Sample records for materials semiconductor organic

  1. Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Deepak Venkateshvaran Fitzwilliam College & Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge February 2014 “The end...

  2. The synthesis of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystalline materials for the purpose of creating hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckel, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Stephen)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) or quantum dots (QDs) can be synthesized to efficiently emit light from the ultraviolet, across the entire visible spectrum, and into the near infrared. This is now possible due ...

  3. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  4. Toward a Unified Treatment of Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg. B.A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative study of n-type doping in highly crystalline organic semiconductor films establishes the predominant influence of electrostatic forces in these low-dielectric materials. Based on these findings, a self-consistent model of doped (purposely or not) organic semiconductors is proposed in which: (1) the equilibrium free carrier density, nf, is a small fraction of the total charge density; (2) a superlinear increase in conductivity with doping density is universal; (3) nf increases with applied electric field; and (4) the carrier mobility is field-dependent regardless of crystallinity.

  5. Method of doping organic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kloc,; Christian Leo (Constance, DE); Ramirez; Arthur Penn (Summit, NJ); So, Woo-Young (New Providence, NJ)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus has a crystalline organic semiconducting region that includes polyaromatic molecules. A source electrode and a drain electrode of a field-effect transistor are both in contact with the crystalline organic semiconducting region. A gate electrode of the field-effect transistor is located to affect the conductivity of the crystalline organic semiconducting region between the source and drain electrodes. A dielectric layer of a first dielectric that is substantially impermeable to oxygen is in contact with the crystalline organic semiconducting region. The crystalline organic semiconducting region is located between the dielectric layer and a substrate. The gate electrode is located on the dielectric layer. A portion of the crystalline organic semiconducting region is in contact with a second dielectric via an opening in the dielectric layer. A physical interface is located between the second dielectric and the first dielectric.

  6. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  7. Method of doping organic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kloc, Christian Leo (Constance, DE); Ramirez, Arthur Penn (Summit, NJ); So, Woo-Young (New Providence, NJ)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method includes the steps of forming a contiguous semiconducting region and heating the region. The semiconducting region includes polyaromatic molecules. The heating raises the semiconducting region to a temperature above room temperature. The heating is performed in the presence of a dopant gas and the absence of light to form a doped organic semiconducting region.

  8. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  9. Physics and simulation of transport processes in hybrid organic semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rousseau, Ian Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors and nanomaterials promise to potentially form the basis for future efficient and cost-effective large area optoelectronic devices, such as lightemitting diodes and solar cells. Although these materials' ...

  10. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  11. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atsumi, Katsuhiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki, E-mail: ttnakan@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to ?-rays but poor sensitivity to ?-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after ?-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  12. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  13. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

  14. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  15. Transition metal oxides on organic semiconductors Yongbiao Zhao a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    semiconductors (OSs) structure has been widely used in inverted organic optoelectronic devices, including toward in simplifying the fabrication process of the organic optoelectronic devices. Ã? 2014 Elsevier B], have gained great attention because of their wide applications in optoelectronic devices composed

  16. Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials M. E. Rodri-resistivity Si wafer with a mechanical damage on the backsurface, probed from the front intact surface that the position of the underlying damage is well resolved in both images, with the phase image showing

  17. Polaron spin current transport in organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Shun; Ando, Kazuya; Kang, Keehoon; Mooser, Sebastian; Vaynzof, Yana; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Saitoh, Eiji; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of their unique functional properties, such as a long spin life- time that reflects their light-atom, mainly carbon-based composition. To date, the focus in organic spintronics has mainly been on studies of spin valves with a thin organic semicon- ductor layer... was extracted by fitting the measured field dependence of the voltage using symmetric and asymmetric Lorentz-type functions. A constant offset voltage due to the microwave irradiation (typically ? 100 nV) was also subtracted. g The equivalent circuit...

  18. Wafer Fusion for Integration of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Allerman, A.A.; Kravitz, S.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Hindi, J.J.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a wafer fusion technology to achieve integration of semiconductor materials and heterostructures with widely disparate lattice parameters, electronic properties, and/or optical properties for novel devices not now possible on any one substrate. Using our simple fusion process which uses low temperature (400-600 C) anneals in inert N{sub 2} gas, we have extended the scope of this technology to examine hybrid integration of dissimilar device technologies. As a specific example, we demonstrate wafer bonding vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to transparent AlGaAs and GaP substrates to fabricate bottom-emitting short wavelength VCSELs. As a baseline fabrication technology applicable to many semiconductor systems, wafer fusion will revolutionize the way we think about possible semiconductor devices, and enable novel device configurations not possible by epitaxial growth.

  19. Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483-Fall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483- Fall Tuesdays organic materials. The discussion will include aspects of synthesis General introduction to the electronic structure of organic materials with connection

  20. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

  1. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Allen, Larry C. (Arvada, CO); Marshall, Craig (Littleton, CO); Murphy, Robert C. (Golden, CO); Marshall, Todd (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

  2. ECE 344--Semiconductor Devices & Materials ECE Department, UMass Amherst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Topics: Fundamentals of Semiconductors; Theory of Electrical Conduction; Device Operations (See "Class

  3. Physical properties and design of light-emitting devices based on organic materials and nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anikeeva, Polina Olegovna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the detailed experimental and theoretical characterization of light-emitting devices (LEDs) based on organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots (QDs). This hybrid material system has several ...

  4. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  5. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  6. Mechanistic Studies of Charge Injection from Metallic Electrodes into Organic Semiconductors Mediated by Ionic Functionalities: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen [UCSB; Bazan, Guillermo [UCSB; Mikhailovsky, Alexander [UCSB

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-organic semiconductor interfaces are important because of their ubiquitous role in determining the performance of modern electronics such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), fuel cells, batteries, field effect transistors (FETs), and organic solar cells. Interfaces between metal electrodes required for external wiring to the device and underlying organic structures directly affect the charge carrier injection/collection efficiency in organic-based electronic devices primarily due to the mismatch between energy levels in the metal and organic semiconductor. Environmentally stable and cost-effective electrode materials, such as aluminum and gold typically exhibit high potential barriers for charge carriers injection into organic devices leading to increased operational voltages in OLEDs and FETs and reduced charge extraction in photovoltaic devices. This leads to increased power consumption by the device, reduced overall efficiency, and decreased operational lifetime. These factors represent a significant obstacle for development of next generation of cheap and energy-efficient components based on organic semiconductors. It has been noticed that introduction of organic materials with conjugated backbone and ionic pendant groups known as conjugated poly- and oligoelectrolytes (CPEs and COEs), enables one to reduce the potential barriers at the metal-organic interface and achieve more efficient operation of a device, however exact mechanisms of the phenomenon have not been understood. The goal of this project was to delineate the function of organic semiconductors with ionic groups as electron injection layers. The research incorporated a multidisciplinary approach that encompassed the creation of new materials, novel processing techniques, examination of fundamental electronic properties and the incorporation of the resulting knowledgebase into development of novel organic electronic devices with increased efficiency, environmental stability, and reduced cost. During the execution of the project, main efforts were focused on the synthesis of new charge-bearing organic materials, such as CPEs and COEs, and block copolymers with neutral and ionic segments, studies of mechanisms responsible for the charge injection modulation in devices with ionic interlayers, and use of naturally occurring charged molecules for creation of enhanced devices. The studies allowed PIs to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach for the improvement of operational parameters in model OLED and FET systems resulting in increased efficiency, decreased contact resistance, and possibility to use stable metals for fabrication of device electrodes. The successful proof-of-the-principle results potentially promise development of light-weight, low fabrication cost devices which can be used in consumer applications such as displays, solar cells, and printed electronic devices. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the phenomena observed have been identified thus advancing the fundamental knowledgebase.

  7. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample. 17 figs.

  8. Electronic Properties of Disordered Organic Semiconductors via QM/MM Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently received significant attention for their potential use in photovoltaic, light emitting diode, and field effect transistor devices. Part of the appeal of OSCs is the disordered, ...

  9. Singlet exciton fission, a multi-exciton generation process, in organic semiconductor solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jadhav, Priyadarshani

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductor photovoltaics hold the promise of cheap production and low manufacturing setup costs. The highest efficiency seen in research labs, ~10% today, is still too low for production. In this work we explore ...

  10. Laboratory Thin-Film Encapsulation of Air-Sensitive Organic Semiconductor Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subbarao, Samuel P.

    We present an approach, which is compatible with both glass and polymer substrates, to in-laboratory handling and intra-laboratory shipping of air-sensitive organic semiconductors. Encapsulation approaches are presented ...

  11. Compositions of doped, co-doped and tri-doped semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lynn, Kelvin (Pullman, WA); Jones, Kelly (Colfax, WA); Ciampi, Guido (Watertown, MA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor materials suitable for being used in radiation detectors are disclosed. A particular example of the semiconductor materials includes tellurium, cadmium, and zinc. Tellurium is in molar excess of cadmium and zinc. The example also includes aluminum having a concentration of about 10 to about 20,000 atomic parts per billion and erbium having a concentration of at least 10,000 atomic parts per billion.

  12. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

  13. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

  14. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

  15. Strain-induced vertical self-organization of semiconductor quantum dots: A computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtinkov, N., E-mail: nshtinkov@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa (Ontario) K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomistic strain simulations based on the valence force field method are employed to study the vertical arrangements of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) multilayers. The effects of the QD shape, dimensions, and materials parameters are systematically investigated, varying independently the following parameters: spacer width H, QD lateral spacing D, base b, and height h, slope of the side facets, elastic properties of the dot and the substrate materials, and lattice mismatch between the dot and the substrate. The transition between vertically aligned and anti-aligned structures is found to be determined mainly by the ratios H/D and b/D, as well as by the strain anisotropy of the substrate and to a lesser extent of the QD. The dependence on the QD height h is significant only for steep side facets and large aspect ratios h/b, and the effects of the lattice mismatch strain and the bulk elastic moduli are found to be negligible. The comparison with experimental data shows an excellent agreement with the results from the simulations, demonstrating that the presented analysis results in precise theoretical predictions for the vertical self-organization regime in a wide range of QD materials systems.

  16. Evaluation of Radiation Resistance for Organic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    of colors Creation of UV-resistant plants Fibrous adsorbent for metals Biodegradable plastics Decomposition) -Gas evolution Modification Degradation Scheme of interaction between organic materials and radiation-015 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Degradation of organic materials is accelerated at high temperature. O O C O n C C F F F F

  17. Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Surma, J.E.; Bryan, G.H.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Butner, R.S.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

  18. Self-assembly of 1-D organic semiconductor nanostructures Thuc-Quyen Nguyen,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Self-assembly of 1-D organic semiconductor nanostructures Thuc-Quyen Nguyen,*a Richard Martel: 10.1039/b609956d This review focuses on the molecular design and self-assembly of a new class have a permanent dipole moment that sums as the subunits self assemble into molecular stacks

  19. Transition-metal silicides as materials for magnet-semiconductor heterostructures*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transition-metal silicides as materials for magnet-semiconductor heterostructures* Peter Kratzer as of binary late transition metal monosilicides, in contact with the Si surface. For the Heusler alloy Co2MnSi, we could show that the 001 surface retains the half-metallic character of the bulk if a fully Mn

  20. Chemical and biological sensors based on organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bora, Mihail

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I designed, fabricated and characterized two types of sensors: chemical sensors based on organic thin film transistors, and a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance biosensors for biotechnology and medical ...

  1. Superatoms and Metal-Semiconductor Motifs for Cluster Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castleman, A. W.

    2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular understanding of catalysis and catalytically active materials is of fundamental importance in designing new substances for applications in energy and fuels. We have performed reactivity studies and ultrafast ionization and coulomb explosion studies on a variety of catalytically-relevant materials, including transition metal oxides of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Nb, and Ta. We demonstrate that differences in charge state, geometry, and elemental composition of clusters of such materials determine chemical reactivity and ionization behavior, crucial steps in improving performance of catalysts.

  2. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device. 22 figs.

  3. Organic Semiconductor Chemistry | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratorySpeedingOptimizing I/O performance on the Lustre file-OralOrganic

  4. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors Wendy Niu,1,a) Anna-inorganic perovskite (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4 are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas microme- chanical exfoliation of 2D PbI perovskites and explore the few-layer behaviour of such systems

  5. Dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct:Directives Templates8.Siftingnanocrystals for

  6. Organic materials for fusion-reactor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, G.F.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic materials requirements for fusion-reactor magnets are described with reference to the temperature, radiation, and electrical and mechanical stress environment expected in these magnets. A review is presented of the response to gamma-ray and neutron irradiation at low temperatures of candidate organic materials; i.e. laminates, thin films, and potting compounds. Lifetime-limiting features of this response as well as needed testing under magnet operating conditions not yet adequately investigated are identified and recomendations for future work are made.

  7. Influences of semiconductor morphology on the mechanical fatigue behavior of flexible organic electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Yeon, Han-Wool; Shin, Hae-A-Seul; Joo, Young-Chang, E-mail: ycjoo@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-744 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-744 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Uk Lee, Yong; Evans, Louise A. [Center for Process Innovation Limited, Thomas Wright Way, NETPark, Sedgefield, TS21 3FG County Durham (United Kingdom)] [Center for Process Innovation Limited, Thomas Wright Way, NETPark, Sedgefield, TS21 3FG County Durham (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of crystalline morphology on the mechanical fatigue of organic semiconductors (OSCs) was investigated using 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as a crystalline OSC and poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) as an amorphous OSC. During cyclic bending, resistances of the OSCs were monitored using the transmission-line method on a metal-semiconductor-metal structure. The resistance of the TIPS-pentacene increased under fatigue damage in tensile-stress mode, but no such degradation was observed in the PTAA. Both OSCs were stable under compressive bending fatigue. The formation of intergranular cracks at the domain boundaries of the TIPS-pentacene was responsible for the degradation of its electrical properties under tensile bending fatigue.

  8. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

    2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: metal-organic framework materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal-organic framework materials Combining 'Tinkertoy' Materials with Solar Cells for Increased Photovoltaic Efficiency On December 4, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News,...

  10. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, S.I.; Son, S.; Lin, H.C.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidenephenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl)-4{prime}-[(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it. 4 figs.

  11. Wide-bandgap semiconductors for high power, high frequency and high temperature. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings Volume 512

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DenBaars, S.; Palmour, J.; Shur, M.; Spencer, M. [eds.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wide-bandgap semiconductors have a long and illustrious history, starting with the first paper on SiC light-emitting diodes published in 1907. In the last few years, however, interest in wide-bandgap semiconductors has skyrocketed. Improved material quality, important breakthroughs both in SiC and GaN technologies, and the emergence of blue GaN-based lasers, have stimulated this progress. To provide a fairly complete and up-to-date picture of this important field, most of the work presented at the conference is included in the volume. In addition, invited papers present an excellent overview of the current state of the art and offer projections for future developments. Topics include: GaN materials and devices; crystal growth; SiC materials and devices; characterization of wide-bandgap semiconductors; and processing characterization and properties of wide-bandgap materials.

  12. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  13. Nanocomposites of Semimetallic ErAs Nanoparticles Epitaxially Embedded within InGaAlAs-based Semiconductors for Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GaAlAs-based Semiconductors for Thermoelectric Materials J.M.O. Zide', G. Zeng2, J.H. Bahk2, W. Kim3, S. L. Singer3, D array based on these materials for thermoelectric power generation; a power density > 1 W/cm2 is demonstrated with a temperature gradient of 120°C. Solid-state thermionics Efficient thermoelectric materials

  14. Apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO); Johnston, Steven W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearity for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  15. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Min

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to other OLEDs' attributes such as mechanical flexibility and potential low cost), the OLED technology is promising to successfully compete with current technologies, such as LCDs and inorganic LEDs.

  16. Exploring and enhancing conductivity in semiconductor nanoparticle films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Venda Jane

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are a promising material for use in opto-electronic devices as their optical properties tune with particle size. NCs formed via colloidal synthesis are suspended in solution by the organic ...

  17. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  18. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  19. Semiconductors and sustainability : energy and materials use in integrated circuit manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branham, Matthew S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors have propelled an incredible revolution in the way we generate, access, store, and communicate information; the effects of this revolution have transformed culture, society, and the economy. At the same time, ...

  20. Two-photon Photoemission of Organic Semiconductor Molecules on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Aram; Yang, Aram

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Angle- and time-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) was used to study systems of organic semiconductors on Ag(111). The 2PPE studies focused on electronic behavior specific to interfaces and ultrathin films. Electron time dynamics and band dispersions were characterized for ultrathin films of a prototypical n-type planar aromatic hydrocarbon, PTCDA, and representatives from a family of p-type oligothiophenes.In PTCDA, electronic behavior was correlated with film morphology and growth modes. Within a fewmonolayers of the interface, image potential states and a LUMO+1 state were detected. The degree to which the LUMO+1 state exhibited a band mass less than a free electron mass depended on the crystallinity of the layer. Similarly, image potential states were measured to have free electron-like effective masses on ordered surfaces, and the effective masses increased with disorder within the thin film. Electron lifetimes were correlated with film growth modes, such that the lifetimes of electrons excited into systems created by layer-by-layer, amorphous film growth increased by orders of magnitude by only a few monolayers from the surface. Conversely, the decay dynamics of electrons in Stranski-Krastanov systems were limited by interaction with the exposed wetting layer, which limited the barrier to decay back into the metal.Oligothiophenes including monothiophene, quaterthiophene, and sexithiophene were deposited on Ag(111), and their electronic energy levels and effective masses were studied as a function of oligothiophene length. The energy gap between HOMO and LUMO decreased with increasing chain length, but effective mass was found to depend on domains from high- or low-temperature growth conditions rather than chain length. In addition, the geometry of the molecule on the surface, e.g., tilted or planar, substantially affected the electronic structure.

  1. Semiconductor systems utilizing materials that form rectifying junctions in both N and P-type doping regions, whether metallurgically or field induced, and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are semiconductor systems, such as integrated circuits utilizing Schotky barrier and/or diffused junction technology, which semiconductor systems incorporate material(s) that form rectifying junctions in both metallurgically and/or field induced N and P-type doping regions, and methods of their use. Disclosed are Schottky barrier based inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems and which can be operated as modulators, N and P-channel MOSFETS and CMOS formed therefrom, and (MOS) gate voltage controlled rectification direction and gate voltage controlled switching devices, and use of such material(s) to block parasitic current flow pathways. Simple demonstrative five mask fabrication procedures for inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems are also presented.

  2. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp 2 hybridized carbon, is an outstanding material...

  3. Organic Photovoltaics | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat CornellInternships,(SC) Laboratories »Organic

  4. Lithium-based inorganic-organic framework materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes research into lithium-based inorganic-organic frameworks, which has led to an increased understanding of the structural diversity and properties of these materials. The crystal structures of 11 new forms of lithium...

  5. Titan's Inventory of Organic Surface Materials Ralph D. Lorenz1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Titan's Inventory of Organic Surface Materials Ralph D. Lorenz1,* , Karl L. Mitchell2 , Randolph observations now permit an initial assessment of the inventory of two classes, presumed to be organic, of Titan observed, of which dozens are each estimated to contain more hydrocarbon liquid than the entire known oil

  6. artificial organ materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artificial organ materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Deformable Organisms: An...

  7. High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Rhonda F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

  8. Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Andrade, Brian (Westampton, NJ); Esler, James (Levittown, PA)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

  9. Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Evans, Paul G; Ritz, Clark S

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic compositional longitudinal modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

  10. White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineke, Sebastian

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ultrathin, large-area light sources made from organic semiconductor materials. Over the past decades, much research has been spent on finding suitable materials to realize ...

  11. Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (13130 W. 66th Pl., Golden, CO 80401)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be as high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

  12. Organic materials and devices for detecting ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick (Livermore, CA); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A .pi.-conjugated organic material for detecting ionizing radiation, and particularly for detecting low energy fission neutrons. The .pi.-conjugated materials comprise a class of organic materials whose members are intrinsic semiconducting materials. Included in this class are .pi.-conjugated polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules, and quinolates. Because of their high resistivities (.gtoreq.10.sup.9 ohmcm), these .pi.-conjugated organic materials exhibit very low leakage currents. A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation can be made by applying an electric field to a layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material to measure electron/hole pair formation. A layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material can be made by conventional polymer fabrication methods and can be cast into sheets capable of covering large areas. These sheets of polymer radiation detector material can be deposited between flexible electrodes and rolled up to form a radiation detector occupying a small volume but having a large surface area. The semiconducting polymer material can be easily fabricated in layers about 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m thick. These thin polymer layers and their associated electrodes can be stacked to form unique multi-layer detector arrangements that occupy small volume.

  13. Method and apparatus for electron-only radiation detectors from semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lund, James C. (429 Warwick Ave., San Leandro, CA 94577)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors such as CdZnTe and Hgl.sub.2, which exhibit significant hole-trapping. A electrical reference plane is established about the perimeter of a semiconductor crystal and disposed intermediately between two oppositely biased end electrodes. The intermediate reference plane comprises a narrow strip of wire in electrical contact with the surface of the crystal, biased at a potential between the end electrode potentials and serving as an auxiliary electrical reference for a chosen electrode--typically the collector electrode for the more mobile charge carrier. This arrangement eliminates the interfering effects of the less mobile carriers as these are gathered by their electrode collector.

  14. Organic materials for second harmonic generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twieg, R.J. (comp.)

    1985-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials were chosen by screening the Cambridge Crystallographic Index for new noncentrosymmetric crystalline compounds, by screening commercially available materials or by synthesis of unique new substances. Measurements were then made on the powder form of these materials. Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited and studied. In addition to the above studies, a computer program was developed to calculate (hyper) polarizabilities of organic molecules and thus aid in the selection of materials for testing. The nonlinear molecules have been divided into three classes according to absorption cutoff: 400 to 500 nm, 300 to 400 nm, and 200 to 300 nm. 108 refs., 7 tabs. (WRF)

  15. High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, S., E-mail: shimpei@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Häusermann, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan) [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimamura, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Batlogg, B. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm{sup 2}/V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO{sub 2} layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor.

  16. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grubelich, Mark C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  17. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  18. Method of photocatalytic conversion of C-H organics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is the addition of a semiconductor material and energy to the reaction mixture of organic, acid (for example, trifluoroacetate), and oxygen. A transition metal ion may be added to the reaction mixture. The semiconductor material converts energy to oxidants thereby promoting oxidation of the organic. Alternatively, using metal in combination with exposure to light may be used.

  19. Method of photocatalytic conversion of C-H organics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Camaioni, D.M.; Lilga, M.A.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is the addition of a semiconductor material and energy to the reaction mixture of organic, acid (for example, trifluoroacetate), and oxygen. A transition metal ion may be added to the reaction mixture. The semiconductor material converts energy to oxidants thereby promoting oxidation of the organic. Alternatively, using metal in combination with exposure to light may be used.

  20. Evaluation of Novel Semiconductor Materials Potentially Useful in Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00172

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of novel semiconductor materials potentially useful in solar cells. NREL will fabricate, test and analyze solar cells from EpiWorks' wafers produced in 2-3 separate growth campaigns. NREL will also characterize material from 2-3 separate EpiWorks material development campaigns. Finally, NREL will visit EpiWorks and help establish any necessary process, such as spectral CV measurements and III-V on Si metalization processes and help validate solar cell designs and performance.

  1. Rational Design and Preparation of Organic Semiconductors for use in Field Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauldin, Clayton Edward

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in thin film organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) is presented.Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton EdwardEffect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton Edward

  2. DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800289 Dewetting of an Organic Semiconductor Thin Film Observed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Achim

    with controlled lateral distances and size. It has recently been shown that dewetting and thermal stability such as thin film transistors,[6] organic photovoltaics and organic light emitting diodes. In this paper we study the planar aromatic molecule diindenoperylene (DIP) as a model system, which has been shown

  3. 2012 DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 12-17, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLASER, EVAN

    2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

  4. Post-accident gas generation from radiolysis of organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wing, J.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a methodology for estimating the gas generation rates resulting from radiolysis of organic materials in paints and electrical cable insulation inside a nuclear reactor containment building under design basis accident conditions. The methodology was based on absorption of the radiation energies from the post-accident fission products and the assumed gas yields of the irradiated materials. A sample calculation was made using conservative assumptions, plant-specific data of a nuclear power plant, and a radiation source term which took into account the time-dependent release and physico-chemical behavior of the fission products.

  5. Abstract -With its rich physical properties, the novel 2-D carbon-based material graphene is expected to play an important role in the advancement of semiconductor technologies. In a recent poll conducted by the International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    -based material graphene is expected to play an important role in the advancement of semiconductor technologies. In a recent poll conducted by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), graphene-dimensional material, graphene has a limited phase space for scattering of electrons; hence, the electrons in graphene

  6. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  7. Thin Film Solid-State Reactions Forming Carbides as Contact Materials for Carbon-Containing Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leroy,W.; Detavernier, C.; Van Meirhaeghe, R.; Lavoie, C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal carbides are good candidates to contact carbon-based semiconductors (SiC, diamond, and carbon nanotubes). Here, we report on an in situ study of carbide formation during the solid-state reaction between thin films. The solid-state reaction was examined between 11 transition metals (W, Mo, Fe, Cr, V, Nb, Mn, Ti, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and an amorphous carbon layer. Capping layers (C or TiN) of different thicknesses were applied to prevent oxidation. Carbide formation is evidenced for nine metals and the phases formed have been identified (for a temperature ranging from 100 to 1100 C). W first forms W{sub 2}C and then WC; Mo forms Mo{sub 2}C; Fe forms Fe{sub 3}C; Cr first forms metastable phases Cr{sub 2}C and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2-x}, and finally forms Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}; V forms VC{sub x}; Nb transforms into Nb{sub 2}C followed by NbC; Ti forms TiC; Ta first forms Ta{sub 2}C and then TaC; and Hf transforms into HfC. The activation energy for the formation of the various carbide phases has been obtained by in situ x-ray diffraction.

  8. A method for detecting breakthrough of organic solvent vapors in a charcoal tube using semiconductor gas sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Hajime; Noritake, Yuji; Murobushi, Hisako; Higashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Isamu

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed a method for detecting organic vapors that break through charcoal tubes, using semiconductor gas sensors as a breakthrough detector of vapors. A glass column equipped with two sensors was inserted in Teflon tubing, and air containing organic vapor was introduced at a constant flow rate. After the output signal of the sensors became stable, a charcoal tube was inserted into the tubing at the upstream of the sensors. The resistance of the sensors was collected temporally in an integrated circuit (IC) card. The vapor concentration of the air near the sensors was measured with a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) at intervals of 5 minutes to obtain the breakthrough curve. When the relative humidity was zero, the output signals of the sensors began to change before the breakthrough point (1% breakthrough time). This tendency was almost the same for methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), toluene, and chloroform. For dichloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, the time when the sensor output signals began to rise was almost the same as the breakthrough point. When the relative humidity was 80 percent, the sensors could also detect many vapors before the breakthrough point, but they could not perceive dichloromethane and chloroform vapors. A personal sampling system with a breakthrough detector was developed and its availability is discussed.

  9. Alternative methods and materials for patterning organic thin film electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photolithography's accuracy and scalability have made it the method for sub-micronscale definition of single-crystal semiconductor devices for over half a century. The ultimate goal for OLED manufacturing, however, is to ...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous semiconductor state Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semiconductors have been proposed... sensitivity) and use the power of organic chemistry to rationally design new synthetic semiconductors without... semiconductors?" one is...

  11. Novel patterning techniques for manufacturing organic and nanostructured electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jianglong, 1976-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular organic semiconductors and nanometer size particles are two new classes of functional materials allowing fabrication of electronic devices on low-cost and large area substrates. Patterning these electronic materials ...

  12. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  13. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  14. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  15. Ferromagnetism in Oxide Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Wang, Chong M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Heald, Steve M.; Schwartz, S. A.; Kittilstved, Kevin R.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to become a practical technology, semiconductor spintronics requires the discovery and utilization of ferromagnetic semiconductors which exhibit spin polarization in the majority carrier band at and above room temperature. Intrinsic remanent magnetization would allow spin polarized currents to be propagated in such materials without the need for a continuous magnetic field. However, the discovery and understanding of such materials is proving to be a grand challenge in solid-state science. Indeed, one of the 125 critical unanswered scientific questions recently posed in Science magazine asks, “Is it possible to create magnetic semiconductors that work at room temperature?”

  16. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. C. ; Norrman, K. Prog. Photovoltaics 2007, 15, 697–712.Processed Organic Photovoltaics that Generate Chargepolymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted

  17. Time-resolved THz studies of carrier dynamics in semiconductors, superconductors, and strongly-correlated electron materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaindl, Robert A.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Perhaps the most important aspect of contemporary condensed matter physics involves understanding strong Coulomb interactions between the large number of electrons in a solid. Electronic correlations lead to the emergence of new system properties, such as metal-insulator transitions, superconductivity, magneto-resistance, Bose-Einstein condensation, the formation of excitonic gases, or the integer and fractional Quantum Hall effects. The discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in particular was a watershed event, leading to dramatic experimental and theoretical advances in the field of correlated-electron systems. Such materials often exhibit competition between the charge, lattice, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom, whose cause-effect relationships are difficult to ascertain. Experimental insight into the properties of solids is traditionally obtained by time-averaged probes, which measure e.g., linear optical spectra, electrical conduction properties, or the occupied band structure in thermal equilibrium. Many novel physical properties arise from excitations out of the ground state into energetically higher states by thermal, optical, or electrical means. This leads to fundamental interactions between the system's constituents, such as electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, which occur on ultrafast timescales. While these interactions underlie the physical properties of solids, they are often only indirectly inferred from time-averaged measurements. Time-resolved spectroscopy, consequently, is playing an ever increasing role to provide insight into light-matter interaction, microscopic processes, or cause-effect relationships that determine the physics of complex materials. In the past, experiments using visible and near-infrared femtosecond pulses have been extensively employed, e.g. to follow relaxation and dephasing processes in metals and semiconductors. However, many basic excitations in strongly-correlated electron systems and nanoscale materials occur at lower energies. The terahertz (THz) regime is particularly rich in such fundamental resonances. This includes ubiquitous lattice vibrations and low-energy collective oscillations of conduction charges. In nanoscale materials, band structure quantization also yields novel infrared and THz transitions, including intersubband absorption in quantum wells. The formation of excitons in turn leads to low-energy excitations analogous to inter-level transitions in atoms. In transition-metal oxides, fundamental excitation gaps arise from charge pairing into superconducting condensates and other correlated states. This motivates the use of ultrafast THz spectroscopy as a powerful tool to study light-matter interactions and microscopic processes in nanoscale and correlated-electron materials.A distinct advantage of coherent THz pulses is that the amplitude and phase of the electric field can be measured directly, as the THz fields are coherent with the fs pulses from which they are generated. Using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), both the real and imaginary parts of the response functions (such as the dielectric function) are obtained directly without the need for Kramers?Kronig transforms. The THz response can also be expressed in terms of absorption and refractive index, or as the optical conductivity. The optical conductivity describes the current response of a many-body system to an electric field, an ideal tool to study conducting systems. A second important advantage is the ultrafast time resolution that results from the short temporal duration of the THz time-domain sources. In particular, optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy enables a delicate probe of the transient THz conductivity after optical photoexcitation. These experiments can provide insight into quasiparticle interactions, phase transitions, or nonequilibrium dynamics. In this chapter we will provide many such examples. Since THz spectroscopy of solids is a quickly expanding field

  18. Spectroscopy of semiconductor materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher,Future |CarlosSpeakersSpectroscopy Print

  19. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  20. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  1. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  2. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  3. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics (OPVs) has led to a significant increase in their power conversion efficiencies (Photovoltaics…………………………..………1 Motivation and Current Technology………………………………………………………1 Organic Photovoltaic Device Operation and Structure……………………………………2 Characterization of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency……………………………..

  4. Polymer and carbon nanotube materials for chemical sensors and organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details the development of new materials for high-performance chemical sensing as well as organic electronic applications. In Chapter 2, we develop a chemiresistive material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes ...

  5. Micromachined printheads for the direct evaporative patterning of organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leblanc, Valérie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic optoelectronic devices are appealing for low-performance applications on very low cost and flexible substrates, due to their low-temperature processing. However, it still remains a challenge to develop suitable ...

  6. Microporous Materials Strategies for Hydrogen Storage in MetalOrganic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    efficiency fuel-cell power sources. The vehicles should have a similar range (480 km or 300 miles), operate times the gravimetric energy density of petrol, and fuel cells are expected to perform at least twice at improving hydrogen uptake in these materials is presented. These strategies include the optimization of pore

  7. INVITED REVIEW Self-organized nanotube materials and their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    toward the multiscale self-assembly of materials from the molecular or nano- structure level upwards with this trend, research on supramolecular nanotube architectures2­8 with a well-defined hollow cylindrical to the function of these hollow cylinders themselves, such as their encapsulation ability.8,27 On the other hand

  8. Methods for associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework, systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks, thermal energy transfer assemblies, and methods for transferring thermal energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, B. Peter; Brown, Daryl R.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for releasing associated guest materials from a metal organic framework are provided. Methods for associating guest materials with a metal organic framework are also provided. Methods are provided for selectively associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework. Systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks are provided. Thermal energy transfer assemblies are provided. Methods for transferring thermal energy are also provided.

  9. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, D.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  10. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO{sub x} vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200{degrees}C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time.

  11. Measurement and control of exciton spin in organic light emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segal, Michael, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors are a promising new material set for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Their properties can be precisely controlled through chemistry, and they are well-suited for large-area, flexible, and ...

  12. Microporous Metal Organic Materials: Promising Candidates as Sorbents for Hydrogen Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Microporous Metal Organic Materials: Promising Candidates as Sorbents for Hydrogen Storage Long Pan coordination structures represent a promising new entry to the field of hydrogen storage materials.2 To fully that effectively store hydrogen are needed for use in fuel cell powered vehicles. Among the various candidate

  13. LAND USE AND PARENT MATERIAL EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN IN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    LAND USE AND PARENT MATERIAL EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN IN THE KONYA BASIN, TURKEY AND NITROGEN IN THE KONYA BASIN, TURKEY: METHODS AND DATA FOR LANDSCAPE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Marc T use practices and soil parent materials on soil biogeochemistry in the Konya Basin, south

  14. Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Read, Adam L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two organic cathode materials based on poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) structure with different substitution positions were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior and battery performances were investigated. The substitution positions on the anthraquinone structure, binders for electrode preparation and electrolyte formulations have been found to have significant effects on the battery performances of such organic cathode materials. The substitution position with less steric stress has higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate capability. Polyvinylidene fluoride binder and ether-based electrolytes are favorable for the high capacity and long cycle life of the quinonyl organic cathodes.

  15. Controlled growth of larger heterojunction interface area for organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan (Somerset, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer having protrusions, a side of the first layer opposite the first electrode having a surface area at least three times greater than an underlying lateral cross-sectional area; depositing a second organic semiconductor material directly on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, portions of the first layer remaining exposed; depositing a third organic semiconductor material directly on the second layer to form a discontinuous third layer, portions of at least the second layer remaining exposed; depositing a fourth organic semiconductor material on the third layer to form a continuous fourth layer, filling any exposed gaps and recesses in the first, second, and third layers; and depositing a second electrode on the fourth layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is transparent, and the first and third organic semiconductor materials are both of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to second and fourth organic semiconductor materials, which are of the other material type.

  16. Method for the catalytic conversion of organic materials into a product gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting organic material into a product gas includes: (a) providing a liquid reactant mixture containing liquid water and liquid organic material within a pressure reactor; (b) providing an effective amount of a reduced metal catalyst selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, osmium and iridium or mixtures thereof within the pressure reactor; and (c) maintaining the liquid reactant mixture and effective amount of reduced metal catalyst in the pressure reactor at temperature and pressure conditions of from about 300 C to about 450 C; and at least 130 atmospheres for a period of time, the temperature and pressure conditions being effective to maintain the reactant mixture substantially as liquid, the effective amount of reduced metal catalyst and the period of time being sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the liquid organic material to produce a product gas composed primarily of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. 5 figs.

  17. Method for the catalytic conversion of organic materials into a product gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting organic material into a product gas includes: a) providing a liquid reactant mixture containing liquid water and liquid organic material within a pressure reactor; b) providing an effective amount of a reduced metal catalyst selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, osmium and iridium or mixtures thereof within the pressure reactor; and c) maintaining the liquid reactant mixture and effective amount of reduced metal catalyst in the pressure reactor at temperature and pressure conditions of from about 300.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C.; and at least 130 atmospheres for a period of time, the temperature and pressure conditions being effective to maintain the reactant mixture substantially as liquid, the effective amount of reduced metal catalyst and the period of time being sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the liquid organic material to produce a product gas composed primarily of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  18. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC MATERIAL TO AMBIENT PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert J. Eatough; William K. Modey; Rebecca Sizemore; Michael Simpson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both annual 24-h average and seasonal diurnal samples collected at NETL during the research program have been analyzed. The fine particulate components determined include PM{sub 2.5} mass, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, elemental and organic carbonaceous material and trace elements. The analysis of the nitrate and organic material includes both the identification of nonvolatile material retained by the particle collection filter and semi-volatile material lost from the particles during sample collection. The results obtained in these analyses indicate that both the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material in the fine particles sampled at the NETL site originate from mobile emissions in the local area. However, the majority of the nonvolatile material is associated with primary emissions and the majority of the semi-volatile material is secondary, being formed from photochemical processes in the atmosphere. In contrast, the fine particulate sulfate does not originate from the local area but is transported into the study region, mostly from sources in the Ohio River Valley. These observations have been supported by both detailed meteorological and apportionment analysis of the data.

  19. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  20. materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma-terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Peter M.

    28 Plaster materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma- terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE: The next chip-scale technology, Mater. Today, 9:20­27, 2006. Plaster A plastic mixture of solids and water plaster is also used in the industry to designate plaster of paris. Plaster is usually applied in one

  1. Effects of surfactants on the desorption of organic contaminants from aquifer materials. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brickell, J.L.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of removing organic contaminants from groundwater aquifers by the pump and treat process is adversely affected by the retardation of the contaminant's mobility due to adsorption onto aquifer material. The use of surfactants in conjunction with the pump and treat process has the potential for improving contaminant mobility by solubilizing the adsorbed contaminant.

  2. & Surface Chemistry Water-Stable Zirconium-Based MetalOrganic Framework Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Surface Chemistry Water-Stable Zirconium-Based Metal­Organic Framework Material with High candidates as replacements for gasoline (petrol). However, their compact storage in molecular form, es Department of Chemistry and International Institute for Nanotechnology Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan

  3. Life in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    high pressure, no sunlight, high temperature. Not much chance of life there. Gas Giants #12;The moonsLife in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials. #12;Size N2 Titan Thick atmo Thick atmo Thin atmo #12;Small rocky bodies are unlikely to host life: too hot

  4. Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  5. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  6. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  7. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  8. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  9. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  10. Development and Utilization of Host Materials for White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Ching; Chen, Shaw

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Our project was primarily focused on the MYPP 2015 goal for white phosphorescent organic devices (PhOLEDs or phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes) for solid-state lighting with long lifetimes and high efficiencies. Our central activity was to synthesize and evaluate a new class of host materials for blue phosphors in the PhOLEDs, known to be a weak link in the device operating lifetime. The work was a collaborative effort between three groups, one primarily responsible for chemical design and characterization (Chen), one primarily responsible for device development (Tang) and one primarily responsible for mechanistic studies and degradation analysis (Rothberg). The host materials were designed with a novel architecture that chemically links groups with good ability to move electrons with those having good ability to move “holes” (positive charges), the main premise being that we could suppress the instability associated with physical separation and crystallization of the electron conducting and hole conducting materials that might cause the devices to fail. We found that these materials do prevent crystallization and that this will increase device lifetimes but that efficiencies were reduced substantially due to interactions between the materials creating new low energy “charge transfer” states that are non-luminescent. Therefore, while our proposed strategy could in principle improve device lifetimes, we were unable to find a materials combination where the efficiency was not substantially compromised. In the course of our project, we made several important contributions that are peripherally related to the main project goal. First, we were able to prepare the proposed new family of materials and develop synthetic routes to make them efficiently. These types of materials that can transport both electrons and holes may yet have important roles to play in organic device technology. Second we developed an important new method for controlling the deposition profile of material so that arbitrary concentration gradients can be implemented in layers with mixed composition. These concentration profiles are known to increase device efficiency and longevity and we confirmed that experimentally. Third, we investigated a new method for analyzing degradation in devices using mass spectrometry to look for degradation products. We showed that these methods are not simple to interpret unambiguously and need to be used with caution.

  11. Megahertz organic/polymer diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Howard Edan; Sun, Jia; Pal, Nath Bhola

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Featured is an organic/polymer diode having a first layer composed essentially of one of an organic semiconductor material or a polymeric semiconductor material and a second layer formed on the first layer and being electrically coupled to the first layer such that current flows through the layers in one direction when a voltage is applied in one direction. The second layer is essentially composed of a material whose characteristics and properties are such that when formed on the first layer, the diode is capable of high frequency rectifications on the order of megahertz rectifications such as for example rectifications at one of above 100KHz, 500KhZ, IMHz, or 10 MHz. In further embodiments, the layers are arranged so as to be exposed to atmosphere.

  12. Silicon surface passivation by an organic overlayer of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,10-phenanthrenequinone, PQ . PQ reacts with the dangling bonds, thus providing a bridge between organic semiconductors in integrating organic and silicon-based semiconductor devices.1­3 Organic- semiconductor/silicon interfaces can

  13. Neural network system and methods for analysis of organic materials and structures using spectral data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Bernd J. (Athens, GA); Sellers, Jeffrey P. (Suwanee, GA); Thomsen, Jan U. (Fredricksberg, DK)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and processes for recognizing and identifying materials. Characteristic spectra are obtained for the materials via spectroscopy techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared absorption analysis, x-ray analysis, mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Desired portions of the spectra may be selected and then placed in proper form and format for presentation to a number of input layer neurons in an offline neural network. The network is first trained according to a predetermined training process; it may then be employed to identify particular materials. Such apparatus and processes are particularly useful for recognizing and identifying organic compounds such as complex carbohydrates, whose spectra conventionally require a high level of training and many hours of hard work to identify, and are frequently indistinguishable from one another by human interpretation.

  14. Neural network system and methods for analysis of organic materials and structures using spectral data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, B.J.; Sellers, J.P.; Thomsen, J.U.

    1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and processes are described for recognizing and identifying materials. Characteristic spectra are obtained for the materials via spectroscopy techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared absorption analysis, x-ray analysis, mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Desired portions of the spectra may be selected and then placed in proper form and format for presentation to a number of input layer neurons in an offline neural network. The network is first trained according to a predetermined training process; it may then be employed to identify particular materials. Such apparatus and processes are particularly useful for recognizing and identifying organic compounds such as complex carbohydrates, whose spectra conventionally require a high level of training and many hours of hard work to identify, and are frequently indistinguishable from one another by human interpretation.

  15. Direct comparative study on the energy level alignments in unoccupied/occupied states of organic semiconductor/electrode interface by constructing in-situ photoemission spectroscopy and Ar gas cluster ion beam sputtering integrated analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Dong-Jin, E-mail: Dongjin.yun@samsung.com; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, Yongsu; Park, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Heon; Heo, Sung [Analytical Science Laboratory of Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, PO Box 14-1, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the installation of electron gun and photon detector, an in-situ photoemission and damage-free sputtering integrated analysis system is completely constructed. Therefore, this system enables to accurately characterize the energy level alignments including unoccupied/occupied molecular orbital (LUMO/HOMO) levels at interface region of organic semiconductor/electrode according to depth position. Based on Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS), Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPES), and reflective electron energy loss spectroscopy, the occupied/unoccupied state of in-situ deposited Tris[4-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]amine (TCTA) organic semiconductors on Au (E{sub LUMO}: 2.51?eV and E{sub HOMO}: 1.35?eV) and Ti (E{sub LUMO}: 2.19?eV and E{sub HOMO}: 1.69?eV) electrodes are investigated, and the variation of energy level alignments according to work function of electrode (Au: 4.81?eV and Ti: 4.19?eV) is clearly verified. Subsequently, under the same analysis condition, the unoccupied/occupied states at bulk region of TCTA/Au structures are characterized using different Ar gas cluster ion beam (Ar GCIB) and Ar ion sputtering processes, respectively. While the Ar ion sputtering process critically distorts both occupied and unoccupied states in UPS/IPES spectra, the Ar GCIB sputtering process does not give rise to damage on them. Therefore, we clearly confirm that the in-situ photoemission spectroscopy in combination with Ar GCIB sputtering allows of investigating accurate energy level alignments at bulk/interface region as well as surface region of organic semiconductor/electrode structure.

  16. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  17. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  18. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced semiconductor devices Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Northern Illinois University Collection: Engineering 39 Kompetenzzentrum fr Automobil-und Industrieelektronik Summary: of materials for these advanced semiconductor...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities, Materials Science, News, News & Events, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting Semiconductor nanowire lasers have attracted intense interest as...

  1. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  2. Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter. II. A material balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis experiments were performed on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens (Types I and II, respectively) with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300/sup 0/C for 2 to 1000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. Pyrolysis products were identified and quantified, and a material balance of product and reactants resulted. Applying the results to maturation of organic matter in natural environments, they suggest that a given type of organic matter associated with different minerals in source rocks will yield different products. Furthermore, the different adsorption capacities of minerals exert a significant influence on the migration of polar and high molecular weight compounds generated from the breakdown of kerogen. Therefore, the overall accumulated products from carbonate source rocks are mainly heavy oils with some gas, whereas light oils and gases are the main products from source rocks that contain expandable clays with catalytic and adsorptive properties. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesLight Creation Materials Light Creation Materials Overview of SSL Light Creation Materials Different families of inorganic semiconductor materials can...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRCOverviewLight Creation Materials Light Creation Materials Overview of SSL Light Creation Materials Different families of inorganic semiconductor materials can contribute to...

  5. Waste minimization in semiconductor processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Mailloux, J.C. [Novapure Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The US semiconductor industry uses 5--7 thousand pounds of arsine annually. Fifty to eighty percent of the arsine used becomes a waste product, which requires abatement. Traditional methods of abatement are reviewed with an emphasis on dry chemical scrubbing. A variety of dry chemical scrubbing materials were evaluated for arsine capacity, using activated carbon as the baseline for comparison. Of the available technologies, dry chemical scrubbing is the most effective means of minimizing arsenic containing waste generated from semiconductor effluents. A copper oxide based media has been identified which has high capacity, high efficiency and treats the spectrum of gases used in MOCVD processes. Reclaim and recovery of spent scrubber media has the potential to drastically reduce arsenic waste from semiconductor manufacturing.

  6. Volatile tritiated organic acids in stack effluents and in air surrounding contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T.; Raviart, S. (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (France))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small fraction of the tritium released into the atmosphere from tritium-handling or solid waste storage facilities was shown to be in the form of volatile organic acids. The same compounds were also found, but at a much higher proportion, in the tritium evolved at room temperature from highly contaminated materials placed under air atmospheres. This might be due to the oxidation and labeling of hydrocarbon(s) by mechanisms that are presumably of a radiolytic nature. The new forms could have an impact on operational requirements and waste management strategies within a tritium facility and a fusion reactor hall. Further data are needed to assess the related doses.

  7. Optimisation of the material properties of indium tin oxide layers for use in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doggart, P.; Bristow, N.; Kettle, J., E-mail: j.kettle@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean St., Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of indium tin oxide [(In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn), ITO] material properties on the output performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has been modelled and investigated. In particular, the effect of altering carrier concentration (n), thickness (t), and mobility (?{sub e}) in ITO films and their impact on the optical performance, parasitic resistances and overall efficiency in OPVs was studied. This enables optimal values of these parameters to be calculated for solar cells made with P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM and PCPDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM active layers. The optimal values of n, t and ?{sub e} are not constant between different OPV active layers and depend on the absorption spectrum of the underlying active layer material system. Consequently, design rules for these optimal values as a function of donor bandgap in bulk-heterojunction active layers have been formulated.

  8. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  9. Formation of helix-containing rods in a hybrid inorganic-organic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhanhui [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Clegg, William, E-mail: w.clegg@ncl.ac.u [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Attfield, Martin P., E-mail: m.attfield@manchester.ac.u [Centre for Nanoporous Materials, School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The novel aluminum ethylenediphosphonate fluoride, [HN(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3}){sub 3}][Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}].H{sub 2}O (1) (monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/n, a=12.145(4) A, b=9.265(3) A, c=20.422(6) A, beta=104.952(4){sup o}, Z=3, R{sub 1}=0.092, wR{sub 2}=0.196) has been synthesized by solvothermal methods in the presence of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and its structure determined using single microcrystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional extended chain structure composed of well-separated anionic [Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}]{sup 4-} rods containing helical chains of corner-shared cis-AlO{sub 4}F{sub 2} octahedra at their core. The charge-compensating tris(2-aminoethyl)ammonium cations separate the anionic [Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}]{sup 4-} rods that contain either left- or right-handed helical chains. The incorporation of the organic components into this hybrid material has aided the adoption of one-dimensionality by the compound and defined the pitch of the helical AlO{sub 4}F chain. - Graphical abstract: Helical chains of corner-shared cis-AlO{sub 4}F{sub 2} octahedra form the core of well-separated anionic [Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}]{sup 4-} rods in the novel hybrid aluminum diphosphonate material, (H{sub 4}tren)[Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O). The incorporation of the organic components into this hybrid material has aided the adoption of a uni-dimensional structure and a specific structural aspect, the helical pitch, within the resulting material, which indicates the potential of this approach to form particular structural features within hybrid materials.

  10. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  11. Photovoltaic healing of non-uniformities in semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karpov, Victor G.; Roussillon, Yann; Shvydka, Diana; Compaan, Alvin D.; Giolando, Dean M.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a photovoltaic device using light energy and a solution to normalize electric potential variations in the device. A semiconductor layer having nonuniformities comprising areas of aberrant electric potential deviating from the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor is deposited onto a substrate layer. A solution containing an electrolyte, at least one bonding material, and positive and negative ions is applied over the top surface of the semiconductor. Light energy is applied to generate photovoltage in the semiconductor, causing a redistribution of the ions and the bonding material to the areas of aberrant electric potential. The bonding material selectively bonds to the nonuniformities in a manner such that the electric potential of the nonuniformities is normalized relative to the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor layer. A conductive electrode layer is then deposited over the top surface of the semiconductor layer.

  12. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  13. Viscosity of ?-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Sellier, Mathieu; Murray, Benjamin J.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere and play important roles in climate, air quality, and health. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified for conditions relevant to the lower troposphere. Using two new techniques, namely a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, we measure the viscosity of the watersoluble component of SOM produced by ?-pinene ozonolysis. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), comparable to that of peanut butter at 70% RH and greater than or comparable to that of bitumen for ? 30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid/solid at ambient relative humidities. With the Stokes-Einstein relation, the measured viscosities further imply that the growth and evaporation of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between the gas and condensed phases may be confined to the surface region when RH ? 30%, suggesting the importance of an adsorption-type mechanism for partitioning in this regime. By comparison, for RH ? 70% partitioning of organic molecules may effectively occur by an absorption mechanism throughout the bulk of the particle. Finally, the net uptake rates of semi-reactive atmospheric oxidants such as O3 are expected to decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a change in RH from 90% to ? 30% RH, with possible implications for the rates of chemical aging of SOM particles in the atmosphere.

  14. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  15. Phosphine Oxide Based Electron Transporting and Hole Blocking Materials for Blue Electrophosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von Ruden, Amber L.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Koech, Phillip K.; Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Darsell, Jens T.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the design, synthesis, thermal, and photophysical properties of two phosphine oxide based electron transport/hole blocking materials, 2,6-bis(4-(diphenylphosphoryl)phenyl)pyridine (BM-A11) and 2,4-bis(4-(diphenyl-phosphoryl)phenyl)pyridine (BM-A10) for blue electrophosphorescent organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The use of these materials in blue OLED with iridium (III) bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2’]picolinate (Firpic) as the phosphor was demonstrated. Using the dual host device architecture with BM-A10 as the ETM yields a maximum EQE of 8.9% with a power efficiency of 21.5 lm/W (4.0V and 35 cd/m2). When BM-A11 is used as the ETM, the maximum EQE and power efficiency improves to 14.9% and 48.4 lm/W, respectively (3.0V and 40 cd/m2).

  16. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  17. Operations improvement in a semiconductor capital equipment manufacturing plant : component level and assembly level inventory management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yiming, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor capital equipment is manufactured in a high-mix and low-volume environment at Varian Semiconductor Equipment business unit of Applied Materials. Due to the demand growth over the past years, Varian has been ...

  18. Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jero^me Cornil,, Demetrio A. da Silva Filho, Yoann Olivier, Robert Silbey,# and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    electrodes in the case of light-emitting diodes or field-effect transistors or generated within the materials

  19. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  20. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Savoy, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  1. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  2. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  3. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Daejeon, KR); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  4. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  5. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Scher, Erik C. (San Francisco, CA); Manna, Liberato (Lecce, IT)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  6. Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Next Generation Technologies in Stimulus-Responsive Materials and Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unruh, Jr, David Allen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials ensure interconnectivity throughout the activeof decreased active layer interconnectivity and lower device

  8. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  9. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  10. Adsorption and Diffusion of Hydrogen in a New Metal-Organic Framework Material: [Zn(bdc)(ted)0.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Adsorption and Diffusion of Hydrogen in a New Metal-Organic Framework Material: [Zn(bdc)(ted)0. Sankar,§ and J. Karl Johnson*,,| Department of Chemical Engineering, UniVersity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh: NoVember 29, 2007 We have experimentally measured hydrogen isotherms at 77 and 298 K up to a hydrogen

  11. 2012 ELECTRONIC PROCESSES IN ORGANIC MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, JUNE 2-8, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisele, Dorthe

    2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This meeting focuses on the latest progress and challenges regarding organic electronics devices, artificial light-harvesting systems, and inorganic/organic hybrid nanoscale systems and especially on the synergy between these fields.

  12. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  13. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellerich, Emily [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin-coated mixed emitting layer (EML) is used, consisting of a polymer and a small molecule that both emit in the near UV and blue. The resulting combined spectra gives a wide band that can be used to create narrow microcavity emission peaks of 373 to 469 nm, depending on the device thickness (i.e. the cavity’s optical length). In the process of this effort, the mixed EML presented interesting complexities that we attempt to explain via simulation and morphology study.

  14. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters. With the advent of the use of SiC devices it is imperative that models of these be made available in commercial simulators. This enables power electronic designers to simulate their designs for various test conditions prior to fabrication. To build an accurate transistor-level model of a power electronic system such as an inverter, the first step is to characterize the semiconductor devices that are present in the system. Suitable test beds need to be built for each device to precisely test the devices and obtain relevant data that can be used for modeling. This includes careful characterization of the parasitic elements so as to emulate the test setup as closely as possible in simulations. This report is arranged as follows: Chapter 2--The testing and characterization of several diodes and power switches is presented. Chapter 3--A 55-kW hybrid inverter (Si insulated gate bipolar transistor--SiC Schottky diodes) device models and test results are presented. A detailed description of the various test setups followed by the parameter extraction, modeling, and simulation study of the inverter performance is presented. Chapter 4--A 7.5-kW all-SiC inverter (SiC junction field effect transistors (JFET)--SiC Schottky diodes) was built and tested. The models built in Saber were validated using the test data and the models were used in system applications in the Saber simulator. The simulation results and a comparison of the data from the prototype tests are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 5--The duration test results of devices utilized in buck converters undergoing reliability testing are presented.

  15. Thin Film Reliability SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thin Film Reliability SEMICONDUCTORS Our goal is to develop new ways to evaluate the reliability $250 billion per year. As semiconductor devices become ultra miniaturized, reliability testing becomes-world conditions as possible will enable product designers to better balance performance and reliability

  16. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  17. 2 www.trnmag.com Technology Research News February 23/March 2, 2005 Process yields semiconductor foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    Wayne State University have made crystalline aerogels -- new semiconductor materials that are very porous, giving them very high surface areas. Unlike conventional aerogels, the researchers' materials

  18. Invited paper History of Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lidia ?ukasiak; Andrzej Jakubowski

    Abstract—The history of semiconductors is presented beginning with the first documented observation of a semiconductor effect (Faraday), through the development of the first devices (point-contact rectifiers and transistors, early field-effect transistors) and the theory of semiconductors up to the contemporary devices (SOI and multigate devices). Keywords—band theory, laser, Moore’s law, semiconductor, transistor.

  19. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 MAG LAB REPORTS Volume 18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

  20. A ladder of polariton branches formed by coupling an organic semiconductor exciton to a series of closely spaced cavity-photon modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, David M.; Lidzey, David G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a microcavity in which the extended optical path length of the cavity (5.9??m) permits a series of closely spaced optical modes to be supported. By placing a J-aggregated cyanine dye into the cavity, we reach the strong-coupling regime and evidence a simultaneous optical hybridization between the organic-exciton and a number of the confined cavity modes, forming an effective ladder of polariton branches. We explore the emission from such cavities and evidence a polariton-population on adjacent polariton branches around k{sub ?}?=?0.

  1. Spectral properties of semiconductor nanocrystals and their applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liptay, Thomas J. (Thomas John)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to engineer the optical properties of the semiconductor nanocrystals by controlling their growth - size, shape, materials, coatings, etc - makes them appealing for many optical applications. Despite the impressive ...

  2. Assembly of a Bacteriophage-Based Template for the Organization of Materials into Nanoporous Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Paula T.

    M13 bacteriophages are assembled via a covalent layer-by-layer process to form a highly nanoporous network capable of organizing nanoparticles and acting as a scaffold for templating metal-oxides. The morphological and ...

  3. Heavy atom induced phosphorescence of organic materials using mono- and trifunctional organomercury derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burress, Charlotte Nicole

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on the phosphorescence of organic chromophores using perfluoro-ortho-phenylene mercury (1) and bis(pentafluorophenyl)mercury (2) as external heavy atom effect inducers. To ascertain the suitability of these luminescent...

  4. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  5. Weathered Diesel oil as a sorptive phase for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquifer materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Rondall James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorptive properties of weathered diesel oil were investigated by conducting miscible displacement experiments with three hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), acenapthene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene, as tracers in columns containing aquifer...

  6. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyman, J. N., E-mail: heyman@macalester.edu; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D. [Physics Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J. [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41?S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f???2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  7. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, Rongqing (Lenexa, KS); Jiang,Hong-Xing (Manhattan, KS); Lin, Jing-Yu (Manhattan, KS)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - ag-in-s ternary semiconductor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering 14 Semiconductor Materials S. K. Tewksbury Summary: and for optoelectronic devices. Optoelectronics has taken advantage of ternary and quaternary III-V...

  9. High temperature thermoelectric characterization of III-V semiconductor thin films by oxide bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    -W-N diffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin film ErAs:InGaAlAs metal/semiconductor nanocomposite temperature to 840 K for this material and the results show the thermoelectric power factor multiplied material characterization of semiconductor thin films for thermoelectric power generation, photovoltaic

  10. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of IIIV Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -temperature thermoelectric charac- terization of thin-film III­V semiconductor materials that suffer from the side- effect-temperature surface passivation, and metallization with a Ti-W-N diffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin-temperature material characterization of semiconductor thin films for thermoelectric power generation, photovoltaic

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced electronic materials Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Cambridge Collection: Materials Science 78 Kompetenzzentrum fr Automobil-und Industrieelektronik Summary: of materials for these advanced semiconductor...

  12. The Constitution of Highly Reliable Practices: Materializing Communication as Constitutive of Organizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spradley, Robert Tyler

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on collective mind, this study uses a practice-based communication approach to examine the material interplay of bodies, objects, and sites using ethnography and grounded theory. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and organizational documents were...

  13. Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat CornellInternships,(SC) Laboratories »OrganicOrganization

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    semiconductors and ceramics with desired thermalthermal conductivity of several polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics,Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

  15. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  16. Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruner, Sol

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

  17. Thermally robust semiconductor optical amplifiers and laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dijaili, Sol P. (Moraga, CA); Patterson, Frank G. (Danville, CA); Walker, Jeffrey D. (El Cerrito, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Petersen, Holly (Manteca, CA); Goward, William (Antioch, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly heat conductive layer is combined with or placed in the vicinity of the optical waveguide region of active semiconductor components. The thermally conductive layer enhances the conduction of heat away from the active region, which is where the heat is generated in active semiconductor components. This layer is placed so close to the optical region that it must also function as a waveguide and causes the active region to be nearly the same temperature as the ambient or heat sink. However, the semiconductor material itself should be as temperature insensitive as possible and therefore the invention combines a highly thermally conductive dielectric layer with improved semiconductor materials to achieve an overall package that offers improved thermal performance. The highly thermally conductive layer serves two basic functions. First, it provides a lower index material than the semiconductor device so that certain kinds of optical waveguides may be formed, e.g., a ridge waveguide. The second and most important function, as it relates to this invention, is that it provides a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the semiconductor material, which is the principal material in the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices.

  18. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bridge between the structural complexity of templated porous materials, and the electronic and optical complexity of semiconductor

  19. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  20. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  1. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

  2. Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Everett Treimer

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

  3. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janikowski, Stuart K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  4. Crater formation by single ions in the electronic stopping regime: Comparison of molecular dynamics simulations with experiments on organic films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    simulations with experiments on organic films E. M. Bringa* and R. E. Johnson Engineering Physics, University modification of materials by single-ion irradiation has been studied in insulators,1­6 semiconductors,7 energy deposition and yields, redepo- sition of the ejecta plus plastic deformation occurs, produc- ing

  5. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor Accepted 19 April 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells Organic semiconductors)-9,90 -spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll

  6. Role of minerals in formation of hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of organic matter - a material balance approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monterey Formation and Green River Formation kerogens (types II and I, respectively) were isolated, mixed with common sedimentary minerals, and pyrolyzed under dry and hydrous conditions for various times and temperatures. Analysis of all the pyrolyses products were conducted to perform a material balance and to infer reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Material balance of the pyrolyses products, in the presence and absence of minerals, reveals that the kerogen degradation results in the formation of bitumen rich in high molecular weight compounds in the initial stages, followed by additional cracking of kerogen and bitumen. However, amount and type of hydrocarbons in the pyrolyses products of kerogen in the presence of montmorillonite are markedly different from those produced by heating kerogen alone or with other minerals. The initial amounts of products in the presence of montmorillonite, and in particular the quantities of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, are higher than those in the presence of illite, calcite, and kerogen alone. The composition of these low molecular weight compounds is dominated by branched hydrocarbons, indicating catalytic cracking via carbonium ion mechanism, which is initiated on acidic sites of the clay. Composition differences are evident also in the distribution of n-alkanes and in the pristane/phytane ratio. The catalytic effect of montmorillonite, however, disappears in the presence of excess water. These differences may have important implications for the composition and quantities of petroleum generated from source rocks with different mineralogies.

  7. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  8. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  9. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  10. Catalysts for the hydrodenitrogenation of organic materials and process for the preparation of the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Richard M. (Palo Alto, CA); Hirschon, Albert S. (Menlo Park, CA); Wilson, Jr., Robert B. (Mountain View, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a process for forming a catalyst for the hydrodenitrogenation of an organic feedstock, which includes (a) obtaining a precatalyst comprising cobalt and molybdenum or nickel and molybdenum; (b) adding in a non-oxidizing an atmosphere selected from hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, neon, argon, carbon monoxide or mixtures thereof to the precatalyst of step (a), a transition met ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of research partially sponsored by the Department of Energy through grants DE-FG22-83P C60781 and DE-FG-85-PC80906, and partially supported by grant CHE82-19541 of the National Science Foundation. The invention is subject to Public Law 96-517 (and amendments), and the United States Government has rights in the present invention.

  11. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challenge fund LasDubey selectedContract Research Material

  12. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  13. Role of chemical reactions of arylamine hole transport materials in operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondakov, Denis Y. [Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York 14650-2103 (United States)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report that the representative arylamine hole transport materials undergo chemical transformations in operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. Although the underlying chemical mechanisms are too complex to be completely elucidated, structures of several identified degradation products point at dissociations of relatively weak carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon bonds in arylamine molecules as the initiating step. Considering the photochemical reactivities, the bond dissociation reactions of arylamines occur by the homolysis of the lowest singlet excited states formed by recombining charge carriers in the operating OLED device. The subsequent chemical reactions are likely to yield long-lived, stabilized free radicals capable of acting as deep traps--nonradiative recombination centers and fluorescence quenchers. Their presence in the hole transport layer results in irreversible hole trapping and manifests as a positive fixed charge. The extent and localization of chemical transformations in several exemplary devices suggest that the free radical reactions of hole transporting materials, arylamines, can be sufficient to account for the observed luminance efficiency loss and voltage rise in operating OLEDs. The relative bond strengths and excited state energies of OLED materials appear to have a determining effect on the operational stability of OLED devices.

  14. Structural Phase Contrast in Polycrystalline Organic Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    electronics", with devices such as light- emitting diodes, lasers, photovoltaic cells, field-effect transis

  15. Energy resolution in semiconductor gamma radiation detectors using heterojunctions and methods of use and preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Nelson, Art J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In one embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material and a hole blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. In another embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material, and an electron blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the electron blocking layer resisting passage of electrons therethrough, wherein the electron blocking layer comprises undoped HgCdTe. In another embodiment, a method comprises forming a hole blocking layer adjacent a semiconductor gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  16. In situ self-assembled organic interface layers for the controlled growth of oligothiophene thin films on ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milde, P., E-mail: Peter.Milde@iapp.de; Zerweck-Trogisch, U.; Eng, L. M. [Institute of Applied Photophysics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Applied Photophysics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Schönfelder, R.; Koitzsch, A. [Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, DE-01171 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, DE-01171 Dresden (Germany); Haubner, K.; Jaehne, E. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry and Textile Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry and Textile Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce an in situ vacuum procedure for the optimal preparation and analysis of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as used in organic molecular electronics on ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) substrates. Excellent ordering of oligothiophene semiconductor layers is heavily promoted through the presence of an interfacial bi-functional SAM layer that binds to both the oxidic PZT surface and the organic semiconductor molecules. The described method can be extended to other material combinations, featuring a variety of substrate materials and molecular functionalities.

  17. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  18. Influence of image charge effect on exciton fine structure in an organic-inorganic quantum well material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takagi, Hidetsugu; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Sato, Mikio; Takeoka, Yuko [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated experimentally excitonic properties in organic-inorganic hybrid multi quantum well crystals, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4} and (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}?C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4}, by measuring photoluminescence, reflectance, photoluminescence excitation spectra. In these materials, the excitonic binding energies are enhanced not only by quantum confinement effect (QCE) but also by image charge effect (ICE), since the dielectric constant of the barrier layers is much smaller than that of the well layers. By comparing the 1s-exciton and 2s-exciton energies, we have investigated the influence of ICE with regard to the difference of the Bohr radius.

  19. MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williama, Pamela Louise

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL Pamelaresistors, and zinc oxide varistors are semiconductorRELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL CONTENTS

  20. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  1. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  2. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, Barry A. [Isys, 2727 Walsh Ave., Suite 103, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States); Ruffell, John P. [Group 3, LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  3. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan (53 Timber Line Dr., Nashua, NH 03062); Karam, Nasser H. (577 Lowell St., Lexington, MA 02173)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  4. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Colvin, V.L.

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed. 10 figs.

  5. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Colvin, Vicki L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed.

  6. EMSL - organic materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to...

  7. organic materials | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to...

  8. Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

  9. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of N,N?-[(Diphenyl-N,N?-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2?,7,7?-tetrakis(N,N?-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9?-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N?-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N?-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2?-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4?wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35?.1?lm/W (74?.0?lm/W) at 1000?cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10?000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  10. Noise and synamics in semiconductor lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Farhan, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, theoretical and experimental work on the noise and dynamics in continuous wave and mode-locked semiconductor lasers is presented. The main focus is on semiconductor cascade lasers and semiconductor mode-locked ...

  11. Avalanche semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadygov, Z.Y. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan). Physics Inst.; Zheleznykh, I.M.; Kirillova, T.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Malakhov, N.A.; Jejer, V.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of novel avalanche semiconductor detector, produced on the basis of heterojunctions Si-SiC and Si-Si{sub x}O{sub y} is described. A uniform avalanche process with gain from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} can be reached depending on the conductivity of SiC and Si{sub x}O{sub y} layers. Two types of avalanche photodetectors designed for applications in wavelength range 500--10,00 nm with quantum efficiency 60 {+-} 10% (650 nm) and 200--700 nm with quantum efficiency 60 {+-} 15% (450 nm) are presented.

  12. Fall-2003 PH-314 A. La Rosa I. HARNESSING ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN SEMICONDUCTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Fall-2003 PH-314 A. La Rosa JUNCTIONS I. HARNESSING ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN SEMICONDUCTOR of the JUNCTION V. FORWARD BIAS, REVERSE BIAS I. HARNESSING ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS Let III. CHEMICAL POTENTIAL (FERMI LEVEL) IV. COMPARISON of CHARGE-CARRIER POPULATION at EACH SIDE

  13. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, Richard S. (Princeton, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

  14. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  15. White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineke, Sebastian; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ultra-thin, large-area light sources made from organic semiconductor materials. Over the last decades, much research has been spent on finding the suitable materials to realize highly efficient monochrome and white OLEDs. With their high efficiency, color-tunability, and color-quality, white OLEDs are emerging to become one of the next generation light sources. In this review, we discuss the physics of a variety of device concepts that are introduced to realize white OLEDs based on both polymer and small molecule organic materi als. Owing to the fact that about 80 % of the internally generated photons are trapped within the thin-film layer structure, we put a second focus on reviewing promising concepts for improved light outcoupling.

  16. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Abstract: Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the...

  17. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen...

  18. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  19. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E. E., E-mail: eehaller@lbl.gov [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  20. Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

  1. Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenais, Sébastien; 10.1002/pi.3173

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solid-state lasers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on works published during the last decade. Referring originally to dyes in solid-state polymeric matrices, organic lasers also include the rich family of organic semiconductors, paced by the rapid development of organic light emitting diodes. Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources are potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. In this review, we describe the basic photophysics of the materials used as gain media in organic lasers with a specific look at the distinctive feature of dyes and semiconductors. We also outline the laser architectures used in state-of-the-art organic lasers and the performances of these devices with regard to output power, lifetime, and beam quality. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments in terms of wavelength coverage, wavelength agility, efficiency and compactness, or towards integrated low-cost sources, with a special focus on the gr...

  2. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an explosive device comprising an explosive material which can be made to explode upon activation by activation means in contact therewith; electrical activation means adaptable for activating said explosive material such that it explodes; and electrical circuitry in operation association with said activation means; there is an improvement wherein said activation means is an electrical material which, at an elevated temperature, has a negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and which has a shape and size and an area of contact with said explosive material sufficient that it has an electrical resistance which will match the resistance requirements of said associated electrical circuitry when said electrical material is operationally associated with said circuitry, and wherein said electrical material is polycrystalline; or said electrical material is crystalline and (a) is mounted on a lattice matched substrate or (b) is partially covered with an intimately contacting metallization area which defines its area of contact with said explosive material.

  3. Semiconductor Bridge Cable Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KING, TONY L.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The semiconductor bridge (SCB) is an electroexplosive device used to initiate detonators. A C cable is commonly used to connect the SCB to a firing set. A series of tests were performed to identify smaller, lighter cables for firing single and multiple SCBs. This report provides a description of these tests and their results. It was demonstrated that lower threshold voltages and faster firing times can be achieved by increasing the wire size, which reduces ohmic losses. The RF 100 appears to be a reasonable substitute for C cable when firing single SCBs. This would reduce the cable volume by 68% and the weight by 67% while increasing the threshold voltage by only 22%. In general, RG 58 outperforms twisted pair when firing multiple SCBs in parallel. The RG 58's superior performance is attributed to its larger conductor size.

  4. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics, Optoelectronics, and Advanced Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics, Optoelectronics, and Advanced Communications with material composition over a range of 0.7 to 5 eV. This factor allows them to be used for optoelectronic. Improvement in growth quality and doping of GaN is needed to improve the performance of optoelectronics

  5. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, January 30, 2015 Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp2 hybridized carbon, is...

  6. Ge-on-Si Integrated Photonics: New Tricks from an Old Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jifeng, Liu

    We review recent progress in Ge active photonic devices for electronic-photonic integration on Si, demonstrating new tricks in optoelectronics from this “old” semiconductor material used for the first transistor more than ...

  7. Analysis of silicon carbide based semiconductor power devices and their application in power factor correction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durrani, Yamin Qaisar

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. Material technologies superior to Si are needed for future power device developments. Silicon Carbide (SiC) based semiconductor devices...

  8. Rapid synthesis and size control of CuInS2 semi-conductor nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

  9. Rapid Synthesis and Size Control of CuInS2 Semi-Conductor Nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aiiibv semiconductors implanted Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collection: Materials Science ; Engineering 83 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 Summary: by terahertz radiation sources. Method: Use ion-implantation to damage semiconductor,...

  11. Growth and characterization of mid-infrared phosphide-based semiconductor diode lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Pei-Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diode laser emitting at mid-infrared wavelength (2~5 pm) is an ideal light source for petrochemical or industrial-important gas sensing. Antimony-based III-V compound semiconductor material is the most prominent pseudomorphic ...

  12. Beyond modulation doping: Engineering a semiconductor to be ambipolar, or making an ON-OFF-ON transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, K. Das, E-mail: kdasgupta@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India); Croxall, A. F.; Zheng, B.; Sfigakis, F.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A. [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors are traditionaly either p-type or n-type, meaning that the mobile charge carriers in them are either 'holes' in the valence band or electrons in the conduction band. Ambipolar conduction implies that the experimenter should be able to populate the same channel with either electrons or holes in a controlled manner. This has been shown to be possible in newer materials like Graphene and some organic semiconductors. 'Ambipolarity' can open up new device possibilities as well as new ways to study fundamental scattering mechanisms in semiconductors. However, achieving this in a conventional high mobility structure like a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure/quantum well requires new thinking. It was realized, that to do this modulation doping must be given up and techniques to make an undoped heterostructure conduct, must be developed first. Such structures have been developed by only a few groups worldwide. They are of great interest to low temperature physicists working with Quantum Hall states and mesoscopic/nano structures in the ballistic regime. We discuss the reason behind this interest and the analysis of scattering mechanisms in such structures. Finally very recent experimental success in developing fully gate controlled ambipolar structures where both electron and hole mobilites exceed 1 million cm{sup 2}/Vs at low temperatures (T?1Kelvin) are discussed. Such gated ambipolar structures can be used to analyse scattering mechanisms in ultra-high mobility 2dimensional electron and hole gases in a way that is not possible using other techniques.

  13. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanna, Mark Cooper (Boulder, CO); Reedy, Robert (Golden, CO)

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  14. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, Jesse H.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, Paul

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films.

  15. Photoacoustic measurement of bandgaps of thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, George (George Wei)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are a promising class of direct energy conversion materials, usually consisting of highly doped semiconductors. The key to maximizing their thermal to electrical energy conversion lies in optimizing ...

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Semiconductor Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    fibers. · Optoelectronic emitters convert an electronic signal into light. Examples are light-emitting diodes (LED) used in displays and indication lambs and semiconductor lasers used in compact disk systems

  17. Modeling the semiconductor industry dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Kailiang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The semiconductor industry is an exciting and challenging industry. Strong demand at the application end, plus the high capital intensity and rapid technological innovation in manufacturing, makes it difficult to manage ...

  18. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-177

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type semiconducting polymer. High efficiency photovoltaics (PVs) based on inorganic semiconductors have good efficiencies (up to 30%) but are extremely expensive to manufacture. Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of high-throughput production methods like reel-to-reel printing on flexible substrates. Unfortunately, today's best organic PVs have only a few percent efficiency, a number that is insufficient for virtually all commercial applications. The limited choice of stable n-type (acceptor) organic semiconductor materials is one of the key factors that prevent the further improvement of organic PVs. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) previously developed a new class of electron-deficient (n-type) conjugated polymers for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). During this project TDA in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will incorporate these electron-deficient polymers into organic photovoltaics and investigate their performance. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. Materials being developed at TDA include spin coated transparent conductors, charge injection layers, fullerene derivatives, electron-deficient polymers, and three-phase (fullerene/polythiophene/dye) active layer inks.

  19. Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

  20. OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

  1. Faculty and Instructional Staff in the UW-Madison Department of Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    synthesis and characterization, electronic and semiconductor materials, solar energy and photovoltaics; materials for alternative energy and energy storage; nanoelectronics. Paul G. Evans Associate Professor

  2. Design and implementation of a continuous improvement framework, focusing on material and information flow, for the manufacturing of organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gogineni, Susheel Teja

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Konarka Technologies is an organic photo voltaic solar panel manufacturing startup and is currently in the process of ramping up their production volumes. The MIT team has worked on numerous improvement activities that ...

  3. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  4. alignment material properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the thermoelectric proper- ties of VSSL structures using Walker, D. Greg 9 Composite THz materials using aligned metallic and semiconductor microwires, experiments and...

  5. alternative perovskite materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  6. alternative materials wascon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  7. alternative refractory materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  8. alternative starting materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  9. alternative target material: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  10. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  11. THE REINCARNATION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST: THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC REFRACTORY MATERIAL IN INFRARED SPECTRA OF COMETARY COMAE AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi_kimura@cps-jp.org [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, c/o CPS (Center for Planetary Science), Chuo-ku Minatojima Minamimachi 7-1-48, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, c/o CPS (Center for Planetary Science), Chuo-ku Minatojima Minamimachi 7-1-48, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  12. Bachelor's, master's and Ph.D. programs in Materials Science and Engineering Partner in the statewide Center for Advanced Energy Studies at the Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    · Electronic Memory Materials · DNA Nanotechnology · Semiconductor Processes and Materials · Ferromagnetic Hybridization Chain Reaction · Structured Chalcogenide Glass Films for Redox Conductive Bridge Nonvolatile Semiconductor Exhibiting Room-temperature Ferromagnetism and Method of Sensing a Gas by Detecting Change

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 17, NO. 3, AUGUST 2004 455 Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Cu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    , and health (ESH) im- provements in semiconductor technology and manufacturing. DFE plays a special role in the ESH section of the Interna- tional Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [1], as Manuscript, and analytical framework which can best enable specific advances in ESH areas such as chemical, materials

  14. WOGOGOB-2004 CONFERENCE MATERIALS. Edited by O. Hints & L. Ainsaar During Kukruse (Caradoc) time, light-brown organ-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    ic matter forming oil shale interlayers in calcareous sediments accumulated in the Baltoscandian Basin (Nestor & Einasto 1997). The oil shale is composed of almost equal portions of carbonate, and clayey siliciclastic and organic matter. The existence of a rich and diverse normal marine bottom

  15. Complex Refractive Indices of Thin Films of Secondary Organic Materials by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry from 220 to 1200 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    particles were produced in a flow tube reactor by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, including. By comparison, the UV absorption of the monoterpene-derived SOMs was negligible. On the basis of the measured and mode diameter. 1. INTRODUCTION Aerosol particles directly influence Earth's radiative balance

  16. Electromagnetic compatibility in semiconductor manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, J.A. [Intel Corp., Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) causes problems in semiconductor manufacturing facilities that range from nuisances to major disruptions of production. In many instances, these issues are addressed in a reactionary rather than proactive manner by individuals who do not have the experience or the equipment necessary to combat EMI problems in a timely, cost effective manner. This approach leads to expensive retrofits, reduced equipment availability, long recovery times, and in some cases, line yield impacts. The goal of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in semiconductor manufacturing is to ensure that semiconductor process, metrology, and support equipment operate as intended without being affected by electromagnetic disturbances either transmitted through air (radiated interference), or transferred into the equipment via a conductive media (conducted interference). Rather than being neglected until serious issues arise, EMC should be considered in the early stages of facility design, in order to gain the most benefit at the lowest cost.

  17. Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hite, Larry R. (Dallas, TX); Houston, Ted (Richardson, TX); Matloubian, Mishel (Dallas, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

  18. Optical Properties and Potential Applications of Doped Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optical Properties and Potential Applications of Doped Semiconductor Nanoparticles. Optical Properties and Potential Applications of Doped Semiconductor Nanoparticles. Abstract:...

  19. Apparatus for the etching for semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinberg, A.R.; Steinberg, G.N.

    1983-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the etching of semiconductor devices which includes, in combination, an etching chamber containing the semiconductor device to be etched, an electrodeless etching plasma forming chamber having an inlet connected to a source of continuously flowing etching gas and having an outlet connected to said etching chamber in fluid flow communication; a helical inductive resonator coupler for coupling a source of R.F. electrical power into the electrodeless plasma forming chamber for continuously forming etching plasma from the etching gas flowing therethrough; this inductive resonator coupler including a grounded hollow cylinder of electrically conductive material, with a grounded base member at one end; a helically coiled wire conductor concentrically mounted within the cylinder and spaced from the inner walls thereof; the plasma forming chamber being mounted substantially concentrically within the coil, the end of the coil toward the base member being grounded; and an electrical coupling for applying into the coil an R.F. source of electrical power at a position near, but spaced from, the grounded end thereof.

  20. Correlated exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Patrick, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption and dissipation of energy in semiconductor nanostructures are often determined by excited electron dynamics. In semiconductors, one fundamentally important electronic state is an exciton, an excited electron ...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Semiconductor Revolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErikGroundbreaking Work onClimateSemiconductor Revolution Semiconductor

  2. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  3. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  4. Monolayer Semiconductors Gilbert Arias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    to be successfully and reliably isolated is graphene, which has received a lot of attention due to the fact, the electrical tunability and valley physics of these materials can be observed. 2 Monolayer Transistors 2 onto a tape, and then sticking this tape onto some kind of Silicon wafer. When the tape is peele

  5. WHAT IS COMPOST? Composting refers to the biological decomposition and stabilization of organic materials by microorganisms under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    . The blending of compost with wood chips as an erosion-control blanket material may reduce the amount process, biologically produced heat under proper moisture and aeration conditions, accelerates. #12;analyze the nutrient (N, P, K and other micronutrients), pH and soluble salt content

  6. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS 21, 2002, 251 255 Organic-inorganic sol-gel coating for corrosion protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    for corrosion protection of stainless steel T. P. CHOU Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu One of the most effective corrosion example. This is the main reason for the durability and corrosion resistance be- havior of this particular

  7. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Peter T. (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  8. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  9. HAPPY NEW YEAR! Semiconductor Spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    Semiconductors MnGa S=5/2 moment Mn++ plus hole 200 unit cells Yakunin et al. PRL 96 216806 (2004) #12;Atomic Insulating Metallic Carrier-mediated Long-range Order Ohno, Munekata et al. PRL '89 PRL '92 APL `96 Mechanism;Theory of Spin Hamiltonian Konig et al. PRL (2000), PRB (2002) #12;Envelope Function Theory Light Holes

  10. Development of New Absorber Materials to Achieve Organic Photovoltaic Commercial Modules with 15% Efficiency and 20 Years Lifetime: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-498

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under this CRADA the parties will develop intermediates or materials that can be employed as the active layer in dye sensitized solar cells printed polymer systems, or small molecule organic photovoltaics.

  11. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S3-33 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)] [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S3-33 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000?nm and 860?nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  12. The predicted crystal structure of Li4C6O6, an organic cathode material for Li-ion batteries, from first-principles multi-level computational methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    The predicted crystal structure of Li4C6O6, an organic cathode material for Li-ion batteries, from details for the electrochemical properties of these organic electrodes (chemical potential for Li ion the optimum positions of Li ions intercalated within each C6O6 framework. 3. We then optimized each

  13. Field of Expertise Materials Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    structure-property relationships through the characterisation of diverse materials to process optimisation and international research partners in order to keep Austrian high-technology industry, scientific production semiconductors Paper and physical chemistry principles of paper strength Metallic materials for energy applica

  14. Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang, Y. Y. Sun, S. X. Du, H.-J. Gao, and S. B. Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang, Y. Y of transition metal doped Li2S as cathode materials in lithium batteries J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 4 of electrode nanomaterials in lithium-ion battery: The effects of surface stress J. Appl. Phys. 112, 103507

  15. Dynamic interplay between spin-crossover and host-guest function in a nanoporous metal-organic framework material.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southon, P. D.; Liu, L.; Fellows, E. A.; Price, D. J.; Halder, G. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Moubaraki, B.; Murray, K. S.; Letard, J.F.; Kepert, C. J.; Univ. Sydney; Monash Univ.; Universite Bordeaux

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nanoporous metal-organic framework [Fe(pz)Ni(CN){sub 4}], 1 (where pz is pyrazine), exhibits hysteretic spin-crossover at ambient conditions and is robust to the adsorption and desorption of a wide range of small molecular guests, both gases (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}) and vapors (methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and toluene). Through the comprehensive analysis of structure, host-guest properties, and spin-crossover behaviors, it is found that this pillared Hofmann system uniquely displays both guest-exchange-induced changes to spin-crossover and spin-crossover-induced changes to host-guest properties, with direct dynamic interplay between these two phenomena. Guest desorption and adsorption cause pronounced changes to the spin-crossover behavior according to a systematic trend in which larger guests stabilize the high-spin state and therefore depress the spin-crossover temperature of the host lattice. When stabilizing the alternate spin state of the host at any given temperature, these processes directly stimulate the spin-crossover process, providing a chemisensing function. Exploitation of the bistability of the host allows the modification of adsorption properties at a fixed temperature through control of the host spin state, with each state shown to display differing chemical affinities to guest sorption. Guest desorption then adsorption, and vice versa, can be used to switch between spin states in the bistable temperature region, adding a guest-dependent memory effect to this system.

  16. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  17. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  18. Searching Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Wide Gap Semiconductors Fe-doped Strontium Titanate and Zinc Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, LMC; Wahl, U

    Scientic findings in the very beginning of the millennium are taking us a step further in the new paradigm of technology: spintronics. Upgrading charge-based electronics with the additional degree of freedom of the carriers spin-state, spintronics opens a path to the birth of a new generation of devices with the potential advantages of non-volatility and higher processing speed, integration densities and power efficiency. A decisive step towards this new age lies on the attribution of magnetic properties to semiconductors, the building block of today's electronics, that is, the realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors (FS) with critical temperatures above room temperature. Unfruitful search for intrinsic RT FS lead to the concept of Dilute(d) Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS): ordinary semiconductor materials where 3 d transition metals randomly substitute a few percent of the matrix cations and, by some long-range mechanism, order ferromagnetically. The times are of intense research activity and the last few ...

  19. Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1980-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

  20. Fabrication of photonic band gap materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Constant, Kristen (Ames, IA); Subramania, Ganapathi S. (Ames, IA); Biswas, Rana (Ames, IA); Ho, Kai-Ming (Ames, IA)

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microspheres, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microspheres therefrom. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microspheres may be polystyrene microspheres.

  1. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  2. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  3. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Michael D.

    2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55?m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  4. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yiming [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, the Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China); Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Lu Canzhong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China)], E-mail: czlu@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  5. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  6. Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science...

  7. Photon Statistics of Semiconductor Light Sources.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aßmann, Marc

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In recent years, semiconductor light sources have become more and more interesting in terms of applications due to their high efficiency and low cost. Advanced… (more)

  8. CCEC Seminar Wireless Sensors for SemiconductorWireless Sensors for Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhmedov, Azer

    CCEC Seminar Wireless Sensors for SemiconductorWireless Sensors for Semiconductor Manufacturing perhaps. In this talk, we describe our efforts in developing a new class of wireless sensors for use in semiconductor manufacturing. These sensors are fully self-contained with on board power, communications

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced packaging materials Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 22 Kompetenzzentrum fr Automobil-und Industrieelektronik Summary: of materials for these advanced semiconductor...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced materials development Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Fossil Energy Program Collection: Fossil Fuels 84 Kompetenzzentrum fr Automobil-und Industrieelektronik Summary: of materials for these advanced semiconductor...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced materials technology Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center, University of Missouri-Rolla Collection: Engineering 16 Kompetenzzentrum fr Automobil-und Industrieelektronik Summary: of materials for these advanced semiconductor...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced technological materials Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center, University of Missouri-Rolla Collection: Engineering 16 Kompetenzzentrum fr Automobil-und Industrieelektronik Summary: of materials for these advanced semiconductor...

  13. Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    type can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Keywords:can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Manuscript O-of the formalism to hydrogen storage materials. A partial

  14. Electrical transport properties of (BN)-rich hexagonal (BN)C semiconductor alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uddin, M. R.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Ziemer, K. S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The layer structured hexagonal boron nitride carbon semiconductor alloys, h-(BN)C, offer the unique abilities of bandgap engineering (from 0 for graphite to ?6.4 eV for h-BN) and electrical conductivity control (from semi-metal for graphite to insulator for undoped h-BN) through alloying and have the potential to complement III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors and carbon based nanostructured materials. Epilayers of (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys were synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (0001) sapphire substrates. Hall-effect measurements revealed that homogeneous (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys are naturally n-type. For alloys with x = 0.032, an electron mobility of about 20 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 650?°K was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the chemical composition and analyze chemical bonding states. Both composition and chemical bonding analysis confirm the formation of alloys. XPS results indicate that the carbon concentration in the alloys increases almost linearly with the flow rate of the carbon precursor (propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8})) employed during the epilayer growth. XPS chemical bonding analysis showed that these MOCVD grown alloys possess more C-N bonds than C-B bonds, which possibly renders the undoped h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys n-type and corroborates the Hall-effect measurement results.

  15. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Hambarian, Artak (Yerevan, AM)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  16. Semiconductor-Based Interfacial Electron-Transfer Reactivity: Decoupling Kinetics from pH-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution System Susan G. Yan and Joseph T-bandgap semiconductors via attachment of redox-active dyes offers a means of sensitizing these materials for visible,3 As with other semiconductor/molecular dye assemblies, these work by electron injection from a photoexcited state

  17. Survey of Materials for Nanoskiving and Influence of the Cutting Process on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    Survey of Materials for Nanoskiving and Influence of the Cutting Process on the Nanostructures materials (metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and conjugated polymers), deposition techniques (evaporation. The materials tested were: aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper, palladium, silver, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth

  18. Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

  19. New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development Print Wednesday, 21 January 2015...

  20. Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric Power Factor Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric...

  1. Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition and Remarkable Large Magnetism. Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition...

  2. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  3. e! Science News Semiconductor manufacturing technique holds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    arsenide chips manufactured in multilayer stacks: light sensors, high-speed transistors and solar cellse! Science News Semiconductor manufacturing technique holds promise for solar energy Published semiconductor manufacturing method pioneered at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got

  4. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors Mona Zebarjadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors Mona Zebarjadia Department of Electrical Engineering; published online 18 September 2007 Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically

  5. Flexible semi-transparent organic spin valve based on bathocuproine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Llopis, Roger [CIC nanoGUNE, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 Donostia San Sebastian (Spain); Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E., E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu [CIC nanoGUNE, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 Donostia San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors are attractive materials for advanced spintronic applications due to their long spin lifetimes and, simultaneously, their mechanical flexibility. With the aim of combining these advantages in a single device, we report on the fabrication and properties of a mechanically flexible bathocuproine-based spin valve. This organic spin device shows great stability on both electrical and magneto-transport properties upon mechanical bending at different radius (up to r?=?5?mm), while featuring long-lasting endurance (on bending over 50 times). The room-temperature magnetoresistance ratio reaches up to 3.5%, and is notably preserved under air atmosphere. The observation of spin transport at room-temperature, combined with the outstanding mechanical properties and air stability, highlights the potential of bathocuproine-based spin devices towards applications.

  6. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

  7. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, R.; Pocha, M.D.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium. 10 figs.

  8. Optical Nonlinearities and Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, V.; McBranch, D.; Schwarz, C.

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-dimensional semiconductors have attracted great interest due to the potential for tailoring their linear and nonlinear optical properties over a wide-range. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC's) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects or quantum dots. Due to quantum cordhement and a large surface-to-volume ratio, the linear and nonlinear optical properties, and the carrier dynamics in NC's are significantly different horn those in bulk materials. napping at surface states can lead to a fast depopulation of quantized states, accompanied by charge separation and generation of local fields which significantly modifies the nonlinear optical response in NC's. 3D carrier confinement also has a drastic effect on the energy relaxation dynamics. In strongly confined NC's, the energy-level spacing can greatly exceed typical phonon energies. This has been expected to significantly inhibit phonon-related mechanisms for energy losses, an effect referred to as a phonon bottleneck. It has been suggested recently that the phonon bottleneck in 3D-confined systems can be removed due to enhanced role of Auger-type interactions. In this paper we report femtosecond (fs) studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities, and energy relaxation and trap ping dynamics in three types of quantum-dot systems: semiconductor NC/glass composites made by high temperature precipitation, ion-implanted NC's, and colloidal NC'S. Comparison of ultrafast data for different samples allows us to separate effects being intrinsic to quantum dots from those related to lattice imperfections and interface properties.

  9. Investigation of redox processes at semiconductor electrode liquid junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koval, C.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in fundamental aspects of photoelectrochemical cells has been in the following areas: chemical probes for hot carrier processes, electrostatic theory for describing electrical interactions at interfaces, and kinetics of electron transfer at ideal semiconductor solution interfaces. Our goal is to achieve a better understanding of dark and photo-induced current flow at the semiconductor electrode/redox electrolyte interface (SEI) so that devices and processes utilizing this interface for solar energy conversion can be developed or improved. Our most important accomplishment has been the development of a redox system capable of detecting hot electrons at the p-InP/acetonitrile interface. Also, we have examined electrostatic theory for the image potential of an ion as a function of distance from the SEI. Finally, our group was one of the first to realize that the 2-dimensional metal chalcogenides (MC) are excellent materials for fundamental studies of electron transfer at the SEI. One of the chief potential advantages for use of MC's is the formation of semiconductor/liquid junctions with nearly ideal electrochemical properties. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Field emission from organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

  11. Supporting Organizations | Advanced Materials | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout »Lab (NewportSuccessSupply Center for Nanophase

  12. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs’ performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  13. Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    for engineering practice #12;Topics Covered: I. Electrical and Optical Properties--Organic Photovoltaics A. Introduction: Organic photovoltaics B. Ohm's law C. Energy bands and energy gaps D. Carrier density in metals and semiconductors E. Optical absorption in semiconductors F. Excitons -- Size, Energy, Dynamics G. PN junction H

  14. Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Porous Materials Thin Film Deposition Single Crystal Growth Texture Control Additive Manufacturing Nanomaterials Synthesis Designer Organic Molecules Related Research Materials...

  15. Glass-Like Heat Conduction in Crystalline Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolas, G.S.; Cohn, J.L.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Slack, G.A.

    1999-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity and structural properties of polycrystalline and single crystal semiconductor type-1 germanium clathrates are reported. Germanium clathrates exhibit thermal conductivities that are typical of amorphous materials. This behavior occurs in spite of their well-defined crystalline structure. The authors employ temperature dependent neutron diffraction data in investigating the displacements of the caged strontium atoms in Sr{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Ge{sub 30} and their interaction with the polyhedral cages that entrap them. Their aim is to investigate the correlation between the structural properties and the low, glass-like thermal conductivity observed in this compound.

  16. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  17. Phosphorous doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct, Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094)

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (10) of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried (16, 18), with the phosphorus then being diffused (20) into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement.

  18. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, Steven R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

  19. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, S.R.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

  20. Research on the electronic and optical properties of polymer and other organic molecular thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of the work is to find materials and methods of optimization of organic layered electroluminescent cells and to study such properties of polymers and other organic materials that can be used in various opto-electronic devices. The summary of results obtained during the first year of work is presented. They are: (1) the possibility to produce electroluminescent cells using a vacuum deposition photoresist technology for commercial photoresists has been demonstrated; (2) the idea to replace the polyaryl polymers by other polymers with weaker hole conductivity for optimization of electroluminescent cells with ITO-Al electrodes has been suggested. The goal is to obtain amorphous processable thin films of radiative recombination layers in electroluminescent devices; (3) procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum-deposited poly (p-phenylene) (PPP) films on various substrates have been developed; (4) it was found for the first time that the fluorescence intensity of PPP films depends on the degree of polymerization; (5) the role of interfaces between organic compounds, on one side, and metals or semiconductors, on the other side, has been studied and quenching of the fluorescence caused by semiconductor layer in thin sandwiches has been observed; (6) studies of the dynamics of photoexcitations revealed the exciton self-trapping in quasi-one-dimensional aggregates; and (7) conditions for preparation of highly crystalline fullerene C{sub 60} films by vacuum deposition have been found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers have been prepared.

  1. Effect of Quantum Confinement on Thermoelectric Properties of 2D and 1D Semiconductor Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Effect of Quantum Confinement on Thermoelectric Properties of 2D and 1D Semiconductor Thin Films A. Bulusu and D. G. Walker1 Interdisciplinary Program in Material Science Vanderbilt University Nashville on device characteristics of 1D and 2D thin film superlattices whose applications include thermoelectric

  2. FY08 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.; Rockett, Angus

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the annual report for an old project funded by NA22. The purpose of the project was to develop amorphous semiconductors for use as radiation detectors. The annual report contains information about the progress made in synthesizing, characterizing, and radiation response testing of these new materials.

  3. MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n , A.A. Rahman pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy B1. Graphene B1. Nitrides B2. Semiconducting III­V materials a b on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition. GaN, AlGaN alloys, and InN layers are grown using an Al

  4. EMC/FDTD/MD FOR MULTIPHYSICS CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS AT THZ FREQUENCIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knezevic, Irena

    EMC/FDTD/MD FOR MULTIPHYSICS CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS AT THZ FREQUENCIES by Keely Willis.1 Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.2 Finite difference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3 EMC/FDTD for 2D analysis of materials with low carrier density . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1 EMC

  5. Acoustic-phonon propagation in rectangular semiconductor nanowires with elastically dissimilar barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, University of California--Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, USA Received 15 February 2005 dissimilar materials. As example systems, we have considered GaN nanowires with AlN and plastic barrier­5 The modification of the acoustic phonon dispersion in semiconductor superlattices has been mostly studied, both

  6. Transport Equations for Semiconductors Prof. Dr. Ansgar Jungel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    - cations have been invented; for instance, semiconductor lasers, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LED

  7. Photosynthesis-inspired device architectures for organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidel, Timothy David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductor photovoltaics offer a promising route to low-cost, scalable, emissions-free electricity generation. However, achieving higher power conversion efficiencies is critical before these devices can play a ...

  8. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong (El Cerrito, CA); Choi, Heonjin (Seoul, KR); Lee, Sangkwon (Daejeon, KR); He, Rongrui (Albany, CA); Zhang, Yanfeng (El Cerrito, CA); Kuykendal, Tevye (Berkeley, CA); Pauzauskie, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  9. High-Throughput Transfer Imprinting for Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choo, Gihoon

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    focused infrared laser heats stamping layer(PMMA) up to glass transition temperature within very short time. And the pressure applied through the roller presses the flat mold and the pattern is imprinted on the PMMA layer. This method can imprint... with higher speed and achieved wider area of imprinting than conventional imprint method. [17] MOLD Substrate PMMA IR Roller Figure 8 Concept of roller imprinting based on focus infrared heating. 17 CHAPTER II PROBLEM STATEMENT...

  10. Photocell utilizing a wide-bandgap semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Williams, Brown F. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A photocell comprises a p-i-n amorphous silicon structure having a wide bandgap layer adjacent to either the p-type or n-type layer. This structure reduces the absorption of light entering the photocell and the back-diffusion of minority carriers.

  11. Amorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    -08 3.E -08 0 200 400 600 800 displacem ent/µµµµm current/A 1000 2000 3000 4000 1000 2000 3000 4000-substrate Amorphous silicon -4 -2 0 2 4 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 photocurrenta.u. gate voltage/V 600µm x 600µm area scan

  12. Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardton AbbeyARaft River, Idaho | OpenSelawik

  13. Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc SAMCO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name:OpenOpen EnergySelva 1Company Inc SAMCO

  14. Single-Frequency High-Power Continuous-Wave Oscillation at 1003 nm of an Optically Pumped Semiconductor Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    reduction of the thermal resistance of the active semiconductor medium, resulting in a high power laser powers [1,2]. However the poor thermal conductivity of III-V materials might prevent an efficient heat by bonding it to a material of high thermal conductivity and good optical quality [2,4,5]. In this work we

  15. Recent progress in degradation and stabilization of organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Huanqi; He, Weidong; Mao, Yiwu; Lin, Xiao; Ishikawa, Ken; Dickerson, James H.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability is of paramount importance in organic semiconductor devices, especially in organic solar cells (OSCs). Serious degradation in air limits wide applications of these flexible, light-weight and low-cost power-generation devices. Studying the stability of organic solar cells will help us understand degradation mechanisms and further improve the stability of these devices. There are many investigations into the efficiency and stability of OSCs. The efficiency and stability of devices even of the same photoactive materials are scattered in different papers. In particular, the extrinsic degradation that mainly occurs near the interface between the organic layer and the cathode is a major stability concern. In the past few years, researchers have developed many new cathodes and cathode buffer layers, some of which have astonishingly improved the stability of OSCs. In this review article, we discuss the recent developments of these materials and summarize recent progresses in the study of the degradation/stability of OSCs, with emphasis on the extrinsic degradation/stability that is related to the intrusion of oxygen and water. The review provides detailed insight into the current status of research on the stability of OSCs and seeks to facilitate the development of highly-efficient OSCs with enhanced stability.

  16. EXCITONIC EIGENSTATES OF DISORDERED SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM WIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of semiconductors are exploited in solar cells, light emitting diodes, and lasers, and, furthermore, future UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA 400 Lind Hall 207 Church Street S.E. Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455­0436 Phone: 612

  17. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  18. Electrical Usage Characterization of Semiconductor Processing Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, S. R.

    This paper presents the basic concepts in performing an energy and power audit of a semiconductor process tool. A protocol exists that fully describes these measurements and their use and applicability and it will be described. This protocol...

  19. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  20. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  1. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  2. Surface phonons of III-V semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are the simplest of all semiconductor surfaces. Their atomic relaxations and electronic surface states are rather well understood. There have, however, been surprisingly few experimental studies of their vibrational properties, and ours in the first detailed...

  3. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  4. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  5. Fabrication of Semiconductors by Wet Chemical Etch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francoviglia, Laura

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ern devices. Beginning with Bardeen, Brittain and Shockley’s invention of the transistor in Bell Labs in 1947 and Kilby and Noyce’s introduction of the integrated circuit about a decade later, semiconductor devices have dramat- ically advanced... ad- dition of impurities, their conductivity can be altered. With the need to manu- facture devices at the micro- and nano- scale, the semiconductor industry has followed “Moore’s Law,” the trend that the number of transistors placed...

  6. Semiconductor heterojunction band offsets and charge neutrality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chomsik

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    involving lasers, light emitting diodes, and metal-semiconductor field effect transistors, the models of Schottky and Bardeen correspond only to limiting cases, in which the energy barriers for electrons at the interface respectively vary linearly... of metal-lead sulfide contacts on the polarity of the applied voltage. In the 1930's, Tamm, Mott, Schottky and others developed the basic theory related to surface and interface semiconductor properties. Schottky introduced the first modern model Journal...

  7. A Semiconductor Microlaser for Intracavity Flow Cytometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, O.; Copeland, G.C.; Dunne, J.L.; Gourley, P.L.; Hendricks, J.K.; McDonald, A.E.

    1999-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor microlasers are attractive components for micro-analysis systems because of their ability to emit coherent intense light from a small aperture. By using a surface-emitting semiconductor geometry, we were able to incorporate fluid flow inside a laser microcavity for the first time. This confers significant advantages for high throughput screening of cells, particulates and fluid analytes in a sensitive microdevice. In this paper we discuss the intracavity microfluidics and present preliminary results with flowing blood and brain cells.

  8. Semiconductor Nanowires: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biosketch: Tim Sands holds a joint appointment in Materials Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering at Purdue University. Before joining the faculty ...

  9. Predicted band structures of III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De, A.; Pryor, Craig E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    While non-nitride III-V semiconductors typically have a zinc-blende structure, they may also form wurtzite crystals under pressure or when grown as nanowhiskers. This makes electronic structure calculation difficult since the band structures of wurtzite III-V semiconductors are poorly characterized. We have calculated the electronic band structure for nine III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase using transferable empirical pseudopotentials including spin-orbit coupling. We find that all the materials have direct gaps. Our results differ significantly from earlier ab initio calculations, and where experimental results are available (InP, InAs, and GaAs) our calculated band gaps are in good agreement. We tabulate energies, effective masses, and linear and cubic Dresselhaus zero-field spin-splitting coefficients for the zone-center states. The large zero-field spin-splitting coefficients we find may facilitate the development of spin-based devices.

  10. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - area semiconductor laser Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    areas of semiconductor... for conducting research on wide bandgap semiconductor optoelectronics in my research group, within the Center... bandgap III-Nitride semiconductor...

  12. Dissipative chaos in semiconductor superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, K.N.; Berman, G.P. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); [Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russia); [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States); Campbell, D.K.; Cannon, E.H.; Cargo, M.C. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the motion of ballistic electrons in a miniband of a semiconductor superlattice (SSL) under the influence of an external, time-periodic electric field. We use a semiclassical, balance-equation approach, which incorporates elastic and inelastic scattering (as dissipation) and the self-consistent field generated by the electron motion. The coupling of electrons in the miniband to the self-consistent field produces a cooperative nonlinear oscillatory mode which, when interacting with the oscillatory external field and the intrinsic Bloch-type oscillatory mode, can lead to complicated dynamics, including dissipative chaos. For a range of values of the dissipation parameters we determine the regions in the amplitude-frequency plane of the external field in which chaos can occur. Our results suggest that for terahertz external fields of the amplitudes achieved by present-day free-electron lasers, chaos may be observable in SSL{close_quote}s. We clarify the nature of this interesting nonlinear dynamics in the superlattice{endash}external-field system by exploring analogies to the Dicke model of an ensemble of two-level atoms coupled with a resonant cavity field, and to Josephson junctions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domnita Catalina Marinescu

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  14. Sub-surface characterization and three dimensional profiling of semiconductors by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.

  15. Porous Diblock Copolymer Thin Films in High-Performance Semiconductor Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.T.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engine fueling more than 40 years of performance improvements in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs) has been industry's ability to pattern circuit elements at ever-higher resolution and with ever-greater precision. Steady advances in photolithography - the process wherein ultraviolet light chemically changes a photosensitive polymer resist material in order to create a latent image - have resulted in scaling of minimum printed feature sizes from tens of microns during the 1980s to sub-50 nanometer transistor gate lengths in today's state-of-the-art ICs. The history of semiconductor technology scaling as well as future technology requirements is documented in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The progression of the semiconductor industry to the realm of nanometer-scale sizes has brought enormous challenges to device and circuit fabrication, rendering performance improvements by conventional scaling alone increasingly difficult. Most often this discussion is couched in terms of field effect transistor (FET) feature sizes such as the gate length or gate oxide thickness, however these challenges extend to many other aspects of the IC, including interconnect dimensions and pitch, device packing density, power consumption, and heat dissipation. The ITRS Technology Roadmap forecasts a difficult set of scientific and engineering challenges with no presently-known solutions. The primary focus of this chapter is the research performed at IBM on diblock copolymer films composed of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) (PS-b-PMMA) with total molecular weights M{sub n} in the range of {approx}60K (g/mol) and polydispersities (PD) of {approx}1.1. These materials self assemble to form patterns having feature sizes in the range of 15-20nm. PS-b-PMMA was selected as a self-assembling patterning material due to its compatibility with the semiconductor microelectronics manufacturing infrastructure, as well as the significant body of existing research on understanding its material properties.

  16. Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

  17. Methods for manufacturing monocrystalline or near-monocrystalline cast materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a monocrystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm.

  18. Methods for manufacturing geometric multi-crystalline cast materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semi-conductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a geometrically ordered multi-crystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm.

  19. Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttram, Malcolm T. (Sandia Park, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Chow, Weng W. (Cedar Crest, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

  20. FY06 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Henager, Charles H.; Zhang, Yanwen; Shutthanandan, V.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe progress in the development of new materials for portable, room-temperature, gamma-radiation detection at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site in Washington State. High Z, high resistivity, amorphous semiconductors are being designed for use as solid-state detectors at near ambient temperatures; principles of operation are analogous to single-crystal semiconducting detectors. Amorphous semiconductors have both advantages and disadvantages compared to single crystals, and this project is developing methods to mitigate technical problems and design optimized material for gamma detection. Several issues involved in the fabrication of amorphous semiconductors are described, including reaction thermodynamics and kinetics, the development of pyrolytic coating, and the synthesis of ingots. The characterization of amorphous semiconductors is described, including sectioning and polishing protocols, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, particle-induced X-ram emission, Rutherford backscattering, and electrical testing. Then collaboration with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is discussed in the areas of Hall-effect measurements and current voltage data. Finally, we discuss the strategy for continuing the program.

  1. Ferromagnetism in Doped Thin-Film Oxide and Nitride Semiconductors and Dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal goal in the field of high-Tc ferromagnetic semiconductors is the synthesis, characterization and utilization of semiconductors which exhibit substantial carrier spin polarization at and above room temperature. Such materials are of critical importance in the emerging field of semiconductor spintronics. The interaction leading to carrier spin polarization, exchange coupling between the dopant spins and the valence or conduction band, is known to be sufficiently weak in conventional semiconductors, such as GaAs and Si, that magnetic ordering above cryogenic temperatures is essentially impossible. Since the provocative theoretical predictions of Tc above ambient in p-Mn:ZnO and p-Mn:GaN (T. Dietl et al., Science 287 1019 (2000)), and the observation of room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co:TiO2 anatase (Y. Matsumoto et al., Science 291 854 (2001)), there has been a flurry of work in oxides and nitrides doped with transition metals with unpaired d electrons. It has even been claimed that room-temperature ferromagnetism can be obtained in certain d0 transition metals oxides without a dopant. In this Report, the field of transition metal doped oxides and nitrides is critically reviewed and assessed from a materials science perspective. Since much of the field centers around thin film growth, this Report focuses on films prepared not only by conventional vacuum deposition methods, but also by spin coating colloidal nanoparticles.

  2. Two-Photon Emission from Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Hayat; Pavel Ginzburg; Meir Orenstein

    2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first experimental observations of two-photon emission from semiconductors, to the best of our knowledge, and develop a corresponding theory for the room-temperature process. Spontaneous two-photon emission is demonstrated in optically-pumped bulk GaAs and in electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells. Singly-stimulated two-photon emission measurements demonstrate the theoretically predicted two-photon optical gain in semiconductors - a necessary ingredient for any realizations of future two-photon semiconductor lasers. Photon-coincidence experiment validates the simultaneity of the electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP two-photon emission, limited only by detector's temporal resolution.

  3. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  4. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  5. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  6. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  7. DECENTRALIZING SEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITY PLANNING VIA INTERNAL MARKET COORDINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    1 DECENTRALIZING SEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITY PLANNING VIA INTERNAL MARKET COORDINATION SULEYMAN KARABUK semiconductor manufacturer: marketing managers reserve capacity from manufacturing based on product demands, while attempting to maximize profit; manufacturing managers allocate capacity to competing marketing

  8. APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS Semi-insulating semiconductor heterostructures: Optoelectronic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolte, David D.

    APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS Semi-insulating semiconductor heterostructures: Optoelectronic properties of optoelectronic properties of and uses for semi-insulating semiconductor heterostructures and thin films. The principal optical and optoelectronic properties of semi-insulating epilayers and heterostructures

  9. A New Cleanroom for a Next-Generation Semiconductor Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Cleanroom for a Next-Generation Semiconductor Research Tool A New Cleanroom for a Next-Generation Semiconductor Research Tool Print The new Sector 12 cleanroom under...

  10. Lattice mismatched compound semiconductors and devices on silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III-V compound semiconductors, due to their superior electron mobility, are promising candidates for n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, the limited size of III-V substrates and ...

  11. Acoustoelectric Harmonic Generation in a Photoconductive Piezoelectric Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acoustoelectric Harmonic Generation in a Photoconductive Piezoelectric Semiconductor W. Arthur, R harmonics in the low frequency regime (. Piezoelectric semiconductors can exhibit harmonic generation because of interactions between the acoustic

  12. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  13. Strategies to improve energy efficiency in semiconductor manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, C.; Stein, J; Harris, J.; Cherniack, M.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global semiconductor industry is growing at an astounding rate. In the next few years, the industry is expected to invest some $169 billion to build more than 36 million square feet of clean room floor space. Electric loads in these new plants are expected to total more than 5,000 MW and 40,000 GWH per year. This paper summarizes the results of studies to identify opportunities for improved energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry. The genesis of this work came about as the authors observed the rapid growth of the semiconductor industry in the Pacific Northwest. Industry observers report that some $20 billion in new facilities could be build in the Northwest in the nest few years, with a combined electric load in excess of 500 to 600 MW. The research results reported in this paper have been supported in part by the Bonneville Power Administration, the Northwest Power Planning Council, the Oregon Office of Energy, New England Electric System and the Conservation Law Foundation of New England. With their support the authors interviewed numerous industry participants, reviewed key literature, and met extensively with industry engineering firms. manufacturers, vendors and suppliers of manufacturing equipment and materials, and others with interests in this industry. Significant opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry have been reported to us; perhaps 50 percent or greater aggregate improvement appears possible. Equally significant market barriers constrain the industry from achieving these savings. Yet, because of his industry's concentration, competitiveness, and existing research consortia such as SEMATECH, the authors believe the substantial market barriers to energy efficiency can be addressed with carefully formulated strategies to demonstrate, document and communicate the business and technical case for advanced energy efficiency, including potential benefits in finance, manufacturing and corporate environmental performance. This paper describes how the industry plans research and development investments, examines energy use intensities, summarizes key market barriers which constrain energy efficient design, identifies interests in the industry that may be changing energy efficiency perceptions, lists activities to move energy efficiency to a higher priority, gives examples of energy efficiency opportunities, and reviews activities planned by a coalition of Northwest interests to accelerate the adoption of energy efficient design strategies.

  14. APPLICATIONS GALLIUMARSENIDE SEMICONDUCTOR-BASED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    , and portable for field use · Reduces false readings · Requires less power · Low mass-production cost (about $1 with selected materials such as boron or lithium. When neutrons strike the coating, they produce a cascade detectors at the IPNS and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor and Spallation

  15. Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber R. Fluck,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Ursula

    a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD grown InGaAsP/InP semiconductor saturable absorber mirror an InGaAsP/InP SESAM to obtain a higher modulation depth than for an InGaAs/GaAs SESAM.15 The InGaAsP coupler and the SESAM. The ytterbium codoping of the glass makes possible the efficient absorption

  16. Semiconductor nanowires DOI: 10.1002/smll.200500094

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    of a semiconductor Si nanowire, synthesized via the VLS pro- cess, into metallic nickel silicide through parameters. Anisotropic growth of a metal onto a semiconductor nanowire (or a semicon- ductor on a metal approach to prepare metal/semiconductor nano- wire heterostructures by transforming specific sections

  17. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  18. Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

    2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

  19. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

  20. Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.

    1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

  1. Porous Materials Porous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Porous Materials x Porous Materials · Physical properties * Characteristic impedance p = p 0 e -jk xa- = vej[ ] p x - j ; Zc= p ve = c ka 0k = c 1-j #12;2 Porous Materials · Specific acoustic impedance Porous Materials · Finite thickness ­ blocked p e + -jk (x-d)a p e - jk (x-d)a d x #12

  2. Optimal Preventive Maintenance Scheduling in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Steven I.

    1 Optimal Preventive Maintenance Scheduling in Semiconductor Manufacturing Xiaodong Yao, Emmanuel on Control Applications in 2001. #12;2 Abstract Preventive Maintenance (PM) scheduling is a very challenging schedule with that of a baseline reference schedule are also presented. Index Terms preventive maintenance

  3. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  4. Solid State Lighting Semiconductor Spectroscopy & Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    and fluorescent lamps, are very inefficient in transforming energy into light. Due to upcoming problems in energy % of Earth's total power consumption is used for lighting! Figure 3: Earth at night from space. Evolution inside a semiconductor for light emission. Over 150 years ago... How to achieve white LEDs? Figure 5

  5. Mathematical Tools in Optimal Semiconductor Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Michael

    year to year. The original aim was to produce more devices per unit area, e.g. the Semiconductor discuss the construction of descent algorithms employing the ad- joint state and investigate the electronic behavior of the device appropriately. This reveals several challenging problems for electrical

  6. HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS M.D. MCCLUSKEY* University) spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium in GaP, AlSb, ZnSe, and GaN has provided important information about the structures of dopant- hydrogen complexes and their interaction with the host lattice. In GaN:Mg, for example

  7. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  8. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  9. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  10. Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline metallic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or metal alloy substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The methods further include growing a crystalline semiconductor alloy layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The semiconductor layer may be grown without any buffer layer between the alloy and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter (a). The semiconductor alloy may further be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  11. Mn-doped Ga(As,P) and (Al,Ga)As ferromagnetic semiconductors: Electronic structure calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masek, J.; Kudrnovsky, J.; Maca, F.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, A. H.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remarkable progress towards functional ferromagnetic semiconductor materials for spintronics has been achieved in p-type (Ga,Mn)As. Robust hole-mediated ferromagnetism has, however, been observed also in other III-V hosts such as antimonides, Ga...

  12. Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Ilgyou [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States); Carter, Emily A., E-mail: eac@princeton.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, and Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  13. Pulsed laser ablation growth and doping of epitaxial compound semiconductor films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Rouleau, C.M.; Geohegan, D.B.; Budai, J.D.; Poker, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Puretzky, A.A. [Inst. of Spectroscopy, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Strauss, M.A.; Pedraza, A.J.; Park, J.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has several characteristics that are potentially attractive for the growth and doping of chemically complex compound semiconductors including (1) stoichiometric (congruent) transfer of composition from target to film, (2) the use of reactive gases to control film composition and/or doping via energetic-beam-induced reactions, and (3) low-temperature nonequilibrium phase formation in the laser-generated plasma ``plume.`` However, the electrical properties of compound semiconductors are far more sensitive to low concentrations of defects than are the oxide metals/ceramics for which PLA has been so successful. Only recently have doped epitaxial compound semiconductor films been grown by PLA. Fundamental studies are being carried out to relate film electrical and microstructural properties to the energy distribution of ablated species, to the temporal evolution of the ablation pulse in ambient gases, and to beam assisted surface and/or gas-phase reactions. In this paper the authors describe results of ex situ Hall effect, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering measurements that are being used in combination with in situ RHEED and time-resolved ion probe measurements to evaluate PLA for growth of doped epitaxial compound semiconductor films and heterostructures. Examples are presented and results analyzed for doped II-VI, I-III-VI, and column-III nitride materials grown recently in this and other laboratories.

  14. Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

  15. Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Junqiao

    2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and GaP{sub 1-x}N{sub x} with x {approx}< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also occurs between localized states and the valence band states. Soft x-ray fluorescence experiments provide direct evidence of the BAC interaction in these systems. In the final chapter of the thesis, I describe and summarize my studies of optical properties of wurtzite InN and related alloys. Early studies performed on InN films grown by sputtering techniques suggested a direct bandgap of {approx}1.9 eV for this semiconductor. Very recently, high-quality InN films with much higher mobility have become available by using the molecular beam epitaxy growth method. Optical experiments carried out on these samples reveal a narrow bandgap for InN of 0.77 eV, much lower than the previously accepted value. Optical properties of InGaN and InAlN ternaries on the In rich side have also been characterized and are found to be consistent with the narrow bandgap of InN. The bandgap bowing parameters in these alloys were determined. In the context of these findings, the bandgap energies of InGaN and InAlN were found to cover a wide spectral range from the infrared for InN to the ultraviolet for GaN and deep ultraviolet for AlN. The significance of this work is rooted in many important applications of nitride semiconductors in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion devices.

  16. Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

  17. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  18. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  19. Method of transferring strained semiconductor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A. (Santa Fe, NM); Shao, Lin (College Station, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the deposited multilayer structure is bonded to a second substrate and is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring a multilayer structure from one substrate to the other substrate. The multilayer structure includes at least one strained semiconductor layer and at least one strain-induced seed layer. The strain-induced seed layer can be optionally etched away after the layer transfer.

  20. Microwave to millimeter-wave electrodynamic response and applications of semiconductor nanostructures: LDRD project 67025 final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner, Eric Arthur; Lee, Mark; Averitt, R. D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Highstrete, Clark; Taylor, A. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Padilla, W. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, S. James (University of California Santa Barbara)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies, based on semiconductor light emitting devices, have the potential to reduce worldwide electricity consumption by more than 10%, which could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on imported energy and improve energy security. The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white SSL and could cover a wide spectral range from the deep UV to the infrared. For this LDRD program, we have investigated the synthesis of single-crystalline III-nitride nanowires and heterostructure nanowires, which may possess unique optoelectronic properties. These novel structures could ultimately lead to the development of novel and highly efficient SSL nanodevice applications. GaN and III-nitride core-shell heterostructure nanowires were successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on two-inch wafer substrates. The effect of process conditions on nanowire growth was investigated, and characterization of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanowires was also performed.

  1. A Markovian analysis of semiconductor manufacturing processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Kent Eugene

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Karan L. Watson (Member) Martin A. Wortman (Member) ep Sastri (Member) o W. Howze (Head of Department) December 1991 ABSTRACT A Markovian Analysis of Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes. (December 1991) Kent Eugene Schultz, B. S. , Iowa... grateful to Dr. Martin Wortman, for his pa- tience and endless stream of examples to help me understand stochastic processes. I would also like to thank Dr. Tep Sastri for his patience and for always having a refer- ence available when I needed it...

  2. Oxide Ferromagnetic Semiconductors for Spin-Electronic Transprt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. R. K. Pandey, Cudworth Endowed Professor (Professor Emeritus of The Unviersity of Alabama)

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to investigate the viability of oxide magnetic semiconductors as potential materials for spintronics. We identified some members of the solid solution series of ilmenite (FeTiO3) and hematite (Fe2O3), abbreviated as (IH) for simplicity, for our investigations based on their ferromagnetic and semiconducting properties. With this objective in focus we limited our investigations to the following members of the modified Fe-titanates: IH33 (ilmenitehematite with 33 atomic percent hematite), IH45 (ilmenite-hematite with 45 atomic percent hematite), Mn-substituted ilmenite (Mn-FeTiO3), and Mn-substituted pseudobrookite (Mn- Fe2TiO5). All of them are: 1. wide bandgap semiconductors with band gaps ranging in values between 2.5 to 3.5 eV; 2. n-type semiconductors; 3.they exhibit well defined magnetic hysteresis loops and 4. their magnetic Curie points are greater than 400K. Ceramic, film and single crystal samples were studied and based on their properties we produced varistors (also known as voltage dependent resistors) for microelectronic circuit protection from power surges, three-terminal microelectronic devices capable of generating bipolar currents, and an integrated structured device with controlled magnetic switching of spins. Eleven refereed journal papers, three refereed conference papers and three invention disclosures resulted from our investigations. We also presented invited papers in three international conferences and one national conference. Furthermore two students graduated with Ph.D. degrees, three with M.S. degrees and one with B.S. degree. Also two post-doctoral fellows were actively involved in this research. We established the radiation hardness of our devices in collaboration with a colleague in an HBCU institution, at the Cyclotron Center at Texas A&M University, and at DOE National Labs (Los Alamos and Brookhaven). It is to be appreciated that we met most of our goals and expanded vastly the scope of research by including investigations of Mn-FeTiO3, Mn-Fe2TiO5 and by producing a novel three terminal device capable of generating bipolar currents besides producing radiation resistant varistors and a magnetically switchable device. Furthermore we conclusively established the radiation hardness of the four modified iron titanates we studied. In all our publications, conference and seminar presentations, dissertations and theses sponsorship of DOE has been acknowledged

  3. Graphene: Materially Better Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuhrer, M. S.; Lau, C. N.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene, a single atom–thick plane of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has captivated the attention of physicists, materials scientists, and engineers alike over the five years following its experimental isolation. Graphene is a fundamentally new type of electronic material whose electrons are strictly confined to a two-dimensional plane and exhibit properties akin to those of ultrarelativistic particles. Graphene's two-dimensional form suggests compatibility with conventional wafer processing technology. Extraordinary physical properties, including exceedingly high charge carrier mobility, current-carrying capacity, mechanical strength, and thermal conductivity, make it an enticing candidate for new electronic technologies both within and beyond complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). Immediate graphene applications include high-speed analog electronics and highly conductive, flexible, transparent thin films for displays and optoelectronics. Currently, much graphene research is focused on generating and tuning a bandgap and on novel device structures that exploit graphene's extraordinary electrical, optical, and mechanical properties.

  4. Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Aucierllo has edited 19 books, published about 450 articles, holds 14 patents, and has organized, chaired and nanocarbon thin films are providing the bases for new physics, new materials science and chemistry

  5. MATERIALS SCIENCE HEALTHCARE POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falge, Eva

    for Polymer Research are paving the way to optimizing organic substances for use in solar cells, light-emitting diodes and memory chips, and are using molecular materials to develop electronic components

  6. Rational design of hybrid organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lentz, Levi (Levi Carl)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we will present a novel design for a nano-structured organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic material that will address current challenges in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic-based solar cell materials. ...

  7. Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmel, Daren; Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying organic materials to your land can add beneficial nutrients to the soil. But when too much is applied, or when it is applied incorrectly, organic material can cause environmental problems. This publication will help you select the proper...

  8. Organic Vegetable Organic Vegetable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentrates on natural processes and how to manage them. Other materials and products are additions to .......................................6 Safety ................................................................6 Insect Management ...........................................7 Disease Management ......................................10 Weed Management

  9. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly summarize semiconductor bridge operation and review their ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite as a function of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) firing set capacitance, charge holder material and morphology of the CuO. Ignition thresholds were obtained using a brass charge holder and a non-conducting fiber-glass-epoxy composite material, G10. At - 18 C and a charge voltage of 50V, the capacitance thresholds were 30.1 {mu}F and 2.0 {mu}F respectively. They also present new data on electrostatic discharge (ESD) and radio frequency (RF) vulnerability tests.

  10. Studies of bulk materials for thermoelectric cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, J.W.; Nolas, G.S.; Volckmann, E.H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss ongoing work in three areas of thermoelectric materials research: (1) broad band semiconductors featuring anion networks, (2) filled skutterudites, and (3) polycrystalline Bi-Sb alloys. Key results include: a preliminary evaluation of a previously untested ternary semiconductor, KSnSb; the first reported data in which Sn is used as a charge compensator in filled antimonide skutterudites; the finding that Sn doping does not effect polycrystalline Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} as it does single crystal samples.

  11. CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; KOHMAN, K.T.; JAMES, R.B.

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance.

  12. Absorptivity of semiconductors used in the production of solar cell panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Grushko, E. V.; Mikityuk, T. I. [Chernivtsy National University (Ukraine)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of the absorptivity of semiconductors on the thickness of the absorbing layer is studied for crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS), and copper gallium diselenide (CuGaSe{sub 2}, CGS). The calculations are performed with consideration for the spectral distribution of AM1.5 standard solar radiation and the absorption coefficients of the materials. It is shown that, in the region of wavelengths {lambda} = {lambda}{sub g} = hc/E{sub g}, almost total absorption of the photons in AM1.5 solar radiation is attained in c-Si at the thickness d = 7-8 mm, in a-Si at d = 30-60 {mu}m, in CdTe at d = 20-30 {mu}m, and in CIS and CGS at d = 3-4 {mu}m. The results differ from previously reported data for these materials (especially for c-Si). In previous publications, the thickness needed for the semiconductor to absorb solar radiation completely was identified with the effective light penetration depth at a certain wavelength in the region of fundamental absorption for the semiconductor.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposites, plus Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices in China NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics...

  14. Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

  15. Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Yong Lee, Jae; Jay Guo, L., E-mail: guo@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present transmission visible wavelength filters based on strong interference behaviors in an ultrathin semiconductor material between two metal layers. The proposed devices were fabricated on 2?cm?×?2?cm glass substrate, and the transmission characteristics show good agreement with the design. Due to a significantly reduced light propagation phase change associated with the ultrathin semiconductor layer and the compensation in phase shift of light reflecting from the metal surface, the filters show an angle insensitive performance up to ±70°, thus, addressing one of the key challenges facing the previously reported photonic and plasmonic color filters. This principle, described in this paper, can have potential for diverse applications ranging from color display devices to the image sensors.

  16. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  17. Method of transferring a thin crystalline semiconductor layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A. (Sante Fe, NM); Shao, Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Theodore, N. David (Mesa, AZ)

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the thin semiconductor layer is bonded to a second substrate and the thin layer is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer from one substrate to the other substrate.

  18. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has...

  19. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process control charts (SPC) for product quality and processstatistical process control (SPC) charts. The concept is toMethods Univariate SPC for semiconductor manufacturing

  20. Multiplex Chaos Synchronization in Semiconductor Lasers with Multiple Optoelectronic Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. M. Shahverdiev; K. A. Shore

    2011-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Secure chaos based multiplex communication system scheme is proposed utilizing globally coupled semiconductor lasers with multiple variable time delay optoelectronic feedbacks.

  1. Beam excited acoustic instability in semiconductor quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasheed, A.; Siddique, M.; Huda, F. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Jamil, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Jung, Y.-D. [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The instability of hole-Acoustic waves due to electron beam in semiconductor quantum plasmas is examined using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The quantum effects are considered including Bohm potential, Fermi degenerate pressure, and exchange potential of the semiconductor quantum plasma species. Our model is applied to nano-sized GaAs semiconductor plasmas. The variation of the growth rate of the unstable mode is obtained over a wide range of system parameters. It is found that the thermal effects of semiconductor species have significance over the hole-Acoustic waves.

  2. Exchange interaction studies in magnetic semiconductors by neutron scattering.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiren, Zachary Quincy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Theories predict that making a dilute magnetic semiconductor strongly p -type would allow it to remain ferromagnetic at room temperature. This is of intrest as… (more)

  3. Nanoscale Engineering for the Design of Efficient Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brockway, Lance Robert

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Research aimed at enhancing the thermoelectric performance of semiconductors comprised of only earth-abundant elements has recently come under renewed focus as these materials systems offer a cost-effective path for scavenging waste heat. In light...

  4. Photoluminescence and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Studies on CdTe Material.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiangxin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The direct-band-gap semiconductor CdTe is an important material for fabricating high efficiency, polycrystalline thin-film solar cells in a heterojunction configuration. The outstanding physical properties of… (more)

  5. The Technical and Economic Potential for Electricity Energy Efficiency in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, A. H. W.; Golden, J. W.; Zarnikau, J. W.

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry. The declining prices for semiconductor products has prompted semiconductor manufacturing plants to control costs so as to maintain profitability...

  6. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  7. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  8. Transient Rayleigh scattering from single semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E.; Smith, Leigh M. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Yarrison-Rice, Jan M. [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy is a new pump-probe technique to study the dynamics and cooling of photo-excited carriers in single semiconductor nanowires. By studying the evolution of the transient Rayleigh spectrum in time after excitation, one can measure the time evolution of the density and temperature of photo-excited electron-hole plasma (EHP) as they equilibrate with lattice. This provides detailed information of dynamics and cooling of carriers including linear and bimolecular recombination properties, carrier transport characteristics, and the energy-loss rate of hot electron-hole plasma through the emission of LO and acoustic phonons.

  9. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Rand, Barry P. (Somers, NY)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

  10. MANUFACTURING ACCELERATING THE INCORPORATION OF MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    MANUFACTURING ACCELERATING THE INCORPORATION OF MATERIALS ADVANCES INTO MANUFACTURING PROCESSES NATIONAL NEED The proposed topic "Accelerating the Incorporation of Materials Advances into Manufacturing organizations, leading researchers from academic institutions, and others. Materials performance is often

  11. Magnetically and electrically tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Matthew

    Magnetically and electrically tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide inverter M. J. Gilbert,a) R implementations. We present an electrically tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter. On the other hand, if a ``0'' is present in the control bit, then the qubit is inverted. In a recent study

  12. ECE 451 -Fall 2011 Physics of Semiconductor Devices (3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    ECE 451 - Fall 2011 Physics of Semiconductor Devices (3) Electronics and Optoelectronics-Photon Scattering Processes (Optional) 18. Novel Optoelectronics and Electronics Devices (Optional) Structure on Semiconductor Physics and Device Physics, Draft Version (2010). Other Additional References or Readings: 1. J

  13. Communication using Synchronization of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with optoelectronic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illing, Lucas

    Communication using Synchronization of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with optoelectronic feedback S. The Chaos in the single-mode semiconductor lasers is generated by means of an optoelectronic feedback with optoelectronic feedback has been demonstrated for quite slow data rates by using chaotic wavelength fluctuations

  14. Multistability in a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Sze-Chun

    Multistability in a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback Guang-Qiong Xia1,2 , Sze with delayed optoelectronic feedback is observed experimentally. For a given delay time, the observed dynamical-oscillating semiconductor lasers subject to delayed optoelectronic mutual coupling," Phys. Rev. E 73, 047201-1-4 (2006) 8. G

  15. On a mathematical model for hot carrier injection in semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeiser, Christian

    On a mathematical model for hot carrier injection in semiconductors Naoufel Ben Abdallah (1) Pierre of a semiconductor device heavily depends on the injection mechanism of carriers into the active regions through by the relation V bi = U th log N + N \\Gamma ; where U th = kBT=q is the thermal voltage and N + ; N \\Gamma

  16. hal00267005, Modeling semiconductor thermal properties. The dispersion role.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , or in solar panels 3 , and are even used in medicine 4 . The increasing use of semiconductor micro in transistors 6 and semiconductor nano#12;lms in solar cells. At these low scale, Fourier's law may give , similar to photon intensity used in radiative transfer 24 . Thus, the energy ux per apparent surface unit

  17. Modular Algorithms for Transient Semiconductor Device Simulation, Part I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome, Joseph W.

    Modular Algorithms for Transient Semiconductor Device Simulation, Part I: Analysis of the Outer, is introduced at dis- crete time steps for the one-dimensional semiconductor device model. The it- eration as approximate Newton iterations. Continuation is employed as the time-stepping bridge. 1 Introduction In Part I

  18. Photonic switching devices based on semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao-Yuan Jin; Osamu Wada

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Focusing and guiding light into semiconductor nanostructures can deliver revolutionary concepts for photonic devices, which offer a practical pathway towards next-generation power-efficient optical networks. In this review, we consider the prospects for photonic switches using semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and photonic cavities which possess unique properties based on their low dimensionality. The optical nonlinearity of such photonic switches is theoretically analyzed by introducing the concept of a field enhancement factor. This approach reveals drastic improvement in both power-density and speed, which is able to overcome the limitations that have beset conventional photonic switches for decades. In addition, the overall power consumption is reduced due to the atom-like nature of QDs as well as the nano-scale footprint of photonic cavities. Based on this theoretical perspective, the current state-of-the-art of QD/cavity switches is reviewed in terms of various optical nonlinearity phenomena which have been utilized to demonstrate photonic switching. Emerging techniques, enabled by cavity nonlinear effects such as wavelength tuning, Purcell-factor tuning and plasmonic effects are also discussed.

  19. Distributed Quantum Computation Architecture Using Semiconductor Nanophotonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodney Van Meter; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Austin G. Fowler; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2009-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In a large-scale quantum computer, the cost of communications will dominate the performance and resource requirements, place many severe demands on the technology, and constrain the architecture. Unfortunately, fault-tolerant computers based entirely on photons with probabilistic gates, though equipped with "built-in" communication, have very large resource overheads; likewise, computers with reliable probabilistic gates between photons or quantum memories may lack sufficient communication resources in the presence of realistic optical losses. Here, we consider a compromise architecture, in which semiconductor spin qubits are coupled by bright laser pulses through nanophotonic waveguides and cavities using a combination of frequent probabilistic and sparse determinstic entanglement mechanisms. The large photonic resource requirements incurred by the use of probabilistic gates for quantum communication are mitigated in part by the potential high-speed operation of the semiconductor nanophotonic hardware. The system employs topological cluster-state quantum error correction for achieving fault-tolerance. Our results suggest that such an architecture/technology combination has the potential to scale to a system capable of attacking classically intractable computational problems.

  20. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargis, Rytis, E-mail: dargis@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi [Translucent, Inc., 952 Commercial St., Palo Alto, California 94303 (United States); Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  1. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  2. Carbon doping of III-V compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moll, A.J.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Focus of the study is C acceptor doping of GaAs, since C diffusion coefficient is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of other common p-type dopants in GaAs. C ion implantation results in a concentration of free holes in the valence band < 10% of that of the implanted C atoms for doses > 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. Rutherford backscattering, electrical measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were amonth the techniques used. Ga co-implantation increased the C activation in two steps: first, the additional radiation damage creates vacant As sites that the implanted C can occupy, and second, it maintains the stoichiometry of the implanted layer, reducing the number of compensating native defects. In InP, the behavior of C was different from that in GaAs. C acts as n-type dopant in the In site; however, its incorporation by implantation was difficult to control; experiments using P co-implants were inconsistent. The lattice position of inactive C in GaAs in implanted and epitaxial layers is discussed; evidence for formation of C precipitates in GaAs and InP was found. Correlation of the results with literature on C doping in III-V semiconductors led to a phenomenological description of C in III-V compounds (particularly GaAs): The behavior of C is controlled by the chemical nature of C and the instrinsic Fermi level stabilization energy of the material.

  3. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  4. Proc. Fifteenth IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, March 9-11, 1999, San Diego CA, IEEE # 99CH36306.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    Proc. Fifteenth IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, March 9-11, 1999, San Diego CA, IEEE # 99CH36306. 74 THERMAL MANAGEMENT USING "DRY" PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS R.A. Wirtz" PCM unit conductance D Heat sink depth htr Heat of transition H Fin height Hpcm PCM mass depth kal

  5. Materials from Renewable Resources Most synthetic organic materials and polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    initiative of the faculties of chemistry and pharmacy, physics, biology, didactics and the Straubing Center complete the activities o To support the resear didactics and the Straubing Center of Science

  6. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

  7. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  8. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  9. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

    1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  10. Combinatorial sythesis of organometallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  11. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  12. Porous Materials -Metal-Organic Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    expected to grow to 68% in 2025 · Hydrogen as energy carrier clean, efficient, and can be derived from domestic resources Renewable (biomass, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) Fossil fuels (coal ,natural gas is a critical enabling technology for the acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles · Storing sufficient hydrogen

  13. Organic materials with acenoid and iptycene structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhihua, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. The synthesis of a group of alkoxy-substituted para-acenequinones and their photophysical properties in solution and liquid crystal are reported. Polarized absorption and fluorescence measurements demonstrate ...

  14. Center Organization | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy,MUSEUM DISPLAYCareersCathy-Ehli Sign InCenter

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: organic PV materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine bladelifetime ismobile testnationalnuclearelectricoptimized

  16. Electric force microscopy of semiconductors: Theory of cantilever frequency fluctuations and noncontact friction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekkala, Swapna; Marohn, John A.; Loring, Roger F., E-mail: roger.loring@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric force microscope employs a charged atomic force microscope probe in vacuum to measure fluctuating electric forces above the sample surface generated by dynamics of molecules and charge carriers. We present a theoretical description of two observables in electric force microscopy of a semiconductor: the spectral density of cantilever frequency fluctuations (jitter), which are associated with low-frequency dynamics in the sample, and the coefficient of noncontact friction, induced by higher-frequency motions. The treatment is classical-mechanical, based on linear response theory and classical electrodynamics of diffusing charges in a dielectric continuum. Calculations of frequency jitter explain the absence of contributions from carrier dynamics to previous measurements of an organic field effect transistor. Calculations of noncontact friction predict decreasing friction with increasing carrier density through the suppression of carrier density fluctuations by intercarrier Coulomb interactions. The predicted carrier density dependence of the friction coefficient is consistent with measurements of the dopant density dependence of noncontact friction over Si. Our calculations predict that in contrast to the measurement of cantilever frequency jitter, a noncontact friction measurement over an organic semiconductor could show appreciable contributions from charge carriers.

  17. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive...

  18. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 April 2011 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and...

  19. Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices Through Chemical Modification of Host Materials . Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

  20. Energy Conservation Through Water Usage Reduction in the Semiconductor Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendicino, L.; McCormack, K.; Gibson, S.; Patton, B.; Lyon, D.; Covington, J.

    The semiconductor industry uses large amounts of Ultrapure Water (UPW) in the wafer fabrication process. Producing UPW involves energy-intensive operations, such as membrane separations, ultraviolet lamps, and continuous pumping and recirculation...

  1. Data sheet acquired from Harris Semiconductor Buffered Inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kretchmar, R. Matthew

    1 Data sheet acquired from Harris Semiconductor SCHS121D Features · Buffered Inputs · Typical. The suffixes 96 and R denote tape and reel. The suffix T denotes a small-quantity reel of 250. CAUTION

  2. Data sheet acquired from Harris Semiconductor Four Operating Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kretchmar, R. Matthew

    1 Data sheet acquired from Harris Semiconductor SCHS164F Features · Four Operating Modes - Shift Ld PDIP NOTE: When ordering, use the entire part number. The suffixes 96 and R denote tape and reel

  3. AlGaN/GaN-based power semiconductor switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for their use as high efficiency and high speed power semiconductor switches, thanks to their high breakdown electric field, mobility and ...

  4. Thermo-electrically pumped semiconductor light emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Parthiban

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo-electric heat exchange in semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) allows these devices to emit optical power in excess of the electrical power used to drive them, with the remaining power drawn from ambient heat. ...

  5. Improving reuse of semiconductor equipment through benchmarking, standardization, and automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silber, Jacob B. (Jacob Bradley)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 6D program at Intel® Corporation was set up to improve operations around capital equipment reuse, primarily in their semiconductor manufacturing facilities. The company was faced with a number of challenges, including ...

  6. Semiconductor nanowire array: potential substrates for photocatalysis and photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    Semiconductor nanowire array: potential substrates for photocatalysis and photovoltaics Yiying Wu, these nanowire arrays could find unique applications in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. KEY WORDS luminescence efficiency [5,6], enhancement of thermoelectric figure of merit [7] and lowered lasing threshold

  7. Translating semiconductor device physics into nanoparticle films for electronic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanger, Darcy Deborah

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores and quantifies some of the important device physics, parameters, and mechanisms of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dot (QD) electronic devices, and photovoltaic devices in particular. This involves ...

  8. Semiconductor nanocrystals : synthesis, mechanisms of formation, and applications in biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Peter M. (Peter Matthew)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary focus of this thesis is the synthesis and applications of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs). Novel synthetic routes to ternary 1-III-VI QDs are presented, and we report the first highly luminescent ...

  9. Phenomenological band structure model of magnetic coupling in semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    Phenomenological band structure model of magnetic coupling in semiconductors Gustavo M. Dalpian a,1­18]. Several models have been proposed to explain the phenomena, including the phenomenological Zener

  10. FRONTIERS ARTICLE Theory of multiexciton generation in semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baer, Roi

    FRONTIERS ARTICLE Theory of multiexciton generation in semiconductor nanocrystals Eran Rabani a's function formalism to calculate the efficiency of multiexciton generation in nanocrystal quantum dots multiexciton generation in nanocrystals, are reviewed and rederived from the unified theory as certain

  11. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  12. Active infrared materials for beam steering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brener, Igal; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Gin, Aaron V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Miao, Xiaoyu; Barrick, Todd A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR, 3 {micro}m -12 {micro}m) is a highly desirable spectral range for imaging and environmental sensing. We propose to develop a new class of mid-IR devices, based on plasmonic and metamaterial concepts, that are dynamically controlled by tunable semiconductor plasma resonances. It is well known that any material resonance (phonons, excitons, electron plasma) impacts dielectric properties; our primary challenge is to implement the tuning of a semiconductor plasma resonance with a voltage bias. We have demonstrated passive tuning of both plasmonic and metamaterial structures in the mid-IR using semiconductors plasmas. In the mid-IR, semiconductor carrier densities on the order of 5E17cm{sup -3} to 2E18cm{sup -3} are desirable for tuning effects. Gate control of carrier densities at the high end of this range is at or near the limit of what has been demonstrated in literature for transistor style devices. Combined with the fact that we are exploiting the optical properties of the device layers, rather than electrical, we are entering into interesting territory that has not been significantly explored to date.

  13. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. , Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells. Nature Materials,shown for ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells, which are also PEC

  14. First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecha, E. M. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003 Pretoria (South Africa); Lombardi, E. B., E-mail: lombaeb@unisa.ac.za [College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0??{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33?meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.

  15. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  16. High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami UNREL DoDDLA Project) (presentation) High...

  17. Characterization and electrical modeling of semiconductors bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marx, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor bridges (SCBs) are finding increased use as initiators for explosive and pyrotechnic devices. They offer advantages in reduced voltage and energy requirements, coupled with excellent safety features. The design of explosive systems which implement either SCBs or metal bridgewires can be facilitated through the use of electrical simulation software such as the PSpice{reg_sign} computer code. A key component in the electrical simulation of such systems is an electrical model of the bridge. This report has two objectives: (1) to present and characterize electrical data taken in tests of detonators which employ SCBs with BNCP as the explosive powder; and (2) to derive appropriate electrical models for such detonators. The basis of such models is a description of the resistance as a function of energy deposited in the SCB. However, two important features which must be added to this are (1) the inclusion of energy loss through such mechanisms as ohmic heating of the aluminum lands and heat transfer from the bridge to the surrounding media; and (2) accounting for energy deposited in the SCB through heat transfer to the bridge from the explosive powder after the powder ignites. The modeling procedure is entirely empirical; i.e., models for the SCB resistance and the energy gain and loss have been estimated from experimental data taken over a range of firing conditions. We present results obtained by applying the model to the simulation of SCB operation in representative tests.

  18. Atomistic Time-Domain Simulations of Light-Harvesting and Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Novel Nanoscale Materials for Solar Hydrogen Production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Funded by the DOE grant (i) we continued to study and analyze the atomistic detail of the electron transfer (ET) across the chromophore-TiO2 interface in Gratzel cell systems for solar hydrogen production. (ii) We extensively investigated the nature of photoexcited states and excited state dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots (QD) designed for photovoltaic applications. (iii) We continued a newly initiated research direction focusing on excited state properties and electron-phonon interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. Over the past year, the results of the DOE funded research were summarized in 3 review articles. 12 original manuscripts were written. The research results were reported in 28 invited talks at conferences and university seminars. 20 invitations were accepted for talks in the near future. 2 symposia at national and international meetings have being organized this year on topics closely related to the DOE funded project, and 2 more symposia have been planned for the near future. We summarized the insights into photoinduced dynamics of semiconductor QDs, obtained from our time-domain ab initio studies. QDs exhibit both molecular and bulk properties. Unlike either bulk or molecular materials, QD properties can be modified continuously by changing QD shape and size. However, the chemical and physical properties of molecular and bulk materials often contradict each other, which can lead to differing viewpoints about the behavior of QDs. For example, the molecular view suggests strong electron-hole and charge-phonon interactions, as well as slow energy relaxation due to mismatch between electronic energy gaps and phonon frequencies. In contrast, the bulk view advocates that the kinetic energy of quantum confinement is greater than electron-hole interactions, that charge-phonon coupling is weak, and that the relaxation through quasi-continuous bands is rapid. By synthesizing the bulk and molecular viewpoints, we clarified the controversies and provided a unified atomistic picture of the nature and dynamics of photoexcited states in semiconductor QDs. We also summarized our recent findings about the photoinduced electron dynamics at the chromophore-semiconductor interfaces from a time-domain ab initio perspective. The interface provides the foundation for a new, promising type of solar cell and presents a fundamentally important case study for several fields, including photo-, electro- and analytical chemistries, molecular electronics, and photography. Further, the interface offers a classic example of an interaction between an organic molecular species and an inorganic bulk material. Scientists employ different concepts and terminologies to describe molecular and solid states of matter, and these differences make it difficult to describe the interface with a single model. At the basic atomistic level of description, however, this challenge can be largely overcome. Recent advances in non-adiabatic molecular dynamics and time-domain density functional theory have created a unique opportunity for simulating the ultrafast, photoinduced processes on a computer very similar to the way that they occur in nature. These state-of-the-art theoretical tools offered a comprehensive picture of a variety of electron transfer processes that occur at the interface, including electron injection from the chromophore to the semiconductor, electron relaxation and delocalization inside the semiconductor, back-transfer of the electron to the chromophore and to the electrolyte, and regeneration of the neutral chromophore by the electrolyte. The ab initio time-domain modeling is particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic features of the ultrafast electron transfer processes, which cannot be represented by a simple rate description. We demonstrated using symmetry adapted cluster theory with configuration interaction (SAC-CI) that charging of small PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) greatly modifies their electronic states and optical excitations. Conduction and valence band transitions that are not available in neutral NCs dominate

  19. Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators in I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 Chalcopyrite Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ding, Jun [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics/Chinese Academy of Scie; Xiao, Di [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent discovery of topological insulators with exotic metallic surface states has garnered great interest in the fields of condensed matter physics and materials science.1 A number of spectacular quantum phenomena have been predicted when the surface states are under the influence of magnetism and superconductivity,2 5 which could open up new opportunities for technological applications in spintronics and quantum computing. To achieve this goal, material realization of topological insulators with desired physical properties is of crucial importance. Based on first-principles calculations, here we show that a large number of ternary chalcopyrite compounds of composition I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 can realize the topological insulating phase in their native states. The crystal structure of chalcopyrites is derived from the frequently used zinc-blende structure, and many of them possess a close lattice match to important mainstream semiconductors, which is essential for a smooth integration into current semiconductor technology. The diverse optical, electrical and structural properties of chalcopyrite semiconductors,6 and particularly their ability to host room-temperature ferromagnetism,7 9 make them appealing candidates for novel spintronic devices.

  20. Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators in I-III-VI$_2$ and II-IV-V$_2$ Chalcopyrite Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanxiang Feng; Jun Ding; Di Xiao; Yugui Yao

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent discovery of topological insulators with exotic metallic surface states has garnered great interest in the fields of condensed matter physics and materials science. A number of spectacular quantum phenomena have been predicted when the surface states are under the influence of magnetism and superconductivity, which could open up new opportunities for technological applications in spintronics and quantum computing. To achieve this goal, material realization of topological insulators with desired physical properties is of crucial importance. Based on first-principles calculations, here we show that a large number of ternary chalcopyrite compounds of composition I-III-VI$_2$ and II-IV-V$_2$ can realize the topological insulating phase in their native states. The crystal structure of chalcopyrites is derived from the frequently used zinc-blende structure, and many of them possess a close lattice match to important mainstream semiconductors, which is essential for a smooth integration into current semiconductor technology. The diverse optical, electrical and structural properties of chalcopyrite semiconductors, and particularly their ability to host room-temperature ferromagnetism, make them appealing candidates for novel spintronic devices.