecular self-assembly involves poorly understood non-covalent intermolecular and substrate-molecule interactions compounded by local and/or collective influences from the substrate atomic lattice (symmetry and/or topological features) and electronic structure. Thus, progress towards unraveling the underlying physicochemical processes that control the structure and macroscopic physical, mechanical, electrical, and transport properties of materials increasingly requires tight integration of theory, modeling and simulation with precision synthesis, advanced experimental characterization, and device measurements. In this mode, theory and simulation can greatly accelerate the process of materials discovery by providing atomic level understanding of physicochemical phenomena and for making predictions of trends. In particular, this approach can provide understanding, prediction and exploration of new materials and conditions before they are realized in the lab, to illuminate connections between experimental observations, and help identify new materials for targeted synthesis. Toward this end, Density Functional Theory (DFT) can provide a suitable computational framework for investigating the inter- and intramolecular bonding, molecular conformation, charge and spin configurations that are intrinsic to self-assembly of molecules on substrates. This Account highlights recent advances in using an integrated approach based on DFT and scanning probe microscopy [STM(s), AFM] to study/develop electronic materials formed from the self-assembly of molecules into supramolecular or polymeric architectures on substrates. Here it is the interplay between molecular interactions and surface electrons that is used to control the final architecture and subsequent bulk properties of the two-dimensional patterns/assemblies. Indeed a rich variety of functional energy materials become possible.

  10. Inherent variability in the kinetics of autocatalytic protein self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juraj Szavits-Nossan; Kym Eden; Ryan J. Morris; Cait E. MacPhee; Martin R. Evans; Rosalind J. Allen

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In small volumes, the kinetics of filamentous protein self-assembly is expected to show significant variability, arising from intrinsic molecular noise. This is not accounted for in existing deterministic models. We introduce a simple stochastic model including nucleation and autocatalytic growth via elongation and fragmentation, which allows us to predict the effects of molecular noise on the kinetics of autocatalytic self-assembly. We derive an analytic expression for the lag-time distribution, which agrees well with experimental results for the fibrillation of bovine insulin. Our expression decomposes the lag time variability into contributions from primary nucleation and autocatalytic growth and reveals how each of these scales with the key kinetic parameters. Our analysis shows that significant lag-time variability can arise from both primary nucleation and from autocatalytic growth, and should provide a way to extract mechanistic information on early-stage aggregation from small-volume experiments.

  11. Structural and optical properties of self-assembled chains of plasmonic nanocubes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klinkova, Anna [Univ., of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gang, Oleg [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Therien-Aubin, Heloise [Univ., of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ahmed, Aftab [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nykypanchuk, Dmytro [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Choueiri, Rachelle M. [Univ., of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gagnon, Brandon [Univ., of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Muntyanu, Anastasiya [Univ., of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Gilbert C. [Univ., of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kumacheva, Eugenia [Univ., of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution-based linear self-assembly of metal nanoparticles offers a powerful strategy for creating plasmonic polymers, which, so far, have been formed from spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. Here, we report linear solution-based self-assembly of metal nanocubes (NCs), examine the structural characteristics of the NC chains and demonstrate their advanced optical characteristics. Predominant face-to-face assembly of large NCs coated with short polymer ligands led to a larger volume of hot spots in the chains, a nearly uniform E-field enhancement in the gaps between co-linear NCs and a new coupling mode for NC chains, in comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, composition and surface chemistry. The NC chains exhibited a stronger surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, in comparison with linear assemblies of nanospheres. The experimental results were in agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations.

  12. Structural and optical properties of self-assembled chains of plasmonic nanocubes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klinkova, Anna; Gang, Oleg; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Ahmed, Aftab; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Gagnon, Brandon; Muntyanu, Anastasiya; Walker, Gilbert C.; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution-based linear self-assembly of metal nanoparticles offers a powerful strategy for creating plasmonic polymers, which, so far, have been formed from spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. Here, we report linear solution-based self-assembly of metal nanocubes (NCs), examine the structural characteristics of the NC chains and demonstrate their advanced optical characteristics. Predominant face-to-face assembly of large NCs coated with short polymer ligands led to a larger volume of hot spots in the chains, a nearly uniform E-field enhancement in the gaps between co-linear NCs and a new coupling mode for NC chains, in comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, compositionmore »and surface chemistry. The NC chains exhibited a stronger surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, in comparison with linear assemblies of nanospheres. The experimental results were in agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations.« less

  13. Activity-induced phase separation and self-assembly in mixtures of active and passive particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Stenhammar; Raphael Wittkowski; Davide Marenduzzo; Michael E. Cates

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the phase behavior and kinetics of a monodisperse mixture of active (\\textit{i.e.}, self-propelled) and passive isometric Brownian particles through Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. As in a purely active system, motility of the active component triggers phase separation into a dense and a dilute phase; in the dense phase we further find active-passive segregation, with "rafts" of passive particles in a "sea" of active particles. We find that phase separation from an initially disordered mixture can occur with as little as 15 percent of the particles being active. Finally, we show that a system prepared in a suitable fully segregated initial state reproducibly self-assembles an active "corona" which triggers crystallization of the passive core by initiating a compression wave. Our findings are relevant to the experimental pursuit of directed self-assembly using active particles.

  14. Volmer-Weber Growth of Nanoscale Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Rui

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research has focused on the fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms and experimental methodologies to probe various growth conditions, their effects on density, size uniformity, and spatial organization of self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs). Theoretical models and numerical simulations have been developed to understand the nonlinear dynamics of surface pattern evolution and self assembly processes. Fabrication processes of semiconductor and metal SAQDs on high-k dielectrics have been developed, which have enabled the technology development of high-speed, low-power nonvolatile memory devices for nanoelectronics applications. Over the four years of the project, six graduate students have been trained in this research project, and four of them have graduated with PhD degrees. Our research has been reported in 11 journal articles. Both PIs and their students have given numerous presentations at national/international conferences as well as invited seminars. A list of publications and presentations is attached to the end of this report.

  15. Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewandowski, A.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

  16. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors Wendy Niu,1,a) Anna-inorganic perovskite (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4 are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas microme- chanical exfoliation of 2D PbI perovskites and explore the few-layer behaviour of such systems

  17. Asymmetrical Self-assembly From Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Block copolymers of fluorinated isoprene and partially sulfonated styrene form novel tapered rods and ribbon-like micelles in aqueous media due to a distribution of sulfonation sites and a large Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. A combination of microscopy, light scattering, and simulation demonstrates the presence of these unique nanostructures. This study sheds light on the micellization behavior of amphiphilic block polymers by revealing a new mechanism of self-assembly.

  18. Asynchronous Signal Passing for Tile Self-Assembly: Fuel Efficient Computation and Efficient Assembly of Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Jennifer E; Pena, Raul; Schweller, Robert T; Seeman, Nadrian C; Sheline, Robert; Summers, Scott M; Zhong, Xingsi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the power of a model of tile self-assembly in which individual tiles of the system have the ability to turn on or off glue types based on the bonding of other glues on the given tile. This work is motivated by the desire for a system that can effect recursive self assembly, and is guided by the consideration of a DNA origami implementation of four-sided tiles which have a small set of queued up reactions based on DNA strand replacement. We formulate the Signal passing Tile Assembly Model which is based on the model of Padilla, et al. (2011), but is asynchronous in that any action of turning a glue on or off, or attaching a new tile, or the breaking apart of an assembly, may happen in any order. Within this most general case we study tile self-assembly problems that have been addressed within the abstract Tile Assembly Model, as well as other variants of that model, and show that signal passing tiles allow for substantial improvement across multiple metrics. Our first results focus on th...

  19. Rational design of self-assembly pathways for complex multicomponent structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William M. Jacobs; Aleks Reinhardt; Daan Frenkel

    2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of complex self-assembly is moving toward the design of multi-particle structures consisting of thousands of distinct building blocks. To exploit the potential benefits of structures with such `addressable complexity,' we need to understand the factors that optimize the yield and the kinetics of self-assembly. Here we use a simple theoretical method to explain the key features responsible for the unexpected success of DNA-brick experiments, which are currently the only demonstration of reliable self-assembly with such a large number of components. Simulations confirm that our theory accurately predicts the narrow temperature window in which error-free assembly can occur. Even more strikingly, our theory predicts that correct assembly of the complete structure may require a time-dependent experimental protocol. Furthermore, we predict that low coordination numbers result in non-classical nucleation behavior, which we find to be essential for achieving optimal nucleation kinetics under mild growth conditions. We also show that, rather surprisingly, the use of heterogeneous bond energies improves the nucleation kinetics and in fact appears to be necessary for assembling certain intricate three-dimensional structures. This observation makes it possible to sculpt nucleation pathways by tuning the distribution of interaction strengths. These insights not only suggest how to improve the design of structures based on DNA bricks, but also point the way toward the creation of a much wider class of chemical or colloidal structures with addressable complexity.

  20. Entropic self-assembly of freely rotating polyhedral particles confined to a flat interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Thapar; T. Hanrath; F. A. Escobedo

    2014-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-assembly of hard polyhedral particles confined to a flat interface is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The particles are pinned to the interface by restricting their movement in the direction perpendicular to it while allowing their free rotations. The six different polyhedral shapes studied in this work are selected from a family of truncated cubes defined by a truncation parameter, s, which varies from cubes (s = 0) via cuboctahedra (s = 0.5) to octahedra (s = 1). Our results suggest that shapes with small values of s show square-like behavior whereas shapes with large values of s tend to show more disc-like behavior. At an intermediate value of s = 0.4, the phase behavior of the system shows both square-like and disc-like features. The results are also compared with the phase behavior of 3D bulk polyhedra and of 2D rounded hard squares. Both comparisons reveal key similarities in the number and sequence of mesophases and solid phases observed. These insights on 2D entropic self-assembly of polyhedral particles is a first step toward understanding the self-assembly of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces, which is driven by a complex interplay of entropic and enthalpic forces.

  1. Using Differential Adhesion to Control Self-Assembly and Self-Repair of Collections of Modular Mobile Robots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottery, Peter

    This thesis presents a novel distributed control method which allows a collection of independently mobile robotic units, with two or three dimensional movement, to self-assemble into self-repairing hierarchical structures. ...

  2. Design and fabrication of high-index-contrast self-assembled texture for light extraction enhancement in LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We developed a high-index-contrast photonic structure for improving the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a self-assembly approach. In this approach, a two-dimensional grating can be ...

  3. DNA Self-Assembly of Targeted Near-Infrared-Responsive Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Thermo-Chemotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Zeyu

    Targeted cancer therapy: Inspired by the ability of DNA hybridization, a targeted near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive delivery system has been developed through simple DNA self-assembly (see picture; PEG=polyethylene ...

  4. Computational study of self-assembly in block copolymer/superparamagnetic nanoparticle composites under external magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Vinay

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This computational and theoretical study investigates the self-assembly of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and block copolymers under external magnetic fields. A variety of morphological transitions are observed based on ...

  5. Non-degenerate magnetic alignment of self-assembled mesophases Pawel W. Majewski* Chinedum O. Osuji

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    and photonic crystals2­4 to high-density storage media5,6 and templates for materials synthesis.7­9 In many) offer promise as a flexible tool for nanostructure alignment in these systems. They circumvent be conveniently applied over macroscopic length scales (> 10 cm) and to geometries or devices that are ill

  6. Self-assembled three-dimensional conducting network of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    - resolution printing of devices over large areas while provid- ing a low-cost path toward the early American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.1776619] There is considerable interest in the fabrication path for the fabrication of wires for nano- electronics. The synthesis of a material satisfying

  7. SHORT PROGRAMS Materials By Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    techniques including 3D printing, self-assembly, microfluidics and other technologies. We will distribute and analyze material samples designed based on multiscale simulations and manufactured using 3D printing

  8. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  9. Pressure-reaction synthesis of titanium composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure-reaction synthesis process for producing increased stiffness and improved strength-to-weight ratio titanium metal matrix composite materials comprising exothermically reacting a titanium powder or titanium powder alloys with non-metal powders or gas selected from the group consisting of C, B, N, BN, B.sub.4 C, SiC and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 at temperatures from about 900.degree. to about 1300.degree. C., for about 5 to about 30 minutes in a forming die under pressures of from about 1000 to 5000 psi.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic SafetyGeothermal/Ground-Source HeatSweptCathode Materials Synthesis

  11. Non-thermal calcination by ultraviolet irradiation in the synthesis of microporous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Non-thermal calcination by ultraviolet irradiation in the synthesis of microporous materials Atul N-directing agents in the synthesis of microporous materials. The method relies on the exposure of the sample. This method is applicable in making new materials from organic­inorganic pre- cursors and holds promise

  12. Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Chiroptical Switching Materials: Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Chiral Organogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    Near-Infrared Electrochromic and Chiroptical Switching Materials: Design, Synthesis regions have been realized using a low molecular weight gel as a chiral scaffold and electrochromic

  13. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  14. Stochastic dynamics of virus capsid formation: direct versus hierarchical self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johanna E. Baschek; Heinrich C. R. Klein; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to replicate within their cellular host, many viruses have developed self-assembly strategies for their capsids which are sufficiently robust as to be reconstituted in vitro. Mathematical models for virus self-assembly usually assume that the bonds leading to cluster formation have constant reactivity over the time course of assembly (direct assembly). In some cases, however, binding sites between the capsomers have been reported to be activated during the self-assembly process (hierarchical assembly). In order to study possible advantages of such hierarchical schemes for icosahedral virus capsid assembly, we use Brownian dynamics simulations of a patchy particle model that allows us to switch binding sites on and off during assembly. For T1 viruses, we implement a hierarchical assembly scheme where inter-capsomer bonds become active only if a complete pentamer has been assembled. We find direct assembly to be favorable for reversible bonds allowing for repeated structural reorganizations, while hierarchical assembly is favorable for strong bonds with small dissociation rate, as this situation is less prone to kinetic trapping. However, at the same time it is more vulnerable to monomer starvation during the final phase. Increasing the number of initial monomers does have only a weak effect on these general features. The differences between the two assembly schemes become more pronounced for more complex virus geometries, as shown here for T3 viruses, which assemble through homogeneous pentamers and heterogeneous hexamers in the hierarchical scheme. In order to complement the simulations for this more complicated case, we introduce a master equation approach that agrees well with the simulation results.

  15. Controlling the self-assembly of binary copolymer mixtures in solution through molecular architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Greenall; P. Schuetz; S. Furzeland; D. Atkins; D. M. A. Buzza; M. F. Butler; T. C. B. McLeish

    2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study on the role of copolymer architecture in the self-assembly of binary PEO-PCL mixtures in water-THF, and show that altering the chain geometry and composition of the copolymers can control the form of the self-assembled structures and lead to the formation of novel aggregates. First, using transmission electron microscopy and turbidity measurements, we study a mixture of sphere-forming and lamella-forming PEO-PCL copolymers, and show that increasing the molecular weight of the lamella-former at a constant ratio of its hydrophilic and hydrophobic components leads to the formation of highly-curved structures even at low sphere-former concentrations. This result is explained using a simple argument based on the effective volumes of the two sections of the diblock and is reproduced in a coarse-grained mean-field model: self-consistent field theory (SCFT). Using further SCFT calculations, we study the distribution of the two copolymer species within the individual aggregates and discuss how this affects the self-assembled structures. We also investigate a binary mixture of lamella-formers of different molecular weights, and find that this system forms vesicles with a wall thickness intermediate to those of the vesicles formed by the two copolymers individually. This result is also reproduced using SCFT. Finally, a mixture of sphere-former and a copolymer with a large hydrophobic block is shown to form a range of structures, including novel elongated vesicles.

  16. Low dislocation GaN via defect-filtering, self-assembled SiO2-sphere layers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white solid-state lighting, the adoption of which could significantly reduce U.S. energy needs. While the growth of GaN-based devices relies on heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates, the heteroepitaxial layers possess a high density of dislocations due to poor lattice and thermal expansion match. These high dislocation densities have been correlated with reduced internal quantum efficiency and lifetimes for GaN-based LEDs. Here, we demonstrate an inexpensive method for dislocation reduction in GaN grown on sapphire and silicon substrates. This technique, which requires no lithographic patterning, GaN is selectively grown through self-assembled layers of silica microspheres which act to filter out dislocations. Using this method, the threading dislocation density for GaN on sapphire was reduced from 3.3 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} to 4.0 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}, and from the 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} range to {approx}6.0 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2} for GaN on Si(111). This large reduction in dislocation density is attributed to a dislocation blocking and bending by the unique interface between GaN and silica microspheres.

  17. Enzymatic Ligation Creates Discrete Multi-Nanoparticle Building Blocks for Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claridge, Shelley A.; Mastroianni, Alexander J.; Au, Yeung B.; Liang, Huiyang W.; Micheel, Christine M.; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Enzymatic ligation of discrete nanoparticle?DNA conjugates creates nanoparticle dimer and trimer structures in which the nanoparticles are linked by single-stranded DNA, rather than double-stranded DNA as in previous experiments. Ligation is verified by agarose gel and small-angle X-ray scattering. This capability is utilized in two ways: first to create a new class of multiparticle building blocks for nanoscale self-assembly; second to develop a system which can amplify a population of discrete nanoparticle assemblies.

  18. Method for selective immobilization of macromolecules on self assembled monolayer surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laskin, Julia (Richland, WA); Wang, Peng (Billerica, MA)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for selective chemical binding and immobilization of macromolecules on solid supports in conjunction with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Immobilization involves selective binding of peptides and other macromolecules to SAM surfaces using reactive landing (RL) of mass-selected, gas phase ions. SAM surfaces provide a simple and convenient platform for tailoring chemical properties of a variety of substrates. The invention finds applications in biochemistry ranging from characterization of molecular recognition events at the amino acid level and identification of biologically active motifs in proteins, to development of novel biosensors and substrates for stimulated protein and cell adhesion.

  19. The nucleation and growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate on self- assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, A.A.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Graff, G.L.; Fryxell, G.E.; Rieke, P.C.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physical chemical approach was used to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) nucleation and growth on various organic interfaces. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs), containing derivatized organic functional groups, were designed to mimic various amino acid residues present in both urine and stone matrix macromolecules. Derivatized surfaces include SAMs with terminal methyl, bromo, imidazole, and thiazolidine-carboxylic acid functional groups. Pronounced differences in COM deposition were observed for the various interfaces with the imidazole and thiazolidine surfaces having the greatest effect and the methyl and bromo groups having little or no nucleating potential.

  20. From Self-Assembly to Controlled-Assembly, From Optical Manipulation to AFM Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafiei, Farbod

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moving nanoparticles/atoms to study the nearfield interaction between them is one of the many approaches to explore the optical and electrical properties of these assemblies. Traditional approach included the self assembly by spinning or drying nanoparticles in aqua on the substrate is well practiced. Lithography technique is another popular approach to deposit limited nano/micro patterns on substrates. Later optical and mechanical manipulations were used to have more control over moving individual elements of nano and microstructures and even atoms. Optical tweezers, optical trapping and AFM manipulation are examples of these precise approaches.

  1. Matching field effects at tesla-level magnetic fields in critical current density in high-Tc superconductors containing self-assembled columnar defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Varanasi, C. V. [University of Dayton Research Institute; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the superconductive transport properties of YBa2Cu3O7 films containing self-assembled columnar arrays of second phase SrZrO3 or BaSnO3 precipitates. A matching condition between columnar pinning sites (aligned at or near the c axis) and external magnetic flux, tilted with respect to them, is identified in the critical current JC.H/ data. The results for the material containing SrZrO3-based pins are analyzed within a simple intuitive model. At matching, the critical current is enhanced above the model prediction. In complementary contact-free investigations of BaSnO3-doped material, matching effects are observed over a wide range of temperatures in the field dependence of JC.H/. The deduced matching fields agree reasonably well with the densities of columnar pins directly observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Nano-Structured Mesoporous Silica Wires with Intra-Wire Lamellae via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly in Space-Confined Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Shi, Donglu [University of Cincinnati; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of silica sol-gel ethanol-water solution mixtures with block-copolymer were studied inside uniform micro/nano channels. Nano-structured mesoporous silica wires, with various intra-wire self-assembly structures including lamellae, were prepared via EISA process but in space-confined channels with the diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm. Membranes made of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and track-etched polycarbonate (EPC) were utilized as the arrays of space-confined channels (i.e., 50, 100, and 200-nm EPC and 200-nm AAO) for infiltration and drying of mixture solutions; these substrate membranes were submerged in mixture solutions consisting of a silica precursor, a structure-directing agent, ethanol, and water. After the substrate channels were filled with the solution under vacuum impregnation, the membrane was removed from the solution and dried in air. The silica precursor used was tetra-ethyl othosilicate (TEOS), and the structure-directing agent employed was triblock copolymer Pluronic-123 (P123). It was found that the formation of the mesoporous nanostructures in silica wires within uniform channels were significantly affected by the synthesis conditions including (1) pre-assemble TEOS aging time, (2) the evaporation rate during the vacuum impregnation, and (3) the air-dry temperature. The obtained intra-wire structures, including 2D-hexagonal rods and lamellae, were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A steric hindrance effect seems to explain well the observed polymer-silica mesophase formation tailored by TEOS aging time. The evaporation effect, air-drying effect, and AAO-vs-EPC substrate effect on the mesoporous structure of the formed silica wires were also presented and discussed.

  3. SciTech Connect: Atomistic mechanisms of rapid energy transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

  4. SciTech Connect: Determination of free polaron lifetime in organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

  5. SciTech Connect: Interaction potential for aluminum nitride:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

  6. SciTech Connect: Semi-Random Multichromophoric rr-P3HT Analogues...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

  7. SciTech Connect: Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

  8. SciTech Connect: Growth of aligned single-crystalline rutile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

  9. Electric Field Enhancement in a Self-Assembled 2D Array of Silver Nanospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Khon, Elena; Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Abellan, Patricia; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.; Hu, Dehong; Zamkov, Mikhail; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the plasmonic properties of a self-assembled 2D array of Ag nanospheres (average particle diameter/inter-particle separation distance of ~9/~4 nm). The structures of the individual particles and their assemblies are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The plasmonic response of the nanoparticle network is probed using two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (TP-PEEM). HR-TEM and TP-PEEM statistics reveal the structure and plasmonic response of the network to be homogeneous on average. This translates into a relatively uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response from biphenyl,4-4’-dithiol (BPDT) molecules adsorbed onto different sites of the network. Bright and background free SERS spectra are recorded, assigned on the basis of density 2 functional theory calculations in which BPDT is chemisorbed onto the vertex of a finitie tetrahedral Ag cluster consisting of 20 Ag atoms. A remarkable agreement between experiment and theory allows us to rigorously account for the observable vibrational states of BPDT in the ~200-2200 cm-1 region of the spectrum. Finite difference time domain simulations further reveal that physical enhancement factors on the order of 106 are attainable at the nanogaps formed between the silver nanospheres in the 2D array. Combined with modest chemical enhancement factors, this study paves the way for reproducible single molecule signals from an easily self-assembled SERS substrate.

  10. Mesoporous Silicia Nanowires by Space-Confined Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Peng [ORNL

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on the space-confined self-assembly of P123-silica hybrid solution inside nano-scale channels. Mesoporous silica nanowires with various diameters (10-400nm) were synthesized via sol-gel combined evaporation-induced self-assembly in channels of both anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and etched polycarbonate (EPC) substrate. Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) was utilized to characterize the samples in terms of nanopore size, ordering, and orientation. The mesoporous structures of silica wires formed in EPC channels with diameter less than 400 nm are investigated and reported for the first time. Substrate effect (EPC vs. AAO) and processing condition effect on the morphology of the mesoporous structure of silica wires are presented and discussed. The more ordered and uniform mesoporous structure is preferentially formed in narrower substrate channel confinement. A critical diameter of hard template channels is around 30-50 nm, below which the space confinement effect leads to more uniform nanostructured nanowires, and above which mixed meso-structures usually exist. The formation of various meso-structures of silica wires is sensitive to process conditions.

  11. Cooperative, Multicentered CH/ Interaction-Controlled Supramolecular Self-Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Qing [ORNL; Han, Chengbo [North Carolina State University; Horton, Scott R [ORNL; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Lu, Wenchang [North Carolina State University; Bernholc, J. [North Carolina State University; Maksymovych, Petro [ORNL; Pan, Minghu [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supramolecular self-assembly on well-defined surfaces provides access to a multitude of nanoscale architectures, including clusters of distinct symmetry and size. The driving forces underlying supramolecular structures generally involve both graphoepitaxy and weak directional nonconvalent interactions. Here we show that functionalizing a benzene molecule with an ethyne group introduces attractive interactions in a 2D geometry, which would otherwise be dominated by intermolecular repulsion. Furthermore, the attractive interactions enable supramolecular self-assembly, wherein a subtle balance between very weak CH/{pi} bonding and molecule-surface interactions produces a well-defined 'magic' dimension and chirality of supramolecular clusters. The nature of the process is corroborated by extensive scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements and ab initio calculations, which emphasize the cooperative, multicenter characters of the CH/{pi} interaction. This work points out new possibilities for chemical functionalization of {pi}-conjugated hydrocarbon molecules that may allow for the rational design of supramolecular clusters with a desired shape and size.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of activated carbo-aluminosilicate material from oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    Synthesis and characterization of activated carbo-aluminosilicate material from oil shale Reyad activated carbo-aluminosilicate materials were prepared from oil shale by chemical activation. The chemical Published by Elsevier Inc. Keywords: Synthesis; Activated carbo-aluminosilicate; Adsorption; Oil shale

  13. Self-Assembled Silica Nano-Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Synthesis, Rheology & Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Saad A.: Fedkiw Peter S.; Baker, Gregory L.

    2007-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objectives of this research are to understand the principles underpinning nano-composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) and facilitate development of novel CPEs that are low-cost, have high conductivities, large Li+ transference numbers, improved electrolyte-electrode interfacial stability, yield long cycle life, exhibit mechanical stability and are easily processable. Our approach is to use nanoparticulate silica fillers to formulate novel composite electrolytes consisting of surface-modified fumed silica nano-particles in polyethylene oxides (PEO) in the presence of lithium salts. We intend to design single-ion conducting silica nanoparticles which provide CPEs with high Li+ transference numbers. We also will develop low-Mw (molecular weight), high-Mw and crosslinked PEO electrolytes with tunable properties in terms of conductivity, transference number, interfacial stability, processability and mechanical strength

  14. Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, Enrique J. (University of California, Davis); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D. (Whithworth University, Spokane, WA)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

  15. Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullough, Richard D.

    Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties direct structural evidence describing conjugated polymer self-assembly at the air-water interface of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes (e.g., poly(3-dodecyl-3-(2,5,8- trioxanonyl)-2,5-bithiophene), polymer

  16. The emission of polarized light from GaN/AlN self-assembled quantum dots subject to variable excitation conditions and uniaxial interfacial stresses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardi, Amichay

    The emission of polarized light from GaN/AlN self-assembled quantum dots subject to variable. In this work, GaN/AlN self-assembled QDs were grown by the Stranski-Krastanov method on a Si(111) substrate expansion coefficient mismatch between the Si substrate and GaN/AlN film containing vertically stacked QDs

  17. In situ self-assembled organic interface layers for the controlled growth of oligothiophene thin films on ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milde, P., E-mail: Peter.Milde@iapp.de; Zerweck-Trogisch, U.; Eng, L. M. [Institute of Applied Photophysics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Applied Photophysics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Schönfelder, R.; Koitzsch, A. [Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, DE-01171 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, DE-01171 Dresden (Germany); Haubner, K.; Jaehne, E. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry and Textile Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry and Textile Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce an in situ vacuum procedure for the optimal preparation and analysis of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as used in organic molecular electronics on ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) substrates. Excellent ordering of oligothiophene semiconductor layers is heavily promoted through the presence of an interfacial bi-functional SAM layer that binds to both the oxidic PZT surface and the organic semiconductor molecules. The described method can be extended to other material combinations, featuring a variety of substrate materials and molecular functionalities.

  18. Thermal conductivity of self-assembled nano-structured ZnO bulk ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Yu [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Yan, Yongke [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Kumar, Ashok [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we describe the changes in thermal conductivity behavior of ZnO-Al micro- and nano-two-phase self-assembled composites with varying grain sizes. The reduction in thermal conductivity values of micro-composites was limited to {approx}15% for ZnO-4% Al. However, nano-composites exhibited large reduction, by a factor of about three, due to uniform distribution of nano-precipitates (ZnAl2O4) and large grain boundary area. Interestingly, the micro-composites revealed continuous decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in Al substitution while the nano-composites exhibited the lowest magnitudes for 2% Al concentration. Raman spectra indicated that phonon confinement in ZnO-Al nano-composites causes drastic decrease in the value of thermal conductivity.

  19. Pseudo-rotational epitaxy of self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers on sapphire (0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steinruck, H. -G. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Ocko, B. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Magerl, A. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Deutsch, M. [Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat-Gan (Israel)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on sapphire (0001) was studied by Ĺ-resolution surface-specific x-ray scattering methods. The monolayer was found to consist of three sublayers where the outermost layer corresponds to vertically oriented, closely packed alkyl tails. Laterally, the monolayer is hexagonally packed and exhibits pseudorotational epitaxy to the sapphire, manifested by a broad scattering peak at zero relative azimuthal rotation, with long powderlike tails. The lattice mismatch of ~1% – 3% to the sapphire’s and the different length scale introduced by the lateral Si-O-Si bonding prohibit positional epitaxy. However, the substrate induces an intriguing increase in the crystalline coherence length of the SAM’s powderlike crystallites when rotationally aligned with the sapphire’s lattice. The increase correlates well with the rotational dependence of the separation of corresponding substrate-monolayer lattice sites.

  20. Theoretical prediction of free-energy landscapes for complex self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William M. Jacobs; Aleks Reinhardt; Daan Frenkel

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique for calculating free-energy profiles for the nucleation of multicomponent structures that contain as many species as building blocks. We find that a key factor is the topology of the graph describing the connectivity of the target assembly. By considering the designed interactions separately from weaker, incidental interactions, our approach yields predictions for the equilibrium yield and nucleation barriers. These predictions are in good agreement with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a few fundamental properties of the connectivity graph determine the most prominent features of the assembly thermodynamics. Surprisingly, we find that polydispersity in the strengths of the designed interactions stabilizes intermediate structures and can be used to sculpt the free-energy landscape for self-assembly. Finally, we demonstrate that weak incidental interactions can preclude assembly at equilibrium due to the combinatorial possibilities for incorrect association.

  1. Pseudo-rotational epitaxy of self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers on sapphire (0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steinruck, H. -G.; Ocko, B. M.; Magerl, A.; Deutsch, M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on sapphire (0001) was studied by Ĺ-resolution surface-specific x-ray scattering methods. The monolayer was found to consist of three sublayers where the outermost layer corresponds to vertically oriented, closely packed alkyl tails. Laterally, the monolayer is hexagonally packed and exhibits pseudorotational epitaxy to the sapphire, manifested by a broad scattering peak at zero relative azimuthal rotation, with long powderlike tails. The lattice mismatch of ~1% – 3% to the sapphire’s and the different length scale introduced by the lateral Si-O-Si bonding prohibit positional epitaxy. However, the substrate induces an intriguing increase in themore »crystalline coherence length of the SAM’s powderlike crystallites when rotationally aligned with the sapphire’s lattice. The increase correlates well with the rotational dependence of the separation of corresponding substrate-monolayer lattice sites.« less

  2. Controlled self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting strong magneto-electric effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Hamilton, Sean L.; Lehto, Piper R.; Srinivasan, Gopalan, E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Popov, Maksym [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Chavez, Ferman A. [Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric sub-systems due to magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects associated with the ferroic phases. We have synthesized core-shell multiferroic nano-composites by functionalizing 10–100?nm barium titanate and nickel ferrite nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Evidence for strong strain mediated magneto-electric coupling was obtained by static magnetic field induced variations in the permittivity over 16–18?GHz and polarization and by electric field induced by low-frequency ac magnetic fields.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of large scale single layer graphene on self assembled organic monolayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo Kim, Nak; Youn Kim, Joo; Lee, Chul; Choi, E. J., E-mail: echoi@uos.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Kim, Sang; Hee Hong, Byung [Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) organic molecule substrate on large scale single layer graphene using infrared transmission measurement on Graphene/SAM/SiO{sub 2}/Si composite samples. From the Drude weight of the chemically inert CH{sub 3}-SAM, the electron-donating NH{sub 2}-SAM, and the SAM-less graphene, we determine the carrier density doped into graphene by the three sources—the SiO{sub 2} substrate, the gas-adsorption, and the functional group of the SAM's—separately. The SAM-treatment leads to the low carrier density N???4?×?10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2} by blocking the dominant SiO{sub 2}- driven doping. The carrier scattering increases by the SAM-treatment rather than decreases. However, the transport mobility is nevertheless improved due to the reduced carrier doping.

  4. Self-assembly and cooperative dynamics of a model colloidal gel network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jader Colombo; Emanuela Del Gado

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the assembly into a gel network of colloidal particles, via effective interactions that yield local rigidity and make dilute network structures mechanically stable. The self-assembly process can be described by a Flory-Huggins theory, until a network of chains forms, whose mesh size is on the order of, or smaller than, the persistence length of the chains. The localization of the particles in the network, akin to some extent to caging in dense glasses, is determined by the network topology, and the network restructuring, which takes place via bond breaking and recombination, is characterized by highly cooperative dynamics. We use NVE and NVT Molecular Dynamics as well as Langevin Dynamics and find a qualitatively similar time dependence of time correlations and of the dynamical susceptibility of the restructuring gel. This confirms that the cooperative dynamics emerge from the mesoscale organization of the network.

  5. An introduction to stochastic self-assembly: theory, simulation and experimental applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwen, E M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce three stochastic cooperative models for particle deposition and evaporation relevant to ionic self-assembly of nanoparticles with applications in surface fabrication and nanomedicine. We present a method for mapping a stochastic model onto the Ising model, which allows us to use the established results for the Ising model to describe the properties of the system. After completing the mapping process, we investigate the time dependence of particle density using the mean field approximation. We complement this theoretical analysis with Monte Carlo simulations that support our models. These techniques, which can be used separately or in combination, are useful as pedagogical tools because they are tractable mathematically and they apply equally well to many other physical systems with nearest-neighbor interactions including voter and epidemic models.

  6. Photoluminescence line width of self-assembled Ge(Si) islands arranged between strained Si layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaleev, M. V., E-mail: shaleev@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Novikov, A. V.; Baydakova, N. A.; Yablonskiy, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, O. A. [Nizhny Novgorod State University, Physico-Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Lobanov, D. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of variations in the strained Si layer thicknesses, measurement temperature, and optical excitation power on the width of the photoluminescence line produced by self-assembled Ge(Si) nanoislands, which are grown on relaxed SiGe/Si(001) buffer layers and arranged between strained Si layers, is studied. It is shown that the width of the photoluminescence line related to the Ge(Si) islands can be decreased or increased by varying the thickness of strained Si layers lying above and under the islands. A decrease in the width of the photoluminescence line of the Ge(Si) islands to widths comparable with the width of the photoluminescence line of quantum dot (QD) structures based on direct-gap InAs/GaAs semiconductors is attained with consideration of diffusive smearing of the strained Si layer lying above the islands.

  7. Spatial correlation of self-assembled isotopically pure Ge/Si(001) nanoislands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Satoru; Itoh, Kohei M. [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Moutanabbir, Oussama [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, Halle (Saale) D-06120 (Germany); Haller, Eugene E. [University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    By using a statistical method based on Voronoi tessellation, we investigated the nucleation of strain-driven self-assembled Ge/Si(001) nanoislands and their dynamic interaction with the local environment. The evolution of the composition and strain during the growth process was also studied by Raman scattering. The use of isotopically purified {sup 76}Ge source allows the observation of faint features in the three-dimensional nanoisland Raman signal at the early stage of the growth. The nucleus critical sizes are deduced from the scaling behavior of the Voronoi cell areas and the grown island volumes. The relatively small critical size suggests a stabilizing role of Si atoms and surface imperfections. Additionally, we found that the nucleation process on the metastable two-dimensional layer cannot only be described by the capture of newly deposited Ge atoms, but it is strongly governed by the diffusive interaction with the SiGe alloyed layer.

  8. Final LDRD report : infrared detection and power generation using self-assembled quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Ellis, Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative solutions are desired for mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared radiation detection and imaging arrays. We have investigated quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) as a possible solution for long-wavelength infrared (8 to 12 {mu}m) radiation sensing. This document provides a summary for work done under the LDRD 'Infrared Detection and Power Generation Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dots'. Under this LDRD, we have developed QDIP sensors and made efforts to improve these devices. While the sensors fabricated show good responsivity at 80 K, their detectivity is limited by high noise current. Following efforts concentrated on how to reduce or eliminate this problem, but with no clear path was identified to the desired performance improvements.

  9. Architectures built using bottom-up self-assembly of nanoelectronic devices will need to tolerate defect rates that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorin, Daniel J.

    in the lithography process, the high energy associated with shorter wavelengths and the accuracy needed to fabricate1 Abstract Architectures built using bottom-up self-assembly of nanoelectronic devices will need isolation. Simulations show that, for a fail-stop model of node failure, the broadcast connects all nodes

  10. Architectures built using bottom-up self-assembly of nanoelectronic devices will need to tolerate defect rates that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Chris

    in the lithography process, the high energy associated with shorter wavelengths and the accuracy needed to fabricateAbstract Architectures built using bottom-up self-assembly of nanoelectronic devices will need isolation. Simulations show that, for a fail-stop model of node failure, the broadcast connects all nodes

  11. Investigation of Self-Assembly and Micelle Polarity for a Wide Range of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide-Ethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Investigation of Self-Assembly and Micelle Polarity for a Wide Range of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene of 15 EO-PO-EO (EO ) ethylene oxide, PO ) propylene oxide) block copolymers by using three different) propylene oxide) block copolymers, commercially known as Polox- amers, Pluronics, or Synperonics, have been

  12. Electric field induced switching of poly,,ethylene glycol... terminated self-assembled monolayers: A parallel molecular dynamics simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    : A parallel molecular dynamics simulation Satyavani Vemparala, Rajiv K. Kalia, Aiichiro Nakano, and Priya on the atomistic structure of PEG terminated SAMs using molecular dynamics simulations on parallel computersElectric field induced switching of poly,,ethylene glycol... terminated self-assembled monolayers

  13. The WaterHydrophobic Interface: Neutral and Charged Solute Adsorption at Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Self-Assembled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    The Water­Hydrophobic Interface: Neutral and Charged Solute Adsorption at Fluorocarbon on hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers by using vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy molecular-scale interactions of adsorbates with fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfaces is of great importance

  14. Scanning probe lithography of self-assembled monolayers Guohua Yang, Nabil A. Amro, Gang-yu Liu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Gang-yu

    Scanning probe lithography of self-assembled monolayers Guohua Yang, Nabil A. Amro, Gang-yu Liu* Department ofChemistry, University ofCalifornia, Davis, CA, USA 95616 ABSTRACT Systematic studies on scanning, and nanopen reader and writer (NPRW), which rely on the local force, and two scanning tunneling microscopy

  15. Interfacial interaction of in situ Cu growth on tetrasulfide self-assembled monolayer on plasma treated parylene surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    treated parylene surface S. Pimanpang,a Pei-I Wang, Jasbir S. Juneja, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu Center forms a self-assembled monolayer SAM only on a parylene surface treated with either He plasma or N2 groups on the plasma treated parylene surface facilitate the formation of tetrasulfide SAM

  16. Optimal Efficiency of Self-Assembling Light-Harvesting Arrays Ji-Hyun Kim and Jianshu Cao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Jianshu

    Optimal Efficiency of Self-Assembling Light-Harvesting Arrays Ji-Hyun Kim and Jianshu Cao equation that describes energy transfer over a given lattice, we explore how energy transfer efficiency (derived in Appendix A) for efficiency shows a steep increase with a D-to-A transfer rate when

  17. Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has attracted wide- spread. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, United Kingdom *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Solid-state dye-sensitized

  18. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 387 Surface Tension-Powered Self-Assembly of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 387 Surface Tension, IEEE Abstract--Because of the low dimensional power of its force scaling law, surface tension on surface tension powered self-assembly of microstructures. The existing theoretical approaches

  19. MoS{sub 2} nanotube exfoliation as new synthesis pathway to molybdenum blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visic, B., E-mail: bojana.visic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gunde, M. Klanjsek [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovac, J.; Iskra, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jelenc, J.; Remskar, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence Namaste, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Highlights: ? New synthesis approach to obtaining molybdenum blue via exfoliated MoS{sub 2} nanotubes. ? Material is prone to self assembly and is stable in high vacuum. ? Molecules are as small as 2 nm and their clusters are up to tens of nanometers. ? Change in absorption and oxidation states from the precursor MoS{sub 2}. -- Abstract: Molybdenum blue-type materials are usually obtained by partially reducing Mo{sup VI+} in acidic solutions, while in the presented method it is formed in ethanol solution of exfoliated MoS{sub 2} nanotubes, where the MoS{sub 2} flakes are the preferential location for their growth. Material was investigated by means of scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, showing the structure and self assembly, while also confirming that it is stable in high vacuum with molecules as small as 1.6 nm and the agglomerates of few tens of nanometres. The ultraviolet–visible and photoelectron spectrometry show the change in absorption properties and oxidation states from MoS{sub 2} structure to molybdenum blue, while the presence of sulphur suggests that this is a new type of molybdenum blue material.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Smart Block Copolymers for Biomineralization and Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathumai Kanapathipillai

    2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembly is a powerful tool in forming structures with nanoscale dimensions. Self-assembly of macromolecules provides an efficient and rapid pathway for the formation of structures from the nanometer to micrometer range that are difficult, if not impossible to obtain by conventional lithographic techniques [1]. Depending on the morphologies obtained (size, shape, periodicity, etc.) these self-assembled systems have already been applied or shown to be useful for a number of applications in nanotechnology [2], biomineralization [3, 4], drug delivery [5, 6] and gene therapy [7]. In this respect, amphiphilic block copolymers that self-organize in solution have been found to be very versatile [1]. In recent years, polymer-micellar systems have been designed that are adaptable to their environment and able to respond in a controlled manner to external stimuli. In short, synthesis of 'nanoscale objects' that exhibit 'stimulus-responsive' properties is a topic gathering momentum, because their behavior is reminiscent of that exhibited by proteins [8]. By integrating environmentally sensitive homopolymers into amphiphilic block copolymers, smart block copolymers with self assembled supramolecular structures that exhibit stimuli or environmentally responsive properties can be obtained [1]. Several synthetic polymers are known to have environmentally responsive properties. Changes in the physical, chemical or biochemical environment of these polymers results in modulation of the solubility or chain conformation of the polymer [9]. There are many common schemes of engineering stimuli responsive properties into materials [8, 9]. Polymers exhibiting lower critical solution temperature (LCST) are soluble in solvent below a specific temperature and phase separate from solvent above that temperature while polymers exhibiting upper critical solution temperatures (UCST) phase separate below a certain temperature. The solubility of polymers with ionizable moieties depends on the pH of the solution. Polymers with polyzwitterions, anions and cations have been shown to exhibit pH responsive self assembly. Other stimuli responsive polymers include glucose sensitive polymers, calcium ion-sensitive polymers and so on. Progress in living radical polymerization (LRP) methods [10] has made it possible for the facile synthesis of these block copolymer systems with controlled molecular weights and well defined architectures. The overall theme of this work is to develop novel smart block copolymers for biomineralization and biomedical applications. Synthesis and characterization of self-assembling thermoreversible ionic block copolymers as templates in biomimetic nanocomposite synthesis using a bottom-up approach is a novel contribution in this respect. Further, we have extended these families of copolymers to include block copolymer-peptide conjugates to enhance biological specificity. Future directions on this work will focus on enhancing the polymer templating properties for biomineralization by expanding the family of block copolymers with organic polypeptides and biological polypeptide scaffolds as well as a detailed understanding of the polymer-inorganic nanocomposites at the molecular level using small angle scattering analysis. Glucose responsive polymer hydrogels for drug delivery, polymer-ligand conjugates for non-viral therapy and thermoresponsive injectable photocrosslinkable hydrogels for posttraumatic arthritis cartilage healing are other applications of these novel copolymers synthesized in our work.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoporous Materials and Their Films with Controlled Microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, In Ho

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    includes film thickness, crystal orientation and grain boundaries. In this respect, we focus to develop novel methods for the synthesis and characterization of nanoporous materials and their films, which are capable of controlling the microstructure...

  2. Hard templating synthesis of mesoporous and nanowire SnO2 lithium battery anode materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Hard templating synthesis of mesoporous and nanowire SnO2 lithium battery anode materials Hyesun materials for lithium batteries were prepared using KIT-6 and SBA-15 SiO2 templates as an anode material for lithium batteries due to its high capacity (>600 mAh gŔ1 ) compared with graphite

  3. Solvent-washable polymer templated synthesis of mesoporous materials and solid-acid nanocatalysts in one-potw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    Solvent-washable polymer templated synthesis of mesoporous materials and solid-acid nanocatalysts the inorganic material, surfactant template, and synthetic conditions employed, mesoporous materials with widely mesoporous material.3 The synthesis of well-ordered mesoporous structures requires an extraction step

  4. Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Chalcogenide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chong Hyun

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superlattice Thermoelectric Materials and Devices. ScienceCarbon Nanotube Composite Materials. Langmuir 2004, 20, (nanotubes composite materials in solution. Chem. Phys. Lett.

  5. Synthesis and material properties of supramolecules containing fluorinated organomercurials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Thomas Jackson

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation details the synthesis and analysis of novel supramolecular species that feature simple fluorinated organomercurials, such as trimeric perfluoroortho- phenylene mercury ([o-C6F4Hg]3). These organomercurials can complex a variety...

  6. Laterally Mobile, Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Fluorous?Aqueous Interface in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System: Characterization and Testing with Membrane Protein Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreutz, Jason E.; Li, Liang; Roach, L. Spencer; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; (UC)

    2009-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a method to generate functionalizable, mobile self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in plug-based microfluidics. Control of interfaces is advancing studies of biological interfaces, heterogeneous reactions, and nanotechnology. SAMs have been useful for such studies, but they are not laterally mobile. Lipid-based methods, though mobile, are not easily amenable to setting up the hundreds of experiments necessary for crystallization screening. Here we demonstrate a method, complementary to current SAM and lipid methods, for rapidly generating mobile, functionalized SAMs. This method relies on plugs, droplets surrounded by a fluorous carrier fluid, to rapidly explore chemical space. Specifically, we implemented his-tag binding chemistry to design a new fluorinated amphiphile, RfNTA, using an improved one-step synthesis of RfOEG under Mitsunobu conditions. RfNTA introduces specific binding of protein at the fluorous-aqueous interface, which concentrates and orients proteins at the interface, even in the presence of other surfactants. We then applied this approach to the crystallization of a his-tagged membrane protein, Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, performed 2400 crystallization trials, and showed that this approach can increase the range of crystal-producing conditions, the success rate at a given condition, the rate of nucleation, and the quality of the crystal formed.

  7. Towards rational design of peptides for selective interaction with inorganic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krauland, Eric Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilizing molecular recognition and self-assembly, material-specific biomolecules have shown great promise for engineering and ordering materials at the nanoscale. These molecules, inspired from natural biomineralization ...

  8. Tribological Properties of Self-assembled Monolayers on Au, SiOx and Si Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KIM,HYUN I.; BOIADJIEV,V.; HOUSTON,JACK E.; ZHU,X.-Y; KIELY,J.D.

    2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using interracial force microscopy (IFM), the tribological properties of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Si surfaces produced by a new chemical strategy are investigated and compared to those of classical SAM systems, which include alkanethiols on Au and alkylsilanes on SiO{sub x}. The new SAM films are prepared by depositing n-alkyl chains with OH-terminations onto Cl-terminated Si substrates. The chemical nature of the actual lubricating molecules, n-dodecyl, is kept constant in all three thin film systems for direct comparison and similarities and differences in tribological properties are observed. The adhesion strength is virtually identical for all three systems; however, frictional properties differ due to differences in film packing. Differences in the chemical bonds that attach the lubricant molecules to the substrate are also discussed as they influence variations in film wear and durability. It is demonstrated that the new SAM films are capable of controlling the friction and adhesion of Si surfaces as well as the classical SAMs in addition to providing a greater potential to be more reproducible and more durable.

  9. Comparing Surfaces and Engineered Interfaces using Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) and Injected SAMs Silanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Mark J.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to show a comparison between property changes by formation of a self-assembled monolayer on the surface of PPG synthetic precipitated silica, which is a technique developed at PNNL, and by adding the SAMs silane chemical directly into the mixing bowl. These coatings have the potential to greatly increase the bond strength and enhance other properties between the particle and the rubber matrix of a rubber compound. Tensile testing measured peak stress and elongation at break. The increase in tensile strength shows how well the polymer-filler interfacial adhesion is doing. The study used five different SAM systems with a sulfur cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) tire rubber formulation. The three propylsilanes were propyl triethoxysilane, allyl triethoxysilane and 3-mercaptopropyl triethoxysilane. Five combinations of silanes were used in this study. The application of the silanes were 100% propyl triethoxy silane (100% Alkyl); a 10/90 mixture of allyl and propyl triethoxy silanes (10% vinyl/90% alkyl); a 50/50 mixture of the allyl and propyl (50% vinyl/50% alkyl); a 10/90mixture of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane and propyl trimethoxysilane (10% mercaptan/90% alkyl) and lastly a 50/50 3-mercaptopropyl and propylsilanes (50% mercaptan/alkyl). The data not only shows improvement with SAMs, the peak stress data (ultimate strength) shows that the by changing the amount of silane content can change the physical properties

  10. The influence of self-assembly behavior of nanoparticles on the dielectric polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xin; Li, Weiping, E-mail: liweiping@nbu.edu.cn; Wang, Tingting; Jiang, Long; Luo, Laihui; Hua, Dayin; Zhu, Yuejin [Department of Microelectronic Science and Engineering, Facuty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China)] [Department of Microelectronic Science and Engineering, Facuty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To clearify the influence of the distribution of the conductive nanoparticles on the dielectric properties of the corresponding polymer composites, the microstructure and dielectric character of the composites based on the oleic acid modified ferroferric oxide and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer have been studied experimentally. It is found that these composites exhibit a normal percolative phase transition over the filler content from insulator to conductor, consistent with the classical percolation theory. However, when the percentage of fillers is at a certain value which is below the percolation threshold, these nanoparticles can assemble into a special porous structure in the PVDF matrix, associated with the enhancement of dielectric constant at low frequency. In addition, the controllable dispersion of conducting nanoparticles in a polymer matrix can prevent premature agglomeration at low filling fractions and avoid the appearance of anomalously early percolation. Therefore, the self-assembly behavior of nanoparticles can be beneficial to preparation of the high dielectric constant and low loss composites for the application of electric energy storage.

  11. Electrical transport and mechanical properties of alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces probed by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Young; Qi, Yabing; Ashby, Paul D.; Hendriksen, Bas L.M.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The correlation between molecular conductivity and mechanical properties (molecular deformation and frictional responses) of hexadecylsilane self-assembled monolayers was studied with conductive probe atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. Current and friction were measured as a function of applied pressure, simultaneously, while imaging the topography of self-assembled monolayer molecule islands and silicon surfaces covered with a thin oxide layer. Friction images reveal lower friction over the molecules forming islands than over the bare silicon surface, indicating the lubricating functionality of alkylsilane molecules. By measuring the tunneling current change due to changing of the height of the molecular islands by tilting the molecules under pressure from the tip, we obtained an effective conductance decay constant ({beta}) of 0.52/{angstrom}.

  12. Steering the Self-Assembly of Octadecylamine Monolayers on Mica by Controlled Mechanical Energy Transfer from the AFM Tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benitez, J.J.; Heredia-Guerrero, J.A.; Salmeron, M.

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effect of mechanical energy transfer from the tip of an Atomic Force Microscope on the dynamics of self-assembly of monolayer films of octadecylamine on mica. The formation of the self-assembled film proceeds in two successive stages, the first being a fast adsorption from solution that follows a Langmuir isotherm. The second is a slower process of island growth by aggregation of the molecules dispersed on the surface. We found that the dynamics of aggregation can be altered substantially by the addition of mechanical energy into the system through controlled tip-surface interactions. This leads to either the creation of pinholes in existing islands as a consequence of vacancy concentration, and to the assembly of residual molecules into more compact islands.

  13. Supramolecular self-assembled chaos: polyphenolic lignin's barrier to cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thereby  cost-­? effective  biofuels  production.   PMID:  effective  lignocellulosic  biofuels.   Achyuthan  KE,  effective   lignocellulosic  biofuels.  Post-­?synthesis  

  14. Systems and methods for creation of conducting networks of magnetic particles through dynamic self-assembly process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snezhko, Oleksiy (Woodridge, IL); Aronson, Igor (Darien, IL); Kwok, Wai-Kwong (Downers Grove, IL)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembly of magnetic microparticles in AC magnetic fields. Excitation of the system by an AC magnetic field provides a variety of patterns that can be controlled by adjusting the frequency and the amplitude of the field. At low particle densities the low-frequency magnetic excitation favors cluster phase formation, while high frequency excitation favors chains and netlike structures. For denser configurations, an abrupt transition to the network phase was obtained.

  15. Nucleation, transition, and maturing of the self-assembled Au droplets on various type-A GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ming-Yu, E-mail: mingyuli.oliver@gmail.com; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo [College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jihoon, E-mail: jihoonleenano@gmail.com [College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the fabrication of self-assembled Au droplets is successfully demonstrated on various type-A GaAs substrates: (711)A, (511)A, (411)A, and (311)A. The nucleation of the self-assembled tiny Au clusters is observed at 300?°C. As an intermediate stage, corrugated Au nanostructures are clearly observed at 350?°C on various type-A GaAs surfaces, rarely witnessed on other substrates. Based on the Volmer-Weber growth mode, the dome-shaped Au droplets with excellent uniformities are successfully fabricated between 500 and 550?°C. As a function of annealing temperature, the self-assembled Au droplets show the increased dimensions including average height and diameter, compensated by the decreased average density. Depending on the substrate indices utilized, the size and density of Au droplets show clear differences throughout the whole temperature range. The results are symmetrically analyzed by using atomic force microscope images, cross-sectional line-profiles, size and density plots, height distribution histograms, and Fourier filter transform power spectra.

  16. Conditions for self-assembly of quantum fortresses and analysis of their possible use as quantum cellular automata

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandervelde, T.E.; Kalas, R.M.; Kumar, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Pernell, T.L.; Bean, J.C. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we detail the conditions that result in the generation of self-assembled quantum fortresses (QFs), in SiGe/Si. A QF consists of four quantum dots (QDs) clustered around a central square pit, one QD per side. This structure strongly resembles the proposed quantum cellular automata (QCA) unit cell - the basis for a computer architecture. We map the growth conditions (epilayer thickness and Ge concentration) under which self-assembly of strain-stabilized QFs and their precursors occur. Additionally, we characterize how QFs change in height, width, and internal size scales within this parameter space. From this information, we develop a phenomenological model for why QFs form based upon changes in lattice spacing. We then calculate how QFs of the observed shapes and sizes would function as QCAs based on a Hubbard-type Hamiltonian model. This analysis reveals that self-assembled QFs grown at 550 deg. C, a rate of 1 A/s, a SiGe alloy composition of 37-40%, and a thickness of 15-35 nm could be used as QCAs.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Nonbanded U-Nb Plate Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. E. Hackenberg, R. M Aikin, Jr., J. A. Balog, B. L. Bingham, R. Casey, A. Casteel, I. Cordova, R. Forsyth, F. G. Garcia, D. Guidry, D. L. Hammon, W. L. Hults, D. R. Korzekwa, A. M. Kelly, M. W. Kolby, K. A. Lao, J. C. Lashley, M. F. Lopez, R. McCabe, D. E. Nye, P. A. Papin, S. W. Quintana, J. L. Smith, D. F. Teter, D. J. Thoma, T. Tucker, P. K. Tubesing, R. R. Trujillo, C. J. Vigil, and H. M. Volz

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the synthesis and characterization of four plates, two each of U-5.5Nb and U-7.5Nb (nominal wt%) for aging studies described elsewhere. The plates were induction melted and cast into graphite molds that were unheated and {approx}0.5 inches thick to maximize the cooling rate and minimize large length-scale Nb segregation (banding). Microstructural images and electron microprobe traces observed after various processing stages, including casting, hot rolling, and homogenizing are documented. The as-cast microsegregation assumed the form of an isotropic cellular structure, with an amplitude of 3-15 wt% Nb and 40-50 micron-length scales. Subsequent thermomechanical processing was shown to be sufficient to attain Nb compositional homogeneity on local scales of hundreds of microns. The results of chemical analysis and other characterization methods are given. The principal impurity elements (of the 40+ elements measured) were carbon, boron, oxygen, tantalum, and iron. In all four plates, after homogenization, the Nb distribution across the entire plate cross-section showed minima at the plate faces and a broad maximum in the center, the differential being 0.5-0.7 wt% in U-7.5Nb and 0.2-0.5 wt% in U-5.5Nb. None of the impurity elements showed statistically significant variations between the center 50% of the plate volume vs the outer 25%. These plates were considered nonbanded and compositionally homogeneous for their proposed use because the required tensile, metallographic, and dilatometer specimens could be extracted from the fairly homogeneous center portion of the plate cross-section. Characterization of the phases and their transition temperatures by x-ray diffraction and dilatometry in rapidly quenched specimens from the final product confirmed that the microstructure of this plate material was suitable for the intended aging studies. The as-quenched tensile response from multiple specimens taken from each plate showed some variability, especially in the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure. In general, U-5.5Nb has higher strength and less ductility than U-7.5Nb, though both alloys exhibited the double yield behavior characteristic of banded U-6Nb.

  18. Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block) structures, using sodium silicate as the silica source and amphiphilic block copolymers as the structure of mesoporous silica material using nonionic surfac- tant and sodium silicate in the pH range 3­10.5. However

  19. Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Carborane Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Carborane Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials@northwestern.edu Tailorable inorganic coordination polymers,1-7 in particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)2-7 comprise an important emerging class of materials. They are noteworthy for their structural and chemical diversity, high

  20. DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700076 Novel Method for Synthesis of Nano-Materials: Combustion of Active

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700076 Novel Method for Synthesis of Nano-Materials: Combustion of Active- and combustion synthesis. A combination of combustion and reactive solution approaches leads to so- called solution (aqueous) combustion synthesis (SCS) method.[1­3] Typically SCS involves a self-sustained reaction

  1. Proton Mediated Chemistry and Catalysis in a Self-Assembled Supramolecular Host

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pluth, Michael; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

    2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic supramolecular host assemblies can impart unique reactivity to encapsulated guest molecules. Synthetic host molecules have been developed to carry out complex reactions within their cavities, despite the fact that they lack the type of specifically tailored functional groups normally located in the analogous active sites of enzymes. Over the past decade, the Raymond group has developed a series of self-assembled supramolecules and the Bergman group has developed and studied a number of catalytic transformations. In this Account, we detail recent collaborative work between these two groups, focusing on chemical catalysis stemming from the encapsulation of protonated guests and expanding to acid catalysis in basic solution. We initially investigated the ability of a water-soluble, self-assembled supramolecular host molecule to encapsulate protonated guests in its hydrophobic core. Our study of encapsulated protonated amines revealed rich host-guest chemistry. We established that self-exchange (that is, in-out guest movement) rates of protonated amines were dependent on the steric bulk of the amine rather than its basicity. The host molecule has purely rotational tetrahedral (T) symmetry, so guests with geminal N-methyl groups (and their attendant mirror plane) were effectively desymmetrized; this allowed for the observation and quantification of the barriers for nitrogen inversion followed by bond rotation. Furthermore, small nitrogen heterocycles, such as N-alkylaziridines, N-alkylazetidines, and N-alkylpyrrolidines, were found to be encapsulated as proton-bound homodimers or homotrimers. We further investigated the thermodynamic stabilization of protonated amines, showing that encapsulation makes the amines more basic in the cavity. Encapsulation raises the effective basicity of protonated amines by up to 4.5 pK{sub a} units, a difference almost as large as that between the moderate and strong bases carbonate and hydroxide. The thermodynamic stabilization of protonated guests was translated into chemical catalysis by taking advantage of the potential for accelerating reactions that take place via positively charged transition states, which could be potentially stabilized by encapsulation. Orthoformates, generally stable in neutral or basic solution, were found to be suitable substrates for catalytic hydrolysis by the assembly. Orthoformates small enough to undergo encapsulation were readily hydrolyzed by the assembly in basic solution, with rate acceleration factors up to 3900 compared with those of the corresponding uncatalyzed reactions. Furthering the analogy to enzymes that obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics, we observed competitive inhibition with the inhibitor NPr{sub 4}{sup +}, thereby confirming that the interior cavity of the assembly was the active site for catalysis. Mechanistic studies revealed that the assembly is required for catalysis and that the rate-limiting step of the reaction involves proton transfer from hydronium to the encapsulated substrate. Encapsulation in the assembly changes the orthoformate hydrolysis from an A-1 mechanism (in which decomposition of the protonated substrate is the rate-limiting step) to an A-S{sub E}2 mechanism (in which proton transfer is the rate-limiting step). The study of hydrolysis in the assembly was next extended to acetals, which were also catalytically hydrolyzed by the assembly in basic solution. Acetal hydrolysis changed from the A-1 mechanism in solution to an A-2 mechanism inside the assembly, where attack of water on the protonated substrate is rate limiting. This work provides rare examples of assembly-catalyzed reactions that proceed with substantial rate accelerations despite the absence of functional groups in the cavity and with mechanisms fully elucidated by quantitative kinetic studies.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  3. Synthesis and study of frustrated oxide and mixed anion materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Lucy

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed anion systems, such as oxynitrides and oxyfluorides, are an emerging class of interesting materials. The lower stability of mixed anion systems in comparison to oxide materials has had the consequence that this ...

  4. Field-structured material media and methods for synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, James E. (Tijeras, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present application is directed to a new class of composite materials, called field-structured composite (FSC) materials, which comprise a oriented aggregate structure made of magnetic particles suspended in a nonmagnetic medium, and to a new class of processes for their manufacture. FSC materials have much potential for application, including use in chemical, optical, environmental, and mechanical sensors.

  5. Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244­252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low consists of organic fibers, inorganic clay-sized materials, and about 60% water, and is incinerated and 9. Alternative processing methods of zeolite synthesis, including the addition of ash

  6. The synthesis and characterization of porous, conductive, and ordered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan, Tarun Chandru

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different classes of polymers were pursued as candidates for materials possessing porosity, conductivity, and crystalline order. Attempts were made with hexaazatrinaphthylene- and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene-based ...

  7. Surface plasmon resonance method for probing interactions in nanostructures: CdS nanoparticles linked to Au and Ag substrates by self-assembled hexanedithiol and aminoethanethiol monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutter, E.; Fendler, J. H.; Roy, D.

    2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembled hexanedithiol (HDT) and aminoethanethiol (AET) monolayers (SAMs), {approx}0.4--0.8 nm in thickness, are used to link {approx}5 nm diam CdS nanoparticles covalently and electrostatically onto Au and Ag substrates. The resulting nanostructures are probed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements. The CdS nanoparticle--SAM--substrate interactions manifesting themselves in the dielectric functions of the multilayered systems, are detected in the SPR data, and are discussed in terms of a phenomenological six-layer model. The SPR response of the Ag substrate is more sensitive to neighboring interactions than the Au substrate. The SEM images show that the CdS, connected either by HDT or AET onto Ag substrates, forms crystalline structures. The interactions responsible for this crystallization are absent in samples employing Au substrates, in which case only {approx}5 nm diam CdS nanoparticles are detected by SEM. The experimental results of the present article, analyzed in detail using Fresnel and Maxwell equations, demonstrate how the SPR technique can be used to characterize layered nanostructured materials. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Design of 4-electrode optical device for application of vector electric fields to self-assembled quantum dot complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xinran; Doty, Matthew, E-mail: doty@udel.edu [University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) are of great interest as components of optoelectronic devices that can operate at the quantum limit. The charge configuration, interdot coupling, and symmetry of complexes containing multiple QDs can all be tuned with applied electric fields, but the magnitude and angle of the electric field required to control each of these parameters depend on the orientation of the QD complex. We present a 4-electrode device compatible with optical excitation and emission that allows application of electric fields with arbitrary magnitudes and angles relative to isolated QD complexes. We demonstrate the electric field tunability of this device with numerical simulations.

  9. Hypermodular Self-Assembling Space Solar Power -- Design Option for Mid-Term GEO Utility-Scale Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitgab, Martin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a design for scaleable space solar power systems based on free-flying reflectors and module self-assembly. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by design independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly or transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study describe a design for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  10. Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singha, R. K.; Manna, S.; Das, S.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S. K. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the observation of intraband near infrared (approx3.1 mum) and mid infrared (approx6.2 mum) photocurrent response at room temperature using Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Due to the bimodal size distribution and SiGe intermixing, distinguishable photoluminescence transitions are observed at 10 K, below and above the optical band gap of bulk Ge. The observed redshift in photocurrent with increasing temperature has been explained by the excitonic electric field originated due to infrared excitation at low temperatures. A good correlation between the spectral photocurrent response and photoluminescence of the quantum dots has been established.

  11. NEWS & VIEWS nature materials | VOL 5 | APRIL 2006 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 253

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Subra

    the mechanical response of surfaces, thin films and bulk materials. In this method, a `sharp' or blunt diamond of monocrystalline6 or polycrystalline soap bubble rafts7 , mesoscale self- assembly of soft polymeric objects8

  12. "Tailoring synthesis of new materials at multiple length scales."

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    for a lithium-ion battery cathode material. · Published a method to tailor the transition metal composition in battery electrode materials. · Published a previously unreported safety issue with a popular lithium-ion to dramatically increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. We employ a hierarchical, multiscale

  13. Systems and methods for the combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin Di (San Jose, CA); Wang, Youqi (Palo Alto, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by depositing components of target materials to predefined regions on the substrate, and, in some embodiments, simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two resulting materials. In particular, the present invention provides novel masking systems and methods for applying components of target materials onto a substrate in a combinatorial fashion, thus creating arrays of resulting materials that differ slightly in composition, stoichiometry, and/or thickness. Using the novel masking systems of the present invention, components can be delivered to each site in a uniform distribution, or in a gradient of stoichiometries, thicknesses, compositions, etc. Resulting materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. Once prepared, these resulting materials can be screened sequentially, or in parallel, for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical and other properties.

  14. Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material­14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15­20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21­25 have been reported. Studies involving hollow lithium reactive metal, however, have yet to be reported, although

  15. Irradiation-Free, Columnar Defects Comprised of Self-Assembled Nanodots and Nanorods Resulting in Strongly Enhanced Flux-Pinning in YBa2Cu307-? Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Kang, Sukill [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Ijaduola, Anota O [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of biaxially textured, second-generation, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires is expected to enable most large-scale applications of HTS materials, in particular electric-power applications. For many potential applications, high critical currents in applied magnetic fields are required. It is well known that columnar defects generated by irradiating high-temperature superconducting materials with heavy ions significantly enhance the in-field critical current density. Hence, for over a decade scientists world-wide have sought means to produce such columnar defects in HTS materials without the expense and complexity of ionizing radiation. Using a simple and practically scalable technique, we have succeeded in producing long, nearly continuous vortex pins along the c-axis in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO), in the form of self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} (BZO) nanodots and nanorods. The nanodots and nanorods have a diameter of {approx}2-3 nm and an areal density ('matching field') of 8-10 T for 2 vol.% incorporation of BaZrO{sub 3}. In addition, four misfit dislocations around each nanodot or nanorod are aligned and act as extended columnar defects. YBCO films with such defects exhibit significantly enhanced pinning with less sensitivity to magnetic fields H. In particular, at intermediate field values, the current density, J{sub c}, varies as J{sub c} {approx}H{sup -{alpha}}, with {alpha} {approx} 0.3 rather than the usual values 0.5-0.65. Similar results were also obtained for CaZrO{sub 3} (CZO) and YSZ incorporation in the form of nanodots and nanorods within YBCO, indicating the broad applicability of the developed process. The process could also be used to incorporate self-assembled nanodots and nanorods within matrices of other materials for different applications, such as magnetic materials.

  16. Bistability in a self-assembling system confined by elastic walls. Exact results in a one-dimensional lattice model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakub P?kalski; Alina Ciach; Noé G. Almarza

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of confinement on self-assembly of particles interacting with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion (SALR) potential is studied for thermodynamic states corresponding to local ordering of clusters or layers in the bulk. Exact and asymptotic expressions for the local density and for the effective potential between the confining surfaces are obtained for a one-dimensional lattice model introduced in [J. P\\k{e}kalski et al. $J. Chem. Phys.$ ${\\bf 140}$, 144903 (2013)].The simple asymptotic formulas are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with exact results for slits containing at least 5 layers. We observe that the incommensurability of the system size and the average distance between the clusters or layers in the bulk leads to structural deformations that are different for different values of the chemical potential $\\mu$. The change of the type of defects is reflected in the dependence of density on $\\mu$ that has a shape characteristic for phase transitions. Our results may help to avoid misinterpretation of the change of the type of defects as a phase transition in simulations of inhomogeneous systems. Finally, we show that a system confined by soft elastic walls may exhibit bistability such that two system sizes that differ approximately by the average distance between the clusters or layers are almost equally probable. This may happen when the equilibrium separation between the soft boundaries of an empty slit corresponds to the largest stress in the confined self-assembling system.

  17. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P?kalski; N. G. Almarza; A. Ciach

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the Grand Canonical Ensemble (GCE) in [J. P\\k{e}kalski et al. J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both, fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the Canonical Ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces we observe a bistability, i.e. two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  18. Development of Materials for Future Energy Systems using Combinatorial Synthesis of Thin Film Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Libraries and High-Throughput Characterization The directed and efficient discovery and optimization of materials is a key challenge in materials science: e.g. new materials for the sustainable and processing of thin film materials libraries by combinatorial sputter deposition processes (40 elements

  19. Group Members Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials Advanced Characterization Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanostructured materials. · Applications in nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, and energy. Experimental techniques, S. Gradecak,"Graphene cathode-based ZnO nanowire hybrid solar cells", Nano Letters 13, 233-239 (2013 particle composition to control structural and optical properties of GaN nanowires", Nanotechnology 23

  20. Nanoscale Synthesis and Functional Assembly Center for Nanophase Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Ridge National Laboratory (865) 574-7690 xiaok@ornl.gov Publications Education East China Institute of Technology, China Chemistry B.A., 1998 Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Acad. of Sci., China Material Science & Engr. M. S., 2001 Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Acad. of Sci., China Physical Chemistry Ph. D

  1. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  2. Comparative analysis of radiation effects on the electroluminescence of Si and SiGe/Si(001) heterostructures with self-assembled Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasilnik, Z. F.; Kudryavtsev, K. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Kachemtsev, A. N. [Sedakov Scientific-Research Institute (Russian Federation); Lobanov, D. N., E-mail: dima@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Obolenskiy, S. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Shengurov, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of neutron radiation on the electroluminescence of the Si p-i-n diode containing a multilayered Ge/Si heterostructure with self-assembled nanoislands is studied. In comparison with bulk Si, the diodes containing Ge(Si) nanoislands exhibit a higher radiation hardness of the electroluminescence signal, which is attributed to spatial localization of charge carriers in the Ge/Si nanostructures. The spatial localization of charge carriers impedes their diffusion to radiation defects followed by nonradiative recombination at the defects. The results show the possibilities of using Ge/Si heterostructures with self-assembled nanoislands for the development of optoelectronic devices resistant to radiation.

  3. Mesoporous Polyhedral Cages and Shells Formed by Textured Self-Assembly of ZnO Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    for the synthesis of oxide nanobelts.21 The experimental apparatus includes a horizontal tube furnace, a rotary pump and positioned at the center of the alumina tube. After the tube was evacuated to 2 × 10-3 Torr, thermal evaporation was conducted at 1150 °C for 15 min under a pressure of 200-300 Torr and an Ar flow rate 25 sccm

  4. Mechanochemistry: A versatile synthesis strategy for new materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William; Eddleston, Mark D.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of the transmission electron microscope.(Kolb et al., 2010, Eddleston et al., 2013b, Eddleston et al., 2013a) 3. Pharmaceutical materials Within various areas of process engineering (including food science, chemicals and pharmaceuticals) particle size reduction... . Sci., 102(2): 311-317. Bruckmann, A., Krebs, A. and Bolm, C. (2008) 'Organocatalytic reactions. Effects of ball milling, microwave and ultrasound irradiation', Green Chem., 10(11): 1131-1141. Bruni, G., Berbenni, V., Sartor, F., Milanese, C...

  5. CMI Unique Facility: Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k CCLEAN ENERGY JOBS

  6. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Inorganic Synthesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMS RESEARCH

  7. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Soft matter synthesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMS RESEARCHInstitute (NTI):CNMSDesign

  8. Self-assembly and selective swelling in Lamellar block copolymer photonic gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Yin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials with responsive structural color have broad applications ranging from sensing to smart coating. Nature provides inspirations for the design of such materials. Mimicking the structure of the skin elements responsible ...

  9. Block copolymer photonic crystals : towards self-assembled active optical elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongseung

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Block copolymers have proven to be a unique materials platform for easily fabricated large-area photonic crystals. While the basic concept of block copolymer based photonic band gap materials has been well demonstrated, ...

  10. Sealing off a carbon nanotube with a self-assembled aqueous valve for the storage of hydrogen in GPa pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H Y; Gong, X G; Liu, Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The end section of a carbon nanotube, cut by acid treatment, contains hydrophillic oxygen groups. Water molecules can self-assemble around these groups to seal off a carbon nanotube and form an "aqueous valve". Molecular dynamics simulations on single-wall (12,12) and (15,15) tubes with dangling carboxyl groups show that the formation of aqueous valves can be achieved both in the absence of and in the presence of high pressure hydrogen. Furthermore, significant diffusion barriers through aqueous valves are identified. It indicates that such valves could hold hydrogen inside the tube with GPa pressure. Releasing hydrogen is easily achieved by melting the "aqueous valve". Such a design provides a recyclable and non- destructive way to store hydrogen in GPa pressure. Under the storage conditions dictated by sealing off the container in liquid water, the hydrogen density inside the container is higher than that for solid hydrogen, which promises excellent weight storage efficiency.

  11. Mechanical and charge transport properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au (111) surface: The Role of Molecular Tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulleregan, Alice; Qi, Yabing; Ratera, Imma; Park, Jeong Y.; Ashby, Paul D.; Quek, Su Ying; Neaton, J. B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between charge transport and mechanical properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on Au(111) films has been investigated using an atomic force microscope with a conductive tip. Molecular tilts induced by the pressure applied by the tip cause stepwise increases in film conductivity. A decay constant {beta} = 0.57 {+-} 0.03 {angstrom}{sup -1} was found for the current passing through the film as a function of tip-substrate separation due to this molecular tilt. This is significantly smaller than the value of {approx} 1 {angstrom}{sup -1} found when the separation is changed by changing the length of the alkanethiol molecules. Calculations indicate that for isolated dithiol molecules S-bonded to hollow sites, the junction conductance does not vary significantly as a function of molecular tilt. The impact of S-Au bonding on SAM conductance is discussed.

  12. Urea-Functionalized M4L6 Cage Receptors: Self-Assembly, Dynamics, and Anion Recognition in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extensive study of a novel class of de novo designed tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} (M = Ni, Zn) cage receptors, wherein internal decoration of the cage cavities with urea anion-binding groups, via functionalization of the organic components L, led to selective encapsulation of tetrahedral oxoanions EO{sub 4}{sup -} (E = S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, n = 2; E = P, n = 3) from aqueous solutions, based on shape, size, and charge recognition. External functionalization with tBu groups led to enhanced solubility of the cages in aqueous methanol solutions, thereby allowing for their thorough characterization by multinuclear ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 77}Se) and diffusion NMR spectroscopies. Additional experimental characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, as well as theoretical calculations, led to a detailed understanding of the cage structures, self-assembly, and anion encapsulation. We found that the cage self-assembly is templated by EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions (n {ge} 2), and upon removal of the templating anion the tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} cages rearrange into different coordination assemblies. The exchange selectivity among EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions has been investigated with {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy using {sup 77}SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} as an anionic probe, which found the following selectivity trend: PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In addition to the complementarity and flexibility of the cage receptor, a combination of factors have been found to contribute to the observed anion selectivity, including the anions charge, size, hydration, basicity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities.

  13. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  14. Interaction of Gas-Phase Ozone at 296 K with Unsaturated Self-Assembled Monolayers: A New Look at an Old System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Interaction of Gas-Phase Ozone at 296 K with Unsaturated Self-Assembled Monolayers: A New Look The oxidation of organics adsorbed on surfaces by ozone is of fundamental chemical interest and potentially- FTIR using ozone concentrations that spanned 5 orders of magnitude, from 1011 to 1016 molecules cm-3

  15. 1038 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheimwileyonlinelibrary.com Molecular Self-Assembly on Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1038 © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheimwileyonlinelibrary.com reviews Graphene Molecular Self-Assembly on Graphene J. M. MacLeod,* and F. Rosei* The formation of ordered arrays with tailored properties. In recent years, graphene has emerged as an appealing substrate for molecular self

  16. Self-assembled laminated nanoribbon-directed synthesis of noble metallic nanoparticle-decorated silica nanotubes and their catalytic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    such as silica dioxide (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene, microgel, and polymer.18

  17. Rational Synthesis, Self-Assembly, and Optical Properties of PbS-Au Heterogeneous Nanostructures via Preferential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Ji

    to their narrow size distribution and intrinsic high-symmetry, the resulting PbS-Au4 and PbS-Aun heterogeneous the solution growth of gold tips on hexagonal-phase CdSe nanorods at room temperature.1 This selective growth. (3) Yu, H.; Chen, M.; Rice, P. M.; Wang, S. X.; White, R. L.; Sun, S. Nano Lett. 2005, 5, 379. Li, Y

  18. Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    packed molecular assemblies has recently led to a new class of supramolecular materials for electronicUltralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self.-Y. Jen*,, Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Chemistry, Uni

  19. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Dale L.; Wilkinson, T. J.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, alpha-PbO, litharge, and the yellow, orthorhombic form, beta-PbO, massicot, have been synthesized from lead(II) salts in aqueous media at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the size, morphology, and crystallographic structural forms of the products. The role of impurities in the experimental synthesis of the materials and microstructural variations in the final products are described, and the implications of these observations with respect to the synthesis of different conducting lead oxides and other related materials are discussed.

  20. Nanostructured electrospun fibers : from superhydrophobicity to block copolymer self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Minglin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrospinning has emerged in recent years as a relatively easy, efficient and robust method to make ultrafine continuous fibers with diameter on the order of -100 nm from a variety of materials. As a result, numerous ...

  1. Theoretical Investigation of Self-Assembled Peptide Nanostructures for Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvajal Diaz, Jennifer Andrea

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    constants. The results for anisotropic elastic constants, yield behavior and engineering Young’s modulus show remarkable mechanical stability for these materials supporting experiments for the development of their applications. Furthermore, the heat capacity...

  2. Self-assembly of conformal polymer electrolyte film for lithium ion microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Christalee

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I apply the theory of polar and apolar intermolecular interactions to predict the behavior of combinations of common battery materials, specifically the cathode substrate lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) and the polymer separator ...

  3. Templated self-assembly of nanoporous alumina : pore formation and ordering mechanisms, methodologies, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Ramkumar, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), also known as porous alumina, is a self-ordered nanostructured material well-suited for use in electronic, magnetic, optical and biological applications due to its small pore size (4-200nm) ...

  4. Development of Advanced Nanomanufacturing: 3D Integration and High Speed Directed Self-assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Huifeng

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of nanoscience and nanotechnology requires rapid and robust nanomanufacturing processes to produce nanoscale materials, structures and devices. The dissertation aims to contribute to two major challenging and attractive topics...

  5. Self-assembly of synthetic and biological components in water using cucurbit[8]uril

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zayed, Jameel Majed

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    of adaptable materials,14 and programmable cells.15 1 Chapter 1 Introduction non-covalent interactions flagella machinery building blocks supramolecular assembly higher-ordered structures complex functionality emergence of complexity Figure 1.1: The emergence... measurements have seen application in supramolecular chemistry to investigate both the mobility, and rigidity, of guest molecules residing noncovalently within supramolecular host cavities,109,127 as well as for probing material architectures on the nanoscale...

  6. Thermodynamic Stability of Zimmerman Self-Assembled Dendritic Supramolecules from Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    * Materials and Process Simulation Center, Beckman Institute, 139-74, California Institute of Technology-assembly of supramolecular dendritic structures synthesized and characterized by Zimmerman and co-workers. In this method is the supramolecular structure. Through the control of environmental conditions such as pH values and ionic strength

  7. Solution Self-Assembly of Magnetic Light Modulators from Exfoliated Perovskite and Magnetite Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    . They are thus ideal elements for the construction of nanostructured materials and devices with adjustable of nanostructured particle aggregates by covalent linkage of soluble (Bu4N)x[H1-xCa2Nb3O10] nanosheets3 (from for magnetooptical sensing, display, and data storage applications. The title compound was synthesized by combining

  8. Growth-temperature dependence of optical spin-injection dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamura, Takafumi; Kiba, Takayuki; Yang, Xiaojie; Takayama, Junichi; Subagyo, Agus; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Murayama, Akihiro, E-mail: murayama@ist.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth-temperature dependence of the optical spin-injection dynamics in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) of In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As was studied by increasing the sheet density of the dots from 2?×?10{sup 10} to 7?×?10{sup 10}?cm{sup ?2} and reducing their size through a decrease in growth temperature from 500 to 470?°C. The circularly polarized transient photoluminescence (PL) of the resulting QD ensembles was analyzed after optical excitation of spin-polarized carriers in GaAs barriers by using rate equations that take into account spin-injection dynamics such as spin-injection time, spin relaxation during injection, spin-dependent state-filling, and subsequent spin relaxation. The excitation-power dependence of the transient circular polarization of PL in the QDs, which is sensitive to the state-filling effect, was also examined. It was found that a systematic increase occurs in the degree of circular polarization of PL with decreasing growth temperature, which reflects the transient polarization of exciton spin after spin injection. This is attributed to strong suppression of the filling effect for the majority-spin states as the dot-density of the QDs increases.

  9. Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (?130?°C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k?=?3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

  10. Solution Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron Generator Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new solution synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide solution containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant solution. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from solution. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron generator power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron generator application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  11. Highly ordered nanocomposites via a monomer self-assembly in situ condensation approach

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gin, D.L.; Fischer, W.M.; Gray, D.H.; Smith, R.C.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for synthesizing composites with architectural control on the nanometer scale is described. A polymerizable lyotropic liquid-crystalline monomer is used to form an inverse hexagonal phase in the presence of a second polymer precursor solution. The monomer system acts as an organic template, providing the underlying matrix and order of the composite system. Polymerization of the template in the presence of an optional cross-linking agent with retention of the liquid-crystalline order is carried out followed by a second polymerization of the second polymer precursor within the channels of the polymer template to provide an ordered nanocomposite material. 13 figs.

  12. Self-assembly of graphene oxide coated soft magnetic carbonyl iron particles and their magnetorheology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W. L.; Choi, H. J., E-mail: hjchoi@inha.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface of carbonyl iron (CI) microspheres was modified with graphene oxide (GO) as a coating material using 4-aminobenzoic acid as the grafting agent. The morphology, elemental composition, and magnetic properties of the GO-coated CI (GO/CI) particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively, confirming their composite formation. The magnetorheological (MR) performance of the GO/CI particle-based suspension was examined using a rotational rheometer connected to a magnetic field supply. The GO/CI particles suspension exhibited typical MR properties with increasing shear stress and viscosity depending on the applied magnetic field strength.

  13. Interconversion between Discrete and a Chain of Nanocages: Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The Energy Materials Center at CornellOfvia a Solvent-Driven,

  14. A solution NMR investigation into the impaired self-assembly properties of two murine amelogenins containing the point mutations T21?I or P41?T

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Lin, Genyao; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Amelogenesis imperfecta describes a group of inherited disorders that results in defective tooth enamel. Two disorders associated with human amelogenesis imperfecta are the point mutations T21?I or P40?T in amelogenin, the dominant protein present during the early stages of enamel biomineralization. The biophysical properties of wildtype murine amelogenin (M180) and two proteins containing the equivalent mutations in murine amelogenin, T21?I (M180-I) and P41?T (M180-T), were probed by NMR spectroscopy. At low protein concentration (0.1 mM), M180, M180-I, and M180-T are predomi- nately monomeric at pH 3.0 in 2% acetic acid and neither mutation produces a major structural change. Chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.1–1.8 mM) or NaCl (0–400 mM) concentra- tions show that the mutations affect the self-association properties by causing self-assembly at lower protein or salt concentrations, relative to wildtype amelogenin, with the largest effect observed for M180-I. Under both conditions, the premature self-assembly is initiated near the N-terminus, providing further evidence for the importance of this region in the self-assembly process. The self-association of M180-I and M180-T at lower protein concentrations and lower ionic strengths than wildtype M180 may account for the clinical phenotypes of these mutations, defective enamel formation.

  15. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels promote in vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived stromal cells : effects of peptide sequence, cell donor age, and method of growth factor delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopesky, Paul Wayne

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inability of articular cartilage to heal after damage or disease has motivated investigation of novel cartilage tissue engineering technologies. The objective of this thesis was to advance the use of self-assembling ...

  16. copyrisht@ree2bythen-""i"",,R3il:'J[$H#"",i*tTy"t"*r1"'J?rt;""mission orthecopyrightowner. Toward Orthogonal Self-Assembly of Redox Active

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Orthogonal Self-Assembly of Redox Active Molecules on Pt and Au: Selective Reaction of Disulfide with Au.; Uphaus,R. A. Microchem.J.1990,42, 44, and referencestherein on viologen monolayer electrochemistry. (5

  17. Self-Assembly of Hexanuclear Clusters of 4f and 5f Elements with Cation Specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diwu, J.; Good, Justin J.; DiStefano, Victoria H.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six hexanuclear clusters of 4f and 5f elements were synthesized by room-temperature slow concentration experiments. Cerium(IV), thorium(IV), and plutonium(IV) each form two different hexanuclear clusters, among which the cerium and plutonium clusters are isotypic, whereas the thorium clusters show more diversity. The change in ionic radii of approximately 0.08 Ĺ between these different metal ions tunes the cavity size so that NH{sub 4}{sup +} (1.48 Ĺ) has the right dimensions to assemble the cerium and plutonium clusters, whereas Cs{sup +} (1.69 Ĺ) is necessary to assemble the thorium clusters. If these cations are not used in the reactions, only amorphous material is obtained.

  18. Lamellar crystalline self-assembly behaviour and solid lipid nanoparticles of a palmityl prodrug analogue of Capecitabine?A chemotherapy agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Danon, Stephen J.; Waddington, Lynne J.; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MSE)

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An amphiphile prodrug, 5'-deoxy-5-fluoro-N{sup 4}-(palmityloxycarbonyl) cytidine or 5'-deoxy-5-fluoro-N{sup 4}-(hexadecanaloxycarbonyl) cytidine (5-FCPal), consisting of the same head group as the commercially available chemotherapeutic agent Capecitabine, linked to a palmityl hydrocarbon chain via a carbamate bond is reported. Thermal analysis of this prodrug indicates that it melts at {approx}115 C followed quickly by degradation beginning at {approx}120 C. The neat solid 5-FCPal amphiphile acquires a lamellar crystalline arrangement with a d-spacing of 28.6 {+-} 0.3 {angstrom}, indicating interdigitation of the hydrocarbon chains. Under aqueous conditions, solid 5-FCPal is non-swelling and no lyotropic liquid crystalline phase formation is observed. In order to assess the in vitro toxicity and in vivo efficacy in colloidal form, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with an average size of {approx}700 nm were produced via high pressure homogenization. The in vitro toxicity of the 5-FCPal SLNs against several different cancer and normal cell types was assessed over a 48 h period, and IC{sub 50} values were comparable to those observed for Capecitabine. The in vivo efficacy of the 5-FCPal SLNs was then assessed against the highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast cancer model. To do so, the prodrug SLNs were administered orally at 3 different dosages (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mmol/mouse/day) and compared to Capecitabine delivered at the same dosages. After 21 days of receiving the treatments, the 0.5 mmol dose of 5-FCPal exhibited the smallest average tumour volume. Since 5-FCPal is activated in a similar manner to Capecitabine via a 3 step enzymatic pathway with the final step occurring preferentially at the tumour site, formulation of the prodrug into SLNs combines the advantage of selective, localized activation with the sustained release properties of nanostructured amphiphile self-assembly and multiple payload materials thereby potentially creating a more effective anticancer agent.

  19. Final report : LDRD project 79824 carbon nanotube sorting via DNA-directed self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B; Leung, Kevin; Rempe, Susan B.; Dossa, Paul D.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Martin, Marcus Gary

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown great promise in novel applications in molecular electronics, biohazard detection, and composite materials. Commercially synthesized nanotubes exhibit a wide dispersion of geometries and conductivities, and tend to aggregate. Hence the key to using these materials is the ability to solubilize and sort carbon nanotubes according to their geometric/electronic properties. One of the most effective dispersants is single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), but there are many outstanding questions regarding the interaction between nucleic acids and SWNTs. In this work we focus on the interactions of SWNTs with single monomers of nucleic acids, as a first step to answering these outstanding questions. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the binding energy of six different nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) to a (6,0) single-wall carbon nanotube in aqueous solution. We find that the binding energies are generally favorable, of the order of a few kcal/mol. The binding energies of the different NMPs were very similar in salt solution, whereas we found a range of binding energies for NMPs in pure water. The binding energies are sensitive to the details of the association of the sodium ions with the phosphate groups and also to the average conformations of the nucleotides. We use electronic structure (Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Moller-Plesset second order perturbation to uncorrelated Hartree Fock theory (MP2)) methods to complement the classical force field study. With judicious choices of DFT exchange correlation functionals, we find that DFT, MP2, and classical force field predictions are in qualitative and even quantitative agreement; all three methods should give reliable and valid predictions. However, in one important case, the interactions between ions and metallic carbon nanotubes--the SWNT polarization-induced affinity for ions, neglected in most classical force field studies, is found to be extremely large (on the order of electron volts) and may have important consequences for various SWNT applications. Finally, the adsorption of NMPs onto single-walled carbon nanotubes were studied experimentally. The nanotubes were sonicated in the presence of the nucleotides at various weight fractions and centrifuged before examining the ultraviolet absorbance of the resulting supernatant. A distinct Langmuir adsorption isotherm was obtained for each nucleotide. All of the nucleotides differ in their saturation value as well as their initial slope, which we attribute to differences both in nucleotide structure and in the binding ability of different types or clusters of tubes. Results from this simple system provide insights toward development of dispersion and separation methods for nanotubes: strongly binding nucleotides are likely to help disperse, whereas weaker ones may provide selectivity that may be beneficial to a separation process.

  20. Some Structural Observations of Self-Assembling, Fibrillar Gels Composed of Two-Directional Bolaform Arborols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J.

    2005-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Arborols are dumbbell shaped molecules (bolaform amphiphiles) in which a hydrophobic spacer separates two hydrophilic end groups. They are a valuable model for naturally occurring fibers, such as actin or amyloid. Applications to materials science can be envisioned. On cooling from warm aqueous or methanolic solutions, arborols spontaneously assemble into long fibers. When the solutions are above a certain concentration that depends on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, this leads to thermally reversible gels stabilized by a mechanism that is poorly understood. With the help of wide angle X-ray scattering, details of the arborol fiber and gel structure were obtained on wet gels. The characteristic dimensions of the fibers vary in a sensible fashion with the molecular specifics. Solvent character appears to affect the average domain length of arborols stacked into fibers. Fluorescently labeled arborols were prepared. The label does not prevent incorporation into the fibrillar structure, rendering fibril bundles visible in wet gels. Bundles are visible in concentrated gels, but not in less concentrated sols. These results are consistent with observations of dried arborols using atomic force microscopy and with previously published freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering experiments on dried gels.

  1. Self-Assembling Sup-porosity: The Effect On Fluid Flow And Seismic Wave Propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J. [Purdue University

    2013-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractures and joints in the field often contain debris within the void spaces. Debris originates from many different mechanisms: organic and/or inorganic chemical reactions/mineralization, sediment transport, formation of a fracture, mechanical weathering or combinations of these processes. In many cases, the presence of debris forms a â??sub-porosityâ?ť within the fracture void space. This sub-porosity often is composed of material that differs from the fracture walls in mineralogy and morphology. The â??sub-porosityâ?ť may partially fill voids that are on the order of hundreds of microns and thereby reduce the local porosity to lengths scales on the order of sub-microns to tens of microns. It is quite clear that a sub-porosity affects fracture porosity, permeability and storativity. What is not known is how the existence/formation of a sub-porosity affects seismic wave propagation and consequently our ability to probe changes in the subsurface caused by the formation or alteration of a sub-porosity. If seismic techniques are to be developed to monitor the injection and containment of phases in sequestration reservoirs or the propping of hydraulically induced fracture to enhance oil & gas production, it is important to understand how a sub-porosity within a fracture affects macroscopic seismic and hydraulic measurements. A sub-porosity will directly affect the interrelationship between the seismic and hydraulic properties of a fracture. This reports contains the results of the three main topics of research that were performed (1) to determine the effect of a sub-porosity composed of spherical grains on seismic wave propagation across fractures, (2) to determine the effect of biofilm growth in pores and between grains on seismic wave propagation in sediment, and (3) to determine the effect of the scale of observation (field-of-view) on monitoring alteration the pore space within a fracture caused by reactive flow. A brief summary of the results for each topic is contained in the report and the full details of the research and approach are contained in the publications found in the Attachment section of this report. A list of presentation and publications of all work associated with this grant is also provided.

  2. Self-Assembly of Charged Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Insoluble Blocks of Decreasing Hydrophobicity: From Kinetically Frozen Colloids to Macrosurfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Jacquin; P Muller; H Cottet; O Theodoly

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the self-assembly properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with insoluble blocks of different hydrophobicity and demonstrated that the condition to obtain dynamic micelles is to design samples with insoluble blocks of low enough hydrophobicity. We focus here on results with new water-soluble amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(diethyleneglycol ethylether acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), or PDEGA-b-PAA. The physical characteristics of PDEGA-b-PAA micelles at high ionization have been determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). We show that PDEGA-b-PAA samples form micelles at thermodynamic equilibrium. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) decrease strongly with ionic strength and temperature due to a solvent quality decrease for, respectively, the corona and the core. This behavior of reversible aggregation is remarkable as compared to the behavior of kinetically frozen aggregation that has been widely observed with samples of similar architecture and different hydrophobic blocks, for example, poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PS-b-PAA, and poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA. We have measured the interfacial tension between water and the homopolymers PDEGA and PBA at, respectively, 3 and 20 mN/m at room temperature, which permits one to estimate the energy cost to extract a unimer from a micelle. The results are consistent with a micelle association that is fast for PDEGA-b-PAA and kinetically frozen PBA-b-PAA. Hence, PDEGA-b-PAA samples form a new system of synthetic charged macrosurfactant with unique properties of fast dynamic association, tunable charge, and water solubility even at temperatures and NaCl concentrations as high as 65 C and 1 M.

  3. Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9 intermetallics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provino, Alessia; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Gschneidner, Karl A.; Dhar, Sudesh K.; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Miller, Gordon J.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Wang, Hui; Russell, Alan M.; Becker, Andrew; Mudryk, Yaroslav

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the formation of Gd11M4In9 (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) and R11Ni4In9 (R = rare earth) compounds revealed a unique and peculiar property, which is to naturally crystallize in a bundle of self-assembled fibers when cooled from the melt. The fibers, which are nano- to millimeters in cross-section and approximate to 11-40 mm long, grow unidirectionally along a temperature gradient. These compounds adopt the orthorhombic Nd11Pd4In9 structure type (oC48-Cmmm). This structure is layered, with slabs of R atoms alternating with slabs of Ni/In atoms along a short c-axis (much shorter than either the a- or b-axis). The growth direction of the fibers is along the crystallographic c-axis, orthogonal to the a-b plane. Two strong and short In In bonds lie in the a-b plane, which are even shorter than in In metal. Integrated crystal orbital Hamilton population calculations show that the In In bonds create isolated "R8Ni4In9" rods growing along the c-axis, with the In In bonds being part of the rods. This appears to be an important factor explaining the microfibrous nature of these phases. Some physical properties have been measured on the Gd11Ni4In9 homolog. The compound orders ferrimagnetically at T-c approximate to 88 K, and at lower temperatures (46 and 10 K), two other magnetic anomalies were observed, probably due to spin reorientations. As expected from the bonding features, the mechanical, magnetic and electrical properties are strongly anisotropic. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Localized Si enrichment in coherent self-assembled Ge islands grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valvo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95127 Catania (Italy); Bongiorno, C.; Giannazzo, F. [IMM-CNR, VIII strada 5, 95121 Catania (Italy); Terrasi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95127 Catania (Italy); MATIS IMM-CNR UOS Catania (Universita), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) have been used to investigate the morphology, structure, and composition of self-assembled Ge islands grown on Si (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at different temperatures. Increasing the temperature from 550 Degree-Sign C to 700 Degree-Sign C causes progressive size and shape uniformity, accompanied by enhanced Si-Ge intermixing within the islands and their wetting layer. Elemental maps obtained by energy filtered-TEM (EF-TEM) clearly show pronounced Si concentration not only in correspondence of island base perimeters, but also along their curved surface boundaries. This phenomenon is strengthened by an increase of the growth temperature, being practically negligible at 550 Degree-Sign C, while very remarkable already at 650 Degree-Sign C. The resulting island shape is affected, since this localized Si enrichment not only provides strain relief near their highly stressed base perimeters but it also influences the cluster surface energy by effective alloying, so as to form Si-enriched SiGe interfaces. Further increase to 700 Degree-Sign C causes a shape transition where more homogenous Si-Ge concentration profiles are observed. The crucial role played by local 'flattened' alloyed clusters, similar to truncated pyramids with larger bases and enhanced Si enrichment at coherently stressed interfaces, has been further clarified by EF-TEM analysis of a multi-layered Ge/Si structure containing stacked Ge islands grown at 650 Degree-Sign C. Sharp accumulation of Si has been here observed not only in proximity of the uncapped island surface in the topmost layer but also at the buried Ge/Si interfaces and even in the core of such capped Ge islands.

  5. Computational synthesis of single-layer GaN on refractory materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Arunima K.; Hennig, Richard G., E-mail: rhennig@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of single-layer materials relies on suitable substrates. In this paper, we identify suitable substrates for the stabilization and growth of single-layer GaN and characterize the effect of the substrate on the electronic structure of single-layer GaN. We identify two classes of epitaxial substrates, refractory metal diborides and transition-metal dichalcogenides. We find that the refractory diborides provide epitaxial stabilization for the growth and functionalization of single layer GaN. We show that chemical interactions of single layer GaN with the diboride substrates result in n-type doping of the single-layer GaN. Transition-metal dichalcogenides, on the other hand, although epitaxially matched, cannot provide sufficient thermodynamic stabilization for the growth of single layer GaN. Nonetheless, energy band alignments of GaN/metal chalcogenides show that they make good candidates for heterostructures.

  6. Synthesis of acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials by oxidation and thermolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Zou, Yongcun [State Key Laboratory of Inoranic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistryg, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Inoranic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistryg, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wu, Shujie; Liu, Heng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst. The obtained sample of SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent catalytic activity in aldol condensation reaction. Research highlights: {yields} Synthesize acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. {yields} Oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. {yields} Exhibit good catalytic performance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. -- Abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. This method was achieved by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) carbamicacid-1-methylcyclohexylester (3TAME) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), followed by oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrographs (TEM) show that the resultant materials keep mesoporous structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), back titration, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR and solid-state {sup 29}Si MAS NMR confirm that the organosiloxanes were condensed as a part of the silica framework. The bifunctional sample (SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}) containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

  7. Materials Science and Engineering B 138 (2007) 224227 Synthesis of single crystalline europium-doped ZnO nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials Science and Engineering B 138 (2007) 224­227 Synthesis of single crystalline europium; ZnO; Europium doping; XPS 1. Introduction Synthesizing one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures in semi and studies of the luminescent properties of europium (Eu)-doped semicon- ductors in various morphologies

  8. Effects of Dopant Metal Variation and Material Synthesis Method on the Material Properties of Mixed Metal Ferrites in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leonard, Jeffrey; Reyes, Nichole; Allen, Kyle M.; Randhir, Kelvin; Li, Like; AuYeung, Nick; Grunewald, Jeremy; Rhodes, Nathan; Bobek, Michael; Klausner, James F.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed metal ferrites have shown much promise in two-step solar-thermochemical fuel production. Previous work has typically focused on evaluating a particular metal ferrite produced by a particular synthesis process, which makes comparisons between studies performed by independent researchers difficult. A comparative study was undertaken to explore the effects different synthesis methods have on the performance of a particular material during redox cycling using thermogravimetry. This study revealed that materials made via wet chemistry methods and extended periods of high temperature calcination yield better redox performance. Differences in redox performance between materials made via wet chemistry methods were minimal and thesemore »demonstrated much better performance than those synthesized via the solid state method. Subsequently, various metal ferrite samples (NiFe2O4, MgFe2O4, CoFe2O4, and MnFe2O4) in yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were synthesized via coprecipitation and tested to determine the most promising metal ferrite combination. It was determined that 10?wt.% CoFe2O4in 8YSZ produced the highest and most consistent yields of O2and CO. By testing the effects of synthesis methods and dopants in a consistent fashion, those aspects of ferrite preparation which are most significant can be revealed. More importantly, these insights can guide future efforts in developing the next generation of thermochemical fuel production materials.« less

  9. Synthesis of Cationic Extended Frameworks for Anion-Based Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei, Honghan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the synthesis of cationic inorganic materials andmetals lead to synthesis of cationic inorganic materials andthe synthesis of cationic inorganic layered materials, which

  10. Preparation, characterization and catalytic properties of MCM-48 supported tungstophosphoric acid mesoporous materials for green synthesis of benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xi; Chen, Ya; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng, E-mail: zhxch@zzu.edu.cn

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    MCM-48 and tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) were prepared and applied for the synthesis of HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous materials. The characterization results showed that HPW/MCM-48 obtained retained the typical mesopore structure of MCM-48, and the textural parameters decreased with the increase loading of HPW. The catalytic oxidation results of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde with 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} indicated that HPW/MCM-48 was an efficient catalyst for the green synthesis of benzoic acid. Furthermore, 35 wt% HPW/MCM-48 sample showed the highest activity under the reaction conditions. Highlights: • 5–45 wt% HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous catalysts were prepared and characterized. • Their catalytic activities for the green synthesis of benzoic acid were investigated. • HPW/MCM-48 was approved to be an efficient catalyst. • 5 wt% HPW/MCM-48 exhibited the highest catalytic activity.

  11. INVITED REVIEW Self-organized nanotube materials and their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    toward the multiscale self-assembly of materials from the molecular or nano- structure level upwards with this trend, research on supramolecular nanotube architectures2­8 with a well-defined hollow cylindrical to the function of these hollow cylinders themselves, such as their encapsulation ability.8,27 On the other hand

  12. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

  13. How isopolyanions self-assemble and condense into a 2D tungsten oxide crystal: HRTEM imaging of atomic arrangement in an intermediate new hexagonal phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chemseddine, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solarenergieforschung SE4, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: chemseddine@hmi.de; Bloeck, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solarenergieforschung SE4, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and structural evolution of tungstic acid solutions, sols and gels are investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). Acidification of sodium tungstate solutions, through a proton exchange resin, is achieved in a way that ensures homogeneity in size and shape of intermediate polytungstic species. Gelation is shown to involve polycondensation followed by a self-assembling process of polytungstic building blocks leading to sheets with a layered hexagonal structure. Single layers of this new metastable phase are composed of three-, four- and six-membered rings of WO{sub 6} octahedra located in the same plane. This is the first time that a 2D oxide crystal is isolated and observed by direct atomic resolution. Further ageing and structural evolution leading to single sheets of 2D ReO{sub 3}-type structure is directly observed by HRTEM. Based on this atomic level imaging, a model for the formation of the oxide network structure involving a self-assembling process of tritungstic based polymeric chain is proposed. The presence of tritungstic groups and their packing in electrochromic WO{sub 3} films made by different techniques is discussed. - Graphical abstract: From the isopolyanion to the extended bulk tungsten oxide: HRTEM imaging.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of new rare earth silicate fluorides: A novel class of polar materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillen, Colin D., E-mail: cmcmill@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, 485 H.L. Hunter Laboratories, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Emirdag-Eanes, Mehtap, E-mail: mehtapemirdag@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce koyu, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)] [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce koyu, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey); Stritzinger, Jared T., E-mail: jstritz@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, 485 H.L. Hunter Laboratories, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Kolis, Joseph W., E-mail: kjoseph@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, 485 H.L. Hunter Laboratories, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar crystals provide an interesting avenue for materials research both in the structures they form and the properties they possess. This work describes the hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of three novel silicate fluorides. Compound (1), LiY{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{sub 2} crystallizes in space group C2/c, with a=17.651(4) A, b=4.8868(10) A, c=11.625(2) A and {beta}=131.13(3) Degree-Sign . BaY{sub 2}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})F{sub 2} (2) crystallizes in space group P-1, with a=5.1576(10) A, b=6.8389(14) A, c=11.786(2) A, {alpha}=93.02(3) Degree-Sign , {beta}=102.05(3) Degree-Sign and {gamma}=111.55(3) Degree-Sign . Finally, the structure of Ba{sub 2}Y{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{sub 5} (3) was determined in the polar orthorhombic space group Pba2, having unit cell parameters a=8.8864(18) A, b=12.764(3) A and c=5.0843(10) A. The structures are compared based on their building blocks and long range polarities. Aligned silicate tetrahedra segregated into a single layer in (3) impart the observed polarity. - Graphical abstract: The polar structure of Ba{sub 2}Y{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{sub 5}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural yttrium silicate fluoride minerals are briefly reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis and structures of LiY{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{sub 2}, BaY{sub 2}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})F{sub 2} and Ba{sub 2}Y{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{sub 5} are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 2}Y{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{sub 5} crystallizes in the polar space group Pba2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polarity occurs primarily through aligned silicate tetrahedra in a segregated layer.

  15. nature materials | VOL 2 | OCTOBER 2003 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 689 ver the past decade great progress has been made on synthesis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubarev, Eugene

    the past decade great progress has been made on synthesis of nanostructures as a tool-set for new materials containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid materialARTICLES nature materials | VOL 2 | OCTOBER 2003 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 689 O ver

  16. Design, synthesis, and characterization of conjugated polymers and functional paramagnetic materials for dynamic nuclear polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dane, Eric Lawrence

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of radicals and biradicals for use as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) agents is described. DNP is a method to enhance the S/N-ratio in solid-state nuclear magnetic ...

  17. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  18. Title: Professor University Affiliations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Photovoltaics Research Areas of Interest Nanomaterial synthesis and self-assembling Biofuel and biomass focuses on, nanomaterial synthesis and self-assembling; biofuel and biomass materials; hydrogels; drug culture scaffold," Biomacromolecules, Jun. 2014, [Advance article online]. DOI: 10. 1021/bm5003976. N

  19. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  20. MaterialsScienceandEngineeringDepartmentSpecialSeminar 2:00 p.m. Tuesday, January 15, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, John H.

    fossil fuels, semiconductor-based solar fuel production requires materials that are efficient, stable in chemical bonds that can be utilized on demand as a solar fuel. To be cost competitive with traditional configurations and soft material self-assembly strategies for solar fuel devices. He is a member of the LMI

  1. Synthesis and applications of materials and polymers containing graphenic and/or triptycene moities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydlik, Stefanie A. (Stefanie Arlene)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, molecular design is used to synthesize novel materials with specific properties. The materials presented herein are based on two motifs. In part I, new methods of functionalizing graphenic materials and the ...

  2. Ferromagnetic Coupling of Mononuclear Fe Centers in a Self-Assembled Metal-Organic Network on Au(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuch, Wolfgang

    Grenoble, France 3 Center for Supramolecular Interactions, Freie Universita¨t Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195.37.Ef, 75.30.Et, 78.70.Dm As the size of a magnetic material decreases, the stabil- ity-symmetry metal-organic structures and periodic networks [9­11]. In bulk metal-organic materials, the organic

  3. Development of Novel Polymeric Materials for Gene Therapy and pH-Sensitive Drug Delivery: Modeling, Synthesis, Characterization, and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Curtis Anderson

    2002-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The underlying theme of this thesis is the use of polymeric materials in bioapplications. Chapters 2-5 either develop a fundamental understanding of current materials used for bioapplications or establish protocols and procedures used in characterizing and synthesizing novel materials. In chapters 6 and 7 these principles and procedures are applied to the development of materials to be used for gene therapy and drug delivery. Chapter one is an introduction to the ideas that will be necessary to understand the subsequent chapters, as well as a literature review of these topics. Chapter two is a paper that has been published in the ''Journal of Controlled Release'' that examines the mechanism of drug release from a polymer gel, as well as experimental design suggestions for the evaluation of water soluble drug delivery systems. Chapter three is a paper that has been published in the ''Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences'' that discusses the effect ionic salts have on properties of the polymer systems examined in chapter two. Chapter four is a paper published in the Materials Research Society Fall 2000 Symposium Series dealing with the design and synthesis of a pH-sensitive polymeric drug delivery device. Chapter five is a paper that has been published in the journal ''Biomaterials'' proposing a novel polymer/metal composite for use as a biomaterial in hip arthroplasty surgery. Chapter six is a paper that will appear in an upcoming volume of the Journal ''Biomaterials'' dealing with the synthesis of a novel water soluble cationic polymer with possible applications in non-viral gene therapy. Chapter seven is a paper that has been submitted to ''Macromolecules'' discussing several novel block copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(diethylamino ethyl methacrylate) that possess both pH-sensitive and temperature sensitive properties. Chapter eight contains a summary of the research contained in chapters 2-7 and proposes future research for the gene therapy and drug delivery projects.

  4. Eugene R. Zubarev Department of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubarev, Eugene

    , amphiphilic structures. Experimental: organic synthesis, polymerization, synthesis of inorganic nanocrystals-2005 Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University 2000-2002 Research Associate and supramolecular chemistry, molecular self-assembly, organic-inorganic hybrid structures, nanoparticle catalysts

  5. Synthesis of nanostructured materials in supercritical ammonia: nitrides, metals and oxides Desmoulins-Krawiec S., Aymonier C., Loppinet-Serani A., Weill F., Grosse S., Etourneau J., Cansell F.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    N in supercritical cryogenic nitrogen by self-propagating-high- temperature synthesis (6.21 MPa, ­141 °C);19 (ii) GaSynthesis of nanostructured materials in supercritical ammonia: nitrides, metals and oxides. Abstract : In this study, the synthesis of nanostructured particles of nitrides (Cr2N, Co2N, Fe4N, Cu3N, Ni

  6. Plasma fluorination of carbon-based materials for imprint and molding lithographic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    to a fluorocarbon-based plasma, yielding an ultrathin layer of a fluorocarbon material on the surface which has alkyl silane self-assembled monolayer7­10 SAM with fluorocarbon tails at the outer surface either by im fluorocarbon functional groups provide a low energy to the modified sur- face, with surface energies

  7. Orthogonal Labeling of M13 Minor Capsid Proteins with DNA to Self-Assemble End-to-End Multiphage Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, Gaelen T.

    M13 bacteriophage has been used as a scaffold to organize materials for various applications. Building more complex multiphage devices requires precise control of interactions between the M13 capsid proteins. Toward this ...

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of High Temperature Cement-Based Hydroceramic Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyritsis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement-based materials are of importance in the construction of geothermal wells and high-temperature oil and gas wells. These materials fill the annulus between the well casing and the rock forming a protective layer, ...

  9. Preparation of carbon coated MoS2 flower-like nanostructure with self-assembled nanosheets as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -performance lithium-ion battery anodes Shan Hu,ab Wen Chen,*a Jing Zhou,a Fei Yin,c Evan Uchaker,b Qifeng Zhangb candidate as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. 1. Introduction Battery energy storage addressing the environmental concerns. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy density, high voltage

  10. Synthesis and characterization of covalently-linked dendrimer bioconjugates and the non-covalent self-assembly of streptavidin-based megamers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, Megan Elizabeth

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA)-dendrimers. Results indicate that ssDNA-dendrimer conjugates readily anneal to complementary ssDNA strands either in solution or attached to gold surfaces. Nuclease digestions of conjugates in solution suggested that enzymatic manipulation of ds...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of covalently-linked dendrimer bioconjugates and the non-covalent self-assembly of streptavidin-based megamers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, Megan Elizabeth

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA)-dendrimers. Results indicate that ssDNA-dendrimer conjugates readily anneal to complementary ssDNA strands either in solution or attached to gold surfaces. Nuclease digestions of conjugates in solution suggested that enzymatic manipulation of ds...

  12. Time-resolved photoluminescence from self-assembled Ge(Si) islands in multilayer SiGe/Si and SiGe/SOI structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yablonskiy, A. N., E-mail: yablonsk@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Baidakova, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Novikov, A. V. [Lobachevskyi University of Nizhni Novgorod, Physical-Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation)] [Lobachevskyi University of Nizhni Novgorod, Physical-Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Lobanov, D. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a study of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the photoluminescence (PL) from multilayer structures with self-assembled Ge(Si) islands grown on silicon and 'silicon-on-insulator' substrates in relation to temperature and the excitation-light wavelength are presented. A substantial increase in island-related PL intensity is observed for structures with Ge(Si) islands grown on silicon substrates upon an increase in temperature from 4 to 70 K. This increase is due to the diffusion of nonequilibrium carriers from the silicon substrate into the active layer with the islands. In this case, a slow component with a characteristic time of {approx}100 ns appears in the PL rise kinetics. At the same time, no slow component in the PL rise kinetics and no rise in the PL intensity with increasing temperature are observed for structures grown on 'silicon-on-insulator' substrates, in which the active layer with the islands is insulated from the silicon substrate. It is found that absorption of the excitation light in the islands and SiGe wetting layers mainly contributes to the excitation of the PL signal from the islands under sub-bandgap optical pump conditions.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of next-generation multifunctional material architectures : aligned carbon nanotube carbon matrix nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, Itai Y

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials comprising carbon nanotube (CNT) aligned nanowire (NW) polymer nanocomposites (A-PNCs) have emerged as promising architectures for next-generation multifunctional applications. Enhanced operating regimes, such ...

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Next Generation Technologies in Stimulus-Responsive Materials and Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unruh, Jr, David Allen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Blocks in Organic Electronics Abstract The donor-performing organic electronics. Inspired by the desirableMaterials and Organic Electronics by David Allen Unruh, Jr.

  15. Gigantic uphill diffusion during self-assembled growth of Ge quantum dots on strained SiGe sublayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valakh, M. Ya.; Lytvyn, P. M.; Nikolenko, A. S.; Strelchuk, V. V. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, pr. Nauki 45, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Krasilnik, Z. F.; Lobanov, D. N.; Novikov, A. V. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, RAS, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman spectroscopy and atomic-force microscopy were applied to study the morphology of nanoislands grown on strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} sublayers. It was shown that the growth of nanoislands on strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} sublayer not only induces the effect of their spatial ordering but also enhances the role of interdiffusion processes. Unusual high island volume increase during the epitaxy is explained by anomalous strong material diffusion from the sublayer into the islands, induced by nonuniform field of elastic strains.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Microbially Induced Corrosion of Test Samples and Effect of Self-Assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure of Test Samples to Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, and Biochemical Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinavichius, K.S.

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of biocorrosion of aluminum and beryllium samples were performed under conditions of continuous fermentation of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms of different groups. This allowed us to examine the effect of various types of metabolic reactions of reduction-oxidation proceeding at different pH and temperatures under highly reduced conditions on aluminum and beryllium corrosion and effect of self-assembled hydrophobic monolayers.

  17. Ion-pair triple helicates and mesocates self-assembled from ditopic 2,2 -bipyridine-bis(urea) ligands and Ni(II) and Fe(II) sulfate salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NiSO{sub 4} and FeSO{sub 4} self-assemble with heteroditopic ligands (L) comprising 2,2{prime}-bipyridine and o-phenylene-(bis)urea cation- and anion-binding sites, respectively, into [ML{sub 3}SO{sub 4}] (M = Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}) triple-stranded ion-pair helicates and mesocates.

  18. Models of Synthesis of Uniform Colloids and Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vyacheslav Gorshkov; Vladimir Privman

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present modeling approaches to explain mechanisms of control of uniformity (narrow distribution) of sizes and shapes in synthesis of nanosize crystals and micron-size colloids. We consider those situations when the nanocrystals are formed by burst nucleation. The colloids are then self-assembled by aggregation of nanocrystals. The coupled kinetic processes are both controlled by diffusional transport, yielding well-defined colloid dispersions used in many applications. We address aspects of modeling of particle structure selection, ranging from nucleation to growth by aggregation and to mechanisms of emergence of particle shapes.

  19. A Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol-ene Reaction to the Study of the Final Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol agent for bio-based epoxy resin. The thermal crosslinking reaction between AGSO and epoxi- dized linseed and thermal behav- iors. But, the substitution of bis-phenol A based epoxy resins by materials coming from

  20. Peculiarities of formation of phase composition, porous structure, and catalytic properties of tungsten oxide-based macroporous materials fabricated by sol–gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papynov, Evgeniy Konstantinovich, E-mail: Papynov@mail.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Suhanova, 8, Vladivostok 690091 (Russian Federation); Mayorov, Vitaliy Yurevich, E-mail: 024205@inbox.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Palamarchuk, Marina Sergeevna, E-mail: 02.06.1984@mail.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Avramenko, Valentin Aleksandrovich, E-mail: avramenko1@yandex.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Suhanova, 8, Vladivostok 690091 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of template sol–gel synthesis of tungsten oxide-based macroporous materials using ‘core–shell’ latex particles as colloid templates is described. The chemical composition and structural characteristics of the synthesized macroporous oxide systems have been investigated. The peculiarities of formation of material phase composition and macroporous structure under different template thermal destruction conditions have been revealed. An optimal method of a targeted synthesis of the crystalline tungsten(VI) oxide having a defect-free macroporous structure (average pore size 160 nm) and efficient catalytic properties under organic liquid phase oxidation conditions has been suggested. The prospects of the fabricated material application as catalysts of hydrothermal oxidation of radionuclide organic complexes at radioactive waste decontamination have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Macroporous tungsten oxides were fabricated via sol–gel process. • The correlation between synthesis conditions and composition was determined. • Influence of synthesis conditions on porous structure has been explained. • The effects of template thermodestruction have been set up. • High potential of such materials for catalysis applications has been shown.

  1. Helical Peptide Arrays on Self-Assembled Monolayer Surfaces Through Soft and Reactive Landing of Mass-Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peng; Laskin, Julia

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ?-helix – the common building block of the protein secondary structure - plays an important role in determining protein structure and function. The biological function of the ?-helix is mainly attributed to its large macrodipole originating from the alignment of individual dipole moments of peptide bonds. Preparation of directionally aligned ?-helical peptide layers on substrates has attracted significant attention because the resulting strong net dipole is useful for a variety of applications in photonics, , molecular electronics, and catalysis. - In addition, conformationally-selected ?-helical peptide arrays can be used for detailed characterization of molecular recognition steps critical for protein folding, enzyme function and DNA binding by proteins. Existing technologies for the production of ?-helical peptide surfaces are based on a variety of solution phase synthetic strategies - that usually require relatively large quantities of purified materials.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Rationally Designed Porous Materials for Energy Storage and Carbon Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sculley, Julian Patrick

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the hottest areas in porous materials research in the last decade have been in energy storage, mainly hydrogen and methane, and in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Although these topics are intricately linked in terms of our future...

  3. Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

  4. Multifunctional Energetic Materials* Materials Research Society (MRS) Symposium H, November 28-30, 2005, Boston, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    evaluations for reactive materials, new techniques for synthesis of energetic materials including thermites

  5. Structural and functional biological materials : abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inorganic materials could lead to significant advances in materials science, opening the door to novel synthesis

  6. Macromolecular Research, Vol. 18, No. 8, pp 800-805 (2010) www.springer.com/13233 The Polymer Society of Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirst, Linda

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Society of Korea Supramolecular Honeycomb and Columnar Assemblies Formed by Self-Assembly of Coil-organize into a variety of supramolecular structures in the bulk state. This paper reports the synthesis and self segments. The self-assembling behav- ior of these materials, which was investigated by differential

  7. Phone: 514-983-6288 Fax: 514-398-3797

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    -assembly. Centre research focuses on polymer self-assembly (micelles, multilayer films), supramolecular com- plexes, liquid crystalline materials, self- assembled monolayers and biomembranes. 40 Professors from five Quebec to understand the relationships and limitations of supramolecular inter- action at surfaces. Synthesis

  8. Condensation of Self-assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene glycol and Doped with Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heung-Shik Park; Shin-Woong Kang; Luana Tortora; Satyendra Kumar; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering, to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of inter-aggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates, and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

  9. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Makoto, E-mail: waseda.ogawa@gmail.com [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Department of Earth Sciences, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Morita, Masashi, E-mail: m-masashi@y.akane.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Igarashi, Shota, E-mail: uxei_yoshi_yoshi@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Sato, Soh, E-mail: rookie_so_sleepy@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 µm was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 °C, though 600 °C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. • 600 °C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. • The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst.

  10. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zheng, Wen-jie, E-mail: tzhwj@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 6–8 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ? A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ? S{sup 0} nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ? The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ? PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 6–8 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. This research provides a greener and more environment-friendly synthetic method for the production of sulfur nanorods.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yanqiu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China) [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); College of Chemistry, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157012 (China); Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  12. Synthesis and application of melamine-based dendrimer/sba-15 hybrid materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunn, Jonathan David

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    microstructure. 3.2 Experimental Method 3.2.1 Materials Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, ? 99%) was purchased from Fluka. Pluronic P123 (EO 20 PO 70 EO 20 , MW=5800) was obtained from BASF. Ethanol and toluene (ACS reagent grade) were purchased from EM Science...

  13. Materials Engineering Research Facility | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Engineering Research Facility Argonne's new Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF) supports the laboratory's Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and...

  14. Facile synthesis of nanostructured vanadium oxide as cathode materials for efficient Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -ion batteries Yanyi Liu,a Evan Uchaker,a Nan Zhou,ab Jiangang Li,ac Qifeng Zhanga and Guozhong Cao*a Received 23 and VO2 (B) nanorods were tested as active cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The V2O5 sheet for efficient Li-ion batteries. Introduction The expansion and demands for energy use in the past several

  15. Materials Discovery Design and Synthesis | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a New 183-GHzMAR Os2010Material SafetyDiscovery

  16. Self-assembling software generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchard, Ann M. (Albuquerque, NM); Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to generate an executable task includes inspecting a task specification data structure to determine what software entities are to be generated to create the executable task, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine how the software entities will be linked after generating the software entities, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine logic to be executed by the software entities, and generating the software entities to create the executable task.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of lignin-based carbon materials with tunable microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL] [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin-based carbons can be used as a low-cost alternative to graphite and petroleum-based carbons enabling the production of sustainable, functional carbon materials for various applications. The microstructure development of these carbons can be controlled through chemical modification of the lignin precursor and choice of carbonization parameters. In this work, microstructured carbon materials are synthesized from lignin using a combination of chemical modification and carbon fiber processing techniques. Lignin is modified by incorporating different ester groups which results in a precursor highly compatible with melt processing using the fiber extrusion technique and conversion into microstructured carbons by oxidative stabilization and subsequent carbonization. Furthermore, the impact of esterifications on precursor chemistry and carbonizations is investigated. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of modified lignins shows characteristic spectral changes as a result of esterifications. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry shows the modification process does not affect the polymeric character of the lignin backbone. Esterifications result in moderate shifts in O:C and H:C ratios. Thermogravimetric analysis of lignins reveals distinct differences in mass loss trends during oxidations and carbonizations.

  18. Photoinduced charge-transfer materials for nonlinear optical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W.

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method using polyelectrolyte self-assembly for preparing multi-layered organic molecular materials having individual layers which exhibit ultrafast electron and/or energy transfer in a controlled direction occurring over the entire structure. Using a high molecular weight, water-soluble, anionic form of poly-phenylene vinylene, self-assembled films can be formed which show high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (QE). The highest emission QE is achieved using poly(propylene-imine) (PPI) dendrimers as cationic binders. Self-quenching of the luminescence is observed as the solid polymer film thickness is increased and can be reversed by inserting additional spacer layers of transparent polyelectrolytes between each active conjugated layer, such that the QE grows with thickness. A red shift of the luminescence is also observed as additional PPV layers are added. This effect persists as self-quenching is eliminated. Charge transfer superlattices can be formed by additionally incorporating C.sub.60 acceptor layers.

  19. Powder-based synthesis of nanocrystalline material components for structural application. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilyuschenko, A.F.; Ivashko, V.S.; Okovity, V.A. [Powder Metallurgy Research Inst., Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydroxiapate spray coatings and substrates for implant production as well as multilayered metal ceramic coatings from nanocrystalline materials are a subject of the investigation. The work aims at the improvement of quality of said objects. This study has investigated the processes of hydroxiapatite powder production. Sizes, shapes and relief of initial HA powder surface are analyzed using SEM and TEM. Modes of HA plasma spraying on a substrate from titanium and associated compositions of traditional and nanocrystalline structure are optimized. The quality of the sprayed samples are studied using X-ray phase analysis and metallographic analysis. The results of investigations of bioceramic coating spraying on titanium are theoretically generalized, taking into account obtained experimental data. The results of investigations of ion-beam technology are presented for spraying multilayered coatings consisting of alternating metal-ceramic layers of nanocrystalline structure.

  20. anisotropic nanoparticles synthesis characterization: Topics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  1. Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials.

  2. Strong Enhancement of Flux Pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-? Multilayers with Columnar Defects Comprised of Self-Assembled BaZrO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Sukill [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multilayer structures comprising YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films with columns of self-assembled BaZrO{sub 3} (BZO) nanodots with interlayers of CeO{sub 2} or pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} were grown on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTSs) using pulsed laser deposition. A significant enhancement of the critical current density (J{sub c}) was observed for the multilayers compared with a single layer of YBCO + BZO. J{sub c} varies as J{sub c}{approx}H{sup -{alpha}} with a of 0.27 for single layer of YBCO + BZO and 0.34 for both multilayered films. Enhancement of pinning in the multilayers is attributed to the presence of columnar defects comprised of self-assembled nanodots of BZO as well as planar CuO-type stacking defects arising as a result of interfacial reactions in the multilayers.

  3. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials D. L. PERRY andred, tetragonal form of lead oxide, ?-PbO, litharge, and thedifferent conducting lead oxides and other related materials

  4. Biomimetic Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and Their Applications as Electro-catalysts in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yujing

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. , Biomimetic Synthesis of Inorganic Materials and Theirsynthesis of inorganic materials .NPs. 1.2 Biomimetic synthesis of inorganic materials Through

  5. Self-Assembly and Self-Metallization of Porphyrin Nanosheets Zhongchun Wang, Zhiyong Li, Craig J. Medforth, and John A. Shelnutt*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.

    by Hu et al.4c in the surfactant-assisted synthesis of hollow hexagonal nanoprisms from Zn 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)- porphyrin. While many two-dimensional (2-D) inorganic nano- structures (e.g., titania conditions and found to produce different nanostructures. Cubic microstructures with hollow faces (Figures 1b

  6. Synthesis and Morphological, Electrochemical Characterization of Sn92Co8 Nanoalloys for Anode Materials in Li Secondary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Materials in Li Secondary Batteries Hyunjung Kim and Jaephil Cho*,z Department of Applied Chemistry, Kumoh the capacity limits of graphite materials, Sn and Si anode materials have been investigated.1-3 However

  7. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structural forms of lead(II) oxide X-ray diffractionand Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials D. L. PERRY andThe red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, ?-PbO, litharge, and

  8. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of inorganic semiconductor-based nanostructured materials;inorganic materials. 16,35,62?72 In the synthesis, we begin

  9. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition | NationalMaterials

  10. Investigation of porous alumina as a self-assembled diffractive element to facilitate light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coronel, Naomi (Naomi Cristina)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film solar cells are currently being investigated as an affordable alternative energy source because of the reduced material cost. However, these devices suffer from low efficiencies, compared to silicon wafer solar ...

  11. Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483-Fall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483- Fall Tuesdays organic materials. The discussion will include aspects of synthesis General introduction to the electronic structure of organic materials with connection

  12. Self-Assembly of Molecular Brick Wall and Molecular Honeycomb from Nickel(II) Macrocycle and 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    151-742, Republic of Korea ReceiVed February 16, 1998 Abstract: Novel multidimensional supramolecular properties as functional solid materials as well as fascinating molecular structures.1-19 Especially provide highly ordered multidimensional networks containing (1) (a) Bein, T. Supramolecular Architecture

  13. Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 23202325 Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots on GaN emitting at 520 nm grown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials, and intrinsic quantum mechanical energy loss of the wavelength conversion process via Stokes, Muhammad Jamil, Nelson Tansu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical. These results demonstrates that high In-content InGaN QDs can be grown by MOVPE, and can potentially be utilized

  14. Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of CIGS Nanoparticles and Polymers for All-Solution Processable Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    -Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells Tung Ho1 , Robert Vittoe3 , Namratha Kakumanu2 , Sudhir Shrestha2-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Thin film solar cells made from copper indium gallium thereby affecting solar cell efficiency. This research aims to study various polymer materials to replace

  15. Synthesis and Lithiation Mechanisms of Dirutile and Rutile LiMnF4: Two New Conversion Cathode Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twu, Nancy H.

    Driven by the need for new cathode battery materials with high energy density, fluorides have emerged as promising candidates due to their high voltages. From high throughput computations, dirutile LiMnF4 was identified ...

  16. The design and synthesis of polymeric assemblies for materials applications : chemosensing, liquid crystal alignment and block copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Jason R. (Jason Robert)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conjugated polymers are an indispensable class of materials that have advanced the development of optoelectronic device architectures; in part, due to their outstanding electronic and mechanical properties. This thesis ...

  17. Synthesis of composite hydrogels incorporating D,L-cyclic peptide nanotubes as a platform for materials engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tay, Pei Kun Richie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite hydrogels find increasing use as biomaterials because the addition of a filler often improves on the material properties of the original matrix, or provides new optical, magnetic, conductive or bioactive ...

  18. Self-Assembly and Selective Guest Binding of Three-Dimensional Open-Framework Solids from a Macrocyclic Complex as a Trifunctional Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    -dimensional supramolecular open- frameworks of [Ni(C20H32N8)][C6H9- (COOH)2(COO)]2 ´ 4H2O (2) and [Ni- (C20H32N8)]3[C6H9(COO: host ± guest chemistry ´ hydrogen bonds ´ macrocyclic ligands ´ stacking interactions ´ supramolecular and become condensed materials in the solid state.[19] Furthermore, the frameworks of the solids containing

  19. Cr-Ga-N materials for negative electrodes in Li rechargeable batteries : structure, synthesis and electrochemical performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Miso

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical performances of two ternary compounds (Cr2GaN and Cr3GaN) in the Cr-Ga-N system as possible future anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries were studied. Motivation for this study was dealt in ...

  20. Synthesis of a Novel Porous Polymer/Ceramic Composite Material by Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven M.

    48667 Peng Li Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, UniVersity of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 ReceiVed May 25, 2007. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed August 10, 2007 Highly porous poly, such as an interconnected pore structure, large surface area, and small pore size. Ideally, tissue engineering materials

  1. Tetrides and Pnictides for Fast-Ion Conductors, Phosphor-Hosts, Structural Materials and Improved Thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hick, Sandra Marie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of Lanthanide Doped Nitride Phosphors. in UC Inorganic MaterialsSynthesis of Alkaline Earth Carbides and Intercalation Compounds. in Florida Inorganic & Materials

  2. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    multiple-rattler skutterudite thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste heat. subramanian...

  3. RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) composite oxide nano-materials: Synthesis and applications in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Weimin, E-mail: duweimin75@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Zhu, Zhaoqiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001 (China); Zhang, Xiaofen; Wang, Dacheng; Liu, Donghe [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Qian, Xuefeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Du, Jimin, E-mail: djm@aynu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) nano-materials have been successfully synthesized. • Defect and electron structures determine the absorption properties on visible light. • Nano-sized Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} has good visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities. • In the future, it can be used in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. - Abstract: Zirconia modified by Samarium/Europium, RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu), composite oxide nano-materials have been successfully synthesized by improved sol–gel method. Characterization results show that X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of products gradually shift to the lower angle with the increase of rare earth which implies that the lattice distances of RE/ZrO{sub 2} nano-materials are gradually enlarged. Moreover, the molar ratios between zirconium and rare earth are consistent with the chemical formula and both of them are uniformly distributed in samples. Optical properties indicate that defect structures and electron configurations of RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) with single phase determine their absorption properties on visible light. Photocatalytic experiments indicate Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} nano-crystals have excellent visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities on Methylene blue and Rhodamine B which results from the special defect structure, suitable electronic configuration, and larger specific surface area. It follows that Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} nano-crystals are new visible-light-responsive photocatalysts which can be applied in dye wastewater treatment and environmental protection in the future.

  4. Synthesis of bulk FeHfBO soft magnetic materials and its loss characterization at megahertz frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Yang; Kou Xiaoming; Warsi Muhammad, Asif; Lin Shuo; Harris, Brendan S.; Parsons, Paul E.; Xiao, John Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Mu Mingkai; Lee, Fred C. [Center for Power Electronics System, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 (United States); Zhu Hao [Spectrum Magnetics LLC, Wilmington, Delaware 19804 (United States)

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic core materials with low loss, high saturation magnetization, large permeability, and operating frequency above 1 MHz are in high demands for the next generation of miniaturized power electronics. Amorphous FeHfB ribbons with thickness around 20 {mu}m have been fabricated through melt-spinning. Different heat treatments were performed on the FeHfB ribbons, and the relations among heat treatments, microstructure, and magnetic properties have been explored. Properties such as coercivity (H{sub c}) of 2.0 Oe and saturation magnetic flux density (B{sub S}) of 1.2 T have been achieved in samples with exchange coupling. The losses can be minimized by balancing the hysteretic and eddy current losses and can be further reduced with additional magnetic field annealing. At 5 MHz with peak magnetic flux density of 20 mT, the materials show core losses comparable to the best ferrites, but with higher permeability value of about 200 and superior saturation induction of more than 1 T.

  5. A new copper borophosphate with novel polymeric chains and its structural correlation with raw materials in molten hydrated flux synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Ruijing; Liu, Wei, E-mail: Weiliu@ouc.edu.cn; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Chenggong

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 3}[B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (monoclinic, Cc, a=6.1895 Ĺ, b=13.6209 Ĺ, c=11.9373 Ĺ, ?=97.62°, V=997.5 Ĺ{sup 3}, Z=4). The three-dimensional framework of the titled compound, is composed by two kinds of polymeric chains and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedral. One novel 4-membered tetrahedral rings has been observed in borophosphates. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title compound exits antiferromagnetic interactions. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted. - Graphical abstract: The 3D structure consists of a framework composed of CuO{sub x} polyhedra, BO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. A intersection angle between the metal chains and borophosphate chains can be noted. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. • One novel 4-membered tetrahedral ring has been observed firstly in borophosphates. • A possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted.

  6. ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Biomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Biomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP Computational Methods in Materials Science 4 CP Lab Materials Science I 5 CP Physical Chemistry 4 CP General Chemistry 2 CP Synthesis of Org. & Inorg. Materials 4 CP Introductory Solid

  7. Materials science matchmaker | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials science matchmaker ORNL-UTK joint faculty helps students navigate national lab network As a joint faculty appointee, David Mandrus conducts materials synthesis research...

  8. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and characterization of ceramic materials for energy-related applications Process Development and Scale-up Program Argonne's Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing Research and...

  9. Metal-directed protein self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salgado. Eric N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coli cells along with the ccm heme maturation gene cassettecoli cells along with the ccm heme maturation gene cassettecoli cells along with the ccm heme maturation gene cassette

  10. Self-Assembly of Layered Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microtomography How Magnetic Dimers Interact to Create Long-Range Order Improving Solar-Cell Efficiency How to Remove Tangles in Your DNA Stressing Out Copper TSVs with...

  11. Templated self-assembly of multiferroic nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aimon, Nicolas M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To respond to the growing demand for smart and connected devices, such as smartphones, tablet PCs arid other mobile hardware, while meeting the needs for increased power efficiency, miniaturization and reduced manufacturing ...

  12. Metal-directed protein self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salgado. Eric N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Metal-Templated Protein Tetramer Introduction ThoroughRIDC-2 4 Zn-mediated RIDC-2 tetramer viii Zn 4 : C82 RIDC-1mediated C82 RIDC-1 2,BMB tetramer Zn 4 : C82 RIDC-1 2,BMH

  13. Lyotropic columnar liquid crystals based on polycatenar 1H-imidazole amphiphiles and their assembly into bundles at the surface of silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tew, Gregory N.

    for the synthesis of molecular and supra- molecular materials.1 Depending on their molecular structure systems and the base of charge-transfer pro- cesses. Unlike pyrrole as a proton donor and pyridine. In this paper, we report the synthesis and self-assembling properties of polycatenar 1H-imidazole amphiphiles

  14. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R.G.B and J.A.E. ). Keywords: biomass · carboxylic acids ·10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis ofaro- matic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

  15. Design and Implementation of a Facility for Discovering New Scintillator Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of inorganic compounds in crystalline powder form and their characterization as potential scintillator detector materials.

  16. Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    665-9330 Find Expertise header Search our employee skills database Dipen Sinha and team win Richard P. Feynman Innovation Prize Los Alamos researcher Dipen Sinha and team were...

  17. Biomimetic synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Chin-Yi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Directed Syntheses of Inorganic Materials. Chem. Rev. 108,synthesis and further investigate the interfaces between biomolecule and inorganic materialssynthesis and has inspired the mechanistic studies on the specific interfacial interactions between biomolecules and inorganic materials.

  18. Materials & Biomaterials Western University has demonstrated international leadership in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    Materials & Biomaterials Western University has demonstrated international leadership in materials to materials science; the synthesis, characterization and application of materials, particularly lightweight materials; and emerging work in chemical biology and proteins. Western's researchers are designing

  19. Synthesis of zeolite beta in fluoride media under microwave irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    at the nucleation step, resulting in the rapid synthesis of the material. Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved of inorganic materials are generally known to be faster and simpler than conven- tional methods [15]. Energy in the synthesis of nanoporous materials have been shown to provide versatile effects, for instance, short heating

  20. actinide matrix synthesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response Materials Science Websites Summary: were produced by a technique combining self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of elementalC result in the formation of...