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1

Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Material Growth and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power .... due to a historical lack of native substrates and challenges in selectively ... have been optimized to provide equal growth rates of both polarities.

2

Method of depositing wide bandgap amorphous semiconductor materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing wide bandgap p type amorphous semiconductor materials on a substrate without photosensitization by the decomposition of one or more higher order gaseous silanes in the presence of a p-type catalytic dopant at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. and a pressure in the range from about 1-50 Torr.

Ellis, Jr., Frank B. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

1987-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

3

Photocell utilizing a wide-bandgap semiconductor material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photocell comprises a p-i-n amorphous silicon structure having a wide bandgap layer adjacent to either the p-type or n-type layer. This structure reduces the absorption of light entering the photocell and the back-diffusion of minority carriers.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Williams, Brown F. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

4

Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters. With the advent of the use of SiC devices it is imperative that models of these be made available in commercial simulators. This enables power electronic designers to simulate their designs for various test conditions prior to fabrication. To build an accurate transistor-level model of a power electronic system such as an inverter, the first step is to characterize the semiconductor devices that are present in the system. Suitable test beds need to be built for each device to precisely test the devices and obtain relevant data that can be used for modeling. This includes careful characterization of the parasitic elements so as to emulate the test setup as closely as possible in simulations. This report is arranged as follows: Chapter 2--The testing and characterization of several diodes and power switches is presented. Chapter 3--A 55-kW hybrid inverter (Si insulated gate bipolar transistor--SiC Schottky diodes) device models and test results are presented. A detailed description of the various test setups followed by the parameter extraction, modeling, and simulation study of the inverter performance is presented. Chapter 4--A 7.5-kW all-SiC inverter (SiC junction field effect transistors (JFET)--SiC Schottky diodes) was built and tested. The models built in Saber were validated using the test data and the models were used in system applications in the Saber simulator. The simulation results and a comparison of the data from the prototype tests are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 5--The duration test results of devices utilized in buck converters undergoing reliability testing are presented.

Chinthavali, M.S.

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

5

Wide-Bandgap Compound Semiconductors to Enable Novel Semiconductor Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of GaN-based wide bandgap semiconductor materials (referred to as III-N materials). Our theoretical investigations include the determination of fundamental materials parameters from first-principles calculations, the study of gain properties of III-N heterostructures using a microscopic laser theory and density-functional-theory, charge-state calculations to determine the core structure and energy levels of dislocations in III-N materials. Our experimental investigations include time-resolved photoluminescence and magneto-luminescence studies of GaN epilayers and multiquantum well samples as well as x-ray diffraction studies of AlGaN ternary alloys. In addition, we performed a number of experiments to determine how various materials processing steps affect both the optical and electrical properties of GaN-based materials. These studies include photoluminescence studies of GaN epilayers after post-growth rapid thermal annealing, ion implantation to produce n- and p-type material and electrical and optical studies of plasma-etched structures.

Crawford, M.H.; Chow, W.W.; Wright, A.F.; Lee, S.R.; Jones, E.D.; Han, J.; Shul, R.J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Semiconductor Material...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductor Material & Device Sciences > Advanced Materials Sciences > Lasers, Optics & Remote Sensing Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering...

7

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future January 15, 2014 - 8:00am Addthis Learn how wide bandgap semiconductors could impact clean energy technology and our daily lives. | Video by Sarah Gerrity and Matty Greene, Energy Department. Dr. Ernest Moniz Dr. Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy What are the key facts? North Carolina State University will lead the Energy Department's new manufacturing innovation institute for the next generation of power electronics, focusing on wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors. Building America's leadership in WBG semiconductor manufacturing while driving down the cost of the technology could lead to more affordable products for businesses and consumers, billions of dollars in energy

8

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the size of an automotive cooling system by 60% or even eliminate the secondary liquid cooling system. 2 Military: WBG semiconductors have great potential as an enabling...

9

Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

Hui, Rongqing (Lenexa, KS); Jiang,Hong-Xing (Manhattan, KS); Lin, Jing-Yu (Manhattan, KS)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

10

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Motors: WBG materials will enable higher-efficiency, variable- speed drives in motors—pumps, fans, compressors, and HVAC systems—used ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

11

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Materials Growth and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress in 4H SiC Wafers and Epitaxy for Power Electronics Applications: Darren Hansen1; Mark Loboda1; Stephan Mueller1; Jie Zhang1; Bernd Thomas1

12

Solar Superabsorption of Semiconductor Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically demonstrate the fundamental limit in volume for given materials (e.g. Si, a-Si, CdTe) to fully absorb the solar radiation above bandgap, which we refer as solar superabsorption limit. We also point out the general principles for experimentally designing light trapping structures to approach the superabsorption. This study builds upon an intuitive model, coupled leaky mode theory (CLMT), for the analysis of light absorption in nanostructures. The CLMT provides a useful variable transformation. Unlike the existing methods that rely on information of physical features (e.g. morphology, dimensionality) to analyze light absorption, the CLMT can evaluate light absorption in given materials with only two variables, the radiative loss and the resonant wavelength, of leaky modes, regardless the physical features of the materials. This transformation allows for surveying the entire variable space to find out the solar superabsorption and provides physical insights to guide the design of solar superabso...

Yu, Yiling; Cao, Linyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI Jump to: navigation, search Name Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) Place San Jose, California Zip 95134 2127 Product Global trade association, publisher and conference organiser representing the semiconductor and flat panel display equipment manufacturers. References Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) is a company located in San Jose, California . References ↑ "Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Semiconductor_Equipment_and_Materials_International_SEMI&oldid=350739

14

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Clean Energy Workshop: Summary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilitator: Foundry service is from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service (MOSIS). There is an evaluation of...

15

Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc SAMCO | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Materials Company Inc SAMCO and Materials Company Inc SAMCO Jump to: navigation, search Name Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO) Place Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan Zip 612-8443 Sector Solar Product Japanese manufactruer of semiconductor and solar manufacturing equipment such as etching, deposition and cleaning systems. References Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO) is a company located in Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan . References ↑ "Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Semiconductor_and_Materials_Company_Inc_SAMCO&oldid=350738

16

Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials  

SciTech Connect

A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

17

Optical and electrical properties of III-V nitride wide bandgap semiconductors. Annual report, April 1, 1997--May 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to investigate the optical and electrical properties of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors (GaN, InGaN, AlGaN) and quantum wells, to understand the fundamental optical transitions and impurity properties of these materials, to study the physics components of GaN-based devices, and to provide input for new approaches toward the improvement of materials quality and the optimization of device design. We were the first group to employ transport measurement techniques on the persistent photoconductivity (PPC) state to study the impurity properties of III-nitrides. We were also one of the few research groups m in the world to employ picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurement technique to study mechanisms of optical transitions, LED emission, and lasing m in GaN materials. During this funding period, we have investigated a variety of GaN samples and structures grown by MBE as well as by MOCVD. We have also made a significant progress in MOCVD GaN materials growth. This report briefly discusses the following accomplishments: effects of deep level impurities in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures; materials characterization of III-nitrides alloys; optical studies of III-nitride epilayers and quantum wells; fabrication and optical studies of III-nitride microdisk arrays; and materials growth by MOCVD.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Femtosecond laser interactions with semiconductor and dielectric materials  

SciTech Connect

Electronic excitation-relaxation processes induced by ultra-short laser pulses are studied numerically for semiconductors and dielectric materials (Si, quartz). A detailed kinetic approach is used in the calculations accounting for electron-photon-phonon, electron-phonon and electron-electron scatterings. In addition, both laser field ionization ranging from multi-photon to tunneling one, and electron impact (avalanche) ionization processes are included in the model. Based on the performed calculations we study the relaxation time as a function of laser parameters. It is shown that this time depends on the density of the created free carriers, which in turn is a nonlinear function of laser intensity. In addition, a simple damage criterion is proposed based on the mean electron energy density rather than on critical free electron density. This criterion gives a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data practically without adjustable parameters. Furthermore, the performed modeling provides energy absorbed in the target, conditions for damage of dielectric materials, as well as conditions for surface plasmon excitation and for periodic surface structure formation on the surface of semiconductor materials.

Shcheblanov, Nikita S.; Derrien, Thibault J. Y.; Itina, Tatiana E. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, CNRS//Universite Jeann Monnet, 18 rue du Prof. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procedes Photoniques, CNRS//Universite de la Mediterranee, 162 avenue de Luminy, 13288, Marseille (France); Laboratoire Hubert Curien, CNRS//Universite Jeann Monnet, 18 rue du Prof. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Allen, Larry C. (Arvada, CO); Marshall, Craig (Littleton, CO); Murphy, Robert C. (Golden, CO); Marshall, Todd (Littleton, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Engineered Gate Oxides for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor MOSFETs - Jon Ihlefeld, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

-5 -5 10 -4 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 1 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 |J Leakage | (A-cm -2 ) Semiconductor Voltage (V) Engineered Gate Oxides for Wide Bandgap S emiconductor M OSFETs* Jon I hlefeld, M ichael B rumbach, S andeepan D asGupta, and Stanley AtciEy Sandia NaGonal Laboratories *Sponsored b y t he U .S. D epartment o f E nergy's O ffice o f E lectricity E nergy S torage Systems P rogram jihlefe@sandia.gov, 505---844---3162; s atciE@sandia.gov, 505---284---2701 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND No. 2011-XXXXP Cooling Power electronics Energy storage Energy storage -V gate Low defect oxide Metal gate Wide

23

Methods of use of semiconductor nanocrystal probes for treating a material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Belmont, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

24

Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

None

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

25

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device. 22 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

27

Dilute III-V Nitride Semiconductors and Material Systems: Physics and Technology, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major current challenge for semiconductor devices is to develop materials for the next generation of optical communication systems and solar power conversion applications. Recently, extensive research has revealed that an introduction of only a few ...

Ayse Erol; Ayse Erol

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Dopant type and/or concentration selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition in the presence of a second semiconductor material which is of a composition different from said first material, said second material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux of an energy greater than their respective direct bandgaps and to the same gaseous chemical etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said conditions also being such that the resultant electronic structure of the first semiconductor material under said photon flux is sufficient for the first material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions and being such that the resultant electronic structure of the second semiconductor material under said photon flux is not sufficient for the second material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions. In a preferred mode, the materials are subjected to a bias voltage which suppresses etching in n- or p- type material but not in p- or n-type material, respectively; or suppresses etching in the more heavily doped of two n-type or two p-type materials.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable {sup 3}He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Wang, T

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

30

P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1988-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

Hydrogenated Bilayer Wurtzite SiC Nanofilms: A Two-Dimensional Bipolar Magnetic Semiconductor Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, a new kind of spintronics materials, bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate, or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.

Yuan, Long; Yang, Jinlong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Strain-based control of crystal anisotropy for perovskite oxides on semiconductor-based material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystalline structure and a semiconductor device includes a substrate of a semiconductor-based material and a thin film of an anisotropic crystalline material epitaxially arranged upon the surface of the substrate so that the thin film couples to the underlying substrate and so that the geometries of substantially all of the unit cells of the thin film are arranged in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate surface. The predisposition of the geometries of the unit cells of the thin film is responsible for a predisposed orientation of a directional-dependent quality, such as the dipole moment, of the unit cells. The predisposed orientation of the unit cell geometries are influenced by either a stressed or strained condition of the lattice at the interface between the thin film material and the substrate surface.

McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Complex-wide representation of material packaged in 3013 containers  

SciTech Connect

The DOE sites packaging plutonium oxide materials packaged according to Department of Energy 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013) are responsible for ensuring that the materials are represented by one or more samples in the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program. The sites categorized most of the materials into process groups, and the remaining materials were characterized, based on the prompt gamma analysis results. The sites issued documents to identify the relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program. These “Represented” documents were then reviewed and concurred with by the MIS Working Group. However, these documents were developed uniquely at each site and were issued before completion of sample characterization, small-scale experiments, and prompt gamma analysis, which provided more detailed information about the chemical impurities and the behavior of the material in storage. Therefore, based on the most recent data, relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program been revised. With the prompt gamma analysis completed for Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River Site 3013 containers, MIS items have been assigned to the 3013 containers for which representation is based on the prompt gamma analysis results. With the revised relationships and the prompt gamma analysis results, a Master “Represented” table has been compiled to document the linkages between each 3013 container packaged to date and its representative MIS items. This table provides an important link between the Integrated Surveillance Program database, which contains information about each 3013 container to the MIS items database, which contains the characterization, prompt gamma data, and storage behavior data from shelf-life experiments for the representative MIS items.

Narlesky, Joshua E.; Peppers, Larry G.; Friday, Gary P.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Heterogeneous reaction mechanisms and kinetics relevant to the CVD of semiconductor materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the state of the art in experimental and theoretical techniques for determining reaction mechanisms and chemical kinetics of heterogeneous reactions relevant to the chemical vapor deposition of semiconductor materials. It summarizes the most common ultra-high vacuum experimental techniques that are used and the types of rate information available from each. Several case studies of specific chemical systems relevant to the microelectronics industry are described. Theoretical methods for calculating heterogeneous reaction rate constants are also summarized.

Creighton, J.R.; Coltrin, M.E.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is significant as higher thermal and electrical conductivities of the surface layer are critical for a successful development of integrated optoelectronic devices; and (3) PTP provides low thermal budget dopant activation with a controlled depth profile, which can be exploited for high performance device development with selective patterning of the substrate. This project has successfully demonstrated that a low thermal budget annealing technique, such as PTP, is critical to defining the path for low cost electronic devices integrated on glass or polymeric substrates. This project is complimentary to the goals of the Solid State Lighting Program within DOE. It involves new manufacturing techniques for light emitting materials that are potentially much lower cost and energy efficient than existing products. Significant opportunity exists for further exploration of AppliCote's material and device technology in combination with ORNL's PTP technique, modeling, and characterization capabilities.

Duty, C.; Quick, N. (AppliCote Associates, LLC)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Application of scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy for characterization of semiconductor materials for photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy was previously demonstrated as an effective tool for characterization of different semiconductor crystals. Now the technique has been successfully applied for the investigation of CZ SixGe1-x -- a promising material for photovoltaics - and multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. In addition, this technique was shown to be appropriate for imaging of polishing-induced defects as well as such huge defects as "pin holes". Besides, previously unexplained "anomalous" (cubic power) dependence of signal of the scanning mid-IR-laser microscope in the optical-beam-induced light scattering mode on the photoexcitation power obtained for mechanically polished samples has now been attributed to the excess carrier scattering on charged linear defects, likely dislocation lines. The conclusion is made in the article that the scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy may serve as very effective tool for defect investigations in materials for modern photovoltaics.

Kalinushkin, V P; Yuryev, V A; 10.1016/S0927-0248(00)00076-3

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

40

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

42

Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Daejeon, KR); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

43

Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Savoy, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Semiconductors and sustainability : energy and materials use in integrated circuit manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semiconductors have propelled an incredible revolution in the way we generate, access, store, and communicate information; the effects of this revolution have transformed culture, society, and the economy. At the same time, ...

Branham, Matthew S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic longitudinal modulation, which may be a compositional modulation or a strain-induced modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Ritz, Clark S. (Middleton, WI)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic compositional longitudinal modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

Lagally, Max G; Evans, Paul G; Ritz, Clark S

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

47

Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches  

SciTech Connect

Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

Sullivan, J S

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

48

Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

Nozik, A. J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC  

SciTech Connect

Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

Shengbai Zhang

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

50

Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

1987-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

2012 DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 12-17, 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

GLASER, EVAN

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

Evaluation of Novel Semiconductor Materials Potentially Useful in Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00172  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of novel semiconductor materials potentially useful in solar cells. NREL will fabricate, test and analyze solar cells from EpiWorks' wafers produced in 2-3 separate growth campaigns. NREL will also characterize material from 2-3 separate EpiWorks material development campaigns. Finally, NREL will visit EpiWorks and help establish any necessary process, such as spectral CV measurements and III-V on Si metalization processes and help validate solar cell designs and performance.

Geisz, J.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Method of doping a semiconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

Yang, Chiang Y. (Miller Place, NY); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV�s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

55

CaTiO.sub.3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A structure including a film of a desired perovskite oxide which overlies and is fully commensurate with the material surface of a semiconductor-based substrate and an associated process for constructing the structure involves the build up of an interfacial template film of perovskite between the material surface and the desired perovskite film. The lattice parameters of the material surface and the perovskite of the template film are taken into account so that during the growth of the perovskite template film upon the material surface, the orientation of the perovskite of the template is rotated 45.degree. with respect to the orientation of the underlying material surface and thereby effects a transition in the lattice structure from fcc (of the semiconductor-based material) to the simple cubic lattice structure of perovskite while the fully commensurate periodicity between the perovskite template film and the underlying material surface is maintained. The film-growth techniques of the invention can be used to fabricate solid state electrical components wherein a perovskite film is built up upon a semiconductor-based material and the perovskite film is adapted to exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic or large dielectric properties during use of the component.

McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Semiconductors News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nhan Nguyen demonstrates how he performs optical measurements on a graphene-insulator-semiconductor sample structure. ...

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

57

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, M.W.

1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

59

Processing method for forming dislocation-free SOI and other materials for semiconductor use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing a silicon-on-insulator material having a relatively defect-free Si overlayer involves the implanting of oxygen ions within a silicon body and the interruption of the oxygen-implanting step to implant Si ions within the silicon body. The implanting of the oxygen ions develops an oxide layer beneath the surface of the silicon body, and the Si ions introduced by the Si ion-implanting step relieves strain which is developed in the Si overlayer during the implanting step without the need for any intervening annealing step. By relieving the strain in this manner, the likelihood of the formation of strain-induced defects in the Si overlayer is reduced. In addition, the method can be carried out at lower processing temperatures than have heretofore been used with SIMOX processes of the prior art. The principles of the invention can also be used to relieve negative strain which has been induced in a silicon body of relatively ordered lattice structure.

Holland, Orin Wayne (Oak Ridge, TN); Thomas, Darrell Keith (Kingston, TN); Zhou, Dashun (Sunnyvale, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Ferromagnetism in Oxide Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

In order to become a practical technology, semiconductor spintronics requires the discovery and utilization of ferromagnetic semiconductors which exhibit spin polarization in the majority carrier band at and above room temperature. Intrinsic remanent magnetization would allow spin polarized currents to be propagated in such materials without the need for a continuous magnetic field. However, the discovery and understanding of such materials is proving to be a grand challenge in solid-state science. Indeed, one of the 125 critical unanswered scientific questions recently posed in Science magazine asks, “Is it possible to create magnetic semiconductors that work at room temperature?”

Chambers, Scott A.; Droubay, Timothy; Wang, Chong M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Heald, Steve M.; Schwartz, S. A.; Kittilstved, Kevin R.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The synthesis of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystalline materials for the purpose of creating hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) or quantum dots (QDs) can be synthesized to efficiently emit light from the ultraviolet, across the entire visible spectrum, and into the near infrared. This is now possible due ...

Steckel, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Stephen)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Atomic hydrogen cleaning of semiconductor photocathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) semiconductor photocathodes are widely used for the production of polarized electron beams, and are also useful for the production of high brightness electron beams which can be modulated at very high frequencies. Preparation of an atomically clean semiconductor surface is an essential step in the fabrication of a NEA photocathode. This cleaning step is difficult for certain semiconductors, such as the very thin materials which produce the highest beam polarization, and those which have tightly bound oxides and carbides. Using a small RF dissociation atomic hydrogen source, the authors have reproducibly cleaned GaAs wafers which have been only degreased prior to installation in vacuum. They have consistently prepared very high quantum efficiency photocathodes following atomic hydrogen cleaning. Details of their apparatus and most recent results are presented.

Sinclair, C.K.; Poelker, B.M.; Price, J.S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Materials Science Semiconductor Materials Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... This project develops low-energy transmission electron diffraction, imaging, and ... Strain fields and phase distribution maps of indented Si ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Definition: Semiconductor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Semiconductor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Semiconductor Any material that has a limited capacity for conducting an electric current. Certain semiconductors, including silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride, are uniquely suited to the photovoltaic conversion process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity to a degree between that of a metal (such as copper) and that of an insulator (such as glass). Semiconductors are the foundation of modern solid state electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog integrated circuits. A semiconductor may have a number of unique properties, one of which is the

65

Time-resolved THz studies of carrier dynamics in semiconductors, superconductors, and strongly-correlated electron materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perhaps the most important aspect of contemporary condensed matter physics involves understanding strong Coulomb interactions between the large number of electrons in a solid. Electronic correlations lead to the emergence of new system properties, such as metal-insulator transitions, superconductivity, magneto-resistance, Bose-Einstein condensation, the formation of excitonic gases, or the integer and fractional Quantum Hall effects. The discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in particular was a watershed event, leading to dramatic experimental and theoretical advances in the field of correlated-electron systems. Such materials often exhibit competition between the charge, lattice, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom, whose cause-effect relationships are difficult to ascertain. Experimental insight into the properties of solids is traditionally obtained by time-averaged probes, which measure e.g., linear optical spectra, electrical conduction properties, or the occupied band structure in thermal equilibrium. Many novel physical properties arise from excitations out of the ground state into energetically higher states by thermal, optical, or electrical means. This leads to fundamental interactions between the system's constituents, such as electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, which occur on ultrafast timescales. While these interactions underlie the physical properties of solids, they are often only indirectly inferred from time-averaged measurements. Time-resolved spectroscopy, consequently, is playing an ever increasing role to provide insight into light-matter interaction, microscopic processes, or cause-effect relationships that determine the physics of complex materials. In the past, experiments using visible and near-infrared femtosecond pulses have been extensively employed, e.g. to follow relaxation and dephasing processes in metals and semiconductors. However, many basic excitations in strongly-correlated electron systems and nanoscale materials occur at lower energies. The terahertz (THz) regime is particularly rich in such fundamental resonances. This includes ubiquitous lattice vibrations and low-energy collective oscillations of conduction charges. In nanoscale materials, band structure quantization also yields novel infrared and THz transitions, including intersubband absorption in quantum wells. The formation of excitons in turn leads to low-energy excitations analogous to inter-level transitions in atoms. In transition-metal oxides, fundamental excitation gaps arise from charge pairing into superconducting condensates and other correlated states. This motivates the use of ultrafast THz spectroscopy as a powerful tool to study light-matter interactions and microscopic processes in nanoscale and correlated-electron materials.A distinct advantage of coherent THz pulses is that the amplitude and phase of the electric field can be measured directly, as the THz fields are coherent with the fs pulses from which they are generated. Using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), both the real and imaginary parts of the response functions (such as the dielectric function) are obtained directly without the need for Kramers?Kronig transforms. The THz response can also be expressed in terms of absorption and refractive index, or as the optical conductivity. The optical conductivity describes the current response of a many-body system to an electric field, an ideal tool to study conducting systems. A second important advantage is the ultrafast time resolution that results from the short temporal duration of the THz time-domain sources. In particular, optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy enables a delicate probe of the transient THz conductivity after optical photoexcitation. These experiments can provide insight into quasiparticle interactions, phase transitions, or nonequilibrium dynamics. In this chapter we will provide many such examples. Since THz spectroscopy of solids is a quickly expanding field

Kaindl, Robert A.; Averitt, Richard D.

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

66

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

67

Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Semiconductor Analytics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LED Lighting and Displays – Solar PV • Why Semiconductors? ... Potential Comments Solar PV 20.4 25-30% Politically driven. BP disaster will help. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

69

Nanostructures, magnetic semiconductors and spintronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of recent advances in the area of semiconductor nanomaterials, which represent extremely promising applications for materials with the spin-polarized transport of the charge carriers. It is shown on the ... Keywords: Magnetic properties, Nanostructure, Semiconductor, Spin-polarized transport, Spintronics

Paata Kervalishvili; Alexander Lagutin

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

Rajh, Tijana (Naperville, IL); Meshkov, Natalia (Downers Grove, IL); Nedelijkovic, Jovan M. (Belgrade, YU); Skubal, Laura R. (West Brooklyn, IL); Tiede, David M. (Elmhurst, IL); Thurnauer, Marion (Downers Grove, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Geothermal: WBG-based electronic sensors can withstand the harsh, high-pressure, and high-temperature environments of geothermal wells. ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

72

Hydrogen in semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After an incubation'' period in the 1970's and early 80's, during which the first hydrogen related centers were discovered and characterized in ultra-pure germanium, a sharp increase of research activity occurred after the discovery of shallow acceptor passivation in crystalline silicon. The aim of this review is to convey an insight into the rich, multifaceted physics and materials science which has emerged from the vast variety of experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. In order to arrive at the current understanding of hydrogen related phenomena in a logical way, each chapter will start with a brief review of the major experimental and theoretical advances of the past few years. Those who are interested to learn more about this fascinating area of semiconductor research are referred to reviews, to a number of conference proceedings volumes, and to an upcoming book which will contain authoritative chapters on most aspects of hydrogen in crystalline semiconductors. Some of the early art of semiconductor device processing can finally be put on a scientific foundation and new ways of arriving at advanced device structures begin to use what we have learned from the basic studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. 92 refs., 8 figs.

Haller, E.E. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Semiconductor and Optical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences > Semiconductor Material & Device Sciences > Advanced Materials Sciences > Lasers, Optics & Remote Sensing Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Jeff Nelson Jerry A. Simmons Sr. Manager Idabelle Idabelle Courtney Admin. Asst. Departments Semiconductor and Optical Sciences The Semiconductor and Optical Sciences Department oversees the operations of the following departments providing new scientific knowledge that can lead to technology solutions in the areas of: Compound semiconductor optoelectronic materials and devices Chemical science to materials technologies, emphasizing the science and engineering of Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) Remote sensing and detection of WMD proliferation activities

74

Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

Gupta, Amita

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

Haller, Eugene E.

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

76

A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent metamaterial (MM) research faces several problems when using metal-based plasmonic components as building blocks for MMs. The use of conventional metals for MMs is limited by several factors: metals such as gold and silver have high losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) ranges and very large negative real permittivity values, and in addition, their optical properties cannot be tuned. These issues that put severe constraints on the device applications of MMs could be overcome if semiconductors are used as plasmonic materials instead of metals. Heavily doped, wide bandgap oxide semiconductors could exhibit both a small negative real permittivity and relatively small losses in the NIR. Heavily doped oxides of zinc and indium were already reported to be good, low loss alternatives to metals in the NIR range. Here, we consider these transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) as alternative plasmonic materials for many specific applications ranging from surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides to MMs with hype...

Naik, Gururaj V; 10.1016/j.metmat.2010.11.001

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Business Case Slide 25: High-Value: Semiconductors - Description  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductors - Description Receipt of rare DUO crystals at ORNL Receipt of rare DUO2 crystals at ORNL Description Use DUO2 as a semiconductor material Computer CPU or RAM chips...

78

II-V Compound Semiconductors - Microsystems Science, Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

researched, developed and delivered include: A wide variety of specialty semiconductor lasers Integrated VCSEL-RCPD circuits (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,...

79

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

80

Preparation of a semiconductor thin film  

SciTech Connect

A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

1985-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

82

Materials Science Semiconductor Materials Programs and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... transmission of information in today's electronics requires ... sources such as solar energy are attractive alternatives to fossil fuels because ...

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

83

Details in Semiconductors Gordon Conference, New London, NH, August 3-8, 2008  

SciTech Connect

Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in homogeneous and structured semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, with an increases emphasis on nanostructures as compared to previous conferences. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference deals with defects in a broad range of bulk and nanoscale electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, doped nanoparticles, and organic semiconductors. Presentations of state-of-the-art theoretical methods will contribute to a fundamental understanding of atomic-scale phenomena. The program consists of about twenty invited talks, with plenty of discussion time, and a number of contributed poster sessions. Because of the large amount of discussion time, the conference provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

Shengbai Zhang and Nancy Ryan Gray

2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Photovoltaic Cell Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics...

85

Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Spire Semiconductor formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC Semiconductor formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC) Place Hudson, New Hampshire Zip 3051 Product Spire-owned US-based manufacturer of gallium-arsenide (GaAs) cells; offers design and manufacturing capabilities of concentrator cells. References Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC) is a company located in Hudson, New Hampshire . References ↑ "Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Spire_Semiconductor_formerly_Bandwidth_Semiconductor_LLC&oldid=351621"

88

Unitary lens semiconductor device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

Uranium Oxide Semiconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of semiconductors, it would consume the annual production rate of depleted uranium from uranium enrichment facilities. For more information: PDF Semiconductive Properties of...

91

Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Scher, Erik C. (San Francisco, CA); Manna, Liberato (Lecce, IT)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

94

Guiding effect of quantum wells in semiconductor lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The guiding effect of InGaAs quantum wells in GaAs- and InP-based semiconductor lasers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that such waveguides can be effectively used in laser structures with a large refractive index difference between the quantum well material and semiconductor matrix and a large number of quantum wells (e.g. in InP-based structures). (semiconductor lasers. physics and technology)

Aleshkin, V Ya; Dikareva, Natalia V; Dubinov, A A; Zvonkov, B N; Karzanova, Maria V; Kudryavtsev, K E; Nekorkin, S M; Yablonskii, A N

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Theory of Semiconductor Laser Cooling .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order… (more)

Rupper, Greg

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

About the 1996 Electronic Materials Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Session N: Non-Stoichiometric Compound Semi-Conductors · Session O: Quantum Effect Materials: Spontaneous Ordering Composition Modulation in ...

97

Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) an affinity molecule linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal. The semiconductor nanocrystal is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Exposure of the semiconductor nanocrystal to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

High-Throughput Transfer Imprinting for Organic Semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of nanoimprint lithography(NIL) has enabled high-throughput and high-resolution patterning over the optical limitation. In recent years, thermal nanoimprint has been used to directly pattern functional materials such as organic semiconductors because heat and pressure used in thermal nanoimprint do not damage functional materials. However, issues such as residual layer removal and mold contamination still limit the application of nanoimprint for organic semiconductor patterning. In this work, nanoimprint-based transfer imprinting of organic semiconductor is studied. In the same time the suggested technique is simulated with COMSOL multi-physics simulator to understand its mechanism. This transfer printing technique utilize thermal nanoimprint scheme to enable residual-layer-free patterning of organic semiconductors without mold contamination. The transfer imprinting technique is amenable to roll-to-roll process for high-throughput patterning of organic semiconductors for low-cost organic electronic applications.

Choo, Gihoon

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors, wherein energy is transferred from the energy donor to the energy acceptor and wherein: the energy acceptor is a colloidal nanocrystal having a lower band gap energy than the energy donor; the energy donor and the energy acceptor are separated by a distance of 40 nm or less; wherein the average peak absorption energy of the acceptor is at least 20 meV greater than the average peak emission energy of the energy donor; and

100

Photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of III-V semiconductors has been used to fabricate unique structures in electronic and photonic devices, such as integral lenses on light-emitting diodes, gratings on laser structures, and through-wafer via connections ...

P. A. Kohl

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Semiconductor diode with external field modulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-destructive-readout nonvolatile semiconductor diode switching device that may be used as a memory element is disclosed. The diode switching device is formed with a ferroelectric material disposed above a rectifying junction to control the conduction characteristics therein by means of a remanent polarization. The invention may be used for the formation of integrated circuit memories for the storage of information.

Nasby, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Analysis of lateritic material from Cerro Impacto by instrumental neutron activation employing a low-energy photon semiconductor and a high-energy Ge(Li) detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nineteen elements were determined in four different grain size fractions of a bulk geological material from Cerro Impacto for a study of the physical (mechanical) concentration process of different elements based upon the hardness of the different minerals. The analysis was performed by excitation of the sample with a high, slow neutron flux followed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with both a conventional Ge(Li) high-energy detector and a low-energy photon detector (LEPD). The accuracy of this method was studied with the use of two standard reference materials, SY-2 and SY-3, which are similar to the real samples. The values determined were also compared with a secondary target x-ray fluorescence method for all the elements that were suitable to both methods. Actually, the x-ray fluorescence method was found to be more complementary than competitive. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

LaBrecque, J.J.; Beusen, J.M.; Van Grieken, R.E.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

2 www.trnmag.com Technology Research News February 23/March 2, 2005 Process yields semiconductor foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wayne State University have made crystalline aerogels -- new semiconductor materials that are very porous, giving them very high surface areas. Unlike conventional aerogels, the researchers' materials

Ruina, Andy L.

104

Exploring and enhancing conductivity in semiconductor nanoparticle films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are a promising material for use in opto-electronic devices as their optical properties tune with particle size. NCs formed via colloidal synthesis are suspended in solution by the organic ...

Porter, Venda Jane

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Optical Nonlinearities and Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots  

SciTech Connect

Low-dimensional semiconductors have attracted great interest due to the potential for tailoring their linear and nonlinear optical properties over a wide-range. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC's) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects or quantum dots. Due to quantum cordhement and a large surface-to-volume ratio, the linear and nonlinear optical properties, and the carrier dynamics in NC's are significantly different horn those in bulk materials. napping at surface states can lead to a fast depopulation of quantized states, accompanied by charge separation and generation of local fields which significantly modifies the nonlinear optical response in NC's. 3D carrier confinement also has a drastic effect on the energy relaxation dynamics. In strongly confined NC's, the energy-level spacing can greatly exceed typical phonon energies. This has been expected to significantly inhibit phonon-related mechanisms for energy losses, an effect referred to as a phonon bottleneck. It has been suggested recently that the phonon bottleneck in 3D-confined systems can be removed due to enhanced role of Auger-type interactions. In this paper we report femtosecond (fs) studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities, and energy relaxation and trap ping dynamics in three types of quantum-dot systems: semiconductor NC/glass composites made by high temperature precipitation, ion-implanted NC's, and colloidal NC'S. Comparison of ultrafast data for different samples allows us to separate effects being intrinsic to quantum dots from those related to lattice imperfections and interface properties.

Klimov, V.; McBranch, D.; Schwarz, C.

1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

106

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth by W. G. Breiland, L. A. Bruskas, A. A. Allerman, and T. W. Hargett Motivation-Temperature is a critical factor in the growth of thin films by either chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is particularly important in compound semiconductor growth because one is often challenged to grow materials with specific chemical compositions in order to maintain stringent lattice-matching conditions or to achieve specified bandgap values. Optical pyrometry can be used to measure surface temperatures, but the thin film growth causes significant changes in the emissivity of the surface, leading to severe errors in the pyrometer measurement. To avoid these errors, emissivity changes must be measured and

107

Coherent multi-exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures via two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Coulomb correlations between photoexcited charged particles in materials such as photosynthetic complexes, conjugated polymer systems, J-aggregates, and bulk or nanostructured semiconductors produce a hierarchy of ...

Stone, Katherine Walowicz

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology  

SciTech Connect

The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The construction industry is comprised of a wide range of businesses involved in engineering standards, building design, and the construction of various types of materials and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal characteristics of buildings for insulation purposes, and to determine heating, cooling in engineering standards, building design, and the construction of various types of materials and structures-related impacts, such as high winds and flooding, influence the choice of site construction, building techniques

110

Thermally robust semiconductor optical amplifiers and laser diodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly heat conductive layer is combined with or placed in the vicinity of the optical waveguide region of active semiconductor components. The thermally conductive layer enhances the conduction of heat away from the active region, which is where the heat is generated in active semiconductor components. This layer is placed so close to the optical region that it must also function as a waveguide and causes the active region to be nearly the same temperature as the ambient or heat sink. However, the semiconductor material itself should be as temperature insensitive as possible and therefore the invention combines a highly thermally conductive dielectric layer with improved semiconductor materials to achieve an overall package that offers improved thermal performance. The highly thermally conductive layer serves two basic functions. First, it provides a lower index material than the semiconductor device so that certain kinds of optical waveguides may be formed, e.g., a ridge waveguide. The second and most important function, as it relates to this invention, is that it provides a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the semiconductor material, which is the principal material in the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices.

Dijaili, Sol P. (Moraga, CA); Patterson, Frank G. (Danville, CA); Walker, Jeffrey D. (El Cerrito, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Petersen, Holly (Manteca, CA); Goward, William (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductor Nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light-matter interactions in Semiconductor Nanostructures. ... We investigate the interaction of light with semiconductor-based nanostructures. ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

113

Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

114

Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Polymer electronic devices and materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Dilute magnetic semiconductors in spin-polarized electronics (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Dilute magnetic semiconductors have proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics{emdash}so far they provide the only viable route to establish spin-polarized current injection into a nonmagnetic semiconductor. The reasons for this become apparent from a simple spin-channel model, which predicts that spin injection into a semiconductor can, within linear response, only readily be achieved from a ferromagnetic injector that has: (i) a resistivity that is comparable to the semiconductor and (ii) preferably is 100% spin polarized. Both of these criteria can be met in magnetic semiconductors, but (so far) are hard to achieve using other materials. Experimentally, we demonstrate how dilute magnetic II{endash}VI semiconductors can be used to inject a strongly (up to 90%) spin-polarized current into a light emitting diode. In addition, we discuss the implications of the spin-channel model for the observation of giant magnetoresistance-like effects in the magnetoresistance of an all-semiconductor device. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Schmidt, Georg; Molenkamp, Laurens W.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project  

SciTech Connect

KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

118

Amorphous semiconductor solar cell  

SciTech Connect

A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Compound semiconductor MOSFETs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhancement mode, high electron mobility MOSFET devices have been fabricated using an oxide high-@k gate dielectric stack developed using molecular beam epitaxy. A template layer of Ga"2O"3, initially deposited on the surface of the III-V device unpins ... Keywords: Compound semiconductors, GaAs gate dielectric, III-V MOSFETs

R. Droopad; K. Rajagopalan; J. Abrokwah; P. Zurcher; M. Passlack

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

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121

Argonne licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies By Joseph Bernstein * By Jared Sagoff * March 4, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced today that the laboratory has granted AKHAN Technologies exclusive diamond semiconductor application licensing rights to breakthrough low-temperature diamond deposition technology developed by Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM). The Argonne-developed technology allows for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond on a variety of wafer substrate materials at temperatures as low as 400 degrees Celsius. The combination of the Argonne's low-temperature diamond technology with AKHAN's Miraj Diamond(tm) process represents the state of the art in diamond semiconductor

122

Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

123

Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

124

Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy) [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)] [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy) [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)] [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Power Electronics Based on the 2-Dimensional Electron Gas in GaN High Power Electronics Based on the 2-Dimensional Electron Gas in GaN Heterostructures by S. R. Kurtz, A. A. Allerman, and D. Koleski Motivation-GaN-based electronics offer miniaturization potential of radical proportions for microwave power amplifiers. GaN's large bandgap, high breakdown field, high electron velocity, and excellent thermal properties have led to high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) with up to 10x the power density of GaAs and other traditional semiconductors at frequencies up to 20 GHz. Further contributing to the outstanding performance of GaN-based amplifiers is the highly conducting, 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) used for the HEMT channel. Intrinsic polarization and piezoelectric properties of GaN materials can produce a 2DEG at an

127

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

128

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

129

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

130

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

131

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

132

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

133

Semiconductor Materials for Photoelectrolysis - DOE Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production and Delivery Photoelectrochemical Turner - National Renewable Energy Laboratory hydrogen and oxygen spontaneously upon illumination, (ii) has a STH...

134

Computational Design of Complex Semiconductor Materials for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of Computational Thermodynamics in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ... Electrical Properties of Point Defects in CdS and ZnS Thin-film PV Buffer Layers.

135

Materials and Processing Issues in Nanostructured Semiconductor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently studies indicate that the most noble metal, gold, on transition metal oxides could have important applications for room-temperature catalytic oxidation of ...

136

Gas fixation solar cell using gas diffusion semiconductor electrode  

SciTech Connect

A gas diffusion semiconductor electrode and solar cell and a process for gaseous fixation, such as nitrogen photoreduction, CO/sub 2/ photoreduction and fuel gas photo-oxidation are described. The gas diffusion photosensitive electrode has a central electrolyte porous matrix with an activated semiconductor material on one side adapted to be in contact with an electrolyte and a hydrophobic gas diffusion region on the opposite side adapted to be in contact with a supply of molecular gas.

Ang, P.G.; Sammells, A.F.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

137

Material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed, utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range. (1.0-4.7 V) XAS measurements were performed at different states of charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized toward Co{sup 4+}, and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remained as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O, and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Deb, Aniruddha

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

138

GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection  

SciTech Connect

GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

139

Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

140

Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in he probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Light amplification using semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

Dupuis, R.D.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Photocatalytic semiconductor clusters for fuel production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High quality crystalline, monodisperse nanometer-size semiconductor clusters were successfully grown using an inverse micellar synthesis process and their optical and structural properties were studied. Among the materials studied were PbS, FeS{sub 2}, MoS{sub 2}, CdS and related compounds. The results demonstrated strong electronic quantum confinement effects and broad tailorability of the bandgaps with decreasing cluster size, features that are important for the potential use of these materials as photocatalysts for solar fuel production and solar detoxification. The highlights of the work are included in an Executive Summary.

Wilcoxon, J.P.; Bliss, D.E.; Martin, J.E. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Semiconductor P-I-N detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

Sudharsanan, Rengarajan (53 Timber Line Dr., Nashua, NH 03062); Karam, Nasser H. (577 Lowell St., Lexington, MA 02173)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

High power semiconductor laser diode arrays  

SciTech Connect

The cw optical power obtainable from semiconductor laser diodes has been extended to unprecedented levels in recent years through the use of multistripe arrays. By spreading out the optical power with more than 100 stripes, single-facet, cw output in exces of 5 Watts has been demonstrated, and 500 mW cw is now commercially available. Recent improvements to array performance include: arrays up to 1 cm wide that generates quasi-cw (150 usec pulse) output in excesss of 11 Watts, and a novel device structure which produces up to 215 mW cw in a single diffraction limited lobe.

Cross, P.S.

1986-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods  

SciTech Connect

Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

146

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

Haller, Eugene E.

2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

147

Mesoscopic Magnetic/Semiconductor Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the experimental results of Fe and Fe3O4 nanostructures on GaAs(100) surfaces and hybrid Ferromagnetic/Semiconductor/Ferromagnetic (FM/SC/FM) spintronic devices. Element specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) ... Keywords: Epitaxial ferromagnetic thin film, ferromagnetic/semiconductor hybrid structures, spintronics

Yong Bing Xu; E. Ahmad; Yong Xiong Lu; J. S. Claydon; Ya Zhai; G. van der Laan

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and GaP{sub 1-x}N{sub x} with x {approx}< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also occurs between localized states and the valence band states. Soft x-ray fluorescence experiments provide direct evidence of the BAC interaction in these systems. In the final chapter of the thesis, I describe and summarize my studies of optical properties of wurtzite InN and related alloys. Early studies performed on InN films grown by sputtering techniques suggested a direct bandgap of {approx}1.9 eV for this semiconductor. Very recently, high-quality InN films with much higher mobility have become available by using the molecular beam epitaxy growth method. Optical experiments carried out on these samples reveal a narrow bandgap for InN of 0.77 eV, much lower than the previously accepted value. Optical properties of InGaN and InAlN ternaries on the In rich side have also been characterized and are found to be consistent with the narrow bandgap of InN. The bandgap bowing parameters in these alloys were determined. In the context of these findings, the bandgap energies of InGaN and InAlN were found to cover a wide spectral range from the infrared for InN to the ultraviolet for GaN and deep ultraviolet for AlN. The significance of this work is rooted in many important applications of nitride semiconductors in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion devices.

Wu, Junqiao

2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

149

Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. June 25, 2013 Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having

150

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FederalState Programs PFC ReductionClimate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry Launched in 1996 in collaboration with the Semiconductor Industry Association, EPA's PFC...

151

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Research: Compound Semiconductor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compound Semiconductor Science and Technology Thrust The Physical, Chemical, and Nano Sciences Center's vision for Compound Semiconductors is to develop the science of compound...

152

Oxide Ferromagnetic Semiconductors for Spin-Electronic Transprt  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to investigate the viability of oxide magnetic semiconductors as potential materials for spintronics. We identified some members of the solid solution series of ilmenite (FeTiO3) and hematite (Fe2O3), abbreviated as (IH) for simplicity, for our investigations based on their ferromagnetic and semiconducting properties. With this objective in focus we limited our investigations to the following members of the modified Fe-titanates: IH33 (ilmenitehematite with 33 atomic percent hematite), IH45 (ilmenite-hematite with 45 atomic percent hematite), Mn-substituted ilmenite (Mn-FeTiO3), and Mn-substituted pseudobrookite (Mn- Fe2TiO5). All of them are: 1. wide bandgap semiconductors with band gaps ranging in values between 2.5 to 3.5 eV; 2. n-type semiconductors; 3.they exhibit well defined magnetic hysteresis loops and 4. their magnetic Curie points are greater than 400K. Ceramic, film and single crystal samples were studied and based on their properties we produced varistors (also known as voltage dependent resistors) for microelectronic circuit protection from power surges, three-terminal microelectronic devices capable of generating bipolar currents, and an integrated structured device with controlled magnetic switching of spins. Eleven refereed journal papers, three refereed conference papers and three invention disclosures resulted from our investigations. We also presented invited papers in three international conferences and one national conference. Furthermore two students graduated with Ph.D. degrees, three with M.S. degrees and one with B.S. degree. Also two post-doctoral fellows were actively involved in this research. We established the radiation hardness of our devices in collaboration with a colleague in an HBCU institution, at the Cyclotron Center at Texas A&M University, and at DOE National Labs (Los Alamos and Brookhaven). It is to be appreciated that we met most of our goals and expanded vastly the scope of research by including investigations of Mn-FeTiO3, Mn-Fe2TiO5 and by producing a novel three terminal device capable of generating bipolar currents besides producing radiation resistant varistors and a magnetically switchable device. Furthermore we conclusively established the radiation hardness of the four modified iron titanates we studied. In all our publications, conference and seminar presentations, dissertations and theses sponsorship of DOE has been acknowledged

Dr. R. K. Pandey, Cudworth Endowed Professor (Professor Emeritus of The Unviersity of Alabama) Ingram Endowed Professor, Ingram School of Engineering and Physics Department, Texas State University, San Marocs, TX78666

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

153

Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

154

Scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy: an efficient tool for materials studies in silicon-based photonics and photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method of scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy has recently been proposed for the investigation of large-scale electrically and recombination-active defects in semiconductors and non-destructive inspection of semiconductor materials and structures in the industries of microelectronics and photovoltaics. The basis for this development was laid with a wide cycle of investigations on low-angle mid-IR-light scattering in semiconductors. The essence of the technical idea was to apply the dark-field method for spatial filtering of the scattered light in the scanning mid-IR-laser microscope together with the local photoexcitation of excess carriers within a small domain in a studied sample, thus forming an artificial source of scattering of the probe IR light for the recombination contrast imaging of defects. The current paper presents three contrasting examples of application of the above technique for defect visualization in silicon-based materials designed for photovoltaics and photonics which demonstrate that this...

Astafiev, O V; Yuryev, V A; 10.1016/S0022-0248(99)00711-3

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Argonne CNM News: State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology Licensed to AKHAN Technologies State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology Licensed to AKHAN Technologies The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced today that the laboratory has granted AKHAN Technologies, Inc., exclusive diamond semiconductor application licensing rights to breakthrough low-temperature diamond deposition technology developed by Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM). The method allows for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond on a variety of wafer substrate materials at temperatures as low as 400°C, highly advantageous for integration with processed semiconductor electronic materials and resulting in the deposition of low-defect nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films. The combination of CNM's low-temperature diamond technology with the AKHAN Miraj Diamond(tm) process represents the state of the art in diamond semiconductor thin-film technology.

156

Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

Crandall, Richard S. (Princeton, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

Crandall, R.S.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

158

Hydrogen in compound semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in the understanding of hydrogen and its interactions in III/V and II/VI compound semiconductors is reviewed. Donor, acceptor and deep level passivation is well established in III/V compounds based on electrical measurements and on spectroscopic studies. The hydrogen donor levels in GaAs and GaP are estimated to lie near E{sub v}+0.5 eV and E{sub v}+0.3 eV, respectively. Arsenic acceptors have been passivated by hydrogen in CdTe and the very first nitrogen-hydrogen local vibrational model spectra in ZnSe have been reported. This long awaited result may lead to an explanation for the poor activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnSe grown by techniques which involve high concentrations of hydrogen.

Haller, E.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an explosive device comprising an explosive material which can be made to explode upon activation by activation means in contact therewith; electrical activation means adaptable for activating said explosive material such that it explodes; and electrical circuitry in operation association with said activation means; there is an improvement wherein said activation means is an electrical material which, at an elevated temperature, has a negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and which has a shape and size and an area of contact with said explosive material sufficient that it has an electrical resistance which will match the resistance requirements of said associated electrical circuitry when said electrical material is operationally associated with said circuitry, and wherein said electrical material is polycrystalline; or said electrical material is crystalline and (a) is mounted on a lattice matched substrate or (b) is partially covered with an intimately contacting metallization area which defines its area of contact with said explosive material.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries, polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics havelaser industry, people are also seeking good ceramic laser

Wang, Zhaojie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

L9, LATE NEWS: Electrical and Materials Reliability Issues in Single ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the 2009 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors [1], ..... Activated Charcoal-Carbon Fabrics Composite Electrode Materials for Supercapacitor ...

163

Structure-fluctuation-induced abnormal thermoelectric properties in semiconductor copper selenide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric effects and related technologies have attracted a great interest due to the world-wide energy harvesting. Thermoelectricity has usually been considered in the context of stable material phases. Here we report that the fluctuation of structures during the second-order phase transition in Cu2Se semiconductor breaks the conventional trends of thermoelectric transports in normal phases, leading to a critically phase-transition-enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit zT above unity at 400K, a three times larger value than for the normal phases. Dynamic structural transformations introduce intensive fluctuations and extreme complexity, which enhance the carrier entropy and thus the thermopower, and strongly scatter carriers and phonons as well to make their transports behave critically.

Liu, Huili [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shi, Xun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Uher, Ctirad [University of Michigan; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS); Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Simulating nanoscale semiconductor devices.  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of electronic devices will be developed at the nanoscale and molecular level, where quantum mechanical effects are observed. These effects must be accounted for in the design process for such small devices. One prototypical nanoscale semiconductor device under investigation is a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Scientists are hopeful the quantum tunneling effects present in an RTD can be exploited to induce and sustain THz frequency current oscillations. To simulate the electron transport within the RTD, the Wigner-Poisson equations are used. These equations describe the time evolution of the electrons distribution within the device. In this paper, this model and a parameter study using this model will be presented. The parameter study involves calculating the steady-state current output from the RTD as a function of an applied voltage drop across the RTD and also calculating the stability of that solution. To implement the parameter study, the computational model was connected to LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms), a part of Sandia National Laboratories parallel solver project, Trilinos. Numerical results will be presented.

Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Zhao, P. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Woolard, D. L. (U. S. Army Research Laboratory, NC); Kelley, C. Tim (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Lasater, Matthew S. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

McCluskey, M.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Prediction of semiconductor band edge positions in aqueous environments from first principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to predict a semiconductor's band edge positions in solution is important for the design of water-splitting photocatalyst materials. In this paper, we introduce a first-principles method to compute the ...

Wu, Yabi

167

Ge-on-Si Integrated Photonics: New Tricks from an Old Semiconductor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent progress in Ge active photonic devices for electronic-photonic integration on Si, demonstrating new tricks in optoelectronics from this “old” semiconductor material used for the first transistor more than ...

Jifeng, Liu

168

Role of propagating ionisation fronts in semiconductor generation of sub-ps THz radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in standard semiconductor THz emitters may lead to identification of superior materials and excitation) 2806. [7] J.L. Oudar, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, F. Alexandre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 (1985) 2074

Strathclyde, University of

169

Physics and simulation of transport processes in hybrid organic semiconductor devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic semiconductors and nanomaterials promise to potentially form the basis for future efficient and cost-effective large area optoelectronic devices, such as lightemitting diodes and solar cells. Although these materials' ...

Rousseau, Ian Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Toward a Unified Treatment of Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A quantitative study of n-type doping in highly crystalline organic semiconductor films establishes the predominant influence of electrostatic forces in these low-dielectric materials. Based on these findings, a self-consistent model of doped (purposely or not) organic semiconductors is proposed in which: (1) the equilibrium free carrier density, nf, is a small fraction of the total charge density; (2) a superlinear increase in conductivity with doping density is universal; (3) nf increases with applied electric field; and (4) the carrier mobility is field-dependent regardless of crystallinity.

Gregg. B.A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Organo Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described which is capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation (luminescing) in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form an organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance in a material being analyzed, and capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing, scattering, or diffracting energy when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam. The probe is stable to repeated exposure to light in the presence of oxygen and/or other radicals. Further described is a process for making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound and for making the organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe comprising the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound linked to an affinity molecule capable of bonding to a detectable substance. A process is also described for using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

174

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0001 0001 Transport and Kinetic Processes in GaN Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth M. E. Coltrin and C. C. Mitchell Motivation-GaN is a wide band gap semi- conductor with a broad range of potential appli- cations, e.g., high-temperature electronics, op- telectronics, chemical or biological sensors. GaN thin films usually have a high defect den- sity, leading to poor performance. Epitaxial Lat- eral Overgrowth (ELO) has been shown to greatly reduce defect densities, often by factors of 100 or more. We are conducting fundamental studies of GaN growth kinetics during ELO. Accomplishment-In ELO, a mask pattern of dielectric material is deposited on top of a GaN buffer layer. Further growth of GaN occurs se- lectively on exposed areas of the underlying buffer layer, and not on the dielectric material.

175

Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Sun, Yugang (Naperville, IL); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Carlson, Andrew (Urbana, IL); Choi, Won Mook (Champaign, IL); Stoykovich, Mark (Dover, NH); Jiang, Hanqing (Urbana, IL); Huang, Yonggang (Glencoe, IL); Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Kan, Seong Jun (Daejeon, KR); Ahn, Jong Hyun (Suwon, KR); Kim, Hoon-sik (Champaign, IL)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

Elements of Doping Engineering in Semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using defect thermodynamics, we discuss physical factors that affect doping limits in semiconductors. The dependencies of the defect formation enthalpy on the atomic chemical potentials and on the electron Fermi energy are demonstrated. These dependencies, in particular on the Fermi energy, lead to spontaneous formation of charge-compensating defects that can limit doping. Experimental data compiled for III-V, II-VI, and I-III-VI2 compounds support this view and further provide insight into the connections among different host materials. We argue that what matters is not the magnitude of the band gap that determines the dopability of a material, but rather, the relative position of the conduction-band minimum (in the case of n-doping) and the valence-band maximum (in the case of p-doping) with respect to vacuum.

Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S.; Zunger, A.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

177

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Materials  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

one crystal to another. Bandgap The bandgap of a semiconductor material is the minimum energy needed to move an electron from its bound state within an atom to a free state. This...

178

Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

179

Synchronization in semiconductor laser rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the dynamics of semiconductor lasers coupled in a ring configuration. The lasers, which have stable output intensity when isolated, behave chaotically when coupled unidirectionally in a closed chain. In this way, we show that neither feedback nor bidirectional coupling is necessary to induce chaotic dynamics at the laser output. We study the synchronization phenomena arising in this particular coupling architecture, and discuss its possible application to chaos-based communications. Next, we extend the study to bidirectional coupling and propose an appropriate technique to optical chaos encryption/decryption in closed chains of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers.

Javier M. Buldu; M. C. Torrent; Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

180

Correlated exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The absorption and dissipation of energy in semiconductor nanostructures are often determined by excited electron dynamics. In semiconductors, one fundamentally important electronic state is an exciton, an excited electron ...

Wen, Patrick, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Innovations in Semiconductor Devices for Exascale ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Innovations in Semiconductor Devices for Exascale Computing. TC Chen IBM Fellow and Vice President of Science and ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

Data mining solves tough semiconductor manufacturing problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: data mining, machine learning, manufacturing optimization, neural networks, pattern recognition, rule induction, self organizing maps, semiconductor yield enhancement

Mike Gardner; Jack Bieker

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Bottoms Up: Better Organic Semiconductors for Printable ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A patent from British researchers in 2005 offered a promising compromise: blend the small semiconductor molecules in with the polymer. ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

184

Robust Capacity Planning in Semiconductor Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 3, 2001 ... Abstract: We present a stochastic programming approach to capacity planning under demand uncertainty in semiconductor manufacturing.

185

Economic Impact of Measurement in the Semiconductor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... semiconductors are the workhorses that take electric voltage and engender ... the distance between lines of memory (dynamic random access ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

186

NNSA-Wide  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

NNSA-Wide Fiscal Year 2012 Year-End Workforce Diversity Office of Civil Rights NA-1.2 Albuquerque Complex PO Box 5400 Albuquerque, NM 87185 Phone (505) 845-5517 Fax (505) 845-4963...

187

Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

Lin, P.T.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

188

Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

Lin, Peter T. (East Brunswick, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Quantum Effect Materials: Methods of Fabrication of Quantum ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Session A: Quantum Effect Materials: Methods of Fabrication of Quantum Dots. Session ... Nanometer size semiconductor crystallites show a striking evolution of  ...

190

Atomic-scale properties of semiconductor heterostructures probed by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The engineering of advanced semiconductor heterostructure materials and devices requires a detailed understanding of, and control over, the structure and properties of semiconductor materials and devices at the atomic to nanometer scale. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy has emerged as a unique and powerful method to characterize structural morphology and electronic properties in semiconductor epitaxial layers and device structures at these length scales. The basic experimental techniques in cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy are described, and some representative applications to semiconductor heterostructure characterization drawn from recent investigations in the authors laboratory are discussed. Specifically, they describe some recent studies of InP/InAsP and InAsP/InAsSb heterostructures in which nanoscale compositional clustering has been observed and analyzed.

Yu, E.T.; Zuo, S.L.; Bi, W.G.; Tu, C.W. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

Hite, Larry R. (Dallas, TX); Houston, Ted (Richardson, TX); Matloubian, Mishel (Dallas, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Internal cooling in a semiconductor laser diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A thermal model of a diode laser structure is developed which includes a bipolar thermoelectric term not included in previous models. It is shown that heterostructure band offsets can be chosen so that there are thermoelectric cooling sources near the active region; this method of cooling is internal to the device itself, as opposed to temperature stabilization schemes which employ an external cooler. A novel laser structure is proposed that is capable of internal cooling in the Ga1 In As Sb1 –GaSb material system with = 2 64 m. Index Terms—Electrothermal effects, lasers, laser thermal factors, photothermal effects, semiconductor lasers, thermionic emission, thermionic energy conversion, thermoelectric devices, thermoelectric energy conversion, thermoelectricity. Fig. 1. Band structure and thermoelectric heat source distribution for (a) and (b) conventional SCH, and (c) and (d) ICICLE.

K. P. Pipe; R. J. Ram; A. Shakouri

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

Hybrid high-temperature superconductor-semiconductor tunnel diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the demonstration of hybrid high-Tc-superconductor-semiconductor tunnel junctions, enabling new interdisciplinary directions in condensed matter research. The devices were fabricated by our newly-developed mechanical bonding technique, resulting in high-Tc-semiconductor planar junctions acting as superconducting tunnel diodes. Tunneling-spectra characterization of the hybrid junctions of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+{\\delta} combined with bulk GaAs, or a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, exhibits excess voltage and nonlinearity - in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a d-wave superconductor-normal material junction, and similar to spectra obtained in scanning tunneling microscopy. Additional junctions are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+{\\delta} combined with graphite or Bi2Te3. Our results pave the way for new methods in unconventional superconductivity studies, novel materials and quantum technology applications.

Alex Hayat; Parisa Zareapour; Shu Yang F. Zhao; Achint Jain; Igor G. Savelyev; Marina Blumin; Zhijun Xu; Alina Yang; G. D. Gu; Harry E. Ruda; Shuang Jia; R. J. Cava; Aephraim M. Steinberg; Kenneth S. Burch

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

195

New Materials for Spintronics  

SciTech Connect

One of the critical materials needs for the development of spin electronics is diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) which retain their ferromagnetism at and above room temperature. Spin polarization in DMS materials leads to the possibility of spin-polarized current injection into nonmagnetic semiconductor heterostructures. Such transport is of critical importance in the development of devices that utilize spin (e.g. spin-LEDs and spin-FETs). New magnetically-doped semiconducting oxides that show promise because of Curie points which exceed room temperature are currently being investigated in our lab and elsewhere. However, the detailed materials properties and mechanism(s) of magnetism in these systems have been elusive. In this talk, I will present recent results from our laboratory focused on the MBE synthesis and properties of these ferromagnetic oxide semiconductors. This work was funded by the PNNL Nanoscience and Technology Initiative, the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering Physics, and the DARPA Spins in Semiconductors (SPINS) Initiative.

Chambers, Scott A.; Yoo, Young K.

2003-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Instrumentation and Control Strategies for Plant-Wide and Fleet-Wide Cost Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A more recent product is now available that contains this report, along with additional presentation materials to facilitate its use. See Product 1018109. This report provides guidance arising from the EPRI initiative on IC Strategies for Plant-Wide and Fleet-Wide Cost Reduction. The document describes a wide range of options while emphasizing integrated modernization across the plant or fleet. Coordinated improvements to shared communications and computing infrastructure, plant processes, and organizat...

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

197

Power Electronics in the Semiconductor Fabrication Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides utility marketing and account executives and engineering staff with fundamental information about the use of power electronics systems in semiconductor fabrication equipment. It details the power electronics systems used in typical semiconductor production equipment as well as current topology and system compatibility issues. Finally, the report outlines how power electronics will serve future advances in the semiconductor industry and how utilities can help the industry make their e...

1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

200

Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline ...  

Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Work...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Work Plans The Semiconductor Industry Association has finalized its work plan with the collaboration of EPA. The plan describes actions the industry intends to take to achieve its...

202

Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Spinoff Applications SBIRSTTR...

203

Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Spinoff Applications Spinoff...

204

Stangl Semiconductor Equipment AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Product German manufacturer of wet chemistry systems for processing silicon and thin-film solar cells. References Stangl Semiconductor Equipment AG1 LinkedIn...

205

Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

1980-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

206

Visitors Far and Wide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Visitors Far and Wide From left: Minister Danilov-Daniljan, Evan Mills (Assistant Director, Center for Building Science), Victoria Mats (interpreter and Soviet energy analyst), and Len Grossman (PG&E Energy Center) tour the PG&E Energy Center in San Francisco. The Russian Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources, Victor I. Danilov-Daniljan, spent three days in California as the Center's guest. The Minister presented information on current Soviet energy and environmental dilemmas and participated in a day-long roundtable discussion with representatives of major utilities, manufacturers of energy-efficient technologies, energy regulators, nongovernmental organizations, and Center scientists. Julian Aizenberg, one of the former Soviet Union's (FSU) foremost lighting

207

Island Wide Management Corporation  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

9 1986 9 1986 Island Wide Management Corporation 3000 Marcus Avenue Lake Success, New York 11042 Dear Sir or Madam: I am sending you this letter and the enclosed information as you have been identified by L. I. Trinin of Glick Construction Company as the representatives of the owners of the property that was formerly the site of the Sylvania-Corning Nuclear Corporation in Bayside, New York. The Department of Energy is evaluating the radiological condition of sites that were utilized under the Manhattan Engineer District and/or the Atomic Energy Commission in the early years of nuclear energy development to determine whether they need remedial action and whether the Department has authority to perform such action. As you may know, the former Sylvania-Corning Corporation Bayside site was identified as one such site.

208

Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55?m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

Williams, Michael D.

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor liquid junction photocell in which the photocell is in the configuration of a light concentrator and in which the electrolytic solution both conducts current and facilitates the concentration of incident solar radiation onto the semiconductor. The photocell may be in the configuration of a non-imaging concentrator such as a compound parabolic concentrator, or an imaging concentrator such as a lens.

Parkinson, B.A.

1982-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

211

Business Case Slide 28: High-Value: Semiconductors - Program...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductors - Program Focus Previous Slide Next Slide Table of Contents High-Value: Semiconductors - Program Focus Measurement of DUO2 transistor properties at ORNL Measurement...

212

Fabrication of Photonic band gap Materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microsphere, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microsphere there from. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microsphere may be polystyrenemicrosphere.

Constant, Kristen; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Biswas, Rana; Ho, Kai-Ming

2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

213

Fabrication of photonic band gap materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microspheres, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microspheres therefrom. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microspheres may be polystyrene microspheres.

Constant, Kristen (Ames, IA); Subramania, Ganapathi S. (Ames, IA); Biswas, Rana (Ames, IA); Ho, Kai-Ming (Ames, IA)

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

the World Wide Web  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

technical report has been made technical report has been made electronically available on the World Wide Web through a contribution from Walter L. Warnick In honor of Enrico Fermi Leader of the first nuclear reactor, Nobel Prize winner, and visionary technologist Dr. Warnick is delighted to be the first sponsor for posting a Department of Energy technical report and making it broadly available Office of Scientific and Technical Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy September 2008 osti.gov U N I T E D S T A T E S A T O M I C E N E R G Y C O M M I S S I O N AECD-3269 EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF A DNERGENT CHAIN REACTION BY E. Fermi January 4, 1952 [TIS Issuance ate] [chicago University] - T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , O a k Ridge, T e n n e s s e e r ABSTRACTS Description of the construction and operation of the chain

216

Joining of dissimilar materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

Weil, Raoul B. (Haifa, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Energy Management in Semiconductor Cleanrooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Energy Management in Semiconductor Cleanrooms Cleanrooms are used extensively in the manufacturing of integrated circuits and in the biological and pharmaceutical industries. For particle concentrations to remain low, for example, less than 100 particles/ft3 at >0.5 micrometers (Class 100), the air in the cleanroom must be filtered. Typically, the air is circulated through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters at a very high rate, such as 400 to 600 room air volumes per hour, to maintain low particle concentrations. The combined effect of high recirculation and a high pressure drop through HEPA filters is higher power costs per unit floor area to operate the cleanroom than to ventilate a commercial building. Cleanrooms are usually ventilated constantly and

219

Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

Boron doping a semiconductor particle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Excess charges in semiconductor nanocrystallites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors explore in this report the effects of excess electrons on the edge of the absorption spectrum of small semiconductor particles. The presence of these charges leads to strong bleaching of the absorption at the exciton region and to slight enhancement of the absorption on both sides of the bleaching. They show that the effect is independent of the origin of the charge; it occurs whether the charge is injected into the particle or only attached to its surface, and it appears even when the charge is deeply localized within the band gap. They conclude that the effect arises from the electric field associated with the charge and not from its presence in the band.

Laungdilok, C.; Lawless, D.; Cook, A.R.; Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications.

Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Heating device for semiconductor wafers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

Vosen, S.R.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Heating device for semiconductor wafers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

Vosen, Steven R. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A World Wide Web Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A World Wide Web Update The Center for Building Science now has a World Wide Web homepage accessible from the general LBL homepage. Through WWW and the Mosaic browser, Internet...

226

Scanning probe characterization of novel semiconductor materials and devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. Smith, E. T. Yu, J. M. Redwing, and K. S. Boutros, Appl.V. Smith, E. T. Yu, J. M. Redwing, and K. S. Boutros, Appl.Dang, E. T. Yu, and J. M. Redwing, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

Zhou, Xiaotian

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Standard practice for radiologic examination of semiconductors and electronic components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice provides the minimum requirements for nondestructive radiologic examination of semiconductor devices, microelectronic devices, electromagnetic devices, electronic and electrical devices, and the materials used for construction of these items. 1.2 This practice covers the radiologic examination of these items to detect possible defective conditions within the sealed case, especially those resulting from sealing the lid to the case, and internal defects such as extraneous material (foreign objects), improper interconnecting wires, voids in the die attach material or in the glass (when sealing glass is used) or physical damage. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this practice. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the app...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Mospec Semiconductor Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mospec Semiconductor Corp Mospec Semiconductor Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name Mospec Semiconductor Corp Place Tainan, Taiwan Sector Solar Product Taiwanese semiconductor products producer; offers monocrystalline silicon wafers and as of April 2008, ingots for the solar industry. Coordinates 22.99721°, 120.180862° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":22.99721,"lon":120.180862,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

229

Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Using a microfluidic reactor, Los Alamos researchers transformed the SLS process into a flow-based technique. September 26, 2013 Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent The new "flow" solution-liquid-solid method allows scientists to slow down growth and thereby capture mechanistic details as the nanowires grow in solution. A Los Alamos research team has transformed the synthesis process of semiconductor nanowires for use in solar cells, batteries, electronics, sensors and photonics using a solution-liquid-solid (SLS) batch approach to achieve unprecedented control over growth rates, nanowire size and internal

230

Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

Geyer, Scott Mitchell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells Haoting Shen Prof. Redwing's Research and in-situ dopant for Si nanowires Y. Ke, X.J. Weng, J.M. Redwing, C.M. Eichfeld, T.R. Swisher, S

Yener, Aylin

232

Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

233

Developing New Nanoprobes from Semiconductor Nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water-Soluble Silica- Coated CdSe/ZnS Semiconductor QuantumEnhanced Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dots on Gold Colloids.CdS/ZnS shells on colloidal CdSe nanorods. Journal Of The

Fu, Aihua

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC Jump to: navigation, search Name Hemlock Semiconductor Corp (HSC) Place Hemlock, Michigan Zip 48626 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor and solar industries. Coordinates 39.589497°, -82.153275° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.589497,"lon":-82.153275,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

236

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements The U.S. semiconductor industry, represented by the members of the Environmental Protection Agency's PFC Reduction/Climate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry, has committed to reduce absolute perfluorocompound (PFC) emissions by 10% below the 1995 baseline level by the year 2010. Perfluorocompounds include the most potent and long-lived greenhouse gases such as perfluorocarbons (e.g., CF4, C2F6, C3F8), trifluoromethane (CHF3), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) voluntary semiconductor industry partnership was developed collaboratively with the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA). EPA, SIA, and the Partner companies (listed below) are working to reduce industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EPA's

237

FY08 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)  

SciTech Connect

This is the annual report for an old project funded by NA22. The purpose of the project was to develop amorphous semiconductors for use as radiation detectors. The annual report contains information about the progress made in synthesizing, characterizing, and radiation response testing of these new materials.

Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.; Rockett, Angus

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Not Your Grandma's Quilt Researchers develop technique to keep cool high-power semiconductor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

devices used in wireless applications, traffic lights and electric cars By Sean Nealon On MAY 8, 2012 in everything from traffic lights to electric cars. Gallium Nitride (GaN), a semiconductor material found by the Nano-Device Laboratory research group led byAlexander Balandin, professor of electrical engineering

239

Molecular beam epitaxy passivation studies of Ge and III-V semiconductors for advanced CMOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future CMOS technologies will require the use of substrate material with a very high mobility in order to fulfil the performance requirements. Therefore, combination of Ge p-MOS with n-MOS devices made out of high mobility III/V compounds, such as GaAs, ... Keywords: High mobility semiconductors, Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), Passivation

C. Merckling; J. Penaud; D. Kohen; F. Bellenger; A. Alian; G. Brammertz; M. El-Kazzi; M. Houssa; J. Dekoster; M. Caymax; M. Meuris; M. M. Heyns

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Anomalous Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anomalous charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors is studied using fractional differential equations. The connection between index of fractional derivative and dispersion exponent is examined from the perspective of fractional Fokker-Planck equation and its link to the continuous time random walk formalism. The fractional model is used to describe the bi-scaling power-laws observed in the time-of flight photo-current transient data for two different types of organic semiconductors.

Muniandy, S. V.; Woon, K. L. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Choo, K. Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

242

Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

Domnita Catalina Marinescu

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

243

Revision: October 2013 White Papers on Materials for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Revision: October 2013 White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting, Wooni Choi, Muhammad N. Huda, Su-Huai Wei DOE PEC Working Group #12;Revision: October 2013 PEC White Papers: III-V Semiconductors for PEC III-V semiconductor systems for high-efficiency solar water

244

Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Semiconductor photocatalysis has been identified as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar energy into environmentally friendly fuels, most notably by the production of hydrogen from water.[1-5] Nanometer-scale materials in particular have attracted considerable scientific attention as the building blocks for light-harvesting applications.[6,7] Their desirable attributes include tunability of the optical properties with size, amenability to relatively inexpensive low-temperature processing, and a high degree of synthetic sophistication leading to increasingly complex and multi-functional architectures. For photocatalysis in particular, the high surface-to-volume ratios in nanoscale materials should lead to an increased availability of carriers for redox reactions on the nanoparticle surface. Recombination of photoexcited carriers directly competes with photocatalytic activity.[3] Charge separation is often achieved with multi-component heterostructures. An early example is the case of TiO2 powders functionalized with Pt and RuO2 particles, where photoexcited electrons are transferred to Pt (the reduction site) and holes to RuO2 (the oxidation site).[8] More recently, many colloidally synthesized nanometer-scale metal-semiconductor heterostructures have been reported.[7,9,10] A majority of these structures are made by thermal methods.[7,10] We have chosen to study photochemical formation of metal-semiconductor heterostructures. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in photodeposition of metals on nanometer-scale semiconductors is necessary to enable a high degree of synthetic control. At the same time, because the results of metal deposition can be directly observed by electron microscopy, it can be used to understand how factors such as nanocrystal composition, shape, carrier dynamics, and surface chemistry influence the photochemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. In this communication, we report on the photodeposition of Pt on colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. Among the II-VI semiconductors, CdS is of particular interest because it has the correct band alignment for water photolysis[2] and has been demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.[11-16] We have found that the photoexcitation of CdS and CdSe/CdS in the presence of an organometallic Pt precursor leads to deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the semiconductor surface. Stark differences are observed in the Pt nanoparticle location on the two substrates, and the photodeposition can be completely inhibited by the modification of the semiconductor surface. Our results suggest that tuning of the semiconductor band structure, spatial organization and surface chemistry should be crucial in the design of photocatalytic nanostructures.

Dukovic, Gordana; Merkle, Maxwell G.; Nelson, James H.; Hughes, Steven M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

245

Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Electronic Oxides: Superconductor and Semiconductor Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has proven to be one of the most versatile and effective methods for obtaining high-quality electronic oxide thin-film materials. Much of this success can be attributed to its initial use in depositing high temperature superconducting materials. However, pulsed-laser deposition is now a leading research tool in the development of various electronic oxide thin-film technologies, In this paper, recent progress in the deposition of oxide materials on dissimilar materials for both superconductor and semiconductor applications is discussed. Recent developments in the synthesis of superconducting wires via epitaxial growth of superconducting oxides on biaxially textured metal tapes is described. In addition, efforts to integrate high-k dielectric oxides on semiconductor surfaces using pulsed-laser deposition are highlighted.

Norton, D.P.; Park, C.; Lee, Y.E.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Christen, D.K.; Kroeger, D.M.

2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

246

Glass, Plastic and Semiconductors: Packaging Techniques for Miniature Optoelectric Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, they have extensive experience with the design and development of miniature photonic systems which require novel packaging schemes. Over the years they have developed silicon micro-optical benches to serve as a stable platform for precision mounting of optical and electronic components. They have developed glass ball lenses that can be fabricated in-situ on the microbench substrate. They have modified commercially available molded plastic fiber ribbon connectors (MT) and added thin film multilayer semiconductor coatings to create potentially low-cost wavelength combiners and wavelength selective filters. They have fabricated both vertical-cavity and in-plane semiconductor lasers and amplifiers, and have packaged these and other components into several miniature photonics systems. For example, they have combined the silicon optical bench with standard electronic packaging techniques and the custom-made wavelength-selective filters to develop a four-wavelength wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter module mounted in a standard 120-pin ceramic PGA package that couples light from several vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser arrays into one multimode fiber-ribbon array. The coupling loss can be as low as 2dB, and the transmitters can be operated at over 1.25 GHz. While these systems were not designed for biomedical or environmental applications, the concepts and techniques are general and widely applicable.

Pocha, M.D.; Garrett, H.E.; Patel, R.R.; Jones II, L.M.; Larson, M.C.; Emanuel, M.A.; Bond, S.W.; Deri, R.J.; Drayton, R.F.; Peterson, H.E.; Lowry, M.E.

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

High-power semiconductor separate-confinement double heterostructure lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The review is devoted to high-power semiconductor lasers. Historical reference is presented, physical and technological foundations are considered, and the concept of high-power semiconductor lasers is formulated. Fundamental and technological reasons limiting the optical power of a semiconductor laser are determined. The results of investigations of cw and pulsed high-power semiconductor lasers are presented. Main attention is paid to inspection of the results of experimental studies of single high-power semiconductor lasers. The review is mainly based on the data obtained in the laboratory of semiconductor luminescence and injection emitters at the A.F. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute. (review)

Tarasov, I S [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttram, Malcolm T. (Sandia Park, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); O' Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Chow, Weng W. (Cedar Crest, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Porous Diblock Copolymer Thin Films in High-Performance Semiconductor Microelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The engine fueling more than 40 years of performance improvements in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs) has been industry's ability to pattern circuit elements at ever-higher resolution and with ever-greater precision. Steady advances in photolithography - the process wherein ultraviolet light chemically changes a photosensitive polymer resist material in order to create a latent image - have resulted in scaling of minimum printed feature sizes from tens of microns during the 1980s to sub-50 nanometer transistor gate lengths in today's state-of-the-art ICs. The history of semiconductor technology scaling as well as future technology requirements is documented in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The progression of the semiconductor industry to the realm of nanometer-scale sizes has brought enormous challenges to device and circuit fabrication, rendering performance improvements by conventional scaling alone increasingly difficult. Most often this discussion is couched in terms of field effect transistor (FET) feature sizes such as the gate length or gate oxide thickness, however these challenges extend to many other aspects of the IC, including interconnect dimensions and pitch, device packing density, power consumption, and heat dissipation. The ITRS Technology Roadmap forecasts a difficult set of scientific and engineering challenges with no presently-known solutions. The primary focus of this chapter is the research performed at IBM on diblock copolymer films composed of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) (PS-b-PMMA) with total molecular weights M{sub n} in the range of {approx}60K (g/mol) and polydispersities (PD) of {approx}1.1. These materials self assemble to form patterns having feature sizes in the range of 15-20nm. PS-b-PMMA was selected as a self-assembling patterning material due to its compatibility with the semiconductor microelectronics manufacturing infrastructure, as well as the significant body of existing research on understanding its material properties.

Black, C.T.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

NIST Infrared optical properties of materials and components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on a wide variety of materials including mirrors, filters, windows, coatings and ... specular & diffuse, transmissive & opaque), and covering a wide ...

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Zecon Solar Semiconductor Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zecon Solar Semiconductor Inc Zecon Solar Semiconductor Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Zecon Solar & Semiconductor Inc Place Cupertino, California Zip 95014 Sector Solar Product Focused on large-scale solar building integrated PV systems. Coordinates 37.31884°, -122.029244° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.31884,"lon":-122.029244,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

253

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

254

Capacitors for Wide Operating Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power Conversion ... Potential Ceramic Dielectrics for Air Force Applications.

255

Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 2. Overview).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodriguez, J.

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

256

Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 1. Overview).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodgriguez, J.

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

257

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aerosol Jet printing, is finding wide use in a number of ... The Aerosol Jet systems deposit a wide variety of functional materials onto a wide ...

258

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd TSMC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd TSMC Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd TSMC Jump to: navigation, search Name Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC) Place Hsinchu, Taiwan Zip 300 Sector Solar Product Taiwan-based semiconductor company. The firm is also venturing into solar and LED production. References Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC) is a company located in Hsinchu, Taiwan . References ↑ "Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Taiwan_Semiconductor_Manufacturing_Co_Ltd_TSMC&oldid=352012"

259

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure

260

Coherent optical control of electronic excitations in functionalized semiconductor nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of creating and manipulating coherent quantum states on surfaces offunctionalized semiconductor nanostructures is computationally investigated. Quantumdynamics simulations of electron-hole transfer between catechol molecules adsorbed ... Keywords: adsorbates, coherent control, semiconductors, wave-packet dynamics

L. G. C. Rego; S. G. Abuabara; V. S. Batista

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Business Case Slide 27: High-Value: Semiconductors - Basis for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductors - Basis for Use Basis for use DUO2 has good electronic properties for semi-conductor applications Have made and tested a diode and transistor which appear superior...

262

Lattice mismatched compound semiconductors and devices on silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III-V compound semiconductors, due to their superior electron mobility, are promising candidates for n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, the limited size of III-V substrates and ...

Yang, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Ferromagnetism in Doped Thin-Film Oxide and Nitride Semiconductors and Dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

The principal goal in the field of high-Tc ferromagnetic semiconductors is the synthesis, characterization and utilization of semiconductors which exhibit substantial carrier spin polarization at and above room temperature. Such materials are of critical importance in the emerging field of semiconductor spintronics. The interaction leading to carrier spin polarization, exchange coupling between the dopant spins and the valence or conduction band, is known to be sufficiently weak in conventional semiconductors, such as GaAs and Si, that magnetic ordering above cryogenic temperatures is essentially impossible. Since the provocative theoretical predictions of Tc above ambient in p-Mn:ZnO and p-Mn:GaN (T. Dietl et al., Science 287 1019 (2000)), and the observation of room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co:TiO2 anatase (Y. Matsumoto et al., Science 291 854 (2001)), there has been a flurry of work in oxides and nitrides doped with transition metals with unpaired d electrons. It has even been claimed that room-temperature ferromagnetism can be obtained in certain d0 transition metals oxides without a dopant. In this Report, the field of transition metal doped oxides and nitrides is critically reviewed and assessed from a materials science perspective. Since much of the field centers around thin film growth, this Report focuses on films prepared not only by conventional vacuum deposition methods, but also by spin coating colloidal nanoparticles.

Chambers, Scott A.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

FY06 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)  

SciTech Connect

We describe progress in the development of new materials for portable, room-temperature, gamma-radiation detection at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site in Washington State. High Z, high resistivity, amorphous semiconductors are being designed for use as solid-state detectors at near ambient temperatures; principles of operation are analogous to single-crystal semiconducting detectors. Amorphous semiconductors have both advantages and disadvantages compared to single crystals, and this project is developing methods to mitigate technical problems and design optimized material for gamma detection. Several issues involved in the fabrication of amorphous semiconductors are described, including reaction thermodynamics and kinetics, the development of pyrolytic coating, and the synthesis of ingots. The characterization of amorphous semiconductors is described, including sectioning and polishing protocols, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, particle-induced X-ram emission, Rutherford backscattering, and electrical testing. Then collaboration with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is discussed in the areas of Hall-effect measurements and current voltage data. Finally, we discuss the strategy for continuing the program.

Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Henager, Charles H.; Zhang, Yanwen; Shutthanandan, V.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

viable from a stable and efficient material with an absorber cost of 150m 2 . Light emitting diode III-V synthesis has seen a dramatic reduction in semiconductor cost by...

266

Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

Cleland, John W. (Knoxville, TN); Westbrook, Russell D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wood, Richard F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Young, Rosa T. (Knoxville, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to ...  

Using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological molecules could fuel medical breakthroughs in many areas, including ...

268

MSE 891: Materials for Energy Applications Spring 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1, 2 Module III: photovoltaic materials Inorganic semiconductors for solar cell applications Morelli include: unconventional geologic fuels and biofuels; photovoltaic materials and solar energy conversion Feb 17,22 Module III: photovoltaic materials Introduction and design of materials Morelli Feb 24, Mar

269

Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of metal or semiconductor nanoclusters in microheterogeneous oil-continuous inverse micelle systems is discussed. We focus on synthesis and catalytic properties of palladium, iron, and iron sulfide nanoclusters. Cluster size-control is achieved by changing the micelle size which is determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and chosen to produce cluster in size range of 1-20 nm. Cluster sizes were determined by either transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Cluster structure was determined by either x-ray or electron diffraction. In the case of Fe nanoclusters the crystal structure depended on the chemical nature of the surfactant micelle used in the synthesis, illustrating the important role of the surfactant during the growth process. Results of in-situ pyrene hydrogenation using size-selected Pd clusters show a significant increase in activity/total surface area as the size decreases. These clusters also proved effective as unsupported catalysts for direct coal hydropyrolysis, even at very low metal concentrations. Synthesis and optical features of a new semiconductor cluster material, FeS{sub 2}, is discussed with regard to its use in photocatalysis. Application of FeS{sub 2} in coal hydrogenolysis reactions has improved yields of short chain hydrocarbons significantly compared to conventional FeS{sub 2} powders.

Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martino, T.; Klavetter, E.; Sylwester, A.P.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Low-temperature magnetization of (Ga,Mn) As semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a comprehensive study of the ferromagnetic moment per Mn atom in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors. Theoretical discussion is based on microscopic calculations and on an effective model of Mn local moments antiferromagnetically coupled to valence band hole spins. The validity of the effective model over the range of doping studied is assessed by comparing with microscopic tight-binding/coherent-potential approximation calculations. Using the virtual crystal k center dot p model for hole states, we evaluate the zero-temperature mean-field contributions to the magnetization from the hole kinetic and exchange energies, and magnetization suppression due to quantum fluctuations of Mn moment orientations around their mean-field ground state values. Experimental low-temperature ferromagnetic moments per Mn are obtained by superconducting quantum interference device and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a series of (Ga,Mn)As semiconductors with nominal Mn doping ranging from similar to 2 to 8%. Hall measurements in as-grown and annealed samples are used to estimate the number of uncompensated substitutional Mn moments. Based on our comparison between experiment and theory we conclude that all these Mn moments in high quality (Ga,Mn)As materials have nearly parallel ground state alignment.

Jungwirth, T.; Masek, J.; Wang, KY; Edmonds, KW; Sawicki, M.; Polini, M.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, AH; Campion, RP; Zhao, LX; Farley, NRS; Johal, TK; van der Laan, G.; Foxon, CT; Gallagher, BL.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Methods for manufacturing geometric multi-crystalline cast materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semi-conductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a geometrically ordered multi-crystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm.

Stoddard, Nathan G

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

273

Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor overcoated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Electrical Usage Characterization of Semiconductor Processing Tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the basic concepts in performing an energy and power audit of a semiconductor process tool. A protocol exists that fully describes these measurements and their use and applicability and it will be described. This protocol is currently being examined by SEMATECH for future publication. Example data will be presented showing the power, energy, and current load profiles of a typical tool.

Hinson, S. R.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Olshavsky, Michael A. (Brunswick, OH)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

World Wide Web Information Servers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

World Wide Web Information Servers World Wide Web Information Servers Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory recently announced a gopher and World Wide Web site. To get to the web site, telnet to www.lbl.gov, login: www. Access is provided to LBL's gopher, library catalog, and publication list. The Center is funding the implementation of a WWW network node for on-line access to publications, databases, and documents full of hypermedia links to other documents or information systems from the Energy & Environment Division. Full implementation is expected by May 1994, and will include access to a variety of information from all the research programs and centers. The technology transfer project calls for this newsletter to be published on WWW using the Mosaic interface under development at the National Center

278

GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

A GaN based depletion mode metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was demonstrated using Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as the gate dielectric. The MOS gate reverse breakdown voltage was > 35V which was significantly improved from 17V of Pt Schottky gate on the same material. A maximum extrinsic transconductance of 15 mS/mm was obtained at V{sub ds} = 30 V and device performance was limited by the contact resistance. A unity current gain cut-off frequency, f{sub {tau}}, and maximum frequency of oscillation, f{sub max} of 3.1 and 10.3 GHz, respectively, were measured at V{sub ds} = 25 V and V{sub gs} = {minus}20 V.

Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Cheng, P.; Shul, R.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Schurman, M.J.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

279

High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones  

SciTech Connect

A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O' Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Subtle Chemistry of Colloidal, Quantum-Confined Semiconductor Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscale colloidal semiconductor structures with at least one dimension small enough to experience quantum confinement effects have captured the imagination and attention of scientists interested in controlling various chemical and photophysical processes. Aside from having desirable quantum confinement properties, colloidal nanocrystals are attractive because they are often synthesized in low-temperature, low-cost, and potentially scalable manners using simple benchtop reaction baths. Considerable progress in producing a variety of shapes, compositions, and complex structures has been achieved. However, there are challenges to overcome in order for these novel materials to reach their full potential and become new drivers for commercial applications. The final shape, composition, nanocrystal-ligand structure, and size can depend on a delicate interplay of precursors, surface ligands, and other compounds that may or may not participate in the reaction. In this Perspective, we discuss current efforts toward better understanding how the reactivity of the reagents can be used to produce unique and complex nanostructures.

Hughes, B. K.; Luther, J. M.; Beard, M. C.

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE) A failure or shutdown of the ventilation system will be signaled by cessation of the audible background "rumbling" sound of the building's HVAC system. As building durations. NOTE: Due to unpredictable pressure differentials in and around the labs during an HVAC failure

Strynadka, Natalie

282

Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and increased reliability. The high-level requirements on the semiconductor lasers involve reliability, price points on a price-per-Watt basis, and a set of technical requirements. The technical requirements for the amplifier design in reference 1 are discussed in detail and are summarized in Table 1. These values are still subject to changes as the overall laser system continues to be optimized. Since pump costs can be a significant fraction of the overall laser system cost, it is important to achieve sufficiently low price points for these components. At this time, the price target for tenth-of-akind IFE plant is $0.007/Watt for packaged devices. At this target level, the pumps account for approximately one third of the laser cost. The pump lasers should last for the life of the power plant, leading to a target component lifetime requirement of roughly 14 Ghosts, corresponding to a 30 year plant life and 15 Hz repetition rate. An attractive path forward involes pump operation at high output power levels, on a Watts-per-bar (Watts/chip) basis. This reduces the cost of pump power (price-per-Watt), since to first order the unit price does not increase with power/bar. The industry has seen a continual improvement in power output, with current 1 cm-wide bars emitting up to 500 W QCW (quasi-continuous wave). Increased power/bar also facilitates achieving high irradiance in the array plane. On the other hand, increased power implies greater heat loads and (possibly) higher current drive, which will require increased attention to thermal management and parasitic series resistance. Diode chips containing multiple p-n junctions and quantum wells (also called nanostack structures) may provide an additional approach to reduce the peak current.

Deri, R J

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

283

Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Cantilever Epitaxy to Produce High Quality GaN with Reduced Development of Cantilever Epitaxy to Produce High Quality GaN with Reduced Threading Dislocation Densities by C. C. Mitchell, A. A. Allerman, C. I. H. Ashby, R. D. Briggs, D. M. Follstadt, S. L. Lee, D. D. Koleske Motivation-GaN grown on any currently available substrates has an inherent problem of having to overcome a large lattice mismatch with the substrate. As a result typical planar GaN includes anywhere from 10 8 - 10 10 threading dislocations per square centimeter. Cantilever epitaxy (CE) is a technique developed to produce areas of GaN with a reduced number of vertical threading dislocations (VTDs) over large areas. Low defect materials are required to reduce leakage and breakdown of both electronic and opto- electronic devices. Accomplishment-This

285

SETEC/Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program: 1999 Annual and Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of work conducted by the Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) during 1999. This work was performed by one working group: the Semiconductor Equipment Technology Center (SETEC). The group's projects included Numerical/Experimental Characterization of the Growth of Single-Crystal Calcium Fluoride (CaF{sub 2}); The Use of High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) Imaging for Certifying Critical-Dimension Reference Materials Fabricated with Silicon Micromachining; Assembly Test Chip for Flip Chip on Board; Plasma Mechanism Validation: Modeling and Experimentation; and Model-Based Reduction of Contamination in Gate-Quality Nitride Reactor. During 1999, all projects focused on meeting customer needs in a timely manner and ensuring that projects were aligned with the goals of the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association and with Sandia's defense mission. This report also provides a short history of the Sandia/SEMATECH relationship and a brief on all projects completed during the seven years of the program.

MCBRAYER,JOHN D.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Mn-doped Ga(As,P) and (Al,Ga)As ferromagnetic semiconductors: Electronic structure calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A remarkable progress towards functional ferromagnetic semiconductor materials for spintronics has been achieved in p-type (Ga,Mn)As. Robust hole-mediated ferromagnetism has, however, been observed also in other III-V hosts such as antimonides, GaP, or (Al,Ga)As, which opens a wide area of possibilities for optimizing the host composition towards higher ferromagnetic Curie temperatures. Here we explore theoretically hole-mediated ferromagnetism and Mn incorporation in Ga(As,P) and (Al,Ga)As ternary hosts. While alloying (Ga,Mn)As with Al has only a small effect on the Curie temperature we predict a sizable enhancement of Curie temperatures in the smaller lattice constant Ga(As,P) hosts. Mn-doped Ga(As,P) is also favorable, as compared to (Al,Ga)As, with respect to the formation of carrier and moment compensating interstitial Mn impurities. In (Ga,Mn) (As,P) we find a marked decrease of the partial concentration of these detrimental impurities with increasing P content.

Masek, J.; Kudrnovsky, J.; Maca, F.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, A. H.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Advanced Materials News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nhan Nguyen demonstrates how he performs optical measurements on a graphene-insulator-semiconductor sample structure. ...

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Duck Young Chung - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials Sicence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EM > Duck Young Chung EM > Duck Young Chung Duck Young Chung Principal Materials Engineer Bldg. 223, C-233 Phone: 630-252-4907 This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Biography Duck Young Chung is a staff scientist in the Emerging Materials Group. After receiving his B.A. from DanKook University in 1984, M.S. and Ph.D from Kyungpook National University in 1991, he joined the group of Prof. Kanatzidis as a postdoc at Michigan State University in 1992 where later he became a research faculty, then moved to Argonne in 2006. His expertise includes exploratory synthesis, crystal growth, and characterization of a wide variety of bulk materials as well as development of synthesis techniques and methods in the areas of chalcogenides, pnictides, and intermetallic alloys for thermoelectrics, superconductivity, topological insulators, and semiconducting materials with interesting electronic or magnetic properties. He is the author of 80 peer-reviewed articles and patents published. Notable achievements include discovery of high performance thermoelectric semiconductor, CsBi4Te6, which holds the record of figure of merit for low temperature cooling applications (Science, 2000) and synthesis of an unconventional superconductors Ba1-xKxFe2As2 characterized by inelastic neutron scattering (Nature, 2008).

289

Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp SMIC | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Manufacturing International Corp SMIC Manufacturing International Corp SMIC Jump to: navigation, search Name Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp (SMIC) Place Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Zip 201203 Sector Solar Product Semiconductor group launching solar cell production from its recycled silicon wafers. Coordinates 31.247709°, 121.472618° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.247709,"lon":121.472618,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

290

Isotopically engineered semiconductors: from the bulk tonanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Research performed with semiconductors with controlled isotopic composition is evolving from the measurement of fundamental properties in the bulk to those measured in superlattices and nanostructures. This is driven in part by interests associated with the fields of 'spintronics' and quantum computing. In this topical review, which is dedicated to Prof. Abstreiter, we introduce the subject by reviewing classic and recent measurements of phonon frequencies, thermal conductivity, bandgap renormalizations, and spin coherence lifetimes in isotopically controlled bulk group IV semiconductors. Next, we review phonon properties measured in isotope heterostructures, including pioneering work made possible by superlattices grown by the group of Prof. Abstreiter. We close the review with an outlook on the exciting future possibilities offered through isotope control in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions that will be possible due to advances in nanoscience.

Ager III, Joel W.; Haller, Eugene E.

2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

291

Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

292

Semiconductor junction formation by directed heat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The process of the invention includes applying precursors 6 with N- and P-type dopants therein to a silicon web 2, with the web 2 then being baked in an oven 10 to drive off excessive solvents, and the web 2 is then heated using a pulsed high intensity light in a mechanism 12 at 1100.degree.-1150.degree. C. for about 10 seconds to simultaneously form semiconductor junctions in both faces of the web.

Campbell, Robert B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1988-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fuzzy Logic Connectivity in Semiconductor Defect Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In joining defects on semiconductor wafer maps into clusters, it is common for defects caused by different sources to overlap. Simple morphological image processing tends to either join too many unrelated defects together or not enough together. Expert semiconductor fabrication engineers have demonstrated that they can easily group clusters of defects from a common manufacturing problem source into a single signature. Capturing this thought process is ideally suited for fuzzy logic. A system of rules was developed to join disconnected clusters based on properties such as elongation, orientation, and distance. The clusters are evaluated on a pair-wise basis using the fuzzy rules and are joined or not joined based on a defuzzification and threshold. The system continuously re-evaluates the clusters under consideration as their fuzzy memberships change with each joining action. The fuzzy membership functions for each pair-wise feature, the techniques used to measure the features, and methods for improving the speed of the system are all developed. Examples of the process are shown using real-world semiconductor wafer maps obtained from chip manufacturers. The algorithm is utilized in the Spatial Signature Analyzer (SSA) software, a joint development project between Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) and SEMATECH.

Gleason, S.S.; Kamowski, T.P.; Tobin, K.W.

1999-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

294

Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Hydraulic Fracturing in Particulate Materials .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For more than five decades, hydraulic fracturing has been widely used to enhance oil and gas production. Hydraulic fracturing in solid materials (e.g., rock) has… (more)

Chang, Hong

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

N.G. Basov and early works on semiconductor lasers at P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A survey is presented of works on creation and investigation of semiconductor lasers during 1957 - 1977 at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute. Many of these works were initiated by N.G. Basov, starting from pre-laser time, when N.G. Basov and his coworkers formulated principal conditions of creation of lasers on interband transitions in semiconductors. Main directions of further works were diode lasers based on various materials and structures, their characteristics of output power, high-speed operation and reliability. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

Eliseev, P G [Centre for High-Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States)

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources and  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) is the premier trade association representing the U.S. semiconductor industry. Founded in 1977 by five microelectronics innovators, the SIA has grown to include over 100 companies that account for more than 83% of U.S.-based semiconductor production. The SIA provides a forum for domestic semiconductor companies to work collectively to advance the competitiveness of the $70 billion U.S. chip industry. Through its national and international network of chief executive officers and working committees, the SIA shapes public policy on issues important to the industry and provides a spectrum of services to help its members grow their businesses. World Semiconductor Council (WSC)

299

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources and  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Technical Information Technical Information Download Acrobat Reader Modeling China's Semiconductor Industry Fluorinated Compound Emissions and Drafting a Roadmap for Climate Protection. (PDF 101 KB) 14th Annual International Semiconductor Environment Safety & Health (ISESH) Conference in Jeju, Korea (June 2007) presentation by Scott Bartos, U.S. EPA. Estimating the Impact of Migration to Asian Foundry Production on Attaining the WSC 2010 PFC Reduction Goal. (PDF 458 KB) 11th Annual ISESH Conference in Makuhari, Japan (July 2004) presentation by Scott Bartos, U.S. EPA. Guidelines for Environmental Characterization of Semiconductor Equipment (PDF 361 KB) This document provides guidelines for suppliers of semiconductor processing and abatement equipment to characterize their equipment to meet

300

July 28, 2010, Guiding semiconductor research through collaborative engagement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The SRC ... The SRC ... Guiding semiconductor research through collaborative engagement Elizabeth J. Weitzman Exec. VP, SRC Exec. Director, Focus Center Research Program Semiconductor Research Corporation 2 ... Awarded Nat'l Medal of Technology Presidential Citation: "For building the world's largest and most successful university research force to support the ... semiconductor industry; For proving the concept of collaborative research as the first high-tech research consortium; and For creating the concept and methodology that evolved into the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors." 3 Key Attributes of SRC Research Entities 1. Accepted IP model. SRC's model has been

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Strain tuning of topological band order in cubic semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically explore the possibility of tuning the topological order of cubic diamond/zinc-blende semi- conductors with external strain. Based on a simple tight-binding model, we analyze the evolution of the cubic semiconductor band structure under hydrostatic or biaxial lattice expansion, by which a generic guiding princi- ple is established that biaxial lattice expansion can induce a topological phase transition of small band-gap cubic semiconductors via a band inversion and symmetry breaking at point. Using density functional theory cal- culations, we demonstrate that a prototype topological trivial semiconductor, InSb, is converted to a nontrivial topological semiconductor with a 2% 3% biaxial lattice expansion.

Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhu, Wenguang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weitering, Hanno [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xiao, Di [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Understanding How Semiconductors Absorb Light | U.S. DOE Office...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Understanding How Semiconductors Absorb Light Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy...

303

Resonator for Coherent Addition of Semiconductor Laser Arrays ...  

Resonator for Coherent Addition of Semiconductor Laser Arrays and Applications for a Solar Pumped Laser Array Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contact ...

304

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for ...  

Argonne researchers have developed a unique application of technology that involves using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological ...

305

Production of 35S for a Liquid Semiconductor Betavoltaic  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The specific energy density from radioactive decay is five to six orders of magnitude greater than the specific energy density in conventional chemical battery and fuel cell technologies. We are currently investigating the use of liquid semiconductor based betavoltaics as a way to directly convert the energy of radioactive decay into electrical power and potentially avoid the radiation damage that occurs in solid state semiconductor devices due to non-ionizing energy loss. Sulfur-35 was selected as the isotope for the liquid semiconductor demonstrations because it can be produced in high specific activity and it is chemically compatible with known liquid semiconductor media.

Meier, David E.; Garnov, A. Y.; Robertson, J. D.; Kwon, J. W.; Wacharasindhu, T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Argonne CNM News: HMapping Deformation in Buried Semiconductor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CMOS performance. Nano-XRD allows for the first time in situ nanoscale mapping of lattice strain and tilt within a buried semiconductor layer at high spatial resolution...

307

Photophysics of Two-dimensional Semiconductor Nanoparticle/Liquid Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These studies have investigated the optical properties of two very different types of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoclusters and superlattices of these nanoclusters.

Kelley, David F.

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

308

LBL-37525 UC-404 Surface Recombination in Semiconductors J.M. Langer* and W. Walukiewicz**  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

37525 37525 UC-404 Surface Recombination in Semiconductors J.M. Langer* and W. Walukiewicz** "Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences Al. Lotnikow 32/46 02668 Warsaw, Poland **Center for Advanced Materials Materials Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, California 94720 July 1995 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

309

Analysis of silicon carbide based semiconductor power devices and their application in power factor correction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent technological advances have allowed silicon (Si) semiconductor technology to approach the theoretical limits of the Si material; however, power device requirements for many applications are at a stage that the present Si-based power devices cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. Material technologies superior to Si are needed for future power device developments. Silicon Carbide (SiC) based semiconductor devices offer one such alternative. SiC based power devices exhibit superior properties such as very low switching losses, fast switching behavior, improved reliability and high temperature operation capabilities. Power factor correction stage of power supplies is identified as an area where application of these devices would prove advantageous. In this thesis a high performance, high efficiency, SiC based power factor correction stage is discussed. The proposed topology takes advantage of the superior properties of SiC semiconductor based devices and the reduced number of devices that the dual boost power factor correction topology requires to achieve high efficiency, small size and better performance at high temperature. In addition to this analysis of SiC based power devices is carried out to study their characteristics and performance.

Durrani, Yamin Qaisar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Absorptivity of semiconductors used in the production of solar cell panels  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the absorptivity of semiconductors on the thickness of the absorbing layer is studied for crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS), and copper gallium diselenide (CuGaSe{sub 2}, CGS). The calculations are performed with consideration for the spectral distribution of AM1.5 standard solar radiation and the absorption coefficients of the materials. It is shown that, in the region of wavelengths {lambda} = {lambda}{sub g} = hc/E{sub g}, almost total absorption of the photons in AM1.5 solar radiation is attained in c-Si at the thickness d = 7-8 mm, in a-Si at d = 30-60 {mu}m, in CdTe at d = 20-30 {mu}m, and in CIS and CGS at d = 3-4 {mu}m. The results differ from previously reported data for these materials (especially for c-Si). In previous publications, the thickness needed for the semiconductor to absorb solar radiation completely was identified with the effective light penetration depth at a certain wavelength in the region of fundamental absorption for the semiconductor.

Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Grushko, E. V.; Mikityuk, T. I. [Chernivtsy National University (Ukraine)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Gallium-Nitride Transistors for High-Efficiency Industrial Power Supplies, Phase 1: State of Semiconductor Development and Industrial Power Supply Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This white paper describes recent advancements in the development of Gallium-Nitride (GaN) transistors for power conversion applications. This wide bandgap semiconductor has the potential to reduce losses and improve performance of power converters. The industrial power supply market is described and the application of GaN to power conversion in this segment is introduced for future work.

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evaluation of Radiation Resistance for Organic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbide fiber Evaluation of semiconductor devices for space use Creation of carnations with variety Research Activities for Quantum Beam Applications Polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cells Silicon for organic materials used in atomic energy- related facilities J-PARC ITER Si-polymer Forming : fiber

McDonald, Kirk

313

Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2006-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

314

Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

315

CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance.

CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; KOHMAN, K.T.; JAMES, R.B.

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

316

III-Nitride Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using a band-structure method that includes bandgap correction, we study the chemical trends of the bandgap variation in III-V semiconductors and predict that the bandgap for InN is 0.85 0.1 eV. This result suggests that InN and its III-nitride alloys are suitable for photovoltaic applications. The unusually small bandgap for InN is explained in terms of the atomic energies and the bandgap deformation potentials. The electronic and structural properties of the nitrides and their alloys are also provided.

Wei, S. H.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Sandia Park, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fully Integrated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by Octavian

Florescu, Octavian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Distributed Quantum Computation Architecture Using Semiconductor Nanophotonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a large-scale quantum computer, the cost of communications will dominate the performance and resource requirements, place many severe demands on the technology, and constrain the architecture. Unfortunately, fault-tolerant computers based entirely on photons with probabilistic gates, though equipped with "built-in" communication, have very large resource overheads; likewise, computers with reliable probabilistic gates between photons or quantum memories may lack sufficient communication resources in the presence of realistic optical losses. Here, we consider a compromise architecture, in which semiconductor spin qubits are coupled by bright laser pulses through nanophotonic waveguides and cavities using a combination of frequent probabilistic and sparse determinstic entanglement mechanisms. The large photonic resource requirements incurred by the use of probabilistic gates for quantum communication are mitigated in part by the potential high-speed operation of the semiconductor nanophotonic hardware. The system employs topological cluster-state quantum error correction for achieving fault-tolerance. Our results suggest that such an architecture/technology combination has the potential to scale to a system capable of attacking classically intractable computational problems.

Rodney Van Meter; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Austin G. Fowler; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1{lambda}) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%. 5 figs.

Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Crawford, M.H.

1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Photonic switching devices based on semiconductor nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Squeezing and guiding light into semiconductor nanostructures delivers revolutionary concepts of photonic devices, which may offer a practical pathway towards power-efficient optical networks. In this review, we consider photonic switches using semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and photonic cavities. By intuitively introducing in a field enhancement factor, the optical nonlinearity of nano-photonic switches can be understood and this has shown their unique features to dramatically improve the power-density/speed limitation that has lain in conventional photonic switches for decades. In addition, the power consumption has been reduced due to the atom-like characterization of QDs as well as the nano-size footprint of photonic cavities. Based on this theoretical perspective, the current progress of QD/cavity switches is reviewed in terms of various optical nonlinearities which have been employed to demonstrate photonic switching at the nanoscale. Emerging functionalities enabled by cavity nonlinear effects such as the wavelength tuning and Purcell-factor tuning have been further introduced.

Chao-Yuan Jin; Osamu Wada

2013-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

322

Semiconductor device design using the BiMADS algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing high-performance semiconductor devices is a complex optimization problem, which is characterized by multiple and, often, conflicting objectives. In this research work, we introduce a multi-objective optimization design approach based on the ... Keywords: Diodes, Drift-diffusion, Energy-transport, MESFETs, MOSFETs, Optimization, Semiconductors

Giovanni Stracquadanio, Vittorio Romano, Giuseppe Nicosia

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Study on Water-Cooled Solar Semiconductor Air Conditioner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-cooled solar semiconductor air conditioner was designed. Relevant calculation was made to determine the room's cooling load, which export the solar panels and battery capacity, followed by selection of CNC matcher. Development work also involves ... Keywords: solar energy, peltier effect, semiconductor air conditioner

Dong Zhi-Ming; Chang Ji-Bin; Xiang Li-Juan; Zhou Xue-Bin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Interesting Electronic and Dynamic Properties of Quantum Dot Quantum Wells and other Semiconductor Nanocrystal Heterostructures .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Some interesting electronic and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanocrystal heterostructures have been investigated using various spectroscopic methods. Semiconductor nanocrystal heterostructures were prepared using colloidal synthesis… (more)

Schill, Alexander Wilhem

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Microbially Mediated Method for Making Semiconductor Nanoparticles  

or quantum dot nanoparticles, are increasingly used in a wide range of electronics, including LED displays, solar cells, and medical imaging.

326

Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

Ullrich, Carsten A.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

327

Physical properties and design of light-emitting devices based on organic materials and nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the detailed experimental and theoretical characterization of light-emitting devices (LEDs) based on organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots (QDs). This hybrid material system has several ...

Anikeeva, Polina Olegovna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Electronic Materials: Web resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 11, 2008 ... WEB: NETWORKS MATEC, Maricopa Community Colleges. NSF resource center focused on semiconductor and electronics education, 0, 811 ...

329

Band-gap measurements of direct and indirect semiconductors using monochromated electrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the development of monochromators for transmission electron microscopes, valence electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) has become a powerful technique to study the band structure of materials with high spatial resolution. However, artifacts such as Cerenkov radiation pose a limit for interpretation of the low-loss spectra. In order to reveal the exact band-gap onset using the VEELS method, semiconductors with direct and indirect band-gap transitions have to be treated differently. For direct semiconductors, spectra acquired at thin regions can efficiently minimize the Cerenkov effects. Examples of hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) spectra acquired at different thickness showed that a correct band-gap onset value can be obtained for sample thicknesses up to 0.5 t/{lambda}. In addition, {omega}-q maps acquired at different specimen thicknesses confirm the thickness dependency of Cerenkov losses. For indirect semiconductors, the correct band-gap onset can be obtained in the dark-field mode when the required momentum transfer for indirect transition is satisfied. Dark-field VEEL spectroscopy using a star-shaped entrance aperture provides a way of removing Cerenkov effects in diffraction mode. Examples of Si spectra acquired by displacing the objective aperture revealed the exact indirect transition gap E{sub g} of 1.1 eV.

Gu Lin; Srot, Vesna; Sigle, Wilfried; Koch, Christoph; Aken, Peter van; Ruehle, Manfred [Max-Planck Institute for Metals Research, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Scholz, Ferdinand; Thapa, Sarad B.; Kirchner, Christoph [Institute of Optoelectronics, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Jetter, Michael [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Hybrid Semiconductors for Hardier Electronics and Optoelectronics? |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unveiling the Molecular Structure of the Target of Many Drugs Unveiling the Molecular Structure of the Target of Many Drugs A New Scenario for First Life on Earth Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide Different Roads Toward Quantum Criticality Orbital Reconstruction at a Complex Oxide Interface Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Hybrid Semiconductors for Hardier Electronics and Optoelectronics? DECEMBER 21, 2007 Bookmark and Share The crystal structure of β-ZnTe(en)0:5, determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Two-monolayerthick ZnTe slabs are interconnected by ethylenediamine (C2N2H8) molecules bonded to zinc atoms. Zn-Green, Te-Red, N-Blue,and C-Gray. Hydrogen atoms are omitted for clarity.

331

Exciton binding energy in semiconductor quantum dots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the adiabatic approximation in the context of the modified effective mass approach, in which the reduced exciton effective mass {mu} = {mu}(a) is a function of the radius a of the semiconductor quantum dot, an expression for the exciton binding energy E{sub ex}(a) in the quantum dot is derived. It is found that, in the CdSe and CdS quantum dots with the radii a comparable to the Bohr exciton radii a{sub ex}, the exciton binding energy E{sub ex}(a) is substantially (respectively, 7.4 and 4.5 times) higher than the exciton binding energy in the CdSe and CdS single crystals.

Pokutnii, S. I., E-mail: Pokutnyi_Sergey@inbox.ru [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, G.V. Kurdjumov Institute for Metal Physics (Ukraine)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Ion Trap in a Semiconductor Chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated atoms has led to many advances in physics, from laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation of cold gases to the precise quantum control of individual atomic ion. Work on miniaturizing electromagnetic traps to the micrometer scale promises even higher levels of control and reliability. Compared with 'chip traps' for confining neutral atoms, ion traps with similar dimensions and power dissipation offer much higher confinement forces and allow unparalleled control at the single-atom level. Moreover, ion microtraps are of great interest in the development of miniature mass spectrometer arrays, compact atomic clocks, and most notably, large scale quantum information processors. Here we report the operation of a micrometer-scale ion trap, fabricated on a monolithic chip using semiconductor micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool, and measure heating of a single 111Cd+ ion in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped gallium arsenide (GaAs) heterostructure.

D. Stick; W. K. Hensinger; S. Olmschenk; M. J. Madsen; K. Schwab; C. Monroe

2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

333

Materials Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Science. Summary: ... Description: Group focus in materials science (inkjet metrology, micro-macro, advanced characterizations). ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ultra wide-bandwidth micro energy harvester  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ultra wide-bandwidth resonating thin film PZT MEMS energy harvester has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. It harvests energy from parasitic ambient vibration at a wide range of amplitude and frequency via ...

Hajati, Arman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Spin Splitting and Spin Current in Strained Bulk Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

We present a theory for two recent experiments in bulk strained semiconductors and show that a new, previously overlooked, strain spin-orbit coupling term may play a fundamental role. We propose simple experiments that could clarify the origin of strain-induced spin-orbit coupling terms in inversion asymmetric semiconductors. We predict that a uniform magnetization parallel to the electric field will be induced in the samples studied in for specific directions of the applied electric field. We also propose special geometries to detect spin currents in strained semiconductors.

Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State Phases. ” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 39,Materials. ” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 38,Molecular Sieves. ” Angewandte Chemie International Edition,

Kang, Chris Byung-hwa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals inMicrofluidic Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Microfluidic reactors are investigated as a mechanism tocontrol the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize thestructural evolution of colloidal quantum dots. Due to their shortdiffusion lengths, low thermal masses, and predictable fluid dynamics,microfluidic devices can be used to quickly and reproducibly alterreaction conditions such as concentration, temperature, and reactiontime, while allowing for rapid reagent mixing and productcharacterization. These features are particularly useful for colloidalnanocrystal reactions, which scale poorly and are difficult to controland characterize in bulk fluids. To demonstrate the capabilities ofnanoparticle microreactors, a size series of spherical CdSe nanocrystalswas synthesized at high temperature in a continuous-flow, microfabricatedglass reactor. Nanocrystal diameters are reproducibly controlled bysystematically altering reaction parameters such as the temperature,concentration, and reaction time. Microreactors with finer control overtemperature and reagent mixing were designed to synthesize nanoparticlesof different shapes, such as rods, tetrapods, and hollow shells. The twomajor challenges observed with continuous flow reactors are thedeposition of particles on channel walls and the broad distribution ofresidence times that result from laminar flow. To alleviate theseproblems, I designed and fabricated liquid-liquid segmented flowmicroreactors in which the reaction precursors are encapsulated inflowing droplets suspended in an immiscible carrier fluid. The synthesisof CdSe nanocrystals in such microreactors exhibited reduced depositionand residence time distributions while enabling the rapid screening aseries of samples isolated in nL droplets. Microfluidic reactors werealso designed to modify the composition of existing nanocrystals andcharacterize the kinetics of such reactions. The millisecond kinetics ofthe CdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchange reaction are measured insitu with micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in silicon microreactorsspecifically designed for rapid mixing and time-resolved X-rayspectroscopy. These results demonstrate that microreactors are valuablefor controlling and characterizing a wide range of reactions in nLvolumes even when nanoscale particles, high temperatures, causticreagents, and rapid time scales are involved. These experiments providethe foundation for future microfluidic investigations into the mechanismsof nanocrystal growth, crystal phase evolution, and heterostructureassembly.

Chan, Emory Ming-Yue

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

338

Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc VSEA | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc VSEA Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc VSEA Jump to: navigation, search Name Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc (VSEA) Place Gloucester, Massachusetts Zip 1930 Sector Services Product Massachusetts-based, designs, manufactures, and services semiconductor processing equipment used in the fabrication of integrated circuits. Coordinates 37.413962°, -76.526305° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.413962,"lon":-76.526305,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

339

Ramgraber Semiconductor Equipment GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ramgraber Semiconductor Equipment GmbH Ramgraber Semiconductor Equipment GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name Ramgraber Semiconductor Equipment GmbH Place Brunnthal, Germany Zip 85649 Sector Solar Product Makes semiconductor processing equipment, including solar cell manufacturing lines. Coordinates 48.006898°, 11.684687° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.006898,"lon":11.684687,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

340

Semiconductor nanocrystals : synthesis, mechanisms of formation, and applications in biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary focus of this thesis is the synthesis and applications of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs). Novel synthetic routes to ternary 1-III-VI QDs are presented, and we report the first highly luminescent ...

Allen, Peter M. (Peter Matthew)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

AlGaN/GaN-based power semiconductor switches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for their use as high efficiency and high speed power semiconductor switches, thanks to their high breakdown electric field, mobility and ...

Lu, Bin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Spin polarized transport effects in III-V semiconductor heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the field of spintronics, GaMnAs, a ferromagnetic semiconductor, offers many advantages to study tunnel magnetotransport properties when used as an electrode. The complexity of the transport mechanisms associated with spin orbit coupled states make ...

J.-M. George

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Colloidal crystal formation in a semiconductor quantum plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The static shielding and the far-field dynamical oscillatory wake potentials in an ion-implanted piezoelectric semiconductor with colloid ions as test particles have been investigated in detail. The dielectric response function of the semiconductor is contributed by the quantum effect of electrons through the Bohm potential and lattice electron-phonon coupling effects. It is found that the quantum effect causes tighter binding of the electrons reducing the quantum Debye shielding length and the effective length of the wake potential to several angstroms. Hence, a quasiquantum lattice of colloid ions can be formed in the semiconductor in the quantum scales giving rise to drastic modifications of the ion-implanted semiconductor properties.

Zeba, I.; Uzma, Ch.; Jamil, M.; Salimullah, M. [Department of Physics, GC University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Shukla, P. K. [Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Characterization of Novel Semiconductor Alloys for Band Gap Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameter for the lower-energy matrix like band. The fullthe optical matrix is constant with energy and given by: 2 menergy of the host semiconductor. Diagalization of the matrix

Broesler, Robert Joseph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Improving reuse of semiconductor equipment through benchmarking, standardization, and automation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The 6D program at Intel® Corporation was set up to improve operations around capital equipment reuse, primarily in their semiconductor manufacturing facilities. The company was faced with a number of challenges, including ...

Silber, Jacob B. (Jacob Bradley)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Business Case Slide 26: High-Value: Semiconductors - Description...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(cont.) Previous Slide Next Slide Table of Contents High-Value: Semiconductors - Description (cont.) Measuring the photo-voltaic properties of a DUO2 diode at NREL Measuring the...

347

A New Earth-Abundant Semiconductor for Solar Energy Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, G2, ZnSnN2: A New Earth-Abundant Semiconductor for Solar Energy Conversion. Author(s), Lise Lahourcade, Naomi C Coronel, Harry A ...

348

Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of passive and active semiconductor devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast carrier dynamics of slab-coupled optical waveguide amplifiers, silicon nanowaveguides, and III-V semiconductor saturable Bragg reflectors are studied. The limits imposed by two ...

Motamedi, Ali Reza

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

A thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential are disclosed. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Peng, Xiaogang (Fayetteville, AR); Manna, Liberato (Palo del Colle, IT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Peng, Xiaogang (Fayetteville, AR); Manna, Liberato (Palo del Colle, IT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Material Basics Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics that influence its suitability for specific applications. For example, PV cell materials may differ based on their crystallinity, bandgap, absorbtion, and manufacturing complexity. Learn more about each of these characteristics below or learn about these solar cell materials: Silicon (Si)-including single-crystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, and amorphous Si Polycrystalline Thin Films-including copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films-including high-efficiency material

354

Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor tran- sistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit light when the drain source volt- age... the organic light emitting devices become mainstream, there are several challenges that need to be resolved and current research focus is to ad- dress those challenges. One particular challenge is relatively high operating volt- ages of light emitting organic...

Bhat, Shrivalli

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

355

Enterprise-Wide Agreements | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enterprise-Wide Enterprise-Wide Agreements Enterprise-Wide Agreements DOE's Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) has designed the IT Acquisition: Enterprise-Wide Agreement (EWA) Program to develop and implement policies and procedures that support the identification, acquisition, oversight and compliance of enterprise licenses. EWAs are Department-wide acquisitions of widely used commercial software. The EWA Program has two core objectives to achieve the Program mission : Maximizing IT buying power and reducing total cost of ownership; Streamlining the IT total acquisition lifecycle. The EWA Program applies a centralized, cross-functional, strategic enterprise software solutions approach. The EWA Program leverages opportunities to create efficiencies and enhances the value of IT

356

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Availability Technology Express Licensing Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Express Licensing Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, And...

357

Electron transfer at sensitized semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electron transfer from the excited state of sensitizing dyes to the conduction band of semiconductors has been studied through photoelectrochemical techniques. Two systems were analyzed in detail: rhodamine B on ZnO and rose bengal on TiO/sub 2/. Prior to electrochemical experimentation, the adsorption characteristics of these dyes were investigated using ZnO, ZnS, and TiO/sub 2/ single crystals as substrates. Absorbance measurements of the adsorbed dye were taken as a function of the solution concentration of the dye. Adsorption isotherms heats of adsorption were also established; they were similar to literature data reported for adsorption of these dyes on powdered substrates. Using the absorbance data, the quantum efficiency for photoinjection of electrons from rhodamine B into a ZnO electrode was determined to be 2.7 x 10/sup -2/. This value was independent of the dye surface concentration down to 50% coverage of the electrode. With the assumption that not all of the rhodamine B adsorbed on the electrode has the same rate of electron injection, a kinetic model for the time decay of the photocurrent was developed; data were analyzed according to this theory. A rate constant for photoreduction of the adsorbed dye was determined for the reducing agents. 86 references.

Spitler, M.T.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency...

359

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection...

360

WIDE BAND REGENERATIVE FREQUENCY DIVIDER AND MULTIPLIER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regenerative frequency divider and multiplier having wide band input characteristics is presented. The circuit produces output oscillations having frequencies related by a fixed ratio to input oscillations over a wide band of frequencies. In accomplishing this end, the divider-multiplier includes a wide band input circuit coupled by mixer means to a wide band output circuit having a pass band related by a fixed ratio to that of the input circuit. A regenerative feedback circuit derives a fixed frequency ratio feedback signal from the output circuit and applies same to the mixer means in proper phase relation to sustain fixed frequency ratio oscillations in the output circuit.

Laine, E.F.

1959-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

HY RID WIDE RANGE TRANSIMPEDAN E AMPLIFIER  

TRANSIMPEDAN E AMPLIFIER TE HNOLOGY SUMMARY Many applications require wide range detection, where detector current is converted to a voltage by a

362

Wide Electrochemical Window Solvents - Energy Innovation Portal  

Biomass and Biofuels; ... This solvent has such a wide electrochemical window and such powerful solvating properties that it is an excellent target solvent ...

363

shared session with Advanced Materials for Power Electronics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of Soft Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications: Samuel Kernion1; ... The world-wide market for magnetic materials is anticipated to grow to US$33 ...

364

Analysis of Soft Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Analysis of Soft Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications ... Abstract Scope, The world-wide market for magnetic materials is anticipated to ...

365

Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

Sadtler, Bryce F

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

366

Materials Licenses Available | Tech Transfer | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials SHARE Materials 199600248 Thermally Conductive Graphite Foam (Related ID # 199600248, 199800445, 199900728, 199900722, 199900727, 200000788, 200000861, 200201063, 200000892) 199600248 Carbon or Graphite Foam Heating Element for Regulating Engine Fluids 199800555 Imprinting Method for Selective Mesoporous Sorbents 200000798 Method of Improving Surface Properties of Aluminum Alloys by Weld Overlay Cladding 200000831 Improved Gas Storage Carbon with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity 200000835 Humidifier for Fuel Cell Using High Conductivity Carbon Foam 200000842 Field Emission Devices with Carbon Nanofiber Emitters 200000850 A Structure, Method and Process for Controlling Band Offset and Alignment at a Crystalline Oxide on Semiconductor Interface

367

Electrical Transport Through a Single Nanoscale SemiconductorBranch Point  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Semiconductor tetrapods are three dimensional branched nanostructures, representing a new class of materials for electrical conduction. We employ the single electron transistor approach to investigate how charge carriers migrate through single nanoscale branch points of tetrapods. We find that carriers can delocalize across the branches or localize and hop between arms depending on their coupling strength. In addition, we demonstrate a new single-electron transistor operation scheme enabled by the multiple branched arms of a tetrapod: one arm can be used as a sensitive arm-gate to control the electrical transport through the whole system. Electrical transport through nanocrystals, molecules, nanowires and nanotubes display novel quantum phenomena. These can be studied using the single electron transistor approach to successively change the charge state by one, to reveal charging energies, electronic level spacings, and coupling between electronic, vibrational, and spin degrees of freedom. The advent of colloidal synthesis methods that produce branched nanostructures provides a new class of material which can act as conduits for electrical transport in hybrid organic-inorganic electrical devices such as light emitting diodes and solar cells. Already, the incorporation of branched nanostructures has yielded significant improvements in nanorod/polymer solar cells, where the specific pathways for charge migration can have a significant impact on device performance. Progress in this area requires an understanding of how electrons and holes migrate through individual branch points, for instance do charges delocalize across the branches or do they localize and hop between arms. Here we employ the single electron transistor approach to investigate the simplest three dimensional branched nanostructure, the semiconductor tetrapod, which consists of a pyramidal shaped zinc blende-structured ''core'' with four wurzite-structured arms projecting out at the tetrahedral angle. Monodisperse CdTe tetrapods with arms 8 nm in diameter and 150 nm in length were synthesized as previously reported. The tetrapods dispersed in toluene were deposited onto {approx}10 nm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} dielectrics with alignment markers and a back gate (see Supporting Information). A tetrapod spontaneously orients with one arm pointing perpendicularly away from the substrate and three arms projecting down towards the surface. Individual 60 nm-thick Pd electrodes were placed by EBL onto each of the three arms downwards so that there are four terminals (three arms and a back gate) as shown schematically in Fig. 1 top inset. Figure 1 bottom inset shows a typical scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the devices. The center brighter spot is due to the fourth arm pointing up away from the substrate although its controlled breaking is possible. The separation between the metal electrodes and the tetrapod branch point ranges from 30 to 80 nm in our devices. The devices were loaded into a He{sup 4}-flow cryostat for low-temperature ({approx}5K) electrical measurements.

Cui, Yi; Banin, Uri; Bjork, Mikael T.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

368

Materials Characterization | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization Nuclear Forensics Scanning Probes Related Research Materials Theory and Simulation Energy Frontier Research Centers Advanced Materials Home | Science &...

369

Review of the silicon material task  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Silicon Material Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project was assigned the objective of developing the technology for low-cost processes for producing polysilicon suitable for terrestrial solar-cell applications. The Task program comprised sections for process developments for semiconductor-grade and solar-cell-grade products. To provide information for deciding upon process designs, extensive investigations of the effects of impurities on material properties and the performance of cells were conducted. The silane process of the Union Carbide Corporation was carried through several stages of technical and engineering development; a pilot plant was the culmination of this effort. The work to establish silane fluidized-bed technology for a low-cost process is continuing. The advantages of the use of dichlorosilane in a Siemens-type process were shown by Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation. The development of other processes is described.

Lutwack, R.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Infrared Analysis of Advanced Thin Film Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals of timely and cost effective integration of these new materials into ... most widely accepted method for production monitoring of transparent thin films.

371

Continuum Scale Simulation of Engineering Materials: Fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 8, 2007 ... This book describes a wide variety of materials modeling methods at the microstructure level and above. CITATION: Raabe, D. (Editor), Roters, ...

372

Materials Week '97: Wednesday PM Session - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sponsored by: EPD/MDMD Synthesis, Control, and Analysis in Materials ... under a wide variety of production scenarios and annual production volumes.

373

An investigation of corrosion in semiconductor bridge explosive devices.  

SciTech Connect

In the course of a failure investigation, corrosion of the lands was occasionally found in developmental lots of semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonators and igniters. Evidence was found in both detonators and igniters of the gold layer being deposited on top of a corroded aluminum layer, but inspection of additional dies from the same wafer did not reveal any more corroded parts. In some detonators, evidence was found that corrosion of the aluminum layer also happened after the gold was deposited. Moisture and chloride must both be present for aluminum to corrode. A likely source for chloride is the adhesive used to bond the die to the header. Inspection of other SCB devices, both recently manufactured and manufactured about ten years ago, found no evidence for corrosion even in devices that contained SCBs with aluminum lands and no gold. Several manufacturing defects were noted such as stains, gouges in the gold layer due to tooling, and porosity of the gold layer. Results of atmospheric corrosion experiments confirmed that devices with a porous gold layer over the aluminum layer are susceptible to extensive corrosion when both moisture and chlorine are present. The extent of corrosion depends on the level of chlorine contamination, and corrosion did not occur when only moisture was present. Elimination of the gold plating on the lands eliminated corrosion of the lands in these experiments. Some questions remain unanswered, but enough information was gathered to recommend changes to materials and procedures. A second lot of detonators was successfully built using aluminum SCBs, limiting the use of Ablebond{trademark} adhesive, increasing the rigor in controlling exposure to moisture, and adding inspection steps.

Klassen, Sandra Ellen; Sorensen, Neil Robert

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

375

Pulsed laser ablation of binary semiconductors: mechanisms of vaporisation and cluster formation  

SciTech Connect

Formation of small clusters during pulsed ablation of two binary semiconductors, zinc oxide and indium phosphide, in vacuum by UV, visible, and IR laser radiation is comparatively studied. The irradiation conditions favourable for generation of neutral and charged Zn{sub n}O{sub m} and In{sub n}P{sub m} clusters of different stoichiometry in the ablation products are found. The size and composition of the clusters, their expansion dynamics and reactivity are analysed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of ZnO and InP ablation as a function of laser fluence, with the use of different ablation models. It is established that ZnO evapourates congruently in a wide range of irradiation conditions, while InP ablation leads to enrichment of the target surface with indium. It is shown that this radically different character of semiconductor ablation determines the composition of the nanostructures formed: zinc oxide clusters are mainly stoichiometric, whereas In{sub n}P{sub m} particles are significantly enriched with indium. (photonics and nanotechnology)

Bulgakov, A V; Evtushenko, A B; Shukhov, Yu G [S S Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ozerov, I; Marin, W [Universite de la Mediterranee, CINaM, UPR CNRS 3118, Marseille (France)

2010-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials Science Materials Science1354608000000Materials ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Materials Science Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Data Sources Reference Organizations Journals Key Resources CINDAS Materials Property Databases video icon Thermophysical Properties of Matter Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys Handbook (SAH) Proquest Technology Collection Includes the Materials Science collection MRS Online Proceedings Library Papers presented at meetings of the Materials Research Society Data Sources

377

Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators in I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 Chalcopyrite Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of topological insulators with exotic metallic surface states has garnered great interest in the fields of condensed matter physics and materials science.1 A number of spectacular quantum phenomena have been predicted when the surface states are under the influence of magnetism and superconductivity,2 5 which could open up new opportunities for technological applications in spintronics and quantum computing. To achieve this goal, material realization of topological insulators with desired physical properties is of crucial importance. Based on first-principles calculations, here we show that a large number of ternary chalcopyrite compounds of composition I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 can realize the topological insulating phase in their native states. The crystal structure of chalcopyrites is derived from the frequently used zinc-blende structure, and many of them possess a close lattice match to important mainstream semiconductors, which is essential for a smooth integration into current semiconductor technology. The diverse optical, electrical and structural properties of chalcopyrite semiconductors,6 and particularly their ability to host room-temperature ferromagnetism,7 9 make them appealing candidates for novel spintronic devices.

Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ding, Jun [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics/Chinese Academy of Scie; Xiao, Di [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope: Big at the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... resolution for such a wide range of samples, including semiconductors, semiconducting nanowire, materials for photovoltaic applications, magnetic ...

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

379

Novel silane and disilane precursors to amorphous semiconductors: Final subcontract report, May 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Final Report describes the preparation and characterization of amorphous fluorohydrogenated silicon thin films. The novel approach in this study lies in the use of fluorinated silanes as film precursors. The advantages of this method are well defined initial ratios of hydrogen and fluorine to silicon and greatly reduced hazards in the handling of the gas. Fluorine derivatives of both silane and disilane were synthesized. Both glow discharge (or plasma-enhanced CVD) and thermal (CVD) methods were employed to prepare amorphous silicon on glass and silicon wafers. The electrical characterization of the material prepared from difluorosilane showed that the a-Si:H:F films obtained are of solar-grade semiconductor quality and can be doped to p- and n-type materials with diborane and phosphine. 29 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs.

Pernisz, U.C.; Sharp, K.G.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Mismatched semiconductor nanowires: growth and characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

iii List of Figures Carbon fiber and fullerene-reinforcedthe market Figure 1.1. Carbon fiber and fullerene-reinforcedFig. 1.1). In fact, carbon fiber is the material of choice

Yim, Joanne Wing Lan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Reactor Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The reactor materials crosscut effort will enable the development of innovative and revolutionary materials and provide broad-based, modern materials science that will benefit all four DOE-NE...

382

High Performance Wide Bandgap Power Electronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and ... therefore, designers unknowingly navigate the design space with a lack of ...

383

Materials - Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Assessment The staff of the Energy Systems Division has a long history of technical and economic analysis of the production and recycling of materials for transportation...

384

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos...

385

Agency-Wide Screening | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agency-Wide Screening Agency-Wide Screening Agency-Wide Screening October 16, 2013 - 4:36pm Addthis Federal agencies face energy-related requirements on new construction projects and major renovations. These Federal requirements range from reductions in fossil-fuel use to specifying the use of certain renewable energy technologies. As some agencies have already found out, not all sites or construction projects are created equal. Because many of the requirements are agency-wide, an effective and efficient way to meet these requirements is to consider and identify appropriate locations for these technologies across all agency land and building assets. FEMP can help Federal agencies conduct a renewable energy screening at all of its sites, or just at all of its upcoming construction project

386

China Joins WorldWideScience Alliance  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the addition of more Chinese sources to WorldWideScience.org after a successful test period. DOE's Office of Science, through (OSTI), serves as the Operating Agent for...

387

WorldWideScience.org Goes Multilingual  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Friday, June 11, 2010 WorldWideScience.org Goes Multilingual OAK RIDGE, TN - Now you can find non-English scientific literature from databases in...

388

Ultra-wide bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvesting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here, we present an ultra wide-bandwidth energy harvester by exploiting the nonlinear stiffness of a doubly clamped microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) resonator. The stretching strain in a doubly clamped beam shows a ...

Hajati, Arman

389

Ion Beam Modification of Materials  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, IBMM 2004, and is published by Elsevier-Science Publishers as a special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods B. The conference series is the major international forum to present and discuss recent research results and future directions in the field of ion beam modification, synthesis and characterization of materials. The first conference in the series was held in Budapest, Hungary, 1978, and subsequent conferences were held every two years at locations around the Globe, most recently in Japan, Brazil, and the Netherlands. The series brings together physicists, materials scientists, and ion beam specialists from all over the world. The official conference language is English. IBMM 2004 was held on September 5-10, 2004. The focus was on materials science involving both basic ion-solid interaction processes and property changes occurring either during or subsequent to ion bombardment and ion beam processing in relation to materials and device applications. Areas of research included Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling, Patterning of Surfaces, Focused Ion Beams, Defects in Semiconductors, Insulators and Metals, Cluster Beams, Radiation Effects in Materials, Photonic Devices, Ion Implantation, Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine including New Materials, Imaging, and Treatment.

Averback, B; de la Rubia, T D; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V; Rehn, L E

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

390

Optical Properties and Potential Applications of Doped Semiconductor Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies on the optical properties, in particular luminescence, of a variety of doped semiconductor nanoparticles are reviewed. The effects of quantum confinement, temperature, and pressure on luminescent properties are discussed. In addition, electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, magnetoluminescence and related applications involving doped semiconductor nanoparticles are presented. A new phenomenon, upconversion luminescence of doped nanoparticles, is reviewed and its potential applications are discussed. While more research efforts are necessary in order to fully understand the fundamentals and explore the great technological potential behind doped nanoparticles, recent results already show that this is a new and exciting field with applications in many fields. In particular, the emerging field of ''spintronics'', where spin states are exploited in analogy to conventional electronic states, is discussed and the advantages of using doped semiconductor nanoparticles are elucidated.

Chen, Wei; Zhang, Jin Z.; Joly, Alan G.

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

391

Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor light-emitting device and method. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL).

Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor light-emitting device and method are disclosed. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). 12 figs.

Choquette, K.D.; Lear, K.L.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

393

Wavelength-resonant surface-emitting semiconductor laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wavelength resonant semiconductor gain medium is disclosed. The essential feature of this medium is a multiplicity of quantum-well gain regions separated by semiconductor spacer regions of higher bandgap. Each period of this medium consisting of one quantum-well region and the adjacent spacer region is chosen such that the total width is equal to an integral multiple of 1/2 the wavelength in the medium of the radiation with which the medium is interacting. Optical, electron-beam and electrical injection pumping of the medium is disclosed. This medium may be used as a laser medium for single devices or arrays either with or without reflectors, which may be either semiconductor or external.

Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schaus, Christian F. (Albuquerque, NM); Osinski, Marek A. (Albuquerque, NM); McInerney, John G. (Cedar Crest, NM); Raja, M. Yasin A. (Albuquerque, NM); Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, Burrell E. (Tijeras, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

Hanna, Mark Cooper (Boulder, CO); Reedy, Robert (Golden, CO)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

395

Below-bandgap excitation of bulk semiconductors by twisted light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I theoretically investigate the response of bulk semiconductors to excitation by twisted light below the energy bandgap. To this end, I modify a well-known model of light-semiconductor interaction to account for the conservation of the light's momentum. I show that the excited states can be thought of as a superposition of slightly perturbed exciton states undergoing a complex center-of-mass motion. In addition, the absorption would occur at a slightly shifted energy (compared to plane waves) and would exhibit complex spatial patterns in the polarization and current.

Quinteiro, G F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials can generate electricity or provide cooling by converting thermal gradients to electricity or electricity to thermal gradients. More efficient thermoelectric materials would make feasible the widespread use of thermoelectric converters in mundane applications. This report summarizes the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials including currently available materials and applications, new developments, and future prospects.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

397

Solid State Lighting Semiconductor Spectroscopy & Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

information: jochen.bruckbauer@strath.ac.uk Overview Conventional light sources, like the light bulb of lighting Figure 4: In light bulbs a current is passed through a wire, which is very inefficient due than a light bulb, but they contain traces of toxic materials. LEDs utilise the movement of electrons

Strathclyde, University of

398

Low cost silicon solar array project, silicon materials task. Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low-cost, high-volume production of silane (Step I) and the pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon (Step II). Quarterly progress report, October--December 1977. [Silicon tetrachlorides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kinetics and equilibria for the hydrogenation of silicon tetrachloride have shown that conversion to trichlorosilane is substantially increased at higher operating pressures; these results greatly improve the practicality of the overall process. An integrated process development unit for converting metallurgical silicon and hydrogen to high-purity silane has been commissioned. A quartz fluid-bed reactor capable of operating at temperatures of up to 1000/sup 0/C was designed, constructed, and successfully operated. A total of 6.7 Kg of silicon powder was produced in two separate experiments in the free-space reactor without opening the reactor between experiments. No measurable impurities were detected in the silicon powder produced by the free-space reactor, using the cathode layer emission spectroscopic technique. A 152 mm-diameter melt consolidation apparatus was attached to the free-space reactor. The first objective for the overall process was the definition of a preliminary set of functional specifications. All process design efforts are based on these specifications. Preliminary block flow diagrams and heat and material balances for every battery-limit stream were completed for the 25 MT/year experimental facility. A brief parametric study was conducted to select an optimum range of operating pressures for the distillation columns. Conceptual designs have been initiated for the hydrogenation reactor, the free-space reactor, and the consolidation system.

Breneman, W.C.; Cheung, H.; Farrier, E.G.; Morihara, H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon, which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A probe electrode immersed in an electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. The Schottky barrier is contacted by merely placing the probe in the solution. The redox solution is placed over and in contact with the material to be tested and light is passed through the solution to generate the SPV. To compensate for colored redox solutions a portion of the redox solution not over the material is also illuminated for determining the color compensated light intensity. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

Moore, Arnold R. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

400

System design and simulation of constant temperature box using semiconductor refrigeration device  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the variation law of temperature in three-dimensional space, which is cooled by the refrigeration provided by the cold side of a semiconductor. The mathematical model of the temperature field of the semiconductor refrigeration ... Keywords: constant temperature box, forced convection, mathematical modelling, numerical simulation, semiconductor refrigeration, system design

Hui Zhang; Kuang-Chao Fan; Jun Wang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Novel Materials for Photovoltaic Technologies: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While existing photovoltaic technologies continue to advance, there are still many exciting opportunities in the area of novel materials. These opportunities arise because there is a substantial need for reducing the costs associated with the preparation and processing of photovoltaics, and because the theoretically possible photovoltaic efficiencies have yet to be achieved in practical devices. Thus it remains reasonable to continue photovoltaic research activity aimed at entirely new approaches to processing and at entirely new materials as the active media. This group identified three areas for further consideration: (a) Nano/molecular composites and hierarchical structures; (b) Organic semiconductors; and (c) Hot carrier devices.

Alivisatos, P. (University of California Berkeley); Carter, S. (University of California Santa Barbara); Ginley, D.; Nozik, A. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Meyer, G. (Johns Hopkins University); Rosenthal, S. (Vanderbilt University)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers  

SciTech Connect

The field of spintronics offers perspectives for seamless integration of coupled and inter-tunable electrical and magnetic properties in a single device. For integration of the spin degree of freedom with current electronic technology, new semiconductors are needed that show electrically-tunable magnetic properties at room temperature and above. Dilute magnetic semiconductors derived from III-V compounds, like GaMnAs and InMnAs, show coupled and tunable magnetic, transport, and optical properties, due to the fact that their ferromagnetism is hole-mediated. These unconventional materials are ideal systems for manipulating the magnetic order by changing the carrier polarization, population density, and energy band distribution of the complementary subsystem of holes. This is the main theme we cover in this thesis. In particular, we develop a unique setup by use of ultraviolet pump, near-infrared probe femtosecond laser pulses, that allows for magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy experiments. We photo-excite transient carriers in our samples, and measure the induced transient magnetization dynamics. One set of experiments performed allowed us to observe for the first time enhancement of the ferromagnetic order in GaMnAs, on an ultrafast time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. The corresponding transient increase of Curie temperature (Tc, the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses its permanent magnetism) of about 1 K for our experimental conditions is a very promising result for potential spintronics applications, especially since it is seconded by observation of an ultrafast ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition above Tc. In a different set of experiments, we"write" the magnetization in a particular orientation in the sample plane. Using an ultrafast scheme, we alter the distribution of holes in the system and detect signatures of the particular memory state in the subsequent magnetization dynamics, with unprecedented hundreds of femtosecond detection speed. The femtosecond cooperative magnetic phenomena presented here further our understanding of Mn-hole correlations in III-V dilute magnetic semiconductors, and may well represent universal principles of a large class of carrier-mediated ferromagnetic materials. Thus they offer perspectives for future terahertz (1012 Hz) speed"spintronic" functional devices.

Cotoros, Ingrid A.

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Y-12 National Security Complex October 2009 U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Y-12 Site Office DOE/EIS-0387 COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) TITLE: Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Y-12 National Security Complex (DOE/EIS-0387) (Draft Y-12 SWEIS) CONTACT: For further information on this SWEIS, For general information on the DOE contact: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, contact: Pam Gorman Carol Borgstrom, Director Y-12 SWEIS Document Manager Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance, GC-20 Y-12 Site Office U.S. Department of Energy

404

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

Ray Johnson

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ados Co Ltd Dong Yang Semiconductor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ados Co Ltd Dong Yang Semiconductor Ados Co Ltd Dong Yang Semiconductor Jump to: navigation, search Name Ados Co Ltd (Dong Yang Semiconductor) Place Seoul, Seoul, Korea (Republic) Product Korean manufacturer of semiconductors; through Ersol's technology, will develop PV plants and begin to roll out crystalline silicon wafers and cells by H2 2007. Coordinates 37.557121°, 126.977379° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.557121,"lon":126.977379,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

406

Generator of pumping pulses for powerful semiconductor lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generator of electric and optic pulses are built using powerful MOS transistors and an ILPI-103 semiconductor laser generates pumping pulses with an amplitude of 15 A and optic pulses with a duration of 9 to 30 nsec at a repetition rate of up to 90 kHz. The output signal is TTL. The device is designed for open optic communication lines.

An, V.I.; Kolesnikov, Yu.Yu. [Voronezh Scientific Research Institute of Communications, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

[Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces]. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

(Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Schlamp, Michael C. (Plainsboro, NJ); Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA)

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

410

Quantum Optics: Colloidal Fluorescent Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U ncorrected Proof Chapter 3 Quantum Optics: Colloidal Fluorescent Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots) in Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging Laurent A. Bentolila, Xavier Michalet, and Shimon quantum dots (QDs), have emerged as new powerful fluorescent probes for in vitro and in vivo biological

Michalet, Xavier

411

User experience research in the semiconductor factory: a contradiction?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

No doubt, user experience (UX) has become of high relevance within the HCI community. Within this paper, we present initial results from a qualitative study on UX in the factory context, more precisely in a semiconductor factory. We highlight the challenges ... Keywords: factory context, probing, user experience, user study

Marianna Obrist; Wolfgang Reitberger; Daniela Wurhofer; Florian Förster; Manfred Tscheligi

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The new -NMR facility at TRIUMF and applications in semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The new -NMR facility at TRIUMF and applications in semiconductors K.H. Chow a, Z. Salman b R facililty for conducting beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (-NMR) investigations of condensed matter facility are described, and some preliminary results on 8Li+ in GaAs are presented. Key words: -NMR

Baartman, Richard Abram

413

Chemosensors, biosensors, and microsystems based on standard semiconductor technology (CMOS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microfabrication techniques and, in particular, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology have been used to devise chemosensors, biosensors, and microsystems in a generic approach. Examples of micromachined bio/chemosensors, such as cantilevers ... Keywords: CMOS, bioelectronics, biomicrosystem, biosensor, cells, chemical sensor, microelectronics

Andreas Hierlemann

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing  

SciTech Connect

Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Kee, R.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling.

Klem, John F. (Sandia Park, NM); Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Applied Materials Inc AMAT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc AMAT Inc AMAT Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95052-8039 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of equipment used in solar (silicon, thin-film, BIPV), semiconductor, and LCD markets. References Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) is a company located in Santa Clara, California . References ↑ "Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Applied_Materials_Inc_AMAT&oldid=342244" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes

417

Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

Magnetocaloric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications IV: Magnetocaloric Materials ... due to cost-effectiveness as well as superior magneto-thermal characteristics. ... metals and p-block elements can be explored in a time- and energy-saving manner.

419

Traffic data repository at the WIDE project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It becomes increasingly important for both network researchers and operators to know the trend of network traffic and to find anomaly in their network traffic. This paper describes an on-going effort within the WIDE project to collect a set of free tools ...

Kenjiro Cho; Koushirou Mitsuya; Akira Kato

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Materials Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Science. Summary: Key metrologies/systems: In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, linear and non-linear spectroscopies ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Training Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Training Materials. NIST Handbook 44 Self-Study Course. ... Chapter 3 – Organization and Format of NIST Handbook 44 DOC. ...

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

422

Material matting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the widespread use of measured real-world materials, intuitive tools for editing measured reflectance datasets are still lacking. We present a solution inspired by natural image matting and texture synthesis to the material matting problem, ... Keywords: appearance models, material separation, matting, spatially-varying BRDFs, texture synthesis

Daniel Lepage; Jason Lawrence

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Materializing energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of ... Keywords: design, design theory, energy, materiality, sustainability

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Nanocluster-based white-light-emitting material employing surface tuning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for making a nanocrystal-based material capable of emitting light over a sufficiently broad spectral range to appear white. Surface-modifying ligands are used to shift and broaden the emission of semiconductor nanocrystals to produce nanoparticle-based materials that emit white light.

Wilcoxon, Jess P. (Albuquerque, NM); Abrams, Billie L. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Colvin, Vicki L. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed. 10 figs.

Alivisatos, A.P.; Colvin, V.L.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

Materials Education Community  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital Resource Center Home. Materials Education. Materials Education. Established Materials Technologies. Magnesium · Superalloys. Emerging Materials ...

428

Emerging Materials Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital Resource Center Home. Materials Education. Materials Education. Established Materials Technologies. Magnesium · Superalloys. Emerging Materials ...

429

Established Materials Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital Resource Center Home. Materials Education. Materials Education. Established Materials Technologies. Magnesium · Superalloys. Emerging Materials ...

430

Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

DFAS Wide-Area Workflow Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DFAS Wide-Area Workflow DFAS Wide-Area Workflow Issues Mark Shvartzman Sr. Project Manager, CEM, CEA Southern California Edison Presented at the Spring FUPWG Meeting April 20, 2011 What We Are Going to Discuss * Review Delivery Order or Task Order for accounting lines information. * Contact Contracting Officer or Contracting specialist and request Pay DoDAAC and Ext. information * Create Payment Log by ACRN * Start creating Invoice How the WAWF works and how to navigate through: 2 CONTRACT N68711-03-G-4019 DO#0028 Pay Records Bill by CLIN Award $ by CLIN Billed To Date Invoice number Pay Total Balance by CLIN 7500009733 $330,899.11 CLIN 0001AA 674,220.00 674,220.00 7500009733 7500012596 674,220.00 0.00 7500012596 $641,344.69 CLIN 0001AB 325,780.00 298023.8 27,756.20 7500012596 7500015079 325,780.00

432

Industry-Wide Database: Circuit Breakers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Best practice maintenance and asset management decisions are based on risks associated with actual equipment condition and performance. However, little effort has been made to systematically collect and analyze such industry information for high-voltage circuit breakers. This document presents the results of the initial effort of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to explore the development of an industry-wide database (IDB) for high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs). The project identified ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

433

TCP performance analysis for wide area networks  

SciTech Connect

Even though networks have been getting faster, perceived throughput at the application level has not increased accordingly. In an attempt to identify many of the performance bottlenecks, we collected and analyzed data over a wide area network (WAN) at T3 (45 Mbps) bandwidth. The information gained will assist in designing new protocols and/or algorithms that are consistent with future high- speed requirements.

Chen, H.Y.; Hutchins, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Testi, N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - New Materials, Devices, and Processes for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Materials, Devices, and Processes for Advanced Concepts New Materials, Devices, and Processes for Advanced Concepts Computational Science and Theory We can use high-performance computing tools in modeling and simulation studies of semiconductor and other solar materials. We also determine the performance of solar devices. Theoretical studies can help us understand underlying physical principles or predict useful chemical compositions and crystalline structures. Scientific Computing Experimental Materials Science Solid-State Theory. NREL has strong complementary research capabilities in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), combinatorial (combi) methods, and atmospheric processing. From fundamental physical studies to applied research relating to solar industry needs, we are developing the

435

Multiband semiconductor compositions for photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The highly mismatched alloy Zn.sub.1-yMn.sub.yO.sub.xTe.sub.1-x, 0.ltoreq.y<1 and 0material perfectly satisfying the conditions for single-junction photovoltaics with the potential for power conversion efficiencies surpassing 50%.

Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA); Wu, Junqiao (Belmont, MA)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

436

Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Jewell, Jack L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

439

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

440

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Minor Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Materials used in glass manufacture...Table 1 Materials used in glass manufacture Material Purpose Antimony oxide (Sb 2 O 3 ) Decolorizing and fining agent Aplite (K, Na, Ca, Mg, alumina silicate) Source of alumina Aragonite (CaCO 3 ) Source of calcium oxide Arsenic oxide (As 2 O 3 ) Fining and decolorizing agent Barite/barytes (BaSO 4 )...

442

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Express Licensing Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Express Licensing Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, And Membrane Express Licensing Analysis Of Macromolecule, Liggands And Macromolecule-Lingand Complexes Express Licensing Carbon Microtubes Express Licensing Chemical Synthesis Of Chiral Conducting Polymers Express Licensing Forming Adherent Coatings Using Plasma Processing Express Licensing Hydrogen Scavengers Express Licensing Laser Welding Of Fused Quartz Express Licensing Multiple Feed Powder Splitter Negotiable Licensing Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Negotiable Licensing Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Negotiable Licensing Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Express Licensing Method of Synthesis of Proton Conducting Materials

443

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Materials Negotiable Licensing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Negotiable Licensing A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current...

444

Magnetic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... Extreme magnetic fields (>2 tesla), especially when combined with temperature, are being shown to revolutionize materials processing and ...

445

materials processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the Stainless Steel Elaborated by the Duplex Procedure (Electric Furnace- VOD Installation) [pp. ... Materials Processing on a Solar Furnace Satellite [pp.

446

Materials Studio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 14, 2008 ... G. Fitzgerald; G. Goldbeck-Wood; P. Kung; M. Petersen; L. Subramanian; J. Wescott, " Materials Modeling from Quantum Mechanics to The ...

447

Nuclear Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors III ... response of oxide ceramics for nuclear applications through experiment, theory, and ...

448

Method of plasma etching GA-based compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent thereto. The chamber contains a Ga-based compound semiconductor sample in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. SiCl.sub.4 and Ar gases are flowed into the chamber. RF power is supplied to the platen at a first power level, and RF power is supplied to the source electrode. A plasma is generated. Then, RF power is supplied to the platen at a second power level lower than the first power level and no greater than about 30 W. Regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched at a rate of no more than about 25 nm/min to create a substantially smooth etched surface.

Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent to the process chamber. The process chamber contains a sample comprising a Ga-based compound semiconductor. The sample is in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. The method includes flowing SiCl.sub.4 gas into the chamber, flowing Ar gas into the chamber, and flowing H.sub.2 gas into the chamber. RF power is supplied independently to the source electrode and the platen. A plasma is generated based on the gases in the process chamber, and regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched to create a substantially smooth etched surface including features having substantially vertical walls beneath the masked portions.

Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

450

Semiconductor Nanocrystals-Based White Light Emitting Diodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to the demands for energy and the concerns of global warming and climate change, energy efficient and environmentally friendly solid state lighting, such as white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), is considered to be the most promising and suitable light source. Because of their small size, high efficiency, and long lifetime, WLEDs based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) are emerging as a completely new technology platform for the development of flat-panel displays and solid state lighting, exhibiting the potential to replace the conventionally used incandescent and fluorescent lamps. This replacement could cut the ever-increasing energy consumption, solve the problem of rapidly depleting fossil fuel reserves, and improve the quality of the global environment. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in semiconductor nanocrystals-based WLEDs, compare different approaches for generating white light, and discuss the benefits and challenges of the solid state lighting technology.

Dai, Quanqin [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Semiconductor-Nanocrystals-Based White Light-Emitting Diodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to the demands for energy and the concerns of global warming and climate change, energy efficient and environmentally friendly solid-state lighting, such as white lightemitting diodes (WLEDs), is considered to be the most promising and suitable light source. Because of their small size, high efficiency, and long lifetime, WLEDs based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) are emerging as a completely new technology platform for the development of flat-panel displays and solid-state lighting, exhibiting the potential to replace the conventionally used incandescent and fluorescent lamps. This replacement can cut the ever-increasing level of energy consumption, solve the problem of rapidly depleting fossil fuel reserves, and improve the quality of the global environment. In this review, the recent progress in semiconductor-nanocrystals-based WLEDs is highlighted, the different approaches for generating white light are compared, and the benefits and challenges of the solid-state lighting technology are discussed.

Dai, Quanqin [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method for mapping charge pulses in semiconductor radiation detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient method for determining the distribution of charge pulses produced by semiconductor detectors is presented. The method is based on a quasi-steady-state model for semiconductor detector operation. A complete description of the model and underlying assumptions is given. Mapping of charge pulses is accomplished by solving an adjoint carrier continuity equation. The solution of the adjoint equation yields Green`s function, a time- and position-dependent map that contains all possible charge pulses that can be produced by the detector for charge generated at discrete locations (e.g., by gamma-ray interactions). Because the map is generated by solving a single, time-dependent problem, the potential for reduction in computational effort over direct mapping methods is significant, particularly for detectors with complex electrode structures. In this paper, the adjoint equation is derived and the mapping method is illustrated for a simple case.

Prettyman, T.H.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Semiconductor light source with electrically tunable emission wavelength  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor light source comprises a substrate, lower and upper claddings, a waveguide region with imbedded active area, and electrical contacts to provide voltage necessary for the wavelength tuning. The active region includes single or several heterojunction periods sandwiched between charge accumulation layers. Each of the active region periods comprises higher and lower affinity semiconductor layers with type-II band alignment. The charge carrier accumulation in the charge accumulation layers results in electric field build-up and leads to the formation of generally triangular electron and hole potential wells in the higher and lower affinity layers. Nonequillibrium carriers can be created in the active region by means of electrical injection or optical pumping. The ground state energy in the triangular wells and the radiation wavelength can be tuned by changing the voltage drop across the active region.

Belenky, Gregory (Port Jefferson, NY); Bruno, John D. (Bowie, MD); Kisin, Mikhail V. (Centereach, NY); Luryi, Serge (Setauket, NY); Shterengas, Leon (Centereach, NY); Suchalkin, Sergey (Centereach, NY); Tober, Richard L. (Elkridge, MD)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

454

Semiconductor laser devices having lateral refractive index tailoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad-area semiconductor laser diode includes an active lasing region interposed between an upper and a lower cladding layer, the laser diode further comprising structure for controllably varying a lateral refractive index profile of the diode to substantially compensate for an effect of junction heating during operation. In embodiments disclosed the controlling structure comprises resistive heating strips or non-radiative linear junctions disposed parallel to the active region. Another embodiment discloses a multi-layered upper cladding region selectively disordered by implanted or diffused dopant impurities. Still another embodiment discloses an upper cladding layer of variable thickness that is convex in shape and symmetrically disposed about a central axis of the active region. The teaching of the invention is also shown to be applicable to arrays of semiconductor laser diodes.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

1989-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Energy Conservation Through Water Usage Reduction in the Semiconductor Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The semiconductor industry uses large amounts of Ultrapure Water (UPW) in the wafer fabrication process. Producing UPW involves energy-intensive operations, such as membrane separations, ultraviolet lamps, and continuous pumping and recirculation systems. Indirect energy costs can also be allocated to steps in the UPW process. Motorola recognizes that by reducing UPW consumption, energy savings will result. Energy conservation can also be achieved by improving the UPW generation process itself and by recycling or reclaiming UPW and other water streams.

Mendicino, L.; McCormack, K.; Gibson, S.; Patton, B.; Lyon, D.; Covington, J.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Ultrafast dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconductor nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and electronic properties that are of interest for applications in e.g. solar cells, photodiodes, light- emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and nanoscale molecular electronics. We studied the mechanism of charge

Schuster, Assaf

458

Nanoporous films for epitaxial growth of single crystal semiconductor materials : final LDRD report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This senior council Tier 1 LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, photolithographically patterned SU-8 and carbonized SU-8 structures. Use of photolithographically defined growth templates represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

Rowen, Adam M.; Koleske, Daniel David; Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Burckel, David Bruce; Williams, John Dalton; Arrington, Christian L.; Steen, William Arthur

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

A Semiconductor Material And Method For Enhancing Solubility Of A Dopant Therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for enhancing the equilibrium solubility of boron ad indium in silicon. The method involves first-principles quantum mechanical calculations to determine the temperature dependence of the equilibrium solubility of two important p-type dopants in silicon, namely boron and indium, under various strain conditions. The equilibrium thermodynamic solubility of size-mismatched impurities, such as boron and indium in silicon, can be raised significantly if the silicon substrate is strained appropriately. For example, for boron, a 1% compressive strain raises the equilibrium solubility by 100% at 1100.degree. C.; and for indium, a 1% tensile strain at 1100.degree. C., corresponds to an enhancement of the solubility by 200%.

Sadigh, Babak (Oakland, CA); Lenosky, Thomas J. (Pleasanton, CA); Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas (Danville, CA); Giles, Martin (Hillsborough, OR); Caturla, Maria-Jose (Livermore, CA); Ozolins, Vidvuds (Pleasanton, CA); Asta, Mark (Evanston, IL); Theiss, Silva (St. Paul, MN); Foad, Majeed (Santa Clara, CA); Quong, Andrew (Livermore, CA)

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

460

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electronic Structure and Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Wednesday, 29 November 2006 00:00 The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host such as GaAs, ZnO, or GaN. The interaction among these spins leads to ferromagnetic order at low temperatures, which is necessary to create spin-polarized carriers. A research team working at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Beamline ID8 made a big leap forward in clarifying the microscopic picture of magnetism and anisotropy in Mn-doped GaAs by resolving localized and hybridized d states using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor wide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host such as GaAs, ZnO, or GaN. The interaction among these spins leads to ferromagnetic order at low temperatures, which is necessary to create spin-polarized carriers. A research team working at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Beamline ID8 made a big leap forward in clarifying the microscopic picture of magnetism and anisotropy in Mn-doped GaAs by resolving localized and hybridized d states using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements.

462

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host such as GaAs, ZnO, or GaN. The interaction among these spins leads to ferromagnetic order at low temperatures, which is necessary to create spin-polarized carriers. A research team working at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Beamline ID8 made a big leap forward in clarifying the microscopic picture of magnetism and anisotropy in Mn-doped GaAs by resolving localized and hybridized d states using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements.

463

Nonlinear fibre-optic devices pumped by semiconductor disk lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semiconductor disk lasers offer a unique combination of characteristics that are particularly attractive for pumping Raman lasers and amplifiers. The advantages of disk lasers include a low relative noise intensity (-150 dB Hz{sup -1}), scalable (on the order of several watts) output power, and nearly diffraction-limited beam quality resulting in a high ({approx}70 % - 90 %) coupling efficiency into a single-mode fibre. Using this technology, low-noise fibre Raman amplifiers operating at 1.3 {mu}m in co-propagation configuration are developed. A hybrid Raman-bismuth doped fibre amplifier is proposed to further increase the pump conversion efficiency. The possibility of fabricating mode-locked picosecond fibre lasers operating under both normal and anomalous dispersion is shown experimentally. We demonstrate the operation of 1.38-{mu}m and 1.6-{mu}m passively mode-locked Raman fibre lasers pumped by 1.29-{mu}m and 1.48-{mu}m semiconductor disk lasers and producing 1.97- and 2.7-ps pulses, respectively. Using a picosecond semiconductor disk laser amplified with an ytterbium-erbium fibre amplifier, the supercontinuum generation spanning from 1.35 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m is achieved with an average power of 3.5 W. (invited paper)

Chamorovskiy, A Yu; Okhotnikov, Oleg G [Optoelectronics Research Center, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

464

Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides  

SciTech Connect

Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A drop of a transparent electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The drop of redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. Illumination light is passed through a transparent rod supported over the surface and through the drop of transparent electrolyte. The drop is held in the gap between the rod and the surface. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

Moore, Arnold R. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Wide Area and Distributed Hydrogen Sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent advances in optical sensors show promise for the development of new wide area monitoring and distributed optical network hydrogen detection systems. Optical hydrogen sensing technologies reviewed here are: 1) open path Raman scattering systems, 2) back scattering from chemically treated solid polymer matrix optical fiber sensor cladding; and 3) shlieren and shearing interferometry imaging. Ultrasonic sensors for hydrogen release detection are also reviewed. The development status of these technologies and their demonstrated results in sensor path length, low hydrogen concentration detection ability, and response times are described and compared to the corresponding status of hydrogen spot sensor network technologies.

Zalosh, Robert G.; Barilo, Nick F.

2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

467

Materials Science Advanced Materials News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Contributes to Discovery of Novel Quantum Spin-Liquid Release Date ... Novel Filter Material Could Cut Natural Gas Refining Costs Release Date: 03 ...

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

468

Materials Science Advanced Materials Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to Discovery of Novel Quantum Spin-Liquid. illustration of metal organic framework Novel Filter Material Could Cut Natural Gas Refining Costs. ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

469

Materials - Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Coatings & Lubricants * Coatings & Lubricants * Nanofluids * Deformation Joining * Recycling * Catalysts * Assessment * Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Technology Analysis Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Materials ring on liner reciprocating tester Tribology Lab: Ring-on-liner reciprocating tester. Argonne National Laboratory plays an important role in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to develop advanced materials for transportation. The materials are developed with DOE support from the EERE Office of Vehicle Technology and Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies in collaboration with worldwide industrial partners. Examples

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