Sample records for materials semiconductor wide

  1. Photocell utilizing a wide-bandgap semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Williams, Brown F. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A photocell comprises a p-i-n amorphous silicon structure having a wide bandgap layer adjacent to either the p-type or n-type layer. This structure reduces the absorption of light entering the photocell and the back-diffusion of minority carriers.

  2. Wide-bandgap semiconductors for high power, high frequency and high temperature. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings Volume 512

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DenBaars, S.; Palmour, J.; Shur, M.; Spencer, M. [eds.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wide-bandgap semiconductors have a long and illustrious history, starting with the first paper on SiC light-emitting diodes published in 1907. In the last few years, however, interest in wide-bandgap semiconductors has skyrocketed. Improved material quality, important breakthroughs both in SiC and GaN technologies, and the emergence of blue GaN-based lasers, have stimulated this progress. To provide a fairly complete and up-to-date picture of this important field, most of the work presented at the conference is included in the volume. In addition, invited papers present an excellent overview of the current state of the art and offer projections for future developments. Topics include: GaN materials and devices; crystal growth; SiC materials and devices; characterization of wide-bandgap semiconductors; and processing characterization and properties of wide-bandgap materials.

  3. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters. With the advent of the use of SiC devices it is imperative that models of these be made available in commercial simulators. This enables power electronic designers to simulate their designs for various test conditions prior to fabrication. To build an accurate transistor-level model of a power electronic system such as an inverter, the first step is to characterize the semiconductor devices that are present in the system. Suitable test beds need to be built for each device to precisely test the devices and obtain relevant data that can be used for modeling. This includes careful characterization of the parasitic elements so as to emulate the test setup as closely as possible in simulations. This report is arranged as follows: Chapter 2--The testing and characterization of several diodes and power switches is presented. Chapter 3--A 55-kW hybrid inverter (Si insulated gate bipolar transistor--SiC Schottky diodes) device models and test results are presented. A detailed description of the various test setups followed by the parameter extraction, modeling, and simulation study of the inverter performance is presented. Chapter 4--A 7.5-kW all-SiC inverter (SiC junction field effect transistors (JFET)--SiC Schottky diodes) was built and tested. The models built in Saber were validated using the test data and the models were used in system applications in the Saber simulator. The simulation results and a comparison of the data from the prototype tests are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 5--The duration test results of devices utilized in buck converters undergoing reliability testing are presented.

  4. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen...

  5. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  6. Comparison of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, B.

    2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developmental advances have allowed silicon (Si) semiconductor technology to approach the theoretical limits of the Si material; however, power device requirements for many applications are at a point that the present Si-based power devices cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. To overcome these limitations, new semiconductor materials for power device applications are needed. For high power requirements, wide-bandgap semiconductors like silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond, with their superior electrical properties, are likely candidates to replace Si in the near future. This report compares wide-bandgap semiconductors with respect to their promise and applicability for power applications and predicts the future of power device semiconductor materials.

  7. Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

  8. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, Rongqing (Lenexa, KS); Jiang,Hong-Xing (Manhattan, KS); Lin, Jing-Yu (Manhattan, KS)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  9. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: wide-bandgap semiconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electroluminescence was first reported by H.J. Round in 1907, and the first light-emitting diode (LED) was reported by O.V. Losev in 1927. Not until the birth of semiconductor...

  11. Wide Bandgap Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Madhu Chinthavali Oak Ridge National Laboratory May 15, 2012 Project ID: APE007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted...

  12. ECE 344--Semiconductor Devices & Materials ECE Department, UMass Amherst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    1 Syllabus ECE 344--Semiconductor Devices & Materials ECE Department, UMass Amherst Fall 2013 transport in semiconductors Explain the operating principles in semiconductor devices (diodes, capacitors Topics: Fundamentals of Semiconductors; Theory of Electrical Conduction; Device Operations (See "Class

  13. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  14. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley NickellApril 16, 2008 TBD-0075 -In theWide Bandgap

  15. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is a 聯Shut-down聰Whole AlgaeRateWhy IsWhyWhyWide

  16. Wafer Fusion for Integration of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Allerman, A.A.; Kravitz, S.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Hindi, J.J.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a wafer fusion technology to achieve integration of semiconductor materials and heterostructures with widely disparate lattice parameters, electronic properties, and/or optical properties for novel devices not now possible on any one substrate. Using our simple fusion process which uses low temperature (400-600 C) anneals in inert N{sub 2} gas, we have extended the scope of this technology to examine hybrid integration of dissimilar device technologies. As a specific example, we demonstrate wafer bonding vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to transparent AlGaAs and GaP substrates to fabricate bottom-emitting short wavelength VCSELs. As a baseline fabrication technology applicable to many semiconductor systems, wafer fusion will revolutionize the way we think about possible semiconductor devices, and enable novel device configurations not possible by epitaxial growth.

  17. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  18. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  19. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.

    1985-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 2/, wherein Eg/sub 2/ > Eg/sub 1/, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method. The method comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg/sub 1/ but less than Eg/sub 2/, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  20. Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications" on Tuesday, October 21, at 12:00 p...

  1. Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar titled "Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications," originally presented on October 21, 2014.

  2. System and method of modulating electrical signals using photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductors as variable resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, John Richardson; Caporaso, George J; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for producing modulated electrical signals. The system uses a variable resistor having a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material construction whose conduction response to changes in amplitude of incident radiation is substantially linear throughout a non-saturation region to enable operation in non-avalanche mode. The system also includes a modulated radiation source, such as a modulated laser, for producing amplitude-modulated radiation with which to direct upon the variable resistor and modulate its conduction response. A voltage source and an output port, are both operably connected to the variable resistor so that an electrical signal may be produced at the output port by way of the variable resistor, either generated by activation of the variable resistor or propagating through the variable resistor. In this manner, the electrical signal is modulated by the variable resistor so as to have a waveform substantially similar to the amplitude-modulated radiation.

  3. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution GridDocuments HomeDatabase on EngineATeachesWide-Bandgap

  4. Searching Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Wide Gap Semiconductors Fe-doped Strontium Titanate and Zinc Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, LMC; Wahl, U

    Scientic findings in the very beginning of the millennium are taking us a step further in the new paradigm of technology: spintronics. Upgrading charge-based electronics with the additional degree of freedom of the carriers spin-state, spintronics opens a path to the birth of a new generation of devices with the potential advantages of non-volatility and higher processing speed, integration densities and power efficiency. A decisive step towards this new age lies on the attribution of magnetic properties to semiconductors, the building block of today's electronics, that is, the realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors (FS) with critical temperatures above room temperature. Unfruitful search for intrinsic RT FS lead to the concept of Dilute(d) Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS): ordinary semiconductor materials where 3 d transition metals randomly substitute a few percent of the matrix cations and, by some long-range mechanism, order ferromagnetically. The times are of intense research activity and the last few ...

  5. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

  6. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Allen, Larry C. (Arvada, CO); Marshall, Craig (Littleton, CO); Murphy, Robert C. (Golden, CO); Marshall, Todd (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

  7. Methods of use of semiconductor nanocrystal probes for treating a material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Belmont, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  8. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  9. SPECTROSCOPIE DE DEFAUTS -LUMINESCENCE I. THE ANALYSIS OF WIDE BAND GAP SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on analysis depend very much on the device. In semiconductors, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are formed from pn

  10. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  11. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren抰 new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device抯 efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  12. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmutation Doping of Semiconductor Materials, NationalTransmutation Doping of Semiconductor Materials, NationalProperties of Doped Semiconductors , Solid State Series,

  13. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample. 17 figs.

  14. Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency: Wide Bandgap Nanophotonics Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    28/3/2013 Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency: Wide Bandgap Nanophotonics Lab Honours such as low power lasers, molecular sensors and high efficiency light emitters. Several projects are currently of Technology Sydney is one of the leading technological universities in Australia and located in the heart

  15. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device. 22 figs.

  16. Compositions of doped, co-doped and tri-doped semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lynn, Kelvin (Pullman, WA; , Jones, Kelly (Colfax, WA); Ciampi, Guido (Watertown, MA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor materials suitable for being used in radiation detectors are disclosed. A particular example of the semiconductor materials includes tellurium, cadmium, and zinc. Tellurium is in molar excess of cadmium and zinc. The example also includes aluminum having a concentration of about 10 to about 20,000 atomic parts per billion and erbium having a concentration of at least 10,000 atomic parts per billion.

  17. Mismatched semiconductor nanowires: growth and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yim, Joanne Wing Lan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SemiconductorFundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and MaterialsDilute III-V Nitride Semiconductors and Material Systems (

  18. Nanocomposites of Semimetallic ErAs Nanoparticles Epitaxially Embedded within InGaAlAs-based Semiconductors for Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GaAlAs-based Semiconductors for Thermoelectric Materials J.M.O. Zide', G. Zeng2, J.H. Bahk2, W. Kim3, S. L. Singer3, DAs nanoparticles which are epitaxially embedded within InGaAlAs-based semiconductors. The properties. In one geometry, barriers of InGaAlAs, a wider bandgap semiconductor, are introduced into an Er

  19. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Marvin M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Kernohan, Robert H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  20. Hydrogenated Bilayer Wurtzite SiC Nanofilms: A Two-Dimensional Bipolar Magnetic Semiconductor Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Long; Yang, Jinlong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, a new kind of spintronics materials, bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate, or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.

  1. Final Report: Laser-Material Interactions Relevant to Analytic Spectroscopy of Wide Band Gap Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, J. T. [Washington State University] [Washington State University

    2014-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize our studies aimed at developing an understanding of the underlying physics and chemistry in terms of laser materials interactions relevant to laser-based sampling and chemical analysis of wide bandgap materials. This work focused on the determination of mechanisms for the emission of electrons, ions, atoms, and molecules from laser irradiation of surfaces. We determined the important role of defects on these emissions, the thermal, chemical, and physical interactions responsible for matrix effects and mass-dependent transport/detection. This work supported development of new techniques and technology for the determination of trace elements contained such as nuclear waste materials.

  2. Superatoms and Metal-Semiconductor Motifs for Cluster Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castleman, A. W.

    2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular understanding of catalysis and catalytically active materials is of fundamental importance in designing new substances for applications in energy and fuels. We have performed reactivity studies and ultrafast ionization and coulomb explosion studies on a variety of catalytically-relevant materials, including transition metal oxides of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Nb, and Ta. We demonstrate that differences in charge state, geometry, and elemental composition of clusters of such materials determine chemical reactivity and ionization behavior, crucial steps in improving performance of catalysts.

  3. Chemical dynamics and bonding at gas/semiconductor and oxide/semiconductor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applied to alternative semiconductor materials to determinephase oxides and semiconductor surfaces. Both experimentalunderstanding of the oxide/semiconductor interface. The

  4. Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    level in two different semiconductors, illustrating the06-01999R1 Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators SpecialA. oxide materials; A. semiconductors; C. electronic

  5. A Wide Temperature Range Cryostat for Polarised Target Material Preparation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutz, Hartmut

    with current I and target density nt t 1 f 2 路 P2 t 路 L 路 A2 t FOM = f 2 路 P2 t 路 L is defining quality of frequency e + p DNP requirement: N Tn Te n Scott Reeve Wide Temperature 路 T Linear dependence of m on P laminar flow profile Falmer Scott Reeve Wide Temperature Range Cryostat 11

  6. Complex-wide representation of material packaged in 3013 containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Peppers, Larry G.; Friday, Gary P.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE sites packaging plutonium oxide materials packaged according to Department of Energy 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013) are responsible for ensuring that the materials are represented by one or more samples in the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program. The sites categorized most of the materials into process groups, and the remaining materials were characterized, based on the prompt gamma analysis results. The sites issued documents to identify the relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program. These 揜epresented documents were then reviewed and concurred with by the MIS Working Group. However, these documents were developed uniquely at each site and were issued before completion of sample characterization, small-scale experiments, and prompt gamma analysis, which provided more detailed information about the chemical impurities and the behavior of the material in storage. Therefore, based on the most recent data, relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program been revised. With the prompt gamma analysis completed for Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River Site 3013 containers, MIS items have been assigned to the 3013 containers for which representation is based on the prompt gamma analysis results. With the revised relationships and the prompt gamma analysis results, a Master 揜epresented table has been compiled to document the linkages between each 3013 container packaged to date and its representative MIS items. This table provides an important link between the Integrated Surveillance Program database, which contains information about each 3013 container to the MIS items database, which contains the characterization, prompt gamma data, and storage behavior data from shelf-life experiments for the representative MIS items.

  7. Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  8. Apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO); Johnston, Steven W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearity for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  9. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  10. Epitaxial growth of 100-?m thick M-type hexaferrite crystals on wide bandgap semiconductor GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Bolin; Su, Zhijuan; Bennett, Steve; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Thick barium hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) films having thicknesses of ?100??m were epitaxially grown on GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates from a molten-salt solution by vaporizing the solvent. X-ray diffraction measurement verified the growth of BaM (001) textured growth of thick films. Saturation magnetization, 4?M{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 4.6 0.2 kG and ferromagnetic resonance measurements revealed a microwave linewidth of ?100?Oe at X-band. Scanning electron microscopy indicated clear hexagonal crystals distributed on the semiconductor substrate. These results demonstrate feasibility of growing M-type hexaferrite crystal films on wide bandgap semiconductor substrates by using a simple powder melting method. It also presents a potential pathway for the integration of ferrite microwave passive devices with active semiconductor circuit elements creating system-on-a-wafer architectures.

  11. The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

  12. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Savoy, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  13. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  14. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  15. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Daejeon, KR); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  16. Time-resolved THz studies of carrier dynamics in semiconductors, superconductors, and strongly-correlated electron materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaindl, Robert A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    correlation effects in semiconductors, Nature 411, 549-557,in optically excited semiconductors, Phys. Rev. B 54,and Terahertz Gain in Semiconductors Excited to Resonance,

  17. Semiconductors and sustainability : energy and materials use in integrated circuit manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branham, Matthew S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors have propelled an incredible revolution in the way we generate, access, store, and communicate information; the effects of this revolution have transformed culture, society, and the economy. At the same time, ...

  18. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J S

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  19. Nitride semiconductor Surface and interface characterization and device design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongtao

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lett. 80 , D. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Devicein III-V Nitride Semiconductors: Applications and Devices ,SAN DIEGO Nitride Semiconductor Surface and Interface

  20. ECE 609 Semiconductor Devices Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ECE 609 Semiconductor Devices Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of semiconductor electronic devices in terms of material properties, interface and junction characteristics). ________________________________________________________________________ Preliminary Course Outline 1. Overview of Semiconductor Physics 1.1 Semiconductor Materials

  1. Mass and charge overlaps in beamline implantation into compound semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Current, M. I.; Eddy, R.; Hudak, C.; Serfass, J.; Mount, G. [Current Scientific, 1729 Comstock Way, San Jose, CA 95124 (United States); Core Systems, 1050 Kifer Rd., Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); Evans Analytical Group, 810 Kifer Rd., Sunnyvale, CA 95051 (United States)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass overlaps occurring as a result of extraction of ions from an arc discharge and gas collisions, producing molecular break up and charge exchange in the accelerator beamline, are examined for ion implantation into compound semiconductors. The effects of the choice of plasma gas elements for Be{sup +} implants are examined as an example.

  2. Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Evans, Paul G; Ritz, Clark S

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic compositional longitudinal modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

  3. Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Ritz, Clark S. (Middleton, WI)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic longitudinal modulation, which may be a compositional modulation or a strain-induced modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

  4. Method and apparatus for electron-only radiation detectors from semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lund, James C. (429 Warwick Ave., San Leandro, CA 94577)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors such as CdZnTe and Hgl.sub.2, which exhibit significant hole-trapping. A electrical reference plane is established about the perimeter of a semiconductor crystal and disposed intermediately between two oppositely biased end electrodes. The intermediate reference plane comprises a narrow strip of wire in electrical contact with the surface of the crystal, biased at a potential between the end electrode potentials and serving as an auxiliary electrical reference for a chosen electrode--typically the collector electrode for the more mobile charge carrier. This arrangement eliminates the interfering effects of the less mobile carriers as these are gathered by their electrode collector.

  5. 2012 DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 12-17, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLASER, EVAN

    2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

  6. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  7. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grubelich, Mark C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  8. ECE 609 Semiconductor Devices Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ECE 609 Semiconductor Devices Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University. ________________________________________________________________________ Preliminary Course Outline 1. Overview of Semiconductor Physics 1.1 Semiconductor Materials-V Characteristics, Nonideal Behavior) 2.2 Metal Semiconductor Junctions (Schottky Barriers, Ohmic Contacts) 2

  9. Radio frequency coupling apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Steven W. (Golden, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample using radio-frequency coupling. The measuring apparatus includes an antenna that is positioned a coupling distance from a semiconductor sample which is exposed to light pulses from a laser during sampling operations. A signal generator is included to generate high frequency, such as 900 MHz or higher, sinusoidal waveform signals that are split into a reference signal and a sample signal. The sample signal is transmitted into a sample branch circuit where it passes through a tuning capacitor and a coaxial cable prior to reaching the antenna. The antenna is radio-frequency coupled with the adjacent sample and transmits the sample signal, or electromagnetic radiation corresponding to the sample signal, to the sample and receives reflected power or a sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal back. To lower impedance and speed system response, the impedance is controlled by limiting impedance in the coaxial cable and the antenna reactance. In one embodiment, the antenna is a waveguide/aperture hybrid antenna having a central transmission line and an adjacent ground flange. The sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal is then transmitted to a mixer which also receives the reference signal. To enhance the sensitivity of the measuring apparatus, the mixer is operated to phase match the reference signal and the sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal.

  10. Evaluation of Novel Semiconductor Materials Potentially Useful in Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00172

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of novel semiconductor materials potentially useful in solar cells. NREL will fabricate, test and analyze solar cells from EpiWorks' wafers produced in 2-3 separate growth campaigns. NREL will also characterize material from 2-3 separate EpiWorks material development campaigns. Finally, NREL will visit EpiWorks and help establish any necessary process, such as spectral CV measurements and III-V on Si metalization processes and help validate solar cell designs and performance.

  11. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Chiang Y. (Miller Place, NY); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  12. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  13. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV芒??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  14. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  15. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  16. The synthesis of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystalline materials for the purpose of creating hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckel, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Stephen)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) or quantum dots (QDs) can be synthesized to efficiently emit light from the ultraviolet, across the entire visible spectrum, and into the near infrared. This is now possible due ...

  17. Technical Program Maintaining Consistent Conditions over a Wide Range of Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    of Material Deposition Rates in Beam-Based Additive Manufacturing: Jack Beuth1; Shane Esola1; Raymond Walker2 consideration for additive manufacturing and repair applications in the aerospace industry. To be successful Effect of Process Parameters on Electron Beam Melted (EBM) Additively Manufactured Components in Ti-6Al-4

  18. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  19. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  20. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  1. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel (Westminster, CO); Chen, Yih-Wen (Omaha, NE)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  2. Spectroscopy of semiconductor materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|SolarSpeakersSpectroscopy| MIT-HarvardAg 3

  3. Method for implantation of high dopant concentrations in wide band gap materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Usov, Igor (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method that combines alternate low/medium ion dose implantation with rapid thermal annealing at relatively low temperatures. At least one dopant is implanted in one of a single crystal and an epitaxial film of the wide band gap compound by a plurality of implantation cycles. The number of implantation cycles is sufficient to implant a predetermined concentration of the dopant in one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film. Each of the implantation cycles includes the steps of: implanting a portion of the predetermined concentration of the one dopant in one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film; annealing one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film and implanted portion at a predetermined temperature for a predetermined time to repair damage to one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film caused by implantation and activates the implanted dopant; and cooling the annealed single crystal and implanted portion to a temperature of less than about 100.degree. C. This combination produces high concentrations of dopants, while minimizing the defect concentration.

  4. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16 Isotopically Controlled Semiconductors Eugene E. Hallerof isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstandingisotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article

  5. 204 Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science 205 of Architecture. The campus-wide Rice Quantum Institute is also active in the research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    204 Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science 205 of Architecture. The campus-wide Rice Quantum. Degree Requirements for B.A., B.S.M.E. in Mechanical Engineering or B.A., B.S.M.S. in Materials Science and Engineering The B.A. program in either mechanical engineering or materials science

  6. Wide Bandgap Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    May 10, 2011 Project ID: APE007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2011 U.S. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  7. Wide Bandgap Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 10, 2010 Project ID: APE007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S....

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS - AN INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    infrinfc primely owned dtfiw. SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS - ANi) LBL-7282 I. History Semiconductor detectors appeared onof alpha particles by semiconductor diodes several years

  9. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and phonons in semiconductors, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 141 (LVM) Spectroscopy of Semiconductors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp.Isotopically Engineered Semiconductors New Media for the

  10. Semiconductor Nanowires: What's Next?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanowires, what抯 next? Peidong Yang, Ruoxuelater research into semiconductor whiskers with nanoscalewere popularized as semiconductor nanowires in the following

  11. Multi-phonon-assisted absorption and emission in semiconductors and its potential for laser refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khurgin, Jacob B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser cooling of semiconductors has been an elusive goal for many years, and while attempts to cool the narrow gap semiconductors such as GaAs are yet to succeed, recently, net cooling has been attained in a wider gap CdS. This raises the question of whether wider gap semiconductors with higher phonon energies and stronger electron-phonon coupling are better suitable for laser cooling. In this work we develop a straightforward theory of phonon-assisted absorption and photoluminescence of semiconductors that involves more than one phonon and use to examine wide gap materials, such as GaN and CdS and compare them with GaAs. The results indicate that while strong electron-phonon coupling in both GaN and CdS definitely improves the prospects of laser cooling, large phonon energy in GaN may be a limitation, which makes CdS a better prospect for laser cooling.

  12. Multi-phonon-assisted absorption and emission in semiconductors and its potential for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurgin, Jacob B., E-mail: jakek@jhu.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21208 (United States)

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser cooling of semiconductors has been an elusive goal for many years, and while attempts to cool the narrow gap semiconductors such as GaAs are yet to succeed, recently, net cooling has been attained in a wider gap CdS. This raises the question of whether wider gap semiconductors with higher phonon energies and stronger electron-phonon coupling are better suitable for laser cooling. In this work, we develop a straightforward theory of phonon-assisted absorption and photoluminescence of semiconductors that involves more than one phonon and use to examine wide gap materials, such as GaN and CdS and compare them with GaAs. The results indicate that while strong electron-phonon coupling in both GaN and CdS definitely improves the prospects of laser cooling, large phonon energy in GaN may be a limitation, which makes CdS a better prospect for laser cooling.

  13. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Partial Listing of Copyright 2014, Cree Inc. pg. 14 1200V SiC MOSFET design wins in PV inverters 1200V, 80m SiC MOSFETs have been selected by Japan's Sanix Inc. 9.9kW...

  14. INFOGRAPHIC: Wide Bandgap Semiconductors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOral TestimonyEnergyFinding U.INDIANAPOLISINFOGRAPHIC:

  15. INFOGRAPHIC: Wide Bandgap Semiconductors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND DTechnologiesFindingThe Road to

  16. Construction of a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) Setup Semiconductors and DLTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    Construction of a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) Setup Semiconductors and DLTS Semiconductor devices are central to information technology. Their importance stems from the fact Ian Booker Semiconductor Materials Group Dept. Of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, IFM Link鰌ing

  17. 1.0. Semiconductor Diodes 1 of 27 1.2 Ideal Diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Gale

    1.0. Semiconductor Diodes 1 of 27 1.2 Ideal Diode ID VD ID Open Circuit Short Circuit VD + - #12;1.0. Semiconductor Diodes 2 of 27 1.3 Semiconductor Materials Conductor Insulator Semiconductor R = (Resistivity Resistivity of a semiconductor decreases as temperature increases. ure coefficient.Negative temperat #12

  18. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

  19. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  20. High-Throughput Transfer Imprinting for Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choo, Gihoon

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    semiconductors because heat and pressure used in thermal nanoimprint do not damage functional materials. However, issues such as residual layer removal and mold contamination still limit the application of nanoimprint for organic semiconductor patterning...

  1. 962 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, MAY 2014 Ultrabroadband and Wide-Angle Hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    962 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, MAY 2014 Ultrabroadband and Wide-Angle Hybrid) are essential to realizing efficiency gains for state-of- the-art multijunction photovoltaic devices approach. Index Terms--Biomimetics, optical films, photovoltaic cells, III璙 semiconductor materials. I

  2. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  3. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, Barry A. [Isys, 2727 Walsh Ave., Suite 103, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States); Ruffell, John P. [Group 3, LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  4. DOE Announces Webinars on Zero Energy Ready Homes, Wide Bandgap...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications Webinar Sponsor: Fuel Cell Technologies Office The Energy...

  5. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  6. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  7. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

    1985-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  8. Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near functions of thin film semiconductors are useful for two important purposes, namely, materials, reflectance, and ellipso- metric spectra obtained on the thin film semiconductors. The conventional analysis

  9. Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sarah B.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SemiconductorThe Semiconductor Industry: Size, Growth andSemiconductor Life-cycle Environmental Impacts . . . . . . .

  10. Details in Semiconductors Gordon Conference, New London, NH, August 3-8, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shengbai Zhang and Nancy Ryan Gray

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in homogeneous and structured semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, with an increases emphasis on nanostructures as compared to previous conferences. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference deals with defects in a broad range of bulk and nanoscale electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, doped nanoparticles, and organic semiconductors. Presentations of state-of-the-art theoretical methods will contribute to a fundamental understanding of atomic-scale phenomena. The program consists of about twenty invited talks, with plenty of discussion time, and a number of contributed poster sessions. Because of the large amount of discussion time, the conference provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  11. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  12. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  13. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card.

  14. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit.

  15. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  16. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit. 7 figs.

  17. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesLight Creation Materials Light Creation Materials Overview of SSL Light Creation Materials Different families of inorganic semiconductor materials can...

  19. Structure and magnetism of transition-metal implanted dilute magnetic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, Lino; Temst, K; Ara鷍o, JP; Wahl, U

    The discovery of a dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) in which ferromagnetism is carrier-mediated and persists above room temperature is a critical step towards the development of semiconductor-based spintronics. Among the many types of DMS materials which have been investigated, the current research interest can be narrowed down to two main classes of materials: (1) narrow-gap III-V semiconductors, mostly GaAs and InAs, doped with Mn; (2) wide-gap oxides and nitrides doped with 3d transition metals, mostly Mn- and Co-doped ZnO and Mn-doped GaN. With a number of interesting functionalities deriving from the carrier-mediated ferromagnetism and demonstrated in various proof-of-concept devices, Mn-doped GaAs has become, among DMS materials, one of the best candidates for technological application. However, despite major developments over the last 15 years, the maximum Curie temperature (185 K) remains well below room temperature. On the other hand, wide-gap DMS materials appear to exhibit ferromagnetic behavior...

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of novel semiconductors /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapler, Brian Caleb

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dilute magnetic semiconductor . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1in the topological semiconductors Bi2Te3 and Mn梔opedM. Fundamentals of semiconductors. Springer-Verlag, Berlin,

  1. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin Related Phenomena in Semiconductors, (27-28 Jan 1997,FERROMAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS Amita Gupta Stockholm, Junedata are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the

  2. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  3. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  4. Inorganic Chemistry Solutions to Semiconductor Nanocrystal Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarado, Samuel R. [Ames Laboratory; Guo, Yijun [Ames Laboratory; Ruberu, T. Purnima A. [Ames Laboratory; Tavasoli, Elham [Ames Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The optoelectronic and chemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals heavily depend on their composition, size, shape and internal structure, surface functionality, etc. Available strategies to alter these properties through traditional colloidal syntheses and ligand exchange methods place a premium on specific reaction conditions and surfactant combinations. In this invited review, we apply a molecular-level understanding of chemical precursor reactivity to reliably control the morphology, composition and intimate architecture (core/shell vs. alloyed) of semiconductor nanocrystals. We also describe our work aimed at achieving highly selective, low-temperature photochemical methods for the synthesis of semiconductor杕etal and semiconductor杕etal oxide photocatalytic nanocomposites. In addition, we describe our work on surface modification of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots using new approaches and methods that bypass ligand exchange, retaining the nanocrystal's native ligands and original optical properties, as well as on spectroscopic methods of characterization useful in determining surface ligand organization and chemistry. Using recent examples from our group and collaborators, we demonstrate how these efforts have lead to faster, wider and more systematic application of semiconductor nanocrystal-based materials to biological imaging and tracking, and to photocatalysis of unconventional substrates. We believe techniques and methods borrowed from inorganic chemistry (including coordination, organometallic and solid state chemistry) have much to offer in reaching a better understanding of the synthesis, functionalization and real-life application of such exciting materials as semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, rods, tetrapods, etc.).

  5. Photovoltaic healing of non-uniformities in semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karpov, Victor G.; Roussillon, Yann; Shvydka, Diana; Compaan, Alvin D.; Giolando, Dean M.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a photovoltaic device using light energy and a solution to normalize electric potential variations in the device. A semiconductor layer having nonuniformities comprising areas of aberrant electric potential deviating from the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor is deposited onto a substrate layer. A solution containing an electrolyte, at least one bonding material, and positive and negative ions is applied over the top surface of the semiconductor. Light energy is applied to generate photovoltage in the semiconductor, causing a redistribution of the ions and the bonding material to the areas of aberrant electric potential. The bonding material selectively bonds to the nonuniformities in a manner such that the electric potential of the nonuniformities is normalized relative to the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor layer. A conductive electrode layer is then deposited over the top surface of the semiconductor layer.

  6. Conduction properties of metal/organic monolayer/semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Bishop, A.; Gim, Y.; Shi, X.B.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Jia, Q.X. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have fabricated and characterized rectifying devices made of metal/organic monolayer/semiconductor heterostructures. The devices consist of an organic barrier layer sandwiched between an aluminum (Al) metal contact and a {ital p}-type Si semiconductor. The barrier materials were chosen from three types of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with different electronic properties: (1) wide-band gap poly(diallydimethyl ammonium) chloride (PDDA), (2) narrow-band gap PDDA/NiPc (nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate), and (3) donor type PDDA/PPP (poly {ital p}-quaterphenylene-disulfonic-dicarboxylic acid). From current{endash}voltage (I{endash}V) measurements at room temperature, we have found the turn-on voltage of the devices can be tuned by varying the structure, hence electronic properties, of the organic monolayers, and that there exists a power-law dependence of {ital I} on V, I{proportional_to}V{sup {alpha}}, with the exponent {alpha}=2.2 for PDDA, 2.7 for PDDA/NiPc, and 1.44 for PDDA/PPP as the barrier layer, respectively. Our results imply that the transport properties are controlled by both the electronic properties of the SAMs and those of the metal and semiconductor, as indicated by the power-law dependence of the I{endash}V characteristics. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Optical Nonlinearities and Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, V.; McBranch, D.; Schwarz, C.

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-dimensional semiconductors have attracted great interest due to the potential for tailoring their linear and nonlinear optical properties over a wide-range. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC's) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects or quantum dots. Due to quantum cordhement and a large surface-to-volume ratio, the linear and nonlinear optical properties, and the carrier dynamics in NC's are significantly different horn those in bulk materials. napping at surface states can lead to a fast depopulation of quantized states, accompanied by charge separation and generation of local fields which significantly modifies the nonlinear optical response in NC's. 3D carrier confinement also has a drastic effect on the energy relaxation dynamics. In strongly confined NC's, the energy-level spacing can greatly exceed typical phonon energies. This has been expected to significantly inhibit phonon-related mechanisms for energy losses, an effect referred to as a phonon bottleneck. It has been suggested recently that the phonon bottleneck in 3D-confined systems can be removed due to enhanced role of Auger-type interactions. In this paper we report femtosecond (fs) studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities, and energy relaxation and trap ping dynamics in three types of quantum-dot systems: semiconductor NC/glass composites made by high temperature precipitation, ion-implanted NC's, and colloidal NC'S. Comparison of ultrafast data for different samples allows us to separate effects being intrinsic to quantum dots from those related to lattice imperfections and interface properties.

  8. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  9. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  10. Operations improvement in a semiconductor capital equipment manufacturing plant : component level and assembly level inventory management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yiming, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor capital equipment is manufactured in a high-mix and low-volume environment at Varian Semiconductor Equipment business unit of Applied Materials. Due to the demand growth over the past years, Varian has been ...

  11. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  12. Beam excited acoustic instability in semiconductor quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasheed, A.; Siddique, M.; Huda, F. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Jamil, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Jung, Y.-D. [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The instability of hole-Acoustic waves due to electron beam in semiconductor quantum plasmas is examined using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The quantum effects are considered including Bohm potential, Fermi degenerate pressure, and exchange potential of the semiconductor quantum plasma species. Our model is applied to nano-sized GaAs semiconductor plasmas. The variation of the growth rate of the unstable mode is obtained over a wide range of system parameters. It is found that the thermal effects of semiconductor species have significance over the hole-Acoustic waves.

  13. Room temperature triplet state spectroscopy of organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic light emitting devices and solar cells are machines that create, manipulate and destroy excited states in organic semiconductors. It is crucial to characterize these excited states, or excitons, to optimize device performance in applications like displays and solar energy harvesting. This is complicated if the excited state is a triplet because the electronic transition is dark with a vanishing oscillator strength. As a consequence, triplet state spectroscopy must usually be performed at cryogenic temperatures to reduce competition from non-radiative rates. Here, we control non-radiative rates by engineering a solid-state host matrix containing the target molecule, allowing the observation of phosphorescence at room temperature and alleviating constraints of cryogenic experiments. We test these techniques on a wide range of materials with functionalities spanning multi-exciton generation (singlet exciton fission), organic light emitting device host materials, and thermally activated delayed fluorescen...

  14. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  15. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Scher, Erik C. (San Francisco, CA); Manna, Liberato (Lecce, IT)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  16. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  17. Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

  18. Wide bandgap n-type and p-type semiconductor porous junction devices as photovoltaic cells This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar cells because of their low production cost. Significant breakthroughs in solar cell performances. Introduction Solar cells incorporating organic materials are interesting alternatives to conventional silicon artificial photovoltaic device. In a dye-sensitized solar cell the absorbing dye molecules lie at the large

  19. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  20. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  1. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  2. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) an affinity molecule linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal. The semiconductor nanocrystal is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Exposure of the semiconductor nanocrystal to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  3. Band gap engineering at a semiconductor - crystalline oxide interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moghadam, Jahangir-Moghadam; Shen, Xuan; Chrysler, Matthew; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Su, Dong; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO? and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We presentmore牷structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO?-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.珷less

  4. 2 www.trnmag.com Technology Research News February 23/March 2, 2005 Process yields semiconductor foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    Wayne State University have made crystalline aerogels -- new semiconductor materials that are very porous, giving them very high surface areas. Unlike conventional aerogels, the researchers' materials

  5. SSSSSSSS LLLLSemiconductor System LabSemiconductor System LabSemiconductor System LabSemiconductor System Lab Jaeseo Lee, Gigabit Optical Interface IC Design 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    range Wide Bandwidth Low Noise amplifier is required!! 60~80dB 1) providing dc level restoration 2Semiconductor System Lab Design Goal Gain range : 60~80dB (1k ~ 10k) Wide bandwidth Low Noise CMOS Motivation Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) Why TIA? Noise Source TIA Noise & Design Solution

  6. Features of the electric-field distribution in anisotropic semiconductor wafers in a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, V. V., E-mail: wwfilippow@mail.ru [Lipetsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Bormontov, E. N. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material's anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors.

  7. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  8. Exploring and enhancing conductivity in semiconductor nanoparticle films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Venda Jane

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are a promising material for use in opto-electronic devices as their optical properties tune with particle size. NCs formed via colloidal synthesis are suspended in solution by the organic ...

  9. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minority carrier lifetime is significantly much shorter in semiconductor materials with very high impurity concentrations than it is in semiconductor materials with lower impurity concentration levels. This phenomenon of reduced minority carrier lifetime in semiconductor materials having high impurity concentration is utilized to advantage for permitting highly selective semiconductor material etching to be achieved using a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. Various means may be employed for increasing the local impurity concentration level in specific near-surface regions of a semiconductor prior to subjecting the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. The regions having the localized increased impurity concentration form a self-aligned mask inhibiting photochemical etching at such localized regions while the adjacent regions not having increased impurity concentrations are selectively photochemically etched. Liquid- or gas-phase etching may be performed.

  10. New Materials for Spintronics. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: One of the critical materials needs for the development of spin electronics is diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) which retain their ferromagnetism at and...

  11. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  12. Mesoscopic pointlike defects in semiconductors: Deep-level energies D. D. Nolte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolte, David D.

    -semiconductor heterostructures to include metal-semiconductor,1 insulator-semiconductor, and superconductor-semiconductor

  13. Method for manufacturing electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Dickson, Charles R. (Pennington, NJ); D'Aiello, Robert V. (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.

  14. Semiconductor Engineers in a Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Clair; Linden, Greg

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology: The Case of Semiconductors. Brookings Institute:Society, Space, and Semiconductors in The Restructuring Ofin the Global Semiconductor Industry. California

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Chris Byung-hwa

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brock, S. L. 揚orous semiconductor chalcogenide aerogels. 擭anostructured Semiconductor. J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 127,in mesostructured semiconductors based on the [SnSe 4 ]4-

  16. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectricity in semiconductor nanostructures. Science,splitting using semiconductor electrodes. InternationalChalcogenides, Monographs in Semiconductor Physics, ed. L.S.

  17. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called 揝hockley-Queisser limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates 揾ot charge carriers that quickly 揷ool to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a 損honon bottleneck wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  18. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bridge between the structural complexity of templated porous materials, and the electronic and optical complexity of semiconductor

  19. Webinar October 21: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Cell Applications" on Tuesday, October 21, from 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. Numerous applications of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies could benefit from...

  20. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics, Optoelectronics, and Advanced Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    for hybrid and electric vehicles, solar photovoltaic inverters, power supply miniaturization and efficiency reliability and efficiency. Georgia Tech also has leading expertise in the metrology of the temperature and stresses in GaN electronics to verify device performance and yield new insight into device reliability

  1. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Clean Energy Workshop | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley NickellApril 16, 2008 TBD-0075 -In the

  2. Recent emission channeling studies in wide band gap semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Ulrich; Rita, E; Alves, E; Carvalho-Soares, Jo鉶; De Vries, Bart; Matias, V; Vantomme, A

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of recent emission channeling experiments on the lattice location of implanted Fe and rare earths in wurtzite GaN and ZnO. In both cases the majority of implanted atoms are found on substitutional cation sites. The root mean square displacements from the ideal substitutional Ga and Zn sites are given and the stability of the Fe and rare earth lattice location against thermal annealing is discussed.

  3. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse toOctober 2014Funds forEnergyOperationsEnergyand

  4. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening

  5. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of EnergyThe U.S. DepartmentEnergy WASHINGTON,Concept

  6. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Clean Energy Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofofto PurchaseApril 16,WhoWhy AreWhyPower

  7. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Clean Energy Workshop: Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofofto PurchaseApril 16,WhoWhy

  8. Webinar October 21: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWaste Heat Wasteof|WebinarElectronics for

  9. Broad-area tandem semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, T.R.; Mehuys, D.; Zhuang, Y.H.; Mittelstein, M.; Wang, H.; Derry, P.L.; Kajanto, M.; Yariv, A.

    1988-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A tandem combination of a uniform gain broad-area semiconductor laser and a (lateral) periodic gain section displays a stable, near-diffraction-limited single-lobed far-field pattern. The GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well lasers display a high degree of coherence across 60-..mu..m-wide apertures provided that the broad-area section is sufficiently long.

  10. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  11. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  12. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  13. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  14. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  15. Millimeter Wave Sensor Technologies Track Biometrics; Detect Chemicals, Gases, and Radiation: Argonne抯 millimeter wave (mmW) sensor technologies measure a wide range of threat materials remotely

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Security threats come in many forms梐irborne, radiative, gaseous, human, or infiltrative梐nd it can be costly and impractical to deploy a broad suite of detector technologies to identify all potential hazards in public places. Argonne抯 millimeter wave (mmW) sensor technologies measure a wide range of threat materials remotely, making them well suited to many security, industrial and medical applications....

  16. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1988-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  17. Materials Science and Engineering Program Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Materials Science and Engineering Program Objectives Within the scope of the MSE mission, the objectives of the Materials Engineering Program are to produce graduates who: A. practice materials engineering in a broad range of industries including materials production, semiconductors, medical

  18. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  19. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  20. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  1. Energy resolution in semiconductor gamma radiation detectors using heterojunctions and methods of use and preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Nelson, Art J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In one embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material and a hole blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. In another embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material, and an electron blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the electron blocking layer resisting passage of electrons therethrough, wherein the electron blocking layer comprises undoped HgCdTe. In another embodiment, a method comprises forming a hole blocking layer adjacent a semiconductor gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  2. Quantum Semiconductor Modeling Ansgar Jungel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J黱gel, Ansgar

    Quantum Semiconductor Modeling Ansgar J╱ngel Vienna University of Technology, Austria www.jungel.at.vu Ansgar J╱ngel (TU Wien) Quantum Semiconductor Modeling www.jungel.at.vu 1 / 154 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 2 Semiconductor modeling 3 Microscopic quantum models Density matrices Schr╫dinger models Wigner

  3. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in he probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  4. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  5. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  6. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  7. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  8. Scanning probe microscopy studies of semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, W.H. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work involving atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed which involves strain-induced, self-assembling nanostructures in compound semiconductor materials. Specific examples include one-dimensional quantum wires of InAs grown by MBE on GaAs(001) and zero-dimensional quantum dots of InP grown by MOCVD on InGaP which is lattice matched to GaAs(001).

  9. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  10. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition | NationalMaterials

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Semiconductors and Their Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Chris Byung-hwa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomaterials, Ceramics, and Semiconductors. Science, 277,I. 揘anostructured Semiconductors Templated by Cholesteryl-Nanostructured Semiconductor. J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 127,

  12. A Novel Class of High-TC Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlyk, L. V.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diluted magnetic semiconductor or clustering effect? ,ferromagnetism in semiconductors, J. Appl. Phys. , inMaking nonmagnetic semiconductors ferromagnetic, Science,

  13. Magnetization dynamics and spin diffusion in semiconductors and metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cywi?ski, ?ukasz

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to (III,Mn)V ferromagnetic semiconductors . . . . . . . . .semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spin di?usion in semiconductors and metals: a general

  14. MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williama, Pamela Louise

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL Pamelaresistors, and zinc oxide varistors are semiconductorRELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL CONTENTS

  15. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of inorganic semiconductor-based nanostructured materials;inorganic materials. 16,35,62?72 In the synthesis, we begin

  16. Effects of hole localization on limiting p-type conductivity in oxide and nitride semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, J. L.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine how hole localization limits the effectiveness of substitutional acceptors in oxide and nitride semiconductors and explain why p-type doping of these materials has proven so difficult. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we find that anion-site substitutional impurities in AlN, GaN, InN, and ZnO lead to atomic-like states that localize on the impurity atom itself. Substitution with cation-site impurities, on the other hand, triggers the formation of polarons that become trapped on nearest-neighbor anions, generally leading to large ionization energies for these acceptors. Unlike shallow effective-mass acceptors, these two types of deep acceptors couple strongly with the lattice, significantly affecting the optical properties and severely limiting prospects for achieving p-type conductivity in these wide-band-gap materials.

  17. Topsil Semiconductor Materials AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin Hydropower Station Jump to:TiogaTongdaoToolToppan Printing

  18. Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles J. M, mobility, and Seebeck coefficient of these materials and discuss their potential for use in thermoelectric on thermoelectric materials has focused on the ability of heterostructures and quantum con- finement to increase

  19. Scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy: an efficient tool for materials studies in silicon-based photonics and photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astafiev, O V; Yuryev, V A; 10.1016/S0022-0248(99)00711-3

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy has recently been proposed for the investigation of large-scale electrically and recombination-active defects in semiconductors and non-destructive inspection of semiconductor materials and structures in the industries of microelectronics and photovoltaics. The basis for this development was laid with a wide cycle of investigations on low-angle mid-IR-light scattering in semiconductors. The essence of the technical idea was to apply the dark-field method for spatial filtering of the scattered light in the scanning mid-IR-laser microscope together with the local photoexcitation of excess carriers within a small domain in a studied sample, thus forming an artificial source of scattering of the probe IR light for the recombination contrast imaging of defects. The current paper presents three contrasting examples of application of the above technique for defect visualization in silicon-based materials designed for photovoltaics and photonics which demonstrate that this...

  20. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  1. Scientists Connect Thermoelectric Materials and Topological Insulators...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that does not occur in normal semiconductors. Thermoelectric materials enable scalable direct conversion of heat to electricity in solid state devices, and have potential for...

  2. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  3. WWW.MOTOROLA.COM/SEMICONDUCTORS Microcontrollers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Joe

    WWW.MOTOROLA.COM/SEMICONDUCTORS M68HC11 Microcontrollers M68HC11RM/D Rev. 6, 4/2002 M68HC11 Reference Manual FreescaleSemiconductor,I Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com nc... #12;FreescaleSemiconductor,I Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. For More

  4. Coherence and focusing properties of unstable resonator semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittelstein, M.; Salzman, J.; Venkatesan, T.; Lang, R.; Yariv, A.

    1985-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission characteristics of unstable resonator semiconductor lasers were measured. The output of an 80-..mu..m-wide laser consists of a diverging beam with a virtual source 5 ..mu..m wide located 50 ..mu..m behind the laser facet. A high degree of spatial coherence of the laser output was measured, indicating single lateral mode operation for currents I< or approx. =3 I/sub th/.

  5. Semiconductor Probes of Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter W. Graham; David E. Kaplan; Surjeet Rajendran; Matthew T. Walters

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter with mass below about a GeV is essentially unobservable in conventional direct detection experiments. However, newly proposed technology will allow the detection of single electron events in semiconductor materials with significantly lowered thresholds. This would allow detection of dark matter as light as an MeV in mass. Compared to other detection technologies, semiconductors allow enhanced sensitivity because of their low ionization energy around an eV. Such detectors would be particularly sensitive to dark matter with electric and magnetic dipole moments, with a reach many orders of magnitude beyond current bounds. Observable dipole moment interactions can be generated by new particles with masses as great as 1000 TeV, providing a window to scales beyond the reach of current colliders.

  6. Semiconductor lasers with uniform longitudinal intensity distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrans, T.; Yariv, A. (Department of Applied Physics 128-95, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (USA))

    1990-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Power-dependent nonuniform longitudinal intensity distribution leading to spectral and spatial instabilities is a major problem in semiconductor lasers. It is shown theoretically that a proper choice of the longitudinal distribution of the gain as well as that of the magnitude of the grating coupling coefficient will lead to a uniform intensity distribution in distributed feedback lasers. We also show that the widely used phase, rather than magnitude, control of the coupling coefficient cannot lead to a uniform intensity distribution when the facet reflectivities are zero.

  7. Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: compound semiconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compound semiconductor Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  9. Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Junqiao

    2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and GaP{sub 1-x}N{sub x} with x {approx}< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also occurs between localized states and the valence band states. Soft x-ray fluorescence experiments provide direct evidence of the BAC interaction in these systems. In the final chapter of the thesis, I describe and summarize my studies of optical properties of wurtzite InN and related alloys. Early studies performed on InN films grown by sputtering techniques suggested a direct bandgap of {approx}1.9 eV for this semiconductor. Very recently, high-quality InN films with much higher mobility have become available by using the molecular beam epitaxy growth method. Optical experiments carried out on these samples reveal a narrow bandgap for InN of 0.77 eV, much lower than the previously accepted value. Optical properties of InGaN and InAlN ternaries on the In rich side have also been characterized and are found to be consistent with the narrow bandgap of InN. The bandgap bowing parameters in these alloys were determined. In the context of these findings, the bandgap energies of InGaN and InAlN were found to cover a wide spectral range from the infrared for InN to the ultraviolet for GaN and deep ultraviolet for AlN. The significance of this work is rooted in many important applications of nitride semiconductors in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion devices.

  10. Noise and synamics in semiconductor lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Farhan, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, theoretical and experimental work on the noise and dynamics in continuous wave and mode-locked semiconductor lasers is presented. The main focus is on semiconductor cascade lasers and semiconductor mode-locked ...

  11. Semiconductors: From Manipulated to Managed Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyson, Laura D'Andrea; Yoffie, David B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    o f the Japanese semiconductor industry is a sucecsslul aridcommodnv product Ol the semiconductor industry. They are afor maJtini: semiconductors: 籲c

  12. Electron vortices in semiconductors devicesa... Kamran Mohsenib

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron vortices in semiconductors devicesa... Kamran Mohsenib Aerospace Engineering Sciencies; published online 3 October 2005 The hydrodynamic model of electron transport in semiconductors is analyzed vorticity effects. Furthermore, conditions for observation of electron vortices in semiconductor devices

  13. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  14. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, Richard S. (Princeton, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

  15. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Agreements The U.S. semiconductor industry, represented by the members of the Environmental Protection Agency's PFC ReductionClimate Partnership for the Semiconductor...

  17. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    over 100 companies that account for more than 83% of U.S.-based semiconductor production. The SIA provides a forum for domestic semiconductor companies to work collectively...

  18. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Abstract: Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the...

  19. Development of epitaxial AlxSc1-xN for artificially structured metal/semiconductor superlattice metamaterials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sands, Timothy D.; Stach, Eric A.; Saha, Bivas; Saber, Sammy; Naik, Gururaj V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kvam, Eric P.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial nitride rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices are emerging as a novel class of artificially structured materials that have generated significant interest in recent years for their potential application in plasmonic and thermoelectric devices. Though most nitride metals are rocksalt, nitride semiconductors in general have hexagonal crystal structure. We report rocksalt aluminum scandium nitride (Al,Sc)N alloys as the semiconducting component in epitaxial rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices. The AlxSc1?xN alloys when deposited directly on MgO substrates are stabilized in a homogeneous rocksalt (single) phase when x?more牷has been extended to x?xSc1?xN alloys show moderate direct bandgap bowing with a bowing parameter, B?=?1.41??0.19?eV. The direct bandgap of metastable rocksalt AlN is extrapolated to be 4.70??0.20?eV. The tunable lattice parameter, bandgap, dielectric permittivity, and electronic properties of rocksalt AlxSc1?xN alloys enable high quality epitaxial rocksalt metal/AlxSc1?xN superlattices with a wide range of accessible metamaterials properties.珷less

  20. Wide Bandgap Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofofto PurchaseApril 16,WhoWhy AreWhy We2

  1. Wide Bandgap Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofofto PurchaseApril 16,WhoWhy AreWhy We21

  2. Wide Bandgap Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofofto PurchaseApril 16,WhoWhy AreWhy We210

  3. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E. E., E-mail: eehaller@lbl.gov [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  4. Ge-on-Si Integrated Photonics: New Tricks from an Old Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jifeng, Liu

    We review recent progress in Ge active photonic devices for electronic-photonic integration on Si, demonstrating new tricks in optoelectronics from this 搊ld semiconductor material used for the first transistor more than ...

  5. Rapid synthesis and size control of CuInS2 semi-conductor nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

  6. Rapid Synthesis and Size Control of CuInS2 Semi-Conductor Nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

  7. Growth and characterization of mid-infrared phosphide-based semiconductor diode lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Pei-Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diode laser emitting at mid-infrared wavelength (2~5 pm) is an ideal light source for petrochemical or industrial-important gas sensing. Antimony-based III-V compound semiconductor material is the most prominent pseudomorphic ...

  8. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an explosive device comprising an explosive material which can be made to explode upon activation by activation means in contact therewith; electrical activation means adaptable for activating said explosive material such that it explodes; and electrical circuitry in operation association with said activation means; there is an improvement wherein said activation means is an electrical material which, at an elevated temperature, has a negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and which has a shape and size and an area of contact with said explosive material sufficient that it has an electrical resistance which will match the resistance requirements of said associated electrical circuitry when said electrical material is operationally associated with said circuitry, and wherein said electrical material is polycrystalline; or said electrical material is crystalline and (a) is mounted on a lattice matched substrate or (b) is partially covered with an intimately contacting metallization area which defines its area of contact with said explosive material.

  9. Semiconductor Bridge Cable Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KING, TONY L.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The semiconductor bridge (SCB) is an electroexplosive device used to initiate detonators. A C cable is commonly used to connect the SCB to a firing set. A series of tests were performed to identify smaller, lighter cables for firing single and multiple SCBs. This report provides a description of these tests and their results. It was demonstrated that lower threshold voltages and faster firing times can be achieved by increasing the wire size, which reduces ohmic losses. The RF 100 appears to be a reasonable substitute for C cable when firing single SCBs. This would reduce the cable volume by 68% and the weight by 67% while increasing the threshold voltage by only 22%. In general, RG 58 outperforms twisted pair when firing multiple SCBs in parallel. The RG 58's superior performance is attributed to its larger conductor size.

  10. Photoacoustic measurement of bandgaps of thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, George (George Wei)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are a promising class of direct energy conversion materials, usually consisting of highly doped semiconductors. The key to maximizing their thermal to electrical energy conversion lies in optimizing ...

  11. A proposal for Coulomb assisted laser cooling of piezoelectric semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nia, Iman Hassani; Mohseni, Hooman, E-mail: hmohseni@ece.northwestern.edu [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory (BISOL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Anti-Stokes laser cooling of semiconductors as a compact and vibration-free method is very attractive. While it has achieved significant milestones, increasing its efficiency is highly desirable. The main limitation is the lack of the pristine material quality with high luminescence efficiency. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the Coulomb interaction among electrons and holes in piezoelectric heterostructures could lead to coherent damping of acoustic phonons; rendering a significantly higher efficiency that leads to the possibility of cooling a broad range of semiconductors.

  12. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, Jesse H.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, Paul

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films.

  13. Organo Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described which is capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation (luminescing) in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form an organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance in a material being analyzed, and capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing, scattering, or diffracting energy when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam. The probe is stable to repeated exposure to light in the presence of oxygen and/or other radicals. Further described is a process for making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound and for making the organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe comprising the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound linked to an affinity molecule capable of bonding to a detectable substance. A process is also described for using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Semiconductor Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J黱gel, Ansgar

    fibers. Optoelectronic emitters convert an electronic signal into light. Examples are light-emitting diodes (LED) used in displays and indication lambs and semiconductor lasers used in compact disk systems

  15. Modeling the semiconductor industry dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Kailiang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The semiconductor industry is an exciting and challenging industry. Strong demand at the application end, plus the high capital intensity and rapid technological innovation in manufacturing, makes it difficult to manage ...

  16. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Sun, Yugang (Naperville, IL); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Carlson, Andrew (Urbana, IL); Choi, Won Mook (Champaign, IL); Stoykovich, Mark (Dover, NH); Jiang, Hanqing (Urbana, IL); Huang, Yonggang (Glencoe, IL); Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Kan, Seong Jun (Daejeon, KR); Ahn, Jong Hyun (Suwon, KR); Kim, Hoon-sik (Champaign, IL)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  17. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Meitl, Matthew; Sun, Yugang; Ko, Heung Cho; Carlson, Andrew; Choi, Won Mook; Stoykovich, Mark; Jiang, Hanqing; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Zhu, Zhengtao; Menard, Etienne; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  18. OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

  19. Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCluskey, M D [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

  20. Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

  1. Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors and insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Walle, C G

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including nitride semiconductors and transparent oxides.and C. G. Van de Walle, in Hydrogen in SemiconductorsII, Semiconductors and Semimetals Vol. 61, edited by N. H.

  2. Identifying semiconductors by d.c. ionization conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expected from high-Z semiconductor detectors? , IEEE Transand binary compound semiconductors and insulators, J PhysIdentifying Semiconductors by D.C. Ionization Conductivity

  3. Semiconductor Quantum Rods as Single Molecule Fluorescent Biological Labels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alivisatos, A.P. Semiconductor nanocrystas for biologicalemission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods. ScienceLight amplification in semiconductor nanocrystals: Quantum

  4. Enhanced Semiconductor Nanocrystal Conductance via Solution Grown Contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Matthew T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. ; Avouris, P. , Metal-semiconductor nanocontacts: SiliconIndividual Colloidal Semiconductor Nanorods. Nano Lett 2008,Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Nanocrystals. J. Phys.

  5. Isovalent Anion Substitution in Ga-Mn-pnictide Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    63. O. Madelung, Semiconductors - Basic Data, 2nd Ed. (in Laser Annealing of Semiconductors, edited by J. M. PoateProperties of Semiconductors ("Atom" Publ. House, Moscow,

  6. alignment material properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the thermoelectric proper- ties of VSSL structures using Walker, D. Greg 9 Composite THz materials using aligned metallic and semiconductor microwires, experiments and...

  7. alternative perovskite materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  8. alternative materials wascon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  9. alternative backfill materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  10. alternative refractory materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  11. alternative starting materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  12. alternative target material: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  13. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  14. Diffraction coupled phase-locked semiconductor laser array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, J.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new monolithic, diffraction coupled phase-locked semiconductor laser array has been fabricated. Stable narrow far-field patterns (approx.3/sup 0/) and peak power levels of 1 W have been obtained for 100-..mu..m-wide devices with threshold currents as low as 250 mA. Such devices may be useful in applications where high power levels and stable radiation patterns are needed.

  15. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device is disclosed. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500 C to about 700 C for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal. 1 fig.

  16. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  17. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  18. Linear tailored gain broad area semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, C.P.; Mehuys, D.; Yariv, A.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailored gain semiconductor lasers capable of high-power operation with single-lobed, nearly diffraction limited beamwidths only a few degrees wide have been demonstrated in proton implanted chirped arrays and ''halftone'' broad area lasers. The authors analyze lasers with a linear gain gradient, and obtain analytic approximations for their unsaturated optical eigenmodes. Unlike a uniform array, the fundamental mode of a linear tailored gain laser is the mode at threshold. Mode discrimination may be controlled by lasing the spatial gain gradient. All modes of asymmetric tailored gain waveguides have single-lobed far-field patterns offset from 0/sup 0/. Finally, they utilize tailored gain broad area lasers to make a measurement of the antiguiding parameter, and find b = 2.5 +- 0.5, in agreement with previous results.

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 17, NO. 3, AUGUST 2004 455 Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Cu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    , and health (ESH) im- provements in semiconductor technology and manufacturing. DFE plays a special role in the ESH section of the Interna- tional Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [1], as Manuscript, and analytical framework which can best enable specific advances in ESH areas such as chemical, materials

  20. Material Symbols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is the relation between the material, conventional symbol structures that we encounter in the spoken and written word, and human thought? A common assumption, that structures a wide variety of otherwise competing ...

  1. Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors Nicholas J. Harmon semiconductors, disordered semiconductors, organic magnetoresistance, percolation theory, spin transport organic semiconductors. The theory proposed here maps the complex phenomena of spin-dependent hopping onto

  2. Sintered molybdenum for a metallized ceramic substrate packaging for the wide-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; molybdenum; Spark Plasma Sintering I. INTRODUCTION Wide-bandgap semiconductors devices, such as silicon nitride (AlN) and molybdenum (Mo) is reported in this paper. This substrate is built using a spark plasmaSintered molybdenum for a metallized ceramic substrate packaging for the wide- bandgap devices

  3. Apparatus for the etching for semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinberg, A.R.; Steinberg, G.N.

    1983-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the etching of semiconductor devices which includes, in combination, an etching chamber containing the semiconductor device to be etched, an electrodeless etching plasma forming chamber having an inlet connected to a source of continuously flowing etching gas and having an outlet connected to said etching chamber in fluid flow communication; a helical inductive resonator coupler for coupling a source of R.F. electrical power into the electrodeless plasma forming chamber for continuously forming etching plasma from the etching gas flowing therethrough; this inductive resonator coupler including a grounded hollow cylinder of electrically conductive material, with a grounded base member at one end; a helically coiled wire conductor concentrically mounted within the cylinder and spaced from the inner walls thereof; the plasma forming chamber being mounted substantially concentrically within the coil, the end of the coil toward the base member being grounded; and an electrical coupling for applying into the coil an R.F. source of electrical power at a position near, but spaced from, the grounded end thereof.

  4. Correlated exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Patrick, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption and dissipation of energy in semiconductor nanostructures are often determined by excited electron dynamics. In semiconductors, one fundamentally important electronic state is an exciton, an excited electron ...

  5. Strain-induced vertical self-organization of semiconductor quantum dots: A computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtinkov, N., E-mail: nshtinkov@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa (Ontario) K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomistic strain simulations based on the valence force field method are employed to study the vertical arrangements of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) multilayers. The effects of the QD shape, dimensions, and materials parameters are systematically investigated, varying independently the following parameters: spacer width H, QD lateral spacing D, base b, and height h, slope of the side facets, elastic properties of the dot and the substrate materials, and lattice mismatch between the dot and the substrate. The transition between vertically aligned and anti-aligned structures is found to be determined mainly by the ratios H/D and b/D, as well as by the strain anisotropy of the substrate and to a lesser extent of the QD. The dependence on the QD height h is significant only for steep side facets and large aspect ratios h/b, and the effects of the lattice mismatch strain and the bulk elastic moduli are found to be negligible. The comparison with experimental data shows an excellent agreement with the results from the simulations, demonstrating that the presented analysis results in precise theoretical predictions for the vertical self-organization regime in a wide range of QD materials systems.

  6. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - transition metal (Mn) and rare earth (Gd) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (C, Si, Ge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 Magnetic Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3in Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5

  7. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  8. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  9. Review: Semiconductor Quantum Light Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew J Shields

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Lasers and LEDs display a statistical distribution in the number of photons emitted in a given time interval. New applications exploiting the quantum properties of light require sources for which either individual photons, or pairs, are generated in a regulated stream. Here we review recent research on single-photon sources based on the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot. In just a few years remarkable progress has been made in generating indistinguishable single-photons and entangled photon pairs using such structures. It suggests it may be possible to realise compact, robust, LED-like semiconductor devices for quantum light generation.

  10. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  11. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb.

  12. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  13. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  14. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Peter T. (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  15. Wide Blue Sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Caroline Imani

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dressed neatly in a dark blue dress, its high neck trimmedIt was covered in a light blue fabric embellished with softOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Wide Blue Sky A Thesis submitted in

  16. Rational Design and Preparation of Organic Semiconductors for use in Field Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauldin, Clayton Edward

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distyryl Oligothiophene Semiconductors Abstract We describebonded Oligothiophene Semiconductor Side Chains Abstract Ato assemble oligothiophene semiconductors and control their

  17. Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1980-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

  18. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  19. Fabrication of photonic band gap materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Constant, Kristen (Ames, IA); Subramania, Ganapathi S. (Ames, IA); Biswas, Rana (Ames, IA); Ho, Kai-Ming (Ames, IA)

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microspheres, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microspheres therefrom. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microspheres may be polystyrene microspheres.

  20. Electrical transport properties of (BN)-rich hexagonal (BN)C semiconductor alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uddin, M. R.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Ziemer, K. S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The layer structured hexagonal boron nitride carbon semiconductor alloys, h-(BN)C, offer the unique abilities of bandgap engineering (from 0 for graphite to ?6.4 eV for h-BN) and electrical conductivity control (from semi-metal for graphite to insulator for undoped h-BN) through alloying and have the potential to complement III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors and carbon based nanostructured materials. Epilayers of (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys were synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (0001) sapphire substrates. Hall-effect measurements revealed that homogeneous (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys are naturally n-type. For alloys with x = 0.032, an electron mobility of about 20 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 650?癒 was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the chemical composition and analyze chemical bonding states. Both composition and chemical bonding analysis confirm the formation of alloys. XPS results indicate that the carbon concentration in the alloys increases almost linearly with the flow rate of the carbon precursor (propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8})) employed during the epilayer growth. XPS chemical bonding analysis showed that these MOCVD grown alloys possess more C-N bonds than C-B bonds, which possibly renders the undoped h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys n-type and corroborates the Hall-effect measurement results.

  1. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 90, 115415 (2014) Geometrically induced transitions between semimetal and semiconductor in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    and semiconductor in graphene Marc Dvorak and Zhigang Wu* Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden of graphene remains an outstanding problem in nanoscience, which precludes the practical method of patterning graphene from being widely adopted for making graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices, because

  2. Nonadiabatic electron transfer at the nanoscale tin-oxide semiconductor/aqueous solution interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    published as an Advance Article on the web 28th January 2004 Photo-excitation of chromophoric metal forward and back electron transfer reactions involving molecular dyes and wide bandgap semiconductors words, electro- nic coupling rather than nuclear motion appears to govern the reaction dynamics

  3. Semiconductor lasers with broad tunnel-coupled waveguides, emitting at a wavelength of 980 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvonkov, N B; Ershov, A V; Zvonkov, B N; Maksimov, G A; Uskova, E A [Scientific-Research Physicotechnical Institute at the Nizhnii Novgorod State University, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Akhlestina, S A [Research Insitute of Chemistry, N.I. Lobachevskii Nizhnii Novgorod State University, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs semiconductor lasers with broad tunnel-coupled waveguides were developed and investigated experimentally. Output radiation power of 5.2 - 5.8 W was obtained from an emitting region 100 {mu}m wide with a 36{sup 0} divergence of the emitted radiation in a plane perpendicular to the p - n junction. (lasers)

  4. Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer Jakob

    2000-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the handbag contribution to Wide Angle Compton Scattering (WACS) at moderately large momentum transfer obtained with a proton distribution amplitude close to the asymptotic form. In comparison it is found to be significantly larger than results from the hard scattering (pQCD) approach.

  5. Lateral coupled cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salzman, J.; Lang, R.; Yariv, A.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the fabrication and operation of a lateral coupled cavity semiconductor laser that consists of two phase-locked parallel lasers of different lengths and with separate electrical contacts. Mode selectivity that results from the interaction between the two supermodes is investigated experimentally. Frequency selectivity and tunability are obtained by controlling the current to each laser separately. Highly stable single mode operation is also demonstrated.

  6. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  7. Routing for analog chip design at NXP semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Routing for analog chip design at NXP semiconductors Marjan van den Akker Theo Beelen Rob H.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;Routing for analog chip designs at NXP Semiconductors.1 NXP Semiconductors NXP Semiconductors N.V. (Nasdaq: NXPI) is a global semiconductor company and a long

  8. Fundamental lateral mode oscillation via gain tailoring in broad area semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, C.; Derry, P.; Yariv, A.

    1985-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that by employing gain tailoring in a broad area semiconductor laser we achieve fundamental lateral mode operation with a diffraction-limited single-lobed far-field pattern. We demonstrate a tailored gain broad area laser 60 ..mu..m wide which emits 450 mW per mirror into a stable, single-lobed far-field pattern 3 1/2/sup 0/ wide at 5.3 I/sub th/.

  9. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Michael D.

    2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55?m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  10. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  11. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  12. Phase-locked semiconductor laser array with separate contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Shreter, U.; Yariv, A.

    1983-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new monolithic phase-locked semiconductor laser array has been fabricated. Employing two-level metallization, each of the eight elements in the array has a separate contact, thus making it possible to compensate for device nonuniformities and control the near-field and far-field patterns. Threshold currents are approximately 60 mA for each 5-..mu..m-wide laser in the array. Phase locking has been observed via the narrowing of the far-field pattern. Experimental results are compared to those obtained from the same arrays operated with all the lasers connected in parallel.

  13. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  14. Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Work...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of EPA. The plan describes actions the industry intends to take to achieve its Climate VISION goal by 2010. Read the Semiconductor Industry Association Work Plan (PDF 94...

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to reduce high global warming potential (GWP) greenhouse gas emissions by following a pollution prevention strategy. Today, nearly 80 percent of U.S. semiconductor manufacturers...

  17. Survey of Materials for Nanoskiving and Influence of the Cutting Process on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    Survey of Materials for Nanoskiving and Influence of the Cutting Process on the Nanostructures materials (metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and conjugated polymers), deposition techniques (evaporation. The materials tested were: aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper, palladium, silver, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth

  18. Isovalent Anion Substitution in Ga-Mn-pnictide Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a so-called diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS). DMSs arein heavily doped magnetic semiconductors as the probabilitythis method to magnetic semiconductors, the 66 k穚 matrix

  19. Performance of Adaptive DualDropping ILUT Preconditioners in Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    Performance of Adaptive Dual璂ropping ILUT Preconditioners in Semiconductor Dopant Diffusion for iterative solution of sparse linear systems arising in semiconductor dopant diffusion modeling resolution, timestep in the adaptive ODE integrator and the problem physics. Key words: semiconductor TCAD

  20. OPTI 240: Semiconductor Physics and Lasers Instructor: Mahmoud Fallahi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizona, University of

    OPTI 240: Semiconductor Physics and Lasers Instructor: Mahmoud Fallahi fallahi@optics.arizona.edu Spring Semester Introduction to Semiconductor Optoelectronic Introduction to quantum mechanics: Energy exclusion principle Metal, Insulator, Semiconductor Conduction band, valance band, energy gap Electrons

  1. Semiconductor Capabilities in the U.S. and Industrializing Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Clair; Linden, Greg

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data. Table 2: U.S. Semiconductor Engineers By Location,medium-sized U.S. semiconductor companies, which togetherto represent all U.S. semiconductor firms. The total

  2. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sixsmith, H.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Nutt, W.E.

    1991-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof. 6 figures.

  3. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sixsmith, Herbert (Norwich, VT); Valenzuela, Javier A. (Grantham, NH); Nutt, William E. (Enfield, NH)

    1991-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof.

  4. PROTECTIVE SURFACE COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS W. L. Hansen,COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS* W. L.the use of germanium nuclear radiation detec tors, a new

  5. New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development Print Wednesday, 21 January 2015...

  6. Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition and Remarkable Large Magnetism. Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition...

  7. Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric Power Factor Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric...

  8. advanced semiconductor manufacturing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Business and Manufacturing Tohru Ogawa Semiconductor Company Sony Corporation 12;WISE 2000 ContentsContents Paradigm Shift in Semiconductor Business...

  9. Charge-carrier transport in amorphous organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limketkai, Benjie, 1982-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first reports of efficient luminescence and absorption in organic semiconductors, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted increasing interest. Organic semiconductors have ...

  10. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Hambarian, Artak (Yerevan, AM)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  11. Problems in the theory of thermal Casimir force between dielectrics and semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; B. Geyer

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the Lifshitz theory to describe the thermal Casimir force between dielectrics and semiconductors is considered. It is shown that for all true dielectrics (i.e., for all materials having zero conductivity at zero temperature) the inclusion of a nonzero conductivity arising at nonzero temperature into the model of dielectric response leads to the violation of the Nernst heat theorem. This result refers equally to simple insulators, intrinsic semiconductors, Mott-Hubbard dielectrics and doped semiconductors with doping concentration below a critical value. We demonstrate that in the insulator-metal transition the Casimir free energy changes abruptly irrespective of whether the conductivity changes continuously or discontinuously. The application of the Lifshitz formula to polar dielectrics results in large thermal correction that is linear in temperature. A rule is formulated on how to apply the Lifshitz theory to real materials in agreement with thermodynamics and experiment.

  12. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

  13. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors Mona Zebarjadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors Mona Zebarjadia Department of Electrical Engineering; published online 18 September 2007 Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically

  14. Ultra-high speed semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Yariv, A.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress on semiconductor lasers having a very high direct modulation bandwidth of beyond 10 GHz are described. Issues related to application of these lasers in actual systems are addressed. Possibilities of further extending the bandwidth of semiconductor lasers are examined.

  15. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  16. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  17. Investigation of redox processes at semiconductor electrode liquid junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koval, C.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in fundamental aspects of photoelectrochemical cells has been in the following areas: chemical probes for hot carrier processes, electrostatic theory for describing electrical interactions at interfaces, and kinetics of electron transfer at ideal semiconductor solution interfaces. Our goal is to achieve a better understanding of dark and photo-induced current flow at the semiconductor electrode/redox electrolyte interface (SEI) so that devices and processes utilizing this interface for solar energy conversion can be developed or improved. Our most important accomplishment has been the development of a redox system capable of detecting hot electrons at the p-InP/acetonitrile interface. Also, we have examined electrostatic theory for the image potential of an ion as a function of distance from the SEI. Finally, our group was one of the first to realize that the 2-dimensional metal chalcogenides (MC) are excellent materials for fundamental studies of electron transfer at the SEI. One of the chief potential advantages for use of MC's is the formation of semiconductor/liquid junctions with nearly ideal electrochemical properties. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

  19. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, R.; Pocha, M.D.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium. 10 figs.

  20. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang-Hwan Kim

    2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms.

  1. Glass-Like Heat Conduction in Crystalline Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolas, G.S.; Cohn, J.L.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Slack, G.A.

    1999-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity and structural properties of polycrystalline and single crystal semiconductor type-1 germanium clathrates are reported. Germanium clathrates exhibit thermal conductivities that are typical of amorphous materials. This behavior occurs in spite of their well-defined crystalline structure. The authors employ temperature dependent neutron diffraction data in investigating the displacements of the caged strontium atoms in Sr{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Ge{sub 30} and their interaction with the polyhedral cages that entrap them. Their aim is to investigate the correlation between the structural properties and the low, glass-like thermal conductivity observed in this compound.

  2. Phase Transitions, Curve Evolution, and the Control of Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Given a material that may exist in either of two phases, how will the boundaries between the phases of the region of phase change vanishes. The motion of the sharp interface may be studied through the limitingPhase Transitions, Curve Evolution, and the Control of Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes Jordan

  3. MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n , A.A. Rahman pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy B1. Graphene B1. Nitrides B2. Semiconducting III璙 materials a b on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition. GaN, AlGaN alloys, and InN layers are grown using an Al

  4. FY08 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.; Rockett, Angus

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the annual report for an old project funded by NA22. The purpose of the project was to develop amorphous semiconductors for use as radiation detectors. The annual report contains information about the progress made in synthesizing, characterizing, and radiation response testing of these new materials.

  5. Field emission cooling of thermoelectric semiconductor PbTe M. S. Chung,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    Field emission cooling of thermoelectric semiconductor PbTe M. S. Chung,1,a A. Mayer,2 B. L. Weiss due to field emission from n-type PbTe, a typical thermoelectric material. We show that, by calculating the average energies of field and replacement electrons, the energy exchange in field emission

  6. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of IIIV Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III璙 Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding and measurement method utilizing a SiO2璖iO2 covalent bonding technique is presented for high-temperature surface passivation, and metallization with a Ti-W-N diffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin

  7. High temperature thermoelectric characterization of III-V semiconductor thin films by oxide bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    bonding Je-Hyeong Bahka) , Gehong Zenga) , Joshua M. O. Zide b) , Hong Luc) , Rajeev Singhd) , Di Lianga bonding technique is developed for high temperature thermoelectric characterization of the thin film III-W-N diffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin film ErAs:InGaAlAs metal/semiconductor nanocomposite

  8. EMC/FDTD/MD FOR MULTIPHYSICS CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS AT THZ FREQUENCIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knezevic, Irena

    EMC/FDTD/MD FOR MULTIPHYSICS CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS AT THZ FREQUENCIES by Keely Willis.1 Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.2 Finite difference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3 EMC/FDTD for 2D analysis of materials with low carrier density . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1 EMC

  9. Not Your Grandma's Quilt Researchers develop technique to keep cool high-power semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    devices used in wireless applications, traffic lights and electric cars By Sean Nealon On MAY 8, 2012 in everything from traffic lights to electric cars. Gallium Nitride (GaN), a semiconductor material found by the Nano-Device Laboratory research group led byAlexander Balandin, professor of electrical engineering

  10. Transport Equations for Semiconductors Prof. Dr. Ansgar Jungel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J黱gel, Ansgar

    - cations have been invented; for instance, semiconductor lasers, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LED

  11. Kinetic and Macroscopic Models for Semiconductors Ansgar Jungel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J黱gel, Ansgar

    Kinetic and Macroscopic Models for Semiconductors Ansgar J╱ngel Vienna University of Technology, Austria www.jungel.at.vu Ansgar J╱ngel (TU Wien) Kinetic Semiconductor Models www.jungel.at.vu 1 / 165 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 2 Semiconductor modeling Basics of semiconductor physics Kinetic models 3

  12. EEE 6397 Semiconductor Device Theory (Fall, 2014, 5th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

    1 EEE 6397 Semiconductor Device Theory (Fall, 2014, 5th period MWF, BEN328) Goals: (1) Develop fundamental understanding on the device physics of the most important semiconductor devices, such as PN junctions, metal-semiconductor contacts, metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors, and field-effect transistors

  13. Field of Expertise Materials Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in materials research co-operates intensively with many globally active companies, such as Infineon, Austria and hybrid solar cells Ceramic semiconductors, sensors and piezoelectric components Lithium-ion batteries New welding methods RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMPANIES AND SCIENTIFIC PARTNERS TU Graz TU Graz

  14. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, S.R.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

  15. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, Steven R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

  16. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong (El Cerrito, CA); Choi, Heonjin (Seoul, KR); Lee, Sangkwon (Daejeon, KR); He, Rongrui (Albany, CA); Zhang, Yanfeng (El Cerrito, CA); Kuykendal, Tevye (Berkeley, CA); Pauzauskie, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  17. Materials at UC Santa Barbara Ranked in the top two programs in the country for research impact and citations, materials research at UC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhmedov, Azer

    as semiconductors Soft cellular materials Nanostructured materials by molecular beam epitaxy Solid chemistry to synthesize conjugated polymer composites for use in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices in energy efficiency in Buildings, Lighting, Computing, Electronics & Photonics, Energy Production & Storage

  18. Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dukovic, Gordana; Merkle, Maxwell G.; Nelson, James H.; Hughes, Steven M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor photocatalysis has been identified as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar energy into environmentally friendly fuels, most notably by the production of hydrogen from water.[1-5] Nanometer-scale materials in particular have attracted considerable scientific attention as the building blocks for light-harvesting applications.[6,7] Their desirable attributes include tunability of the optical properties with size, amenability to relatively inexpensive low-temperature processing, and a high degree of synthetic sophistication leading to increasingly complex and multi-functional architectures. For photocatalysis in particular, the high surface-to-volume ratios in nanoscale materials should lead to an increased availability of carriers for redox reactions on the nanoparticle surface. Recombination of photoexcited carriers directly competes with photocatalytic activity.[3] Charge separation is often achieved with multi-component heterostructures. An early example is the case of TiO2 powders functionalized with Pt and RuO2 particles, where photoexcited electrons are transferred to Pt (the reduction site) and holes to RuO2 (the oxidation site).[8] More recently, many colloidally synthesized nanometer-scale metal-semiconductor heterostructures have been reported.[7,9,10] A majority of these structures are made by thermal methods.[7,10] We have chosen to study photochemical formation of metal-semiconductor heterostructures. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in photodeposition of metals on nanometer-scale semiconductors is necessary to enable a high degree of synthetic control. At the same time, because the results of metal deposition can be directly observed by electron microscopy, it can be used to understand how factors such as nanocrystal composition, shape, carrier dynamics, and surface chemistry influence the photochemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. In this communication, we report on the photodeposition of Pt on colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. Among the II-VI semiconductors, CdS is of particular interest because it has the correct band alignment for water photolysis[2] and has been demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.[11-16] We have found that the photoexcitation of CdS and CdSe/CdS in the presence of an organometallic Pt precursor leads to deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the semiconductor surface. Stark differences are observed in the Pt nanoparticle location on the two substrates, and the photodeposition can be completely inhibited by the modification of the semiconductor surface. Our results suggest that tuning of the semiconductor band structure, spatial organization and surface chemistry should be crucial in the design of photocatalytic nanostructures.

  19. Scanning probe characterization of novel semiconductor materials and devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaotian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InGaN/GaN quantum wells by scanning capacitance microscopywell heterostructures by scanning capacitance microscopy擨nGaN/GaN quantum wells by scanning capacitance microscopy

  20. Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Generating

  1. EMei Semiconductor Materials Plant Research Institute | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjinDynetek42 EIAELO

  2. GRINM Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd Gritek | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXA Corp. (New Jersey) JumpGREET Fleet Jump

  3. Dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering HowAnaDynamic Switching of the

  4. Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc SAMCO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd JumpInformationScotts Corners,EnergyInformation1987)Semafo

  5. Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID鈥 |Rippey JumpAir JumpCalifornia |

  6. Jiangxi Jingde Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunanInformationJamesManufacturing | OpenJiangxi Jingde

  7. Spin injection and manipulation in organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Karthik (Karthik Raman)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of organic semiconductors to enable organic spintronic devices requires the understanding of transport and control of the spin state of the carriers. This thesis deals with the above issue, focusing on the interface ...

  8. Electrical Usage Characterization of Semiconductor Processing Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, S. R.

    This paper presents the basic concepts in performing an energy and power audit of a semiconductor process tool. A protocol exists that fully describes these measurements and their use and applicability and it will be described. This protocol...

  9. NANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    to data storage, switching, lighting and other devices, can lead to substantially new hardwareNANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili Georgian Technical and manipulation on a nanometre scale, which allows the fabrication of nanostructures with the properties mainly

  10. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  11. Surface phonons of III-V semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are the simplest of all semiconductor surfaces. Their atomic relaxations and electronic surface states are rather well understood. There have, however, been surprisingly few experimental studies of their vibrational properties, and ours in the first detailed...

  12. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  13. EXCITONIC EIGENSTATES OF DISORDERED SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM WIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of semiconductors are exploited in solar cells, light emitting diodes, and lasers, and, furthermore, future UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA 400 Lind Hall 207 Church Street S.E. Minneapolis, Minnesota 554550436 Phone: 612

  14. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  15. Nanopatterned Electrically Conductive Films of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzel, Tamar

    We present the first semiconductor nanocrystal films of nanoscale dimensions that are electrically conductive and crack-free. These films make it possible to study the electrical properties intrinsic to the nanocrystals ...

  16. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of metal-semiconductor-metal nanorod using template synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyohyeok; Kwon, Namyong; Hong, Junki; Chung, Ilsub [Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology and Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors attempted to fabricate and characterize one dimensional metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) nanorod using a template. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) and polypyrrole (Ppy) were chosen as n-type and p-type semiconductor materials, respectively, whereas Au was chosen as a metal electrode. The fabrication of the nanorod was achieved by ''template synthesis'' method using polycarbonate membrane. The structure of the fabricated nanorod was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, the electrical properties of MSM nanorods were characterized using scanning probe microscopy (Seiko Instruments, SPA 300 HV) by probing with a conductive cantilever. I-V characteristics as a function of the temperature give the activation energy, as well as the barrier height of a metal-semiconductor contact, which is useful to understand the conduction mechanism of MSM nanorods.

  18. Predicted band structures of III-V semiconductors in wurtzite phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amrit De; Craig E. Pryor

    2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    While non-nitride III-V semiconductors typically have a zincblende structure, they may also form wurtzite crystals under pressure or when grown as nanowhiskers. This makes electronic structure calculation difficult since the band structures of wurtzite III-V semiconductors are poorly characterized. We have calculated the electronic band structure for nine III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase using transferable empirical pseudopotentials including spin-orbit coupling. We find that all the materials have direct gaps. Our results differ significantly from earlier {\\it ab initio} calculations, and where experimental results are available (InP, InAs and GaAs) our calculated band gaps are in good agreement. We tabulate energies, effective masses, and linear and cubic Dresselhaus zero-field spin-splitting coefficients for the zone-center states. The large zero-field spin-splitting coefficients we find may lead to new functionalities for designing devices that manipulate spin degrees of freedom.

  19. Fabrication of Semiconductors by Wet Chemical Etch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francoviglia, Laura

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ern devices. Beginning with Bardeen, Brittain and Shockley抯 invention of the transistor in Bell Labs in 1947 and Kilby and Noyce抯 introduction of the integrated circuit about a decade later, semiconductor devices have dramat- ically advanced... ad- dition of impurities, their conductivity can be altered. With the need to manu- facture devices at the micro- and nano- scale, the semiconductor industry has followed 揗oore抯 Law, the trend that the number of transistors placed...

  20. A Semiconductor Microlaser for Intracavity Flow Cytometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, O.; Copeland, G.C.; Dunne, J.L.; Gourley, P.L.; Hendricks, J.K.; McDonald, A.E.

    1999-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor microlasers are attractive components for micro-analysis systems because of their ability to emit coherent intense light from a small aperture. By using a surface-emitting semiconductor geometry, we were able to incorporate fluid flow inside a laser microcavity for the first time. This confers significant advantages for high throughput screening of cells, particulates and fluid analytes in a sensitive microdevice. In this paper we discuss the intracavity microfluidics and present preliminary results with flowing blood and brain cells.

  1. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  2. Goal is to further development and manufacturing of wide bandgap semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, R. Michael

    technology. On Jan. 15, President Barack Obama announced that NC State would lead the Next Generation Power corrections to alumnianddonor_records@ncsu.edu; or call 919.515.7458, toll free: 866.316.4057. NC State

  3. Widely tunable mid-infrared generation via frequency conversion in semiconductor waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of mid-infrared and far-infrared (IR) radiation using second-order optical nonlinearities is attractive, large optical nonlinearities, large optical damage threshold, and mature fabrication tech- nology [3 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (190.4975) Parametric processes; (230.4320) Nonlinear optical

  4. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment ofOil'sEnergy 9Industrial Applications -

  5. Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotoros, Ingrid A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Overview of semiconductor2.2 Dilute magnetic semiconductors . . . . . . . . .generated holes in (In,Mn)As Magnetic semiconductor FET

  6. Sub-surface characterization and three dimensional profiling of semiconductors by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.

  7. Faculty and Instructional Staff in the UW-Madison Department of Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    , nuclear fuels, energy policy, sustainability of nuclear energy. Mark A Eriksson Professor, Physics: photovoltaic solar cells, organic light emitting diodes; materials for alternative energy and energy storage synthesis and characterization, electronic and semiconductor materials, solar energy and photovoltaics

  8. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domnita Catalina Marinescu

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  9. Dissipative chaos in semiconductor superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, K.N.; Berman, G.P. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); [Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russia); [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States); Campbell, D.K.; Cannon, E.H.; Cargo, M.C. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the motion of ballistic electrons in a miniband of a semiconductor superlattice (SSL) under the influence of an external, time-periodic electric field. We use a semiclassical, balance-equation approach, which incorporates elastic and inelastic scattering (as dissipation) and the self-consistent field generated by the electron motion. The coupling of electrons in the miniband to the self-consistent field produces a cooperative nonlinear oscillatory mode which, when interacting with the oscillatory external field and the intrinsic Bloch-type oscillatory mode, can lead to complicated dynamics, including dissipative chaos. For a range of values of the dissipation parameters we determine the regions in the amplitude-frequency plane of the external field in which chaos can occur. Our results suggest that for terahertz external fields of the amplitudes achieved by present-day free-electron lasers, chaos may be observable in SSL{close_quote}s. We clarify the nature of this interesting nonlinear dynamics in the superlattice{endash}external-field system by exploring analogies to the Dicke model of an ensemble of two-level atoms coupled with a resonant cavity field, and to Josephson junctions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Methods for manufacturing monocrystalline or near-monocrystalline cast materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a monocrystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm.

  11. Methods for manufacturing geometric multi-crystalline cast materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semi-conductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a geometrically ordered multi-crystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm.

  12. Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 1. Overview).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodgriguez, J.

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  13. Conductance matrix of multiterminal semiconductor devices with edge channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilovskii, E. Yu., E-mail: danilovskii@mail.ioffe.ru; Bagraev, N. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the conductance matrix of multiterminal semiconductor structures with edge channels is proposed. The method is based on the solution of a system of linear algebraic equations based on Kirchhoff equations, made up of potential differences U{sub ij} measured at stabilized currents I{sub kl}, where i, j, k, l are terminal numbers. The matrix obtained by solving the system of equations completely describes the structure under study, reflecting its configuration and homogeneity. This method can find wide application when using the known Landauer-Buttiker formalism to analyze carrier transport in the quantum Hall effect and quantum spin Hall effect modes. Within the proposed method, the contribution of the contact area resistances R{sub c} to the formation of conductance matrix elements is taken into account. The possibilities of practical application of the results obtained in developing analog cryptographic devices are considered.

  14. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  15. Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttram, Malcolm T. (Sandia Park, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Chow, Weng W. (Cedar Crest, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

  16. Optical spin orientation of a single manganese atom in a semiconductor quantum dot using quasi-resonant excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of these mem- ories. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) systems combining semiconductor heterostructures

  17. Antiferromagnetic exchange bias of a ferromagnetic semiconductor by a ferromagnetic metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olejnik, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exchange bias of a magnetic semiconductor by a magneticexchange bias in the magnetic semiconductor. The shape and

  18. Semiconductor nanowires for future electronics : growth, characterization, device fabrication, and integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 1.1 Introduction to Semiconductorin InAs Semiconductor Nanowires. . . . . . . . . . . . .Comparison of different semiconductor NWFETs (non-passivated

  19. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  20. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  1. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  2. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen Edward (Pinole, CA); Bourret-Courchesne, Edith (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Marvin J. (Danville, CA); Klintenberg, Mattias K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  3. Two-Photon Emission from Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Hayat; Pavel Ginzburg; Meir Orenstein

    2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first experimental observations of two-photon emission from semiconductors, to the best of our knowledge, and develop a corresponding theory for the room-temperature process. Spontaneous two-photon emission is demonstrated in optically-pumped bulk GaAs and in electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells. Singly-stimulated two-photon emission measurements demonstrate the theoretically predicted two-photon optical gain in semiconductors - a necessary ingredient for any realizations of future two-photon semiconductor lasers. Photon-coincidence experiment validates the simultaneity of the electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP two-photon emission, limited only by detector's temporal resolution.

  4. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Weber, Marvin J.; Klintenberg, Mattias K.

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  5. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  6. Lattice mismatched compound semiconductors and devices on silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III-V compound semiconductors, due to their superior electron mobility, are promising candidates for n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, the limited size of III-V substrates and ...

  7. Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications in semiconductor manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cassett, David Ian, 1971-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) has an enormous potential impact within the semiconductor supply chain, especially within semiconductor manufacturing. The end benefit of RFID will be in the mass serialization, and ...

  8. A New Cleanroom for a Next-Generation Semiconductor Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Cleanroom for a Next-Generation Semiconductor Research Tool A New Cleanroom for a Next-Generation Semiconductor Research Tool Print The new Sector 12 cleanroom under...

  9. A study of corporate entrepreneurship in the semiconductor industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tallapureddy, Anish R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The number of semiconductor companies receiving venture funding has been decreasing through-out the last decade. The economics of manufacturing semiconductors do not offer an attractive risk-reward profile to the traditional ...

  10. Course Information --EE 531 Semiconductor Devices and Device Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    of Semiconductor Devices" by Hess "Si Processing for the VLSI Era: Vol. 3-- The Submicron MOSFET" by Wolf "Advanced: 20% Exam 1: 30% Exam 2: 30% Project: 20% Prerequisite: Semiconductor Devices (EE 482) or equivalent

  11. Acoustoelectric Harmonic Generation in a Photoconductive Piezoelectric Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acoustoelectric Harmonic Generation in a Photoconductive Piezoelectric Semiconductor W. Arthur, R harmonics in the low frequency regime (. Piezoelectric semiconductors can exhibit harmonic generation because of interactions between the acoustic

  12. Strategies to improve energy efficiency in semiconductor manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, C.; Stein, J; Harris, J.; Cherniack, M.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global semiconductor industry is growing at an astounding rate. In the next few years, the industry is expected to invest some $169 billion to build more than 36 million square feet of clean room floor space. Electric loads in these new plants are expected to total more than 5,000 MW and 40,000 GWH per year. This paper summarizes the results of studies to identify opportunities for improved energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry. The genesis of this work came about as the authors observed the rapid growth of the semiconductor industry in the Pacific Northwest. Industry observers report that some $20 billion in new facilities could be build in the Northwest in the nest few years, with a combined electric load in excess of 500 to 600 MW. The research results reported in this paper have been supported in part by the Bonneville Power Administration, the Northwest Power Planning Council, the Oregon Office of Energy, New England Electric System and the Conservation Law Foundation of New England. With their support the authors interviewed numerous industry participants, reviewed key literature, and met extensively with industry engineering firms. manufacturers, vendors and suppliers of manufacturing equipment and materials, and others with interests in this industry. Significant opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry have been reported to us; perhaps 50 percent or greater aggregate improvement appears possible. Equally significant market barriers constrain the industry from achieving these savings. Yet, because of his industry's concentration, competitiveness, and existing research consortia such as SEMATECH, the authors believe the substantial market barriers to energy efficiency can be addressed with carefully formulated strategies to demonstrate, document and communicate the business and technical case for advanced energy efficiency, including potential benefits in finance, manufacturing and corporate environmental performance. This paper describes how the industry plans research and development investments, examines energy use intensities, summarizes key market barriers which constrain energy efficient design, identifies interests in the industry that may be changing energy efficiency perceptions, lists activities to move energy efficiency to a higher priority, gives examples of energy efficiency opportunities, and reviews activities planned by a coalition of Northwest interests to accelerate the adoption of energy efficient design strategies.

  13. Simulation and Experiment of Wide Bandgap Material Based Nonvolatile Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LI, ZONGLIN

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than SiC, GaN, GaAs, sapphire substrate; (3) The size ofA. Dadgar, 揋aN-based opoelectronics on silicon substrates,

  14. High power semiconductor laser sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yariv, A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of the research was to design and fabricate a surface-emitting semiconductor laser based on multi quantum-well amplification. During the contract period, the author succeeded in improving the basic quantum-well active medium so as to result in maximum gain for a given inversion density and analyzed the fabrication of GaAs/GaAlAs multilayer dielectric reflectors for providing the optical feedback to the surface-emitting semiconductor laser. He also made significant progress in the development of diffusion techniques to provide the p and n regions adjacent to the active region for carrier injection.

  15. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

  16. Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.

    1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

  17. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  18. Semiconductor liquid crystal composition and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Li, Liang-shi

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor liquid crystal compositions and methods for making such compositions are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention is directed to a liquid crystal composition including a solvent and semiconductor particles in the solvent. The solvent and the semiconductor particles are in an effective amount in the liquid crystal composition to form a liquid crystal phase.

  19. Quantum of optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Quantum of optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductors Hui Fanga,b,c , Hans A. Bechteld semiconductor, where is the fine structure con- stant and nc is an optical local field correction factor quantitative examination of the intrinsic absorption properties of free-standing 2D semiconductor thin films

  20. Effects of Quantum Confinement on the Doping Limit of Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Effects of Quantum Confinement on the Doping Limit of Semiconductor Nanowires D. R. Khanal,, Joanne concentrations in semiconductor nanowires. Our calculations are based on the amphoteric defect model, which describes the thermodynamic doping limit in semiconductors in terms of the compensation of external dopants

  1. Defects activated photoluminescence in two-dimensional semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Defects activated photoluminescence in two-dimensional semiconductors: interplay between bound of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China, 3, Berkeley, California 94720, United States. Point defects in semiconductors can trap free charge carriers

  2. Assembling semiconductor nanocomposites using DNA replication technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heimer, Brandon W.; Crown, Kevin K.; Bachand, George David

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules represent Nature's genetic database, encoding the information necessary for all cellular processes. From a materials engineering perspective, DNA represents a nanoscale scaffold with highly refined structure, stability across a wide range of environmental conditions, and the ability to interact with a range of biomolecules. The ability to mass-manufacture functionalized DNA strands with Angstrom-level resolution through DNA replication technology, however, has not been explored. The long-term goal of the work presented in this report is focused on exploiting DNA and in vitro DNA replication processes to mass-manufacture nanocomposite materials. The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) develop methods for replicating DNA strands that incorporate nucleotides with ''chemical handles'', and (2) demonstrate attachment of nanocrystal quantum dots (nQDs) to functionalized DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer extension methodologies were used to successfully synthesize amine-, thiol-, and biotin-functionalized DNA molecules. Significant variability in the efficiency of modified nucleotide incorporation was observed, and attributed to the intrinsic properties of the modified nucleotides. Noncovalent attachment of streptavidin-coated nQDs to biotin-modified DNA synthesized using the primer extension method was observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Data regarding covalent attachment of nQDs to amine- and thiol-functionalized DNA was generally inconclusive; alternative characterization tools are necessary to fully evaluate these attachment methods. Full realization of this technology may facilitate new approaches to manufacturing materials at the nanoscale. In addition, composite nQD-DNA materials may serve as novel recognition elements in sensor devices, or be used as diagnostic tools for forensic analyses. This report summarizes the results obtained over the course of this 1-year project.

  3. Microwave to millimeter-wave electrodynamic response and applications of semiconductor nanostructures: LDRD project 67025 final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner, Eric Arthur; Lee, Mark; Averitt, R. D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Highstrete, Clark; Taylor, A. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Padilla, W. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, S. James (University of California Santa Barbara)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies, based on semiconductor light emitting devices, have the potential to reduce worldwide electricity consumption by more than 10%, which could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on imported energy and improve energy security. The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white SSL and could cover a wide spectral range from the deep UV to the infrared. For this LDRD program, we have investigated the synthesis of single-crystalline III-nitride nanowires and heterostructure nanowires, which may possess unique optoelectronic properties. These novel structures could ultimately lead to the development of novel and highly efficient SSL nanodevice applications. GaN and III-nitride core-shell heterostructure nanowires were successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on two-inch wafer substrates. The effect of process conditions on nanowire growth was investigated, and characterization of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanowires was also performed.

  4. Semiclassical theory of noise in multielement semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, R.J.; Yariv, A.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present a derivation of the noise spectra of multielement semiconductor lasers. They model the noise by a set of Langevin sources which drive a system of small-signal field equations. The Langevin sources are normalized to transition rates within the laser and general formulas for relative intensity, frequency fluctuation, and field spectra are produced. They evaluate the formulas for several specific cases of interest, including those of a passive-active resonator and active-active coupled cavity resonator. In each case, the linewidth is governed by effective ..cap alpha..-parameter(s) which generally differ from the material parameter. In the active-active cavity, the linewidth consists of two parts, one which is similar to the Schawlow-Townes linewidth, and a second which is proportional to the FM modulation index.

  5. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  6. Thermal Issues in Casimir Forces Between Conductors and Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Milton; Iver Brevik; Simen A. Ellingsen

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir effect between metal surfaces has now been well-verified at the few-percent level experimentally. However, the temperature dependence has never been observed in the laboratory, since all experiments are conducted at room temperature. The temperature dependence for the related Casimir-Polder force between an atom and a bulk material has, in contrast, been observed between a BEC and a silica substrate, with the environment and the silica held at different temperatures. There is a controversy about the temperature dependence for the force between metals, having to do with the magnitude of the linear temperature term for both low and high temperature, the latter being most prominent at large distances. There are also related anomalies pertaining to semiconductors. The status of this controversy, and of the relevant experiments, are reviewed in this report.

  7. Measurement of molecular motion in organic semiconductors by thermal diffuse electron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggeman, Alexander S; Illig, Steffen; Troisi, Alessandro; Sirringhaus, Henning; Midgley, Paul A

    2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    in localisation of the charge carriers (3). Recently, it has been reported that this dynamic disorder model provides a consistent framework for understanding the electrical and optical properties of charge carriers in crystalline, high mobility molecular... The final version of this article can be accessed at: Nature Materials 12, 1045-1049 (2013) http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nmat3710 1 Title: Direct Measurement of Molecular Motion in Organic Semiconductors Authors: Alexander S. Eggeman,1...

  8. Analog Sauter-Schwinger effect in semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Malte F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a 1+1-dimensional model of a semiconductor, which exhibits an analog of the nonperturbative electron-positron pair creation from the quantum vacuum via time-dependent external electric fields (Sauter-Schwinger effect). In the one-particle picture of the relativistic Dirac theory, pair production from the Dirac vacuum can be understood as the excitation of a Dirac sea electron into the upper energy continuum. The analog effect in the semiconductor model is the excitation of electrons from the valence band into the conduction band (electron-hole pair creation). We show that the underlying equations describing the excitation processes in both systems are in some cases formally equivalent. The critical electric field strength for the Sauter-Schwinger effect is much smaller in typical semiconductors than in Dirac theory due to the different physical scales. This fact makes analog systems like the semiconductor model promising candidates for the observation of the Sauter-Schwinger effect in the laborator...

  9. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  10. HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS M.D. MCCLUSKEY* University) spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium in GaP, AlSb, ZnSe, and GaN has provided important information about the structures of dopant- hydrogen complexes and their interaction with the host lattice. In GaN:Mg, for example

  11. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  12. Laterally coupled-cavity semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, R.J.; Yariv, A.; Salzman, J.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors analyze the threshold behaviour or a pair of laterally coupled semiconductor lasers of different lengths. The predictions include longitudinal mode selectivity leading to single longitudinal mode operation with a periodicity determined by the length mismatch, and ripples in the equipower curves in the current plane due to carrier-induced index shifts. They present experimental measurements that confirm these predictions.

  13. Theory of longitudinal modes in semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Yariv, A.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of longitudinal mode lasing spectrum of semiconductor lasers is developed which takes into account the nonuniform carrier and photon distributions and local gain spectrum shifts inside lasers with low end mirror reflectivities. The theory gives results consistent with observed longitudinal mode behavior in lasers with reduced facet reflectivity.

  14. Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    a clear, intuitive guidance for the design of efficient NW solar cells. The presented approach technology. KEYWORDS Solar cell, semiconductor nanowires, optical antennas, photon management, light trapping employing non-earth-abundant elements like indium (CuInGaSe or CIGS cells) or tellurium (CdTe cells

  15. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  16. Semiconductor laser with multiple lasing wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of multi-terminal vertical-cavity semiconductor laser components has been developed. These multi-terminal laser components can be switched, either electrically or optically, between distinct lasing wavelengths, or can be made to lase simultaneously at multiple wavelengths.

  17. Optimal Preventive Maintenance Scheduling in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Steven I.

    1 Optimal Preventive Maintenance Scheduling in Semiconductor Manufacturing Xiaodong Yao, Emmanuel on Control Applications in 2001. #12;2 Abstract Preventive Maintenance (PM) scheduling is a very challenging schedule with that of a baseline reference schedule are also presented. Index Terms preventive maintenance

  18. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  19. Solid State Lighting Semiconductor Spectroscopy & Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    and fluorescent lamps, are very inefficient in transforming energy into light. Due to upcoming problems in energy % of Earth's total power consumption is used for lighting! Figure 3: Earth at night from space. Evolution inside a semiconductor for light emission. Over 150 years ago... How to achieve white LEDs? Figure 5

  20. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Olshavsky, Michael A. (Brunswick, OH)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  1. Analog Sauter-Schwinger effect in semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malte F. Linder; Ralf Sch黷zhold

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a 1+1-dimensional model of a semiconductor, which exhibits an analog of the nonperturbative electron-positron pair creation from the quantum vacuum via time-dependent external electric fields (Sauter-Schwinger effect). In the one-particle picture of the relativistic Dirac theory, pair production from the Dirac vacuum can be understood as the excitation of a Dirac sea electron into the upper energy continuum. The analog effect in the semiconductor model is the excitation of electrons from the valence band into the conduction band (electron-hole pair creation). We show that the underlying equations describing the excitation processes in both systems are in some cases formally equivalent. The critical electric field strength for the Sauter-Schwinger effect is much smaller in typical semiconductors than in Dirac theory due to the different physical scales. This fact makes analog systems like the semiconductor model promising candidates for the observation of the Sauter-Schwinger effect in the laboratory.

  2. Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline metallic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or metal alloy substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The methods further include growing a crystalline semiconductor alloy layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The semiconductor layer may be grown without any buffer layer between the alloy and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter (a). The semiconductor alloy may further be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  3. Enhanced von Weizs鋍ker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Ilgyou [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States); Carter, Emily A., E-mail: eac@princeton.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, and Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizs鋍ker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  4. Porous Materials Porous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universit盲t

    1 Porous Materials x Porous Materials 路 Physical properties * Characteristic impedance p = p 0 e -jk xa- = vej[ ] p x - j ; Zc= p ve = c ka 0k = c 1-j #12;2 Porous Materials 路 Specific acoustic impedance Porous Materials 路 Finite thickness 颅 blocked p e + -jk (x-d)a p e - jk (x-d)a d x #12

  5. Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

  6. N.G. Basov and early works on semiconductor lasers at P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, P G [Centre for High-Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States)

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey is presented of works on creation and investigation of semiconductor lasers during 1957 - 1977 at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute. Many of these works were initiated by N.G. Basov, starting from pre-laser time, when N.G. Basov and his coworkers formulated principal conditions of creation of lasers on interband transitions in semiconductors. Main directions of further works were diode lasers based on various materials and structures, their characteristics of output power, high-speed operation and reliability. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  7. Wide field of view telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. ; Munir, Z. A. Materials Science and Engineering A 2005,Kaysser, W. A. Materials Science and Engineering: A 2003,Garter, M. Materials Science and Engineering B 2001, 81,

  9. Vanderbilt Interdisciplinary Program in Materials Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    on solar energy conversion, energy storage, and energy efficiency. semiconductors Spectacular new the development of materials with novel optical properties and functionalities. energy Energy is the most pressing a variety of disciplines. In recognition of this at Vanderbilt University, faculty members from chemistry

  10. SOFTWAREENGINEERING The World Wide Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, James

    SOFTWAREENGINEERING The World Wide Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning working group on the Web. WEBDAV: IETF Standard for Collaborative Authoring on the Web E. JAMES WHITEHEAD, JR. University remains to be done. What if instead you could simply edit Web documents (or any Web resource) in place

  11. Going Deep vs. Going Wide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Going Deep vs. Going Wide, from the Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions Conference 2012. Provides an overview on the progress of four energy efficiency programs: Clean Energy Works Oregon, Efficiency Maine, Energy Upgrade California Flex Path, and EcoHouse Loan Program.

  12. Native point defects in yttria and relevance to its use as a high-dielectric-constant gate oxide material: First-principles study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    a promising gate oxide material to replace silicon dioxide in metal-oxide- semiconductor devices. Using-earth-doped lasers. Recently, Y2O3 has re- ceived attention as a promising candidate for replacing sili- con dioxide SiO2 as a gate dielectric material in metal- oxide-semiconductor MOS transistors.110 The continual

  13. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly summarize semiconductor bridge operation and review their ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite as a function of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) firing set capacitance, charge holder material and morphology of the CuO. Ignition thresholds were obtained using a brass charge holder and a non-conducting fiber-glass-epoxy composite material, G10. At - 18 C and a charge voltage of 50V, the capacitance thresholds were 30.1 {mu}F and 2.0 {mu}F respectively. They also present new data on electrostatic discharge (ESD) and radio frequency (RF) vulnerability tests.

  14. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  15. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  16. CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; KOHMAN, K.T.; JAMES, R.B.

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance.

  17. Studies of bulk materials for thermoelectric cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, J.W.; Nolas, G.S.; Volckmann, E.H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss ongoing work in three areas of thermoelectric materials research: (1) broad band semiconductors featuring anion networks, (2) filled skutterudites, and (3) polycrystalline Bi-Sb alloys. Key results include: a preliminary evaluation of a previously untested ternary semiconductor, KSnSb; the first reported data in which Sn is used as a charge compensator in filled antimonide skutterudites; the finding that Sn doping does not effect polycrystalline Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} as it does single crystal samples.

  18. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

  19. Absorptivity of semiconductors used in the production of solar cell panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Grushko, E. V.; Mikityuk, T. I. [Chernivtsy National University (Ukraine)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of the absorptivity of semiconductors on the thickness of the absorbing layer is studied for crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS), and copper gallium diselenide (CuGaSe{sub 2}, CGS). The calculations are performed with consideration for the spectral distribution of AM1.5 standard solar radiation and the absorption coefficients of the materials. It is shown that, in the region of wavelengths {lambda} = {lambda}{sub g} = hc/E{sub g}, almost total absorption of the photons in AM1.5 solar radiation is attained in c-Si at the thickness d = 7-8 mm, in a-Si at d = 30-60 {mu}m, in CdTe at d = 20-30 {mu}m, and in CIS and CGS at d = 3-4 {mu}m. The results differ from previously reported data for these materials (especially for c-Si). In previous publications, the thickness needed for the semiconductor to absorb solar radiation completely was identified with the effective light penetration depth at a certain wavelength in the region of fundamental absorption for the semiconductor.

  20. 7/14/2004 World of Compound Semiconductors Page 1 of 191 TThhee WWoorrlldd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7/14/2004 World of Compound Semiconductors Page 1 of 191 TThhee WWoorrlldd ooff CCoommppoouunndd ...... ---- ...... ---- ...... ---- ...... ---- ...... ---- ...... ---- ...... ---- #12;7/14/2004 World of Compound Semiconductors Page 2 of 191 0.1 Scope Compound III-V Semiconductors A new family of semiconductors is changing the way we live. These semiconductors are in our cell phones

  1. The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palenskis, V., E-mail: vilius.palenskis@ff.vu.lt [Radiophysics Department, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Saul?tekio al. 9, LT-10222, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

  2. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  3. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Technical progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of the semiconductor properties of pyrite on its electrochemical behavior have been explored with the aid of energy level diagram which illustrate the relationship between the energy levels of the solid land the equilibrium potentials of the redox couples in the aqueous solution. A novel approach to the study of pyrite electrochemistry was initiated. This approach is based on pyrite microelectrodes synthesized via aqueous phase precipitation. Preliminary results show that photocurrents can be generated by illumination of the pyrite particles synthesized in our laboratory. Central to this research is the recognition that pyrite is a semiconductor material. (Photo) electrochemical experiments are conducted to unravel the mechanisms of anodic and cathodic processes such as those associated with pyrite decomposition and the reduction of oxidants such as molecular oxygen and the ferric ion.

  4. Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Yong Lee, Jae; Jay Guo, L., E-mail: guo@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present transmission visible wavelength filters based on strong interference behaviors in an ultrathin semiconductor material between two metal layers. The proposed devices were fabricated on 2?cm??2?cm glass substrate, and the transmission characteristics show good agreement with the design. Due to a significantly reduced light propagation phase change associated with the ultrathin semiconductor layer and the compensation in phase shift of light reflecting from the metal surface, the filters show an angle insensitive performance up to 70, thus, addressing one of the key challenges facing the previously reported photonic and plasmonic color filters. This principle, described in this paper, can have potential for diverse applications ranging from color display devices to the image sensors.

  5. Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

  6. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Scher, Erik C. (San Francisco, CA); Manna, Liberato (Palo Del Collie, IT)

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  7. Production of pulsed, mass-selected beams of metal and semiconductor clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamalou, Omar; Rangama, Jimmy; Ramillon, Jean-Marc; Guinement, Patrick; Huber, Bernd A. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICaen-UCBN, Bv. Henry Becquerel (B.P. 5133), F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the development of a beam line for mass-selected metal and semiconductor clusters. The cluster source combines the principles of plasma sputtering and gas condensation. Both techniques together allow to produce clusters in a wide size range. With the aid of a time-of-flight system, small clusters (i.e., Cu{sub n}{sup +}, n<100) are selected and pure beams containing only one cluster size are provided. For large clusters (containing several thousands of atoms), a beam with a narrow size distribution is obtained. A 90 deg. quadrupole deviator is used to separate charged clusters from neutral ones.

  8. Physical properties and design of light-emitting devices based on organic materials and nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anikeeva, Polina Olegovna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the detailed experimental and theoretical characterization of light-emitting devices (LEDs) based on organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots (QDs). This hybrid material system has several ...

  9. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  10. Superconducting-semiconductor quantum devices: from qubits to particle detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun-Pil Shim; Charles Tahan

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent improvements in materials growth and fabrication techniques may finally allow for superconducting semiconductors to realize their potential. Here we build on a recent proposal to construct superconducting devices such as wires, Josephson junctions, and qubits inside and out-of single crystal silicon or germanium. Using atomistic fabrication techniques such as STM hydrogen lithography, heavily-doped superconducting regions within a single crystal could be constructed. We describe the characteristic parameters of basic superconducting elements---a 1D wire and a tunneling Josephson junction---and estimate the values for boron-doped silicon. The epitaxial, single-crystal nature of these devices, along with the extreme flexibility in device design down to the single-atom scale, may enable lower-noise or new types of devices and physics. We consider applications for such super-silicon devices, showing that the state-of-the-art transmon qubit and the sought-after phase-slip qubit can both be realized. The latter qubit leverages the natural high kinetic inductance of these materials. Building on this, we explore how kinetic inductance based particle detectors (e.g., photon or phonon) could be realized with potential application in astronomy or nanomechanics. We discuss super-semi devices (such as in silicon, germanium, or diamond) which would not require atomistic fabrication approaches and could be realized today.

  11. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  12. Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp KPE formerly Photon Semiconductor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp KPE formerly Photon Semiconductor Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp (KPE) (formerly Photon...

  13. Magnetic Gas Sensing Using a Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: The authors report on a magnetic gas sensing methodology to detect hydrogen using the ferromagnetic properties of a nanoscale dilute magnetic semiconductor...

  14. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process control charts (SPC) for product quality and processstatistical process control (SPC) charts. The concept is toMethods Univariate SPC for semiconductor manufacturing

  15. Argonne announces new licensing agreement with AKHAN Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne announces new licensing agreement with AKHAN Semiconductor By Jared Sagoff * November 19, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  16. Exploring Electron Transfer in Organic Semiconductors | MIT-Harvard...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Transfer in Organic Semiconductors January 28, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Troy Van Voorhis Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology vanvoorhis2000 abstract:...

  17. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical...

  18. Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Nanoclusters: Co-doped Cu2O. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhibits a temperature dependent decrease. Citation: Antony J, Y Qiang, F Muhammad, D Meyer, DE McCready, and MH Engelhard.2007."Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Nanoclusters:...

  19. The Technical and Economic Potential for Electricity Energy Efficiency in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, A. H. W.; Golden, J. W.; Zarnikau, J. W.

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry. The declining prices for semiconductor products has prompted semiconductor manufacturing plants to control costs so as to maintain profitability...

  20. Polarized x-ray spectroscopy of quaternary ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)(As,P)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quaternary diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)(As,P) as aIn diluted magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As, whichquaternary diluted magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)(

  1. Study of Semiconductor Microring Lasers for use in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Study of Semiconductor Microring Lasers for use in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM of all-active microring resonators as lasers are studied. The structure of a semiconductor microring demonstrated. Keywords: Semiconductor microring lasers, non-linear gain, multimode operation, mode

  2. Atomic and electronic structures of oxides on III-V semiconductors :

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jian

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and passivation of a compound semiconductor surface duringIn 2 O and SiO/III-V Semiconductor Interface, in press with2 O and SiO/III-V Semiconductor Interface, ECS Transaction (

  3. Strain broadening of the magnetization steps in diluted magnetic semiconductors Yuri G. Rubo* and M. F. Thorpe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorpe, Michael

    Strain broadening of the magnetization steps in diluted magnetic semiconductors Yuri G. Rubo* and M alloys diluted magnetic semiconductors results in fluctuations of the exchange constants between semiconducting alloys, the so- called semimagnetic semiconductors or diluted magnetic semiconductors DMS

  4. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  5. New materials and devices for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Borshchevsky, A.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of new, more efficient materials and devices is the key to expanding the range of application of thermoelectric generators and coolers. In the last couple of years, efforts to discover breakthrough thermoelectric materials have intensified, in particular in the US. Recent results on novel materials have already demonstrated that dimensionless figure of merit ZT values 40 to 50% larger than 1.0, the current limit, could be obtained in the 475 to 950 K temperature range. New terrestrial power generation applications have been recently described in the literature. There exists a wide range of heat source temperatures for these applications, from low grade waste heat, at 325--350 K, up to 850 to 1,100 K, such as in the heat recovery from a processing plant of combustible solid waste. The automobile industry has also recently developed a strong interest in a waste exhaust heat recovery power source operating in the 375--750 K temperature range to supplement or replace the alternator and thus decrease fuel consumption. Based on results achieved to date at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on novel materials, the performance of an advanced segmented generator design operating in a large 300--945 K temperature gradient is predicted to achieve about 15% conversion efficiency. This would be a very substantial improvement over state-of-the-art (SOA) thermoelectric power converters. Such a terrestrial power generator could be using waste heat or liquid fuels as a heat source. High performance radioisotope generators (RTG) are still of interest for deep space missions but the shift towards small, light spacecraft has developed a need for advanced power sources in the watt to milliwatt range. The powerstick concept would provide a study, compact, lightweight and low cost answer to this need. The development of thin film thermoelectric devices also offer attractive possibilities. The combination of semiconductor technology, thermoelectric films and high thermal conductivity materials could lead to the fabrication of light weight, high voltage devices with high cooling or high electrical power density characteristics. The use of microcoolers for the thermal management of power electronics is of particular interest.

  6. Semiconductor heterojunction band offsets and charge neutrality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chomsik

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = 33&Pb = 3 3&PAB = 35 1 . aI M 0 A 0. ? 1 2. 0. Energy(eV) 1 2. 0 0. ? 1 0. Energy(eV) 1 2. Figure 4. 4. Local density of states, parameters for this case are s, = ? 7, s?= 1, s, = l&sp 7~Pa = 4~A = 4)DAB ? .35. -12. 0. Energy(eV) 0... Signature of APS Member Roland E. Allen Department of Physics'- Texas A&M University ' College Station, TX 77843 s p ~ CX3 SEMICONDUCTOR HETEROJUNCTION BAND OFFSETS AND CHARGE NEUTRALITY A Thesis by CHOMSIK LEE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate...

  7. Transient Rayleigh scattering from single semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E.; Smith, Leigh M. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Yarrison-Rice, Jan M. [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy is a new pump-probe technique to study the dynamics and cooling of photo-excited carriers in single semiconductor nanowires. By studying the evolution of the transient Rayleigh spectrum in time after excitation, one can measure the time evolution of the density and temperature of photo-excited electron-hole plasma (EHP) as they equilibrate with lattice. This provides detailed information of dynamics and cooling of carriers including linear and bimolecular recombination properties, carrier transport characteristics, and the energy-loss rate of hot electron-hole plasma through the emission of LO and acoustic phonons.

  8. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  9. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Sandia Park, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  10. Dissipative dynamics in semiconductors at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Androulakis; Jean Bellissard; Christian Sadel

    2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model is introduced which describes the dissipation of electrons in lightly doped semi-conductors. The dissipation operator is proved to be densely defined and positive and to generate a Markov semigroup of operators. The spectrum of the dissipation operator is studied and it is shown that zero is a simple eigenvalue, which makes the equilibrium state unique. Also it is shown that there is a gap between zero and the rest of its spectrum which makes the return to equilibrium exponentially fast in time.

  11. Modular Algorithms for Transient Semiconductor Device Simulation, Part I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome, Joseph W.

    Modular Algorithms for Transient Semiconductor Device Simulation, Part I: Analysis of the Outer, is introduced at dis- crete time steps for the one-dimensional semiconductor device model. The it- eration as approximate Newton iterations. Continuation is employed as the time-stepping bridge. 1 Introduction In Part I

  12. Effect of superluminescence on the modulation response of semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Yariv, A.

    1982-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The small-signal modulation response of semiconductor lasers with a very small mirror reflectivity is analyzed. Superluminescent effects inside the laser cavity provide yet another mechanism for damping relaxation oscillation resonance. These results can serve as useful guides in designing high frequency semiconductor lasers.

  13. Profiling the Thermoelectric Power of Semiconductor Junctions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Profiling the Thermoelectric Power of Semiconductor Junctions with Nanometer Resolution Ho-Ki Lyeo,3 * We have probed the local thermoelectric power of semiconductor nanostruc- tures with the use of ultrahigh-vacuum scanning thermoelectric microscopy. When applied to a p-n junction, this method reveals

  14. ECE 451 -Fall 2011 Physics of Semiconductor Devices (3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    ECE 451 - Fall 2011 Physics of Semiconductor Devices (3) Electronics and Optoelectronics-Photon Scattering Processes (Optional) 18. Novel Optoelectronics and Electronics Devices (Optional) Structure on Semiconductor Physics and Device Physics, Draft Version (2010). Other Additional References or Readings: 1. J

  15. hal00267005, Modeling semiconductor thermal properties. The dispersion role.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

    , or in solar panels 3 , and are even used in medicine 4 . The increasing use of semiconductor micro in transistors 6 and semiconductor nano#12;lms in solar cells. At these low scale, Fourier's law may give , similar to photon intensity used in radiative transfer 24 . Thus, the energy ux per apparent surface unit

  16. Propagation of Nonclassical Radiation through a Semiconductor Slab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Yu. Vasylyev; W. Vogel; T. Schmielau; K. Henneberger; D. -G. Welsch

    2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a microscopic derivation of the emission spectra of a bulk semiconductor we arrive at a clear physical interpretation of the noise current operators in macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. This opens the possibility to study medium effects on nonclassical radiation propagating through an absorbing or amplifying semiconductor. As an example, the propagation of an incident squeezed vacuum is analyzed.

  17. Semiconductor Nanocomposites DOI: 10.1002/anie.201100200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Semiconductor Nanocomposites DOI: 10.1002/anie.201100200 Semiconductor Anisotropic Nanocomposites-based organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells (e.g., CP/QD composites) are favorable alternatives to inorganic elegant approach is to chemically tether CPs on the QD surface (i.e., preparing CP璔D nanocomposites

  18. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Crawford, M.H.

    1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1{lambda}) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%. 5 figs.

  19. Chemical and Engineering Materials | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and novel engineering materials. The user community takes advantage of capabilities of neutron scattering for measurements over wide ranges of experimental and operating...

  20. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  1. Semiconductor quantum dots enhanced graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cells by photo-induced doping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian; Lin, Shisheng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-induced doping is employed into graphene based solar cell through designing of a novel type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the performance of the graphene/CdTe solar cell is improved by about 50%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by resistance, photoluminescence and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a general and feasible way of designing novel type of solar cells based on two dimensional materials/semiconductor heterostructures.

  2. Nonlocal study of the near field radiative heat transfer between two n-doped semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study in this work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel planes of highly n-doped semiconductors. Using a nonlocal model of the dielectric permittivity, usually used for the case of metallic planes, we show that the radiative heat transfer coefficientsaturates as the separation distance is reduced for high doping concentration. These results replace the 1/d${}^2$ infinite divergence obtained in the local model case. Different features of the obtained results are shown to relate physically to the parameters of the materials, mainly the doping concentration and the plasmon frequency.

  3. Hard x-ray emission spectroscopy: a powerful tool for the characterization of magnetic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rovezzi, Mauro

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review aims to introduce the x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) techniques to the materials scientist working with magnetic semiconductors (e.g. semiconductors doped with 3d transition metals) for applications in the field of spin-electronics. We focus our attention on the hard part of the x-ray spectrum (above 3 keV) in order to demonstrate a powerful element- and orbital-selective characterization tool in the study of bulk electronic structure. XES and RIXS are photon-in/photon-out second order optical processes described by the Kramers-Heisenberg formula. Nowadays, the availability of third generation synchrotron radiation sources permits to apply such techniques also to dilute materials, opening the way for a detailed atomic characterization of impurity-driven materials. We present the K{\\ss} XES as a tool to study the occupied valence states (directly, via valence-to-core transitions) and to probe the local spin angular momentum (indirectly, via intra-at...

  4. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor-and solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor- and solar- grade silicon) produced in the United States in 2009 was $470 million. Four companies produced silicon materials in six plants. Of those companies, three produced ferrosilicon in four plants. Metallurgical

  5. Apparent Semiconductor Type Reversal in Anatase TiO2 Nanocrystalline Films David S. Warren,*, Yoram Shapira, Horst Kisch, and A. James McQuillan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapira, Yoram

    is conducive to photocatalysis. Photocatalysis at semiconductor surfaces has been extensively investigated over contains about 80% anatase and 20% rutile, has emerged as the benchmark material.3 Photocatalysis studies that the presence of water is important for photocatalysis,10-11 but its exact role in the process is poorly

  6. Mechanics of abrasive wear of elastomeric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Hang, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastomeric materials are widely used as tire and sealing materials due to their ability to undergo large deformations and conform to the mating surface. However, their applications often result in repeated contact with ...

  7. Action Plan Materials Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitze, Patrick

    sense, including all strata) has available to it a wide range of con- venient products which improve, improving companies' pros- pects and generating wealth without harming the environment. And allAction Plan 2010-2013 Materials Science Area EXECUTIVE SUMMARY #12;N.B.: If you require any further

  8. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Bj鰎n I; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

  9. High power semiconductor laser sources. Annual report, 12 March 1985-11 March 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, R.; Salzman, J.; Yariv

    1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Unstable semiconductor lasers were fabricated, and their potential as high power laser sources was analyzed.

  10. Control of coherence resonance in semiconductor superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johanne Hizanidis; Eckehard Schoell

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of time-delayed feedback control and Gaussian white noise on the spatio-temporal charge dynamics in a semiconductor superlattice. The system is prepared in a regime where the deterministic dynamics is close to a global bifurcation, namely a saddle-node bifurcation on a limit cycle ({\\it SNIPER}). In the absence of control, noise can induce electron charge front motion through the entire device, and coherence resonance is observed. We show that with appropriate selection of the time-delayed feedback parameters the effect of coherence resonance can either be enhanced or destroyed, and the coherence of stochastic domain motion at low noise intensity is dramatically increased. Additionally, the purely delay-induced dynamics in the system is investigated, and a homoclinic bifurcation of a limit cycle is found.

  11. Ion Trap in a Semiconductor Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stick; W. K. Hensinger; S. Olmschenk; M. J. Madsen; K. Schwab; C. Monroe

    2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated atoms has led to many advances in physics, from laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation of cold gases to the precise quantum control of individual atomic ion. Work on miniaturizing electromagnetic traps to the micrometer scale promises even higher levels of control and reliability. Compared with 'chip traps' for confining neutral atoms, ion traps with similar dimensions and power dissipation offer much higher confinement forces and allow unparalleled control at the single-atom level. Moreover, ion microtraps are of great interest in the development of miniature mass spectrometer arrays, compact atomic clocks, and most notably, large scale quantum information processors. Here we report the operation of a micrometer-scale ion trap, fabricated on a monolithic chip using semiconductor micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool, and measure heating of a single 111Cd+ ion in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped gallium arsenide (GaAs) heterostructure.

  12. Ultra wide-bandwidth micro energy harvester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajati, Arman

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra wide-bandwidth resonating thin film PZT MEMS energy harvester has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. It harvests energy from parasitic ambient vibration at a wide range of amplitude and frequency via ...

  13. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  14. Progress Materials Science Phase-field method and Materials Genome Initiative (MGI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    evolution within a material are considered as the ``holy grail'' of materials science and engineering. Many of materials science and engineering. A microstructure may contain a wide variety of structural features such as an applied SPECIAL ISSUE: Materials Genome L.-Q. Chen (&) Department of Materials Science and Engineering

  15. Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals inMicrofluidic Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Emory Ming-Yue

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidic reactors are investigated as a mechanism tocontrol the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize thestructural evolution of colloidal quantum dots. Due to their shortdiffusion lengths, low thermal masses, and predictable fluid dynamics,microfluidic devices can be used to quickly and reproducibly alterreaction conditions such as concentration, temperature, and reactiontime, while allowing for rapid reagent mixing and productcharacterization. These features are particularly useful for colloidalnanocrystal reactions, which scale poorly and are difficult to controland characterize in bulk fluids. To demonstrate the capabilities ofnanoparticle microreactors, a size series of spherical CdSe nanocrystalswas synthesized at high temperature in a continuous-flow, microfabricatedglass reactor. Nanocrystal diameters are reproducibly controlled bysystematically altering reaction parameters such as the temperature,concentration, and reaction time. Microreactors with finer control overtemperature and reagent mixing were designed to synthesize nanoparticlesof different shapes, such as rods, tetrapods, and hollow shells. The twomajor challenges observed with continuous flow reactors are thedeposition of particles on channel walls and the broad distribution ofresidence times that result from laminar flow. To alleviate theseproblems, I designed and fabricated liquid-liquid segmented flowmicroreactors in which the reaction precursors are encapsulated inflowing droplets suspended in an immiscible carrier fluid. The synthesisof CdSe nanocrystals in such microreactors exhibited reduced depositionand residence time distributions while enabling the rapid screening aseries of samples isolated in nL droplets. Microfluidic reactors werealso designed to modify the composition of existing nanocrystals andcharacterize the kinetics of such reactions. The millisecond kinetics ofthe CdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchange reaction are measured insitu with micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in silicon microreactorsspecifically designed for rapid mixing and time-resolved X-rayspectroscopy. These results demonstrate that microreactors are valuablefor controlling and characterizing a wide range of reactions in nLvolumes even when nanoscale particles, high temperatures, causticreagents, and rapid time scales are involved. These experiments providethe foundation for future microfluidic investigations into the mechanismsof nanocrystal growth, crystal phase evolution, and heterostructureassembly.

  16. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Peng, Xiaogang (Fayetteville, AR); Manna, Liberato (Palo del Colle, IT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  17. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Peng, Xiaogang (Fayetteville, AR); Manna, Liberato (Palo del Colle, IT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    widely named as spark plasma sintering (SPS), field-assistedalso known as spark plasma sintering (SPS) or the fieldsintering (PECS), there is little convincing evidence showing there are sparks or plasma

  19. Freescale Semiconductor Successfully Implements an Energy Management...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    projects at its Oak Hill Fab plant in Austin, Texas, that reduced annual plant-wide energy consumption by 28 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity and 26,000 million...

  20. Active infrared materials for beam steering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brener, Igal; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Gin, Aaron V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Miao, Xiaoyu; Barrick, Todd A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR, 3 {micro}m -12 {micro}m) is a highly desirable spectral range for imaging and environmental sensing. We propose to develop a new class of mid-IR devices, based on plasmonic and metamaterial concepts, that are dynamically controlled by tunable semiconductor plasma resonances. It is well known that any material resonance (phonons, excitons, electron plasma) impacts dielectric properties; our primary challenge is to implement the tuning of a semiconductor plasma resonance with a voltage bias. We have demonstrated passive tuning of both plasmonic and metamaterial structures in the mid-IR using semiconductors plasmas. In the mid-IR, semiconductor carrier densities on the order of 5E17cm{sup -3} to 2E18cm{sup -3} are desirable for tuning effects. Gate control of carrier densities at the high end of this range is at or near the limit of what has been demonstrated in literature for transistor style devices. Combined with the fact that we are exploiting the optical properties of the device layers, rather than electrical, we are entering into interesting territory that has not been significantly explored to date.