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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Semiconductor Material...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductor Material & Device Sciences > Advanced Materials Sciences > Lasers, Optics & Remote Sensing Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering...

2

High-Throughput Transfer Imprinting for Organic Semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of nanoimprint lithography(NIL) has enabled high-throughput and high-resolution patterning over the optical limitation. In recent years, thermal nanoimprint has been used to directly pattern functional materials such as organic semiconductors because heat and pressure used in thermal nanoimprint do not damage functional materials. However, issues such as residual layer removal and mold contamination still limit the application of nanoimprint for organic semiconductor patterning. In this work, nanoimprint-based transfer imprinting of organic semiconductor is studied. In the same time the suggested technique is simulated with COMSOL multi-physics simulator to understand its mechanism. This transfer printing technique utilize thermal nanoimprint scheme to enable residual-layer-free patterning of organic semiconductors without mold contamination. The transfer imprinting technique is amenable to roll-to-roll process for high-throughput patterning of organic semiconductors for low-cost organic electronic applications.

Choo, Gihoon

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

MST: Organizations: Organic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adhesive Bonding Adhesive Bonding Composites Encapsulation Materials Characterization Mechanical Testing Molding, Thermoforming, & Compounding Organizations Organic Materials Composite-to-metal adhesive bond Experimental/analytical study of composit-to-metal adhesive bond. The Organic Materials department in the Advanced Manufacturing and Processing Laboratory provides innovative prototype fabrication, full service small lot production, materials technology, processing expertise, and a broad range of organic material characterization and mechanical testing techniques. We encapsulate, we join and bond, we foam, we analyze and image, we build composite structures. We strive to make you, our customers, successful! We partner with you to find the right combination of materials, processing, and fixturing that will result in the highest value

4

The synthesis of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystalline materials for the purpose of creating hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) or quantum dots (QDs) can be synthesized to efficiently emit light from the ultraviolet, across the entire visible spectrum, and into the near infrared. This is now possible due ...

Steckel, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Stephen)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Anomalous Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anomalous charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors is studied using fractional differential equations. The connection between index of fractional derivative and dispersion exponent is examined from the perspective of fractional Fokker-Planck equation and its link to the continuous time random walk formalism. The fractional model is used to describe the bi-scaling power-laws observed in the time-of flight photo-current transient data for two different types of organic semiconductors.

Muniandy, S. V.; Woon, K. L. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Choo, K. Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

Toward a Unified Treatment of Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A quantitative study of n-type doping in highly crystalline organic semiconductor films establishes the predominant influence of electrostatic forces in these low-dielectric materials. Based on these findings, a self-consistent model of doped (purposely or not) organic semiconductors is proposed in which: (1) the equilibrium free carrier density, nf, is a small fraction of the total charge density; (2) a superlinear increase in conductivity with doping density is universal; (3) nf increases with applied electric field; and (4) the carrier mobility is field-dependent regardless of crystallinity.

Gregg. B.A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Solar Superabsorption of Semiconductor Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically demonstrate the fundamental limit in volume for given materials (e.g. Si, a-Si, CdTe) to fully absorb the solar radiation above bandgap, which we refer as solar superabsorption limit. We also point out the general principles for experimentally designing light trapping structures to approach the superabsorption. This study builds upon an intuitive model, coupled leaky mode theory (CLMT), for the analysis of light absorption in nanostructures. The CLMT provides a useful variable transformation. Unlike the existing methods that rely on information of physical features (e.g. morphology, dimensionality) to analyze light absorption, the CLMT can evaluate light absorption in given materials with only two variables, the radiative loss and the resonant wavelength, of leaky modes, regardless the physical features of the materials. This transformation allows for surveying the entire variable space to find out the solar superabsorption and provides physical insights to guide the design of solar superabso...

Yu, Yiling; Cao, Linyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI Jump to: navigation, search Name Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) Place San Jose, California Zip 95134 2127 Product Global trade association, publisher and conference organiser representing the semiconductor and flat panel display equipment manufacturers. References Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) is a company located in San Jose, California . References ↑ "Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Semiconductor_Equipment_and_Materials_International_SEMI&oldid=350739

9

Physics and simulation of transport processes in hybrid organic semiconductor devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic semiconductors and nanomaterials promise to potentially form the basis for future efficient and cost-effective large area optoelectronic devices, such as lightemitting diodes and solar cells. Although these materials' ...

Rousseau, Ian Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc SAMCO | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Materials Company Inc SAMCO and Materials Company Inc SAMCO Jump to: navigation, search Name Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO) Place Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan Zip 612-8443 Sector Solar Product Japanese manufactruer of semiconductor and solar manufacturing equipment such as etching, deposition and cleaning systems. References Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO) is a company located in Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan . References ↑ "Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Semiconductor_and_Materials_Company_Inc_SAMCO&oldid=350738

11

Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials  

SciTech Connect

A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

12

Bottoms Up: Better Organic Semiconductors for Printable ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A patent from British researchers in 2005 offered a promising compromise: blend the small semiconductor molecules in with the polymer. ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

13

Evaluation of Radiation Resistance for Organic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbide fiber Evaluation of semiconductor devices for space use Creation of carnations with variety Research Activities for Quantum Beam Applications Polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cells Silicon for organic materials used in atomic energy- related facilities J-PARC ITER Si-polymer Forming : fiber

McDonald, Kirk

14

Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor tran- sistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit light when the drain source volt- age... the organic light emitting devices become mainstream, there are several challenges that need to be resolved and current research focus is to ad- dress those challenges. One particular challenge is relatively high operating volt- ages of light emitting organic...

Bhat, Shrivalli

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

15

Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor overcoated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Method of depositing wide bandgap amorphous semiconductor materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing wide bandgap p type amorphous semiconductor materials on a substrate without photosensitization by the decomposition of one or more higher order gaseous silanes in the presence of a p-type catalytic dopant at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. and a pressure in the range from about 1-50 Torr.

Ellis, Jr., Frank B. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

1987-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

17

Hyperfine interaction and magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the possibility that hyperfine interaction causes the recently discovered organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) effect. Our study employs both experiment and theoretical modelling. An excitonic pair mechanism model based on hyperfine interaction, previously suggested by others to explain magnetic field effects in organics, is examined. Whereas this model can explain a few key aspects of the experimental data, we, however, uncover several fundamental contradictions as well. By varying the injection efficiency for minority carriers in the devices, we show experimentally that OMAR is only weakly dependent on the ratio between excitons formed and carriers injected, likely excluding any excitonic effect as the origin of OMAR.

Y. Sheng; D. T. Nguyen; G. Veeraraghavan; . Mermer; M. Wohlgenannt; U. Scherf

2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Material Growth and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power .... due to a historical lack of native substrates and challenges in selectively ... have been optimized to provide equal growth rates of both polarities.

19

Improved Organic Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal  

Solar Photovoltaic Improved Organic Photovoltaics B4 Materials For Organic Semiconductor Applications, Including Molecular Electronics And Organic Photovoltaics

20

Femtosecond laser interactions with semiconductor and dielectric materials  

SciTech Connect

Electronic excitation-relaxation processes induced by ultra-short laser pulses are studied numerically for semiconductors and dielectric materials (Si, quartz). A detailed kinetic approach is used in the calculations accounting for electron-photon-phonon, electron-phonon and electron-electron scatterings. In addition, both laser field ionization ranging from multi-photon to tunneling one, and electron impact (avalanche) ionization processes are included in the model. Based on the performed calculations we study the relaxation time as a function of laser parameters. It is shown that this time depends on the density of the created free carriers, which in turn is a nonlinear function of laser intensity. In addition, a simple damage criterion is proposed based on the mean electron energy density rather than on critical free electron density. This criterion gives a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data practically without adjustable parameters. Furthermore, the performed modeling provides energy absorbed in the target, conditions for damage of dielectric materials, as well as conditions for surface plasmon excitation and for periodic surface structure formation on the surface of semiconductor materials.

Shcheblanov, Nikita S.; Derrien, Thibault J. Y.; Itina, Tatiana E. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, CNRS//Universite Jeann Monnet, 18 rue du Prof. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procedes Photoniques, CNRS//Universite de la Mediterranee, 162 avenue de Luminy, 13288, Marseille (France); Laboratoire Hubert Curien, CNRS//Universite Jeann Monnet, 18 rue du Prof. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Allen, Larry C. (Arvada, CO); Marshall, Craig (Littleton, CO); Murphy, Robert C. (Golden, CO); Marshall, Todd (Littleton, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

23

Physical properties and design of light-emitting devices based on organic materials and nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the detailed experimental and theoretical characterization of light-emitting devices (LEDs) based on organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots (QDs). This hybrid material system has several ...

Anikeeva, Polina Olegovna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Hybrid Organic: Inorganic Materials for Alternative Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Hybrid Organic: Inorganic Materials for Alternative Energy. Sponsorship.

26

Methods of use of semiconductor nanocrystal probes for treating a material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Belmont, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Development of New Building Blocks for Constructing Novel Polymer Semiconductors for Organic Thin Film Transistors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Organic semiconductors are envisioned to have widespread applications in flexible displays, radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, bio- and chem-sensors, as well as organic solar cells. Polymer (more)

Yan, Zhuangqing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices arent new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the devices efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

None

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

29

Electrochemical oxidation of organic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method and apparatus for the direct oxidation of organic materials, especially organic wastes, in an electrochemical cell. It fulfills the need for a simple, cost-effective way for generators of small quantities of waste to deal with that waste. It does not use an electron transfer agent, which may be a source of additional hazardous waste. The anode is made of carbon felt; the cathode is platinum; and the electrolyte is a strong oxidizer, preferably nitric acid. The potential difference is 2 to 3 volts; the current density is 0.15 to 0.25 A/cm{sup 2}. The porous barrier is a medium grade alumina frit or an ion exchange membrane. The organic materials are fed to the anode compartment; the resulting oxygen bubbling circumvents the need for stirring or circulating the waste. Many different types of waste (e.g. rubber gloves, TBP, process solutions, etc.) can be fed to the anode compartment without the need to process or store it. 3 figs. (DLC)

Almon, A.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Photocatalytic Oxidation of Aqueous Organic Contaminants by Semiconductors using Visible Light Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Continuously mixed Light Source · T5 8 watt florescent bulbs · "Daylight Spectrum" · Color Rendering Index 75Photocatalytic Oxidation of Aqueous Organic Contaminants by Semiconductors using Visible Light

Meyers, Steven D.

31

Singlet exciton fission, a multi-exciton generation process, in organic semiconductor solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic semiconductor photovoltaics hold the promise of cheap production and low manufacturing setup costs. The highest efficiency seen in research labs, ~10% today, is still too low for production. In this work we explore ...

Jadhav, Priyadarshani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Electronic Properties of Disordered Organic Semiconductors via QM/MM Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently received significant attention for their potential use in photovoltaic, light emitting diode, and field effect transistor devices. Part of the appeal of OSCs is the disordered, ...

Difley, Seth

33

Laboratory Thin-Film Encapsulation of Air-Sensitive Organic Semiconductor Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an approach, which is compatible with both glass and polymer substrates, to in-laboratory handling and intra-laboratory shipping of air-sensitive organic semiconductors. Encapsulation approaches are presented ...

Subbarao, Samuel P.

34

Dilute III-V Nitride Semiconductors and Material Systems: Physics and Technology, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major current challenge for semiconductor devices is to develop materials for the next generation of optical communication systems and solar power conversion applications. Recently, extensive research has revealed that an introduction of only a few ...

Ayse Erol; Ayse Erol

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Dopant type and/or concentration selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition in the presence of a second semiconductor material which is of a composition different from said first material, said second material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux of an energy greater than their respective direct bandgaps and to the same gaseous chemical etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said conditions also being such that the resultant electronic structure of the first semiconductor material under said photon flux is sufficient for the first material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions and being such that the resultant electronic structure of the second semiconductor material under said photon flux is not sufficient for the second material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions. In a preferred mode, the materials are subjected to a bias voltage which suppresses etching in n- or p- type material but not in p- or n-type material, respectively; or suppresses etching in the more heavily doped of two n-type or two p-type materials.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

37

Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

39

Supporting Organizations | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORNL. ORNL is home to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and our materials program works with the Neutron Sciences staff at these...

40

P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1988-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Organic Electronics: Materials, Processing, Devices and Applications, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the near future, organic semiconductors may be used in a variety of products, including flat-screen TVs, e-book readers, and third-generation organic photovoltaics applications, to name just a few. While organic electronics has received increased ...

Franky So

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Hydrogenated Bilayer Wurtzite SiC Nanofilms: A Two-Dimensional Bipolar Magnetic Semiconductor Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, a new kind of spintronics materials, bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate, or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.

Yuan, Long; Yang, Jinlong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Semiconductor and Optical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences > Semiconductor Material & Device Sciences > Advanced Materials Sciences > Lasers, Optics & Remote Sensing Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Jeff Nelson Jerry A. Simmons Sr. Manager Idabelle Idabelle Courtney Admin. Asst. Departments Semiconductor and Optical Sciences The Semiconductor and Optical Sciences Department oversees the operations of the following departments providing new scientific knowledge that can lead to technology solutions in the areas of: Compound semiconductor optoelectronic materials and devices Chemical science to materials technologies, emphasizing the science and engineering of Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) Remote sensing and detection of WMD proliferation activities

44

Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti-reflection coating for multicrystalline Si solar cells. An important component of this project is the collaboration with Dr. Dave Ginley's group at NREL. The NREL efforts, which are funded by NREL's LDRD program, focus on measuring device performance, external quantum efficiency, photoconductance through highly specialized non-contact time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements, and vapor phase deposition of oxide materials. The close collaboration with NREL enables us to enter this competitive field in such short time. Joint publications and presentations have resulted from this fruitful collaboration. To this date, 5 referred journal papers have resulted from this project, with 2 more in preparation. Several invited talks and numerous contributed presentations in international conferences are also noted. Sandia has gained the reputation of being one of forefront research groups on nanostructured hybrid solar cells.

Hsu, Julia, W. P.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device. 22 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

47

Strain-based control of crystal anisotropy for perovskite oxides on semiconductor-based material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystalline structure and a semiconductor device includes a substrate of a semiconductor-based material and a thin film of an anisotropic crystalline material epitaxially arranged upon the surface of the substrate so that the thin film couples to the underlying substrate and so that the geometries of substantially all of the unit cells of the thin film are arranged in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate surface. The predisposition of the geometries of the unit cells of the thin film is responsible for a predisposed orientation of a directional-dependent quality, such as the dipole moment, of the unit cells. The predisposed orientation of the unit cell geometries are influenced by either a stressed or strained condition of the lattice at the interface between the thin film material and the substrate surface.

McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Heterogeneous reaction mechanisms and kinetics relevant to the CVD of semiconductor materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the state of the art in experimental and theoretical techniques for determining reaction mechanisms and chemical kinetics of heterogeneous reactions relevant to the chemical vapor deposition of semiconductor materials. It summarizes the most common ultra-high vacuum experimental techniques that are used and the types of rate information available from each. Several case studies of specific chemical systems relevant to the microelectronics industry are described. Theoretical methods for calculating heterogeneous reaction rate constants are also summarized.

Creighton, J.R.; Coltrin, M.E.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

From semiconductor-semiconductor transition (42 K) to the highest- Tc organic superconductor,. kappa. -(ET) sub 2 Cu(N(CN) sub 2 )Cl ( Tc = 12. 5 K)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discovery of an organic superconductor with the highest transition temperature (125 K) recorded following the suppression of a semiconductor-semiconductor transition (42 K) is reported. The reported compound is a kappa-phase superconductor, kappa-(ET){sub 2}Cu(N(CN){sub 2})Cl, which is isostructural with the recently prepared ambient-pressure superconductor kappa-(ET){sub 2}Cu(N(CN){sub 2})Br with a transition temperature of 11.5 K that has been previously reported. Band electronic structural calculations show the newly discovered compound to be a two-dimensional metal. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Williams, J.M.; Kini, A.M.; Wang, H.H.; Carlson, K.D.; Geiser, U.; Montgomery, L.K.; Pyrka, G.J.; Watkins, D.M.; Kommers, J.M.; Boryschuk, S.J.; Strieby Crouch, A.V.; Kwok, W.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Schirber, J.E.; Overmyer, D.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Jung, D.; Whangbo, Myunghwan (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1990-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

51

Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

Stupp, Samuel I. (Champaign, IL); Son, Sehwan (Savoy, IL); Lin, Hong-Cheu (Taipei, TW)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidenephenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl)-4{prime}-[(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it. 4 figs.

Stupp, S.I.; Son, S.; Lin, H.C.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

53

Conversion of waste organic material to gasoline  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present status of a development project to convert organic waste material to gasoline has been described. The method is based on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of straight-chain hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis gas with the subsequent reforming of these hydrocarbons to gasoline. The concept appears technically feasible. Implementation on a large scale is dependent on refinements in process performance and demonstrated operational reliability. If these objectives are achieved, the process economics could be attractive.

Kuester, J.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Negative capacitance in organic semiconductor devices: bipolar injection and charge recombination mechanism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report negative capacitance at low frequencies in organic semiconductor based diodes and show that it appears only under bipolar injection conditions. We account quantitatively for this phenomenon by the recombination current due to electron-hole annihilation. Simple addition of the recombination current to the well established model of space charge limited current in the presence of traps, yields excellent fits to the experimentally measured admittance data. The dependence of the extracted characteristic recombination time on the bias voltage is indicative of a recombination process which is mediated by localized traps.

Ehrenfreund, E; Dennler, G; Neugebauer, H; Sariciftci, N S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Recent advances as materials of functional metal-organic frameworks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as hybrid inorganic-organic materials, represent an emerging class of materials that have attracted the imagination of solid-state chemists because MOFs combine unprecedented levels of porosity with a range ...

Xiao-Lan Tong, Hai-Lu Lin, Jian-Hua Xin, Fen Liu, Min Li, Xia-Ping Zhu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Application of scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy for characterization of semiconductor materials for photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy was previously demonstrated as an effective tool for characterization of different semiconductor crystals. Now the technique has been successfully applied for the investigation of CZ SixGe1-x -- a promising material for photovoltaics - and multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. In addition, this technique was shown to be appropriate for imaging of polishing-induced defects as well as such huge defects as "pin holes". Besides, previously unexplained "anomalous" (cubic power) dependence of signal of the scanning mid-IR-laser microscope in the optical-beam-induced light scattering mode on the photoexcitation power obtained for mechanically polished samples has now been attributed to the excess carrier scattering on charged linear defects, likely dislocation lines. The conclusion is made in the article that the scanning mid-IR-laser microscopy may serve as very effective tool for defect investigations in materials for modern photovoltaics.

Kalinushkin, V P; Yuryev, V A; 10.1016/S0927-0248(00)00076-3

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an organic background Title Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an organic background Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2009 Authors Baudelet, Matthieu, Myriam Boueri, Jin Yu, Xianglei Mao, Samuel S. Mao, and Richard E. Russo Conference Name Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors and Nanostructure Materials XIII Series Title Proceedings SPIE Volume 7214 Pagination 72140J Date Published 02/2009 Abstract We demonstrate in this paper that laser ablation allows efficient analysis of organic and biological materials. Such analysis is based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) which consists in the detection of the optical emission from the plasma induced by a high intensity laser pulse focused on the sample surface. The optimization of the ablation regime in terms of laser parameters (pulse duration, wavelength, fluence) is important to generate a plasma suitable for the analysis. We first present the results of a study of laser ablation of organic samples with different laser parameters using time-resolved shadowgraph. We correlate the early stage expansion of the plasma to its optical emission properties, which allows us to choose suitable laser parameters for an efficient analysis of organic or biological samples by LIBS. As an illustration of the analytical ability of LIBS for biological materials, we show that the emission from CN molecules can be used to distinguish between biological and inorganic samples. Native CN molecular fragment directly ablated from a biological sample are identified using time-resolved LIBS. Those due to recombination with nitrogen contained in atmospheric air can be distinguished with their specific time evolution behavior.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

Doping in Organic Semiconductors: Impact of Trap Filling on Interface Control and Charge Carrier Mobility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 /V.s. Numerical simulations utilizing kinetic Monte Carlo method confirm an exponential tail, chemical, structural and electrical properties of materials relevant to thin-film electronic devices. His developed for applications in organic and molecular electronics. His group is particularly interested

Ejiri, Shinji

62

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to other OLEDs' attributes such as mechanical flexibility and potential low cost), the OLED technology is promising to successfully compete with current technologies, such as LCDs and inorganic LEDs.

Cai, Min

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Semiconductors and sustainability : energy and materials use in integrated circuit manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semiconductors have propelled an incredible revolution in the way we generate, access, store, and communicate information; the effects of this revolution have transformed culture, society, and the economy. At the same time, ...

Branham, Matthew S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Exploring and enhancing conductivity in semiconductor nanoparticle films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are a promising material for use in opto-electronic devices as their optical properties tune with particle size. NCs formed via colloidal synthesis are suspended in solution by the organic ...

Porter, Venda Jane

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials  

SciTech Connect

A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

Salzman, Rhonda F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

68

Vibronic states in organic semiconductors based on non-metal naphthalocyanine. Detection of heterocyclic phthalocyanine compounds in a flexible dielectric matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vibronic properties of semiconductor structures based on non-metal naphthalocyanine molecules are studied using IR and Raman spectroscopy methods. New absorption lines in the transmission spectra of such materials are detected and identified. Three transmission lines are observed in the range 2830-3028 cm{sup -1}, which characterize carbon-hydrogen bonds of peripheral molecular groups. Their spectral positions are 2959, 2906, and 2866 cm{sup -1}. It is detected that the phthalocyanine ring can also exhibit its specific vibronic properties in the Raman spectra at 767, 717, and 679 cm{sup -1}. The naphthalocyanine molecule in the organic dielectric matrix of microfibers is described using IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the set of vibrations characterizing the isoindol group, pyrrole ring, naphtha group, and C-H bonds, allows an accurate enough description of the vibronic states of the naphthalocyanine complex in complex heterostructures to be made. The spectral range with fundamental modes, characterizing a naphthalocyanine semiconductor in a heterostructure, is 600-1600 cm{sup -1}. A comparison of the compositions of complex systems with a similar heterostructure containing lutetium diphthalocyanine demonstrated few errors.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru [State Research and Project Institute of Rare-Metal Industry GIREDMET (Russian Federation); Tikhonov, E. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Dronov, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Belogorokhova, L. I. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Ryabchikov, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic longitudinal modulation, which may be a compositional modulation or a strain-induced modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Ritz, Clark S. (Middleton, WI)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic compositional longitudinal modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

Lagally, Max G; Evans, Paul G; Ritz, Clark S

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

71

Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be as high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

Weaver, Paul F. (13130 W. 66th Pl., Golden, CO 80401)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

Weaver, P.F.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

Nozik, A. J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ultrathin, large-area light sources made from organic semiconductor materials. Over the past decades, much research has been spent on finding suitable materials to realize ...

Reineke, Sebastian

75

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Contribution of Semi-volatile Organic Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semi-volatile Organics in PM Semi-volatile Organics in PM This project is a cooperative effort between Brigham Young University (BYU) and researchers from the DOE-NETL Office of Science and and Engineering Research to determine the contribution of semi-volatile particulate organic compounds (SVOC) to total ambient suspended fine particulate mass at the NETL-Pittsburgh air monitoring facility. Project funding comes from DOE‘s University Coal Research (UCR) program. The hypothesis of the project is that fine particulate mass will be significantly under-determined in urban environments using single filter samplers such as the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method (FRM) because of the loss of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from the particles during sampling and storage. It is postulated that fine particulate mass, including the semi-volatile fine particulate organic species, are an appropriate surrogate for the components of fine particles which are associated with observed mortality and morbidity effects in epidemiological studies. Further, it is postulated that the most important fraction of the semi-volatile organic material with respect to exacerbation of health problems will be semi-volatile secondary compounds formed from reactions of volatile organic material with ozone and nitrogen oxides. Under-determination of these semi-volatile species will tend to over emphasize the importance of non-volatile fine particulate components such as sulfate or may reduce the significance of correlations with measured health effects.

76

Chemistry and Applications of Metal-Organic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developing the synthetic control required for the intentional 3-D arrangement of atoms remains a holy grail in crystal engineering and materials chemistry. The explosive development of metal-organic materials in recent decades has shed light on the above problem. Their properties can be tuned by varying the organic and/or inorganic building units. In addition, their crystallinity makes it possible to determine their structures via the X-ray diffraction method. This dissertation will focus on the chemistry and applications of two kinds of metal-organic materials, namely, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal-organic polyhedra (MOP). MOFs are coordination polymers. Their permanent porosity makes them a good gas sponge. In the first section, an isoreticular series of MOFs with dendritic hexacarboxylate ligands has been synthesized and characterized structurally. One of the MOFs in this series, PCN-68, has a Langmuir surface area as high as 6033 m2 g-1. The MOFs also possess excellent gas (H2, CH4, and CO2) adsorption capacity. In the second section, a NbO-type MOF, PCN-46, was constructed based on a polyyne-coupled di-isophthalate linker formed in situ. Its lasting porosity was confirmed by N2 adsorption isotherm, and its H2, CH4 and CO2 adsorption capacity was examined at 77 K and 298 K over a wide pressure range (0-110 bar). Unlike MOFs, MOP are discrete porous coordination nanocages. In the third section, a MOP covered with bulky triisopropylsilyl group was synthesized, which exhibits a thermosensitive gate opening property. This material demonstrates a molecular sieving effect at a certain temperature range, which could be used for gas separation purpose. In the last section, a MOP covered with alkyne group was synthesized through kinetic control. The postsynthetic modification via click reaction with azide-terminated polyethylene glycol turned them into metallomicelles, which showed controlled release of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. In summary, two kinds of metal-organic materials have been discussed in this dissertation, with the applications in gas storage, gas separation, and drug delivery. These findings greatly enrich the chemistry and applications of metal-organic materials.

Zhao, Dan

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Rational Design and Preparation of Organic Semiconductors for use in Field Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in thin film organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) is presented.Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton EdwardEffect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton Edward

Mauldin, Clayton Edward

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Method of photocatalytic conversion of C-H organics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is the addition of a semiconductor material and energy to the reaction mixture of organic, acid (for example, trifluoroacetate), and oxygen. A transition metal ion may be added to the reaction mixture. The semiconductor material converts energy to oxidants thereby promoting oxidation of the organic. Alternatively, using metal in combination with exposure to light may be used.

Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evaluation of Novel Semiconductor Materials Potentially Useful in Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00172  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of novel semiconductor materials potentially useful in solar cells. NREL will fabricate, test and analyze solar cells from EpiWorks' wafers produced in 2-3 separate growth campaigns. NREL will also characterize material from 2-3 separate EpiWorks material development campaigns. Finally, NREL will visit EpiWorks and help establish any necessary process, such as spectral CV measurements and III-V on Si metalization processes and help validate solar cell designs and performance.

Geisz, J.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

1987-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Demolitions Produce Recyclable Materials for Organization Promoting Economic Activity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 15, 2011 August 15, 2011 Demolitions Produce Recyclable Materials for Organization Promoting Economic Activity PIKETON, Ohio - Demolitions have helped generate more than 8 million pounds of metal at the Piketon site for recycling, further promoting economic activity in the region thanks to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Proceeds from recycling that metal through the unique program will add to the more than $2.8 million already generated from recycling more than 5.2 million pounds of material from site demolition efforts. "This metal represents economic opportunity for the surround- ing community, as proceeds from this material will create local jobs, utilize surrounding area facilities and generate money to be reinvested back into the community," said Pete Mingus, who

82

CaTiO.sub.3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A structure including a film of a desired perovskite oxide which overlies and is fully commensurate with the material surface of a semiconductor-based substrate and an associated process for constructing the structure involves the build up of an interfacial template film of perovskite between the material surface and the desired perovskite film. The lattice parameters of the material surface and the perovskite of the template film are taken into account so that during the growth of the perovskite template film upon the material surface, the orientation of the perovskite of the template is rotated 45.degree. with respect to the orientation of the underlying material surface and thereby effects a transition in the lattice structure from fcc (of the semiconductor-based material) to the simple cubic lattice structure of perovskite while the fully commensurate periodicity between the perovskite template film and the underlying material surface is maintained. The film-growth techniques of the invention can be used to fabricate solid state electrical components wherein a perovskite film is built up upon a semiconductor-based material and the perovskite film is adapted to exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic or large dielectric properties during use of the component.

McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Method of doping a semiconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

Yang, Chiang Y. (Miller Place, NY); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

2012 DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 12-17, 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

GLASER, EVAN

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

85

Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Novel patterning techniques for manufacturing organic and nanostructured electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular organic semiconductors and nanometer size particles are two new classes of functional materials allowing fabrication of electronic devices on low-cost and large area substrates. Patterning these electronic materials ...

Chen, Jianglong, 1976-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Data mining solves tough semiconductor manufacturing problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: data mining, machine learning, manufacturing optimization, neural networks, pattern recognition, rule induction, self organizing maps, semiconductor yield enhancement

Mike Gardner; Jack Bieker

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, M.W.

1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

90

Ultrafast dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconductor nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and electronic properties that are of interest for applications in e.g. solar cells, photodiodes, light- emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and nanoscale molecular electronics. We studied the mechanism of charge

Schuster, Assaf

91

Semiconductors News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nhan Nguyen demonstrates how he performs optical measurements on a graphene-insulator-semiconductor sample structure. ...

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Processing method for forming dislocation-free SOI and other materials for semiconductor use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing a silicon-on-insulator material having a relatively defect-free Si overlayer involves the implanting of oxygen ions within a silicon body and the interruption of the oxygen-implanting step to implant Si ions within the silicon body. The implanting of the oxygen ions develops an oxide layer beneath the surface of the silicon body, and the Si ions introduced by the Si ion-implanting step relieves strain which is developed in the Si overlayer during the implanting step without the need for any intervening annealing step. By relieving the strain in this manner, the likelihood of the formation of strain-induced defects in the Si overlayer is reduced. In addition, the method can be carried out at lower processing temperatures than have heretofore been used with SIMOX processes of the prior art. The principles of the invention can also be used to relieve negative strain which has been induced in a silicon body of relatively ordered lattice structure.

Holland, Orin Wayne (Oak Ridge, TN); Thomas, Darrell Keith (Kingston, TN); Zhou, Dashun (Sunnyvale, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Ferromagnetism in Oxide Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

In order to become a practical technology, semiconductor spintronics requires the discovery and utilization of ferromagnetic semiconductors which exhibit spin polarization in the majority carrier band at and above room temperature. Intrinsic remanent magnetization would allow spin polarized currents to be propagated in such materials without the need for a continuous magnetic field. However, the discovery and understanding of such materials is proving to be a grand challenge in solid-state science. Indeed, one of the 125 critical unanswered scientific questions recently posed in Science magazine asks, Is it possible to create magnetic semiconductors that work at room temperature?

Chambers, Scott A.; Droubay, Timothy; Wang, Chong M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Heald, Steve M.; Schwartz, S. A.; Kittilstved, Kevin R.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Materials Science Semiconductor Materials Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... This project develops low-energy transmission electron diffraction, imaging, and ... Strain fields and phase distribution maps of indented Si ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Definition: Semiconductor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Semiconductor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Semiconductor Any material that has a limited capacity for conducting an electric current. Certain semiconductors, including silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride, are uniquely suited to the photovoltaic conversion process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity to a degree between that of a metal (such as copper) and that of an insulator (such as glass). Semiconductors are the foundation of modern solid state electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog integrated circuits. A semiconductor may have a number of unique properties, one of which is the

96

Time-resolved THz studies of carrier dynamics in semiconductors, superconductors, and strongly-correlated electron materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perhaps the most important aspect of contemporary condensed matter physics involves understanding strong Coulomb interactions between the large number of electrons in a solid. Electronic correlations lead to the emergence of new system properties, such as metal-insulator transitions, superconductivity, magneto-resistance, Bose-Einstein condensation, the formation of excitonic gases, or the integer and fractional Quantum Hall effects. The discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in particular was a watershed event, leading to dramatic experimental and theoretical advances in the field of correlated-electron systems. Such materials often exhibit competition between the charge, lattice, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom, whose cause-effect relationships are difficult to ascertain. Experimental insight into the properties of solids is traditionally obtained by time-averaged probes, which measure e.g., linear optical spectra, electrical conduction properties, or the occupied band structure in thermal equilibrium. Many novel physical properties arise from excitations out of the ground state into energetically higher states by thermal, optical, or electrical means. This leads to fundamental interactions between the system's constituents, such as electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, which occur on ultrafast timescales. While these interactions underlie the physical properties of solids, they are often only indirectly inferred from time-averaged measurements. Time-resolved spectroscopy, consequently, is playing an ever increasing role to provide insight into light-matter interaction, microscopic processes, or cause-effect relationships that determine the physics of complex materials. In the past, experiments using visible and near-infrared femtosecond pulses have been extensively employed, e.g. to follow relaxation and dephasing processes in metals and semiconductors. However, many basic excitations in strongly-correlated electron systems and nanoscale materials occur at lower energies. The terahertz (THz) regime is particularly rich in such fundamental resonances. This includes ubiquitous lattice vibrations and low-energy collective oscillations of conduction charges. In nanoscale materials, band structure quantization also yields novel infrared and THz transitions, including intersubband absorption in quantum wells. The formation of excitons in turn leads to low-energy excitations analogous to inter-level transitions in atoms. In transition-metal oxides, fundamental excitation gaps arise from charge pairing into superconducting condensates and other correlated states. This motivates the use of ultrafast THz spectroscopy as a powerful tool to study light-matter interactions and microscopic processes in nanoscale and correlated-electron materials.A distinct advantage of coherent THz pulses is that the amplitude and phase of the electric field can be measured directly, as the THz fields are coherent with the fs pulses from which they are generated. Using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), both the real and imaginary parts of the response functions (such as the dielectric function) are obtained directly without the need for Kramers?Kronig transforms. The THz response can also be expressed in terms of absorption and refractive index, or as the optical conductivity. The optical conductivity describes the current response of a many-body system to an electric field, an ideal tool to study conducting systems. A second important advantage is the ultrafast time resolution that results from the short temporal duration of the THz time-domain sources. In particular, optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy enables a delicate probe of the transient THz conductivity after optical photoexcitation. These experiments can provide insight into quasiparticle interactions, phase transitions, or nonequilibrium dynamics. In this chapter we will provide many such examples. Since THz spectroscopy of solids is a quickly expanding field

Kaindl, Robert A.; Averitt, Richard D.

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

An Act Concerning the Recycling of Organic Materials by Certain...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and conservation centers that generate at least 104 tons of organic waste each year to compost it. The Act goes into effect once the state has two source-separated organics...

98

A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

Coburn, T.T.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

99

High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Polymer and carbon nanotube materials for chemical sensors and organic electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details the development of new materials for high-performance chemical sensing as well as organic electronic applications. In Chapter 2, we develop a chemiresistive material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes ...

Wang, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Raman scattering in organic semiconductors based on erbium biphthalocyanine molecules and chlorine-containing europium-lutetium triphthalocyanine molecules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Raman spectra of semiconductor structures based on erbium biphthalocyanine molecules and chlorine-substituted europium-lutetium triphthalocyanine molecules are studied on excitation with Ar{sup +} laser radiation at the wavelength 514 nm. The data on the spectral position of Raman intensity peaks related to vibronic states of the basic molecular groups forming the semiconductor are obtained. Raman lines irrelevant to the known vibronic states of the basic phthalocyanine molecular groups are observed in the ranges 100-500 and 500-900 cm{sup -1}. It is shown that, in the spectra of triphthalocyanine, some lines are structurally complex and shifted with respect to the characteristic lines of molecular groups by several inverse centimeters.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru [Federal State Research and Design Institute for Rare-Metal Industry (Russian Federation); Mamichev, D. A.; Dronov, M. A.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Selected Metal Organic Framework and Molecular Sieve Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials for CO2 Capture and Conversion ... Abstract Scope, Reduction of CO2 emissions from coal-burning power plants using...

105

Micromachined printheads for the direct evaporative patterning of organic materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic optoelectronic devices are appealing for low-performance applications on very low cost and flexible substrates, due to their low-temperature processing. However, it still remains a challenge to develop suitable ...

Leblanc, Valrie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Semiconductor Analytics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LED Lighting and Displays Solar PV Why Semiconductors? ... Potential Comments Solar PV 20.4 25-30% Politically driven. BP disaster will help. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

107

Nanostructures, magnetic semiconductors and spintronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of recent advances in the area of semiconductor nanomaterials, which represent extremely promising applications for materials with the spin-polarized transport of the charge carriers. It is shown on the ... Keywords: Magnetic properties, Nanostructure, Semiconductor, Spin-polarized transport, Spintronics

Paata Kervalishvili; Alexander Lagutin

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Workshop on Fundamental Research Needs in Organic Electronic Materials (May 23-25, 2003)  

SciTech Connect

The workshop, Fundamental Research Needs in Organic Electronic Materials, jointly sponsored by DOE Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and EERE/BT was held on May 23-25, 2003 at the University of Utah Campus in Salt Lake City, Utah for the purpose of identifying key scientific issues enabling the technological success of these materials. Approximately thirty key experts and world leaders in organic materials chemistry, transport physics, time-resolved and steady stated optical processes, organic spintronics, and device technology, gathered to stimulate new and revolutionary sciences.

Prof. Zeev Valentine Vardeny

2007-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

Martin, D.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

Rajh, Tijana (Naperville, IL); Meshkov, Natalia (Downers Grove, IL); Nedelijkovic, Jovan M. (Belgrade, YU); Skubal, Laura R. (West Brooklyn, IL); Tiede, David M. (Elmhurst, IL); Thurnauer, Marion (Downers Grove, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Huei-Ho, Chuen (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Hurlbut, Charles (Sweetwater, TX)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

112

Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two organic cathode materials based on poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) structure with different substitution positions were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior and battery performances were investigated. The substitution positions on the anthraquinone structure, binders for electrode preparation and electrolyte formulations have been found to have significant effects on the battery performances of such organic cathode materials. The substitution position with less steric stress has higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate capability. Polyvinylidene fluoride binder and ether-based electrolytes are favorable for the high capacity and long cycle life of the quinonyl organic cathodes.

Xu, Wu; Read, Adam L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Hydrogen in semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After an incubation'' period in the 1970's and early 80's, during which the first hydrogen related centers were discovered and characterized in ultra-pure germanium, a sharp increase of research activity occurred after the discovery of shallow acceptor passivation in crystalline silicon. The aim of this review is to convey an insight into the rich, multifaceted physics and materials science which has emerged from the vast variety of experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. In order to arrive at the current understanding of hydrogen related phenomena in a logical way, each chapter will start with a brief review of the major experimental and theoretical advances of the past few years. Those who are interested to learn more about this fascinating area of semiconductor research are referred to reviews, to a number of conference proceedings volumes, and to an upcoming book which will contain authoritative chapters on most aspects of hydrogen in crystalline semiconductors. Some of the early art of semiconductor device processing can finally be put on a scientific foundation and new ways of arriving at advanced device structures begin to use what we have learned from the basic studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. 92 refs., 8 figs.

Haller, E.E. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Measurement and control of exciton spin in organic light emitting devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic semiconductors are a promising new material set for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Their properties can be precisely controlled through chemistry, and they are well-suited for large-area, flexible, and ...

Segal, Michael, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Controlled growth of larger heterojunction interface area for organic photosensitive devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer having protrusions, a side of the first layer opposite the first electrode having a surface area at least three times greater than an underlying lateral cross-sectional area; depositing a second organic semiconductor material directly on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, portions of the first layer remaining exposed; depositing a third organic semiconductor material directly on the second layer to form a discontinuous third layer, portions of at least the second layer remaining exposed; depositing a fourth organic semiconductor material on the third layer to form a continuous fourth layer, filling any exposed gaps and recesses in the first, second, and third layers; and depositing a second electrode on the fourth layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is transparent, and the first and third organic semiconductor materials are both of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to second and fourth organic semiconductor materials, which are of the other material type.

Yang, Fan (Somerset, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

116

Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials. [Detonation hazard  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO/sub 3/. Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450/sup 0/C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175/sup 0/C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig. (DLC)

Beitel, G.A.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Business Case Slide 25: High-Value: Semiconductors - Description  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductors - Description Receipt of rare DUO crystals at ORNL Receipt of rare DUO2 crystals at ORNL Description Use DUO2 as a semiconductor material Computer CPU or RAM chips...

118

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

Haller, Eugene E.

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

119

Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

120

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Self-organization of dissipationless solitons in positive- and negative-refractive-index materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation describing dissipative solitons dynamics in negative-refractive-index materials is derived from Maxwell equations. This equation having only real terms with opposite sign differs from the usual Ginzburg-Landau equation for positive-refractive-index media. A cross-compensation between the saturating nonlinearity excess, losses, and gain makes obtained self-organized solitons dissipationless and exceptionally robust. In the presence of such solitons medium becomes effectively dissipationless. The compensation of losses is of particular interest for media with resonant character of interactions like negative-refractive-index materials.

Skarka, V. [Laboratory POMA, CNRS FRE 2988, University Angers, 2, Boulevard Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers (France); Aleksic, N. B. [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Berezhiani, V. I. [Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, 6 Tamarashvili, Tbilisi 0177 (Georgia)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Organic and Inorganic Hazardous Waste Stabilization Using Coal Combustion By-Product Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a laboratory investigation of four clean-coal by-products to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous waste stream materials. The wastes included API separator sludge, metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. Overall, the investigation showed that the high alkalinity of the by-products may cost-effectively stabilize the acidic components of hazardous waste.

1994-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

124

Plant growth response in experimental soilless mixes prepared from coal combustion products and organic waste materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large quantities of organic materials such as animal manures, yard trimmings, and biosolids are produced each year. Beneficial use options for them are often limited, and composting has been proposed as a way to better manage these organic materials. Similarly, burning of coal created 125 million tons of coal combustion products (CCP) in the United States in 2006. An estimated 53 million tons of CCP were reused, whereas the remainder was deposited in landfills. By combining CCP and composted organic materials (COM), we were able to create soilless plant growth mixes with physicochemical conditions that can support excellent plant growth. An additional benefit is the conservation of natural raw materials, such as peat, which is generally used for making soilless mixes. Experimental mixes were formulated by combining CCP and COM at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (vol/vol), respectively. Water content at saturation for the created mixes was 63% to 72%, whereas for the commercial control, it was 77%. pH values for the best performing mixes ranged between 5.9 and 6.8. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of required plant nutrient were also within plant growth recommendations for container media. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher plant biomass growth (7%-130%) was observed in the experimental mixes compared with a commercial mix. No additional fertilizers were provided during the experiment, and reduced fertilization costs can thus accrue as an added benefit to the grower. In summary, combining CCP and COM, derived from source materials often viewed as wastes, can create highly productive plant growth mixes.

Bardhan, S.; Watson, M.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Preparation of a semiconductor thin film  

SciTech Connect

A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Neural network system and methods for analysis of organic materials and structures using spectral data  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and processes are described for recognizing and identifying materials. Characteristic spectra are obtained for the materials via spectroscopy techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared absorption analysis, x-ray analysis, mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Desired portions of the spectra may be selected and then placed in proper form and format for presentation to a number of input layer neurons in an offline neural network. The network is first trained according to a predetermined training process; it may then be employed to identify particular materials. Such apparatus and processes are particularly useful for recognizing and identifying organic compounds such as complex carbohydrates, whose spectra conventionally require a high level of training and many hours of hard work to identify, and are frequently indistinguishable from one another by human interpretation.

Meyer, B.J.; Sellers, J.P.; Thomsen, J.U.

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

127

Neural network system and methods for analysis of organic materials and structures using spectral data  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and processes for recognizing and identifying materials. Characteristic spectra are obtained for the materials via spectroscopy techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared absorption analysis, x-ray analysis, mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Desired portions of the spectra may be selected and then placed in proper form and format for presentation to a number of input layer neurons in an offline neural network. The network is first trained according to a predetermined training process; it may then be employed to identify particular materials. Such apparatus and processes are particularly useful for recognizing and identifying organic compounds such as complex carbohydrates, whose spectra conventionally require a high level of training and many hours of hard work to identify, and are frequently indistinguishable from one another by human interpretation.

Meyer, Bernd J. (Athens, GA); Sellers, Jeffrey P. (Suwanee, GA); Thomsen, Jan U. (Fredricksberg, DK)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

1985-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

129

Photovoltaic Cell Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics...

130

Improved Organic Semiconductors and Organic Vaccine for ...  

Helical Nanofilament Phases. Science. 2009 Jul 24; 456-460. PDF available upon request. Author: polak Created Date: 10/17/2013 1:05:17 PM ...

131

Improved Organic Semiconductors and Organic Vaccine for ...  

The drawback to using these typical inorganic photovoltaic ... is that processing is often quite expensive and energy ... which has potential for use ...

132

Proceedings: Second International Conference on the Interaction of Organics and Organic Cycle Treatment Chemicals with Water, Steam and Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current worldwide suite of cycle chemistry guidelines contains little information on the presence of organics in the cycle. In addition, the guidelines do not advocate the use of organic additives during operation or shutdown. This second international conference was organized to continue the discussion initiated at the first international conference on all aspects of organics in power plants.

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

133

Materials Science Semiconductor Materials Programs and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... transmission of information in today's electronics requires ... sources such as solar energy are attractive alternatives to fossil fuels because ...

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

134

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC  

SciTech Connect

Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

Shengbai Zhang

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

136

Partitioning of residual D-limonene cleaner vapor among organic materials in weapons  

SciTech Connect

D-limonene is a replacement solvent selected by Sandia and Allied-Signal to clean solder flux from electronics assemblies in firesets and programmers. D-limonene is much slower drying than the solvents it has replaced and this has raised concerns that residual quantities of the cleaner could be trapped in the electronics assemblies and eventually carried into warhead assemblies. This paper describes a study designed to evaluate how vapors from residual d-limonene cleaner would be partitioned among typical organic materials in a Livermore device. The goal was to identify possible compatibility problems arising from the use of d-limonene and, in particular, any interactions it may have with energetic materials. To predict the partitioning behavior of d-limonene, a simple model was developed and its predictions are compared to the experimental findings.

LeMay, J.D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Details in Semiconductors Gordon Conference, New London, NH, August 3-8, 2008  

SciTech Connect

Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in homogeneous and structured semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, with an increases emphasis on nanostructures as compared to previous conferences. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference deals with defects in a broad range of bulk and nanoscale electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, doped nanoparticles, and organic semiconductors. Presentations of state-of-the-art theoretical methods will contribute to a fundamental understanding of atomic-scale phenomena. The program consists of about twenty invited talks, with plenty of discussion time, and a number of contributed poster sessions. Because of the large amount of discussion time, the conference provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

Shengbai Zhang and Nancy Ryan Gray

2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

139

Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Peng, Xiaogang (Fayetteville, AR); Manna, Liberato (Palo del Colle, IT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Peng, Xiaogang (Fayetteville, AR); Manna, Liberato (Palo del Colle, IT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

Zaeh, R.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Viscosity of ?-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere and play important roles in climate, air quality, and health. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified for conditions relevant to the lower troposphere. Using two new techniques, namely a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, we measure the viscosity of the watersoluble component of SOM produced by ?-pinene ozonolysis. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), comparable to that of peanut butter at 70% RH and greater than or comparable to that of bitumen for ? 30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid/solid at ambient relative humidities. With the Stokes-Einstein relation, the measured viscosities further imply that the growth and evaporation of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between the gas and condensed phases may be confined to the surface region when RH ? 30%, suggesting the importance of an adsorption-type mechanism for partitioning in this regime. By comparison, for RH ? 70% partitioning of organic molecules may effectively occur by an absorption mechanism throughout the bulk of the particle. Finally, the net uptake rates of semi-reactive atmospheric oxidants such as O3 are expected to decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a change in RH from 90% to ? 30% RH, with possible implications for the rates of chemical aging of SOM particles in the atmosphere.

Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Sellier, Mathieu; Murray, Benjamin J.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

144

Nanoimprinted organic field-effect transistors: fabrication, transfer mechanism and solvent effects on device characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of solvent effects on the electrical characteristics of solution-processed organic field-effect transistors, with dihexylquaterthiophene (DH4T) as the active semiconductor material, has been investigated. A combination of nanoimprint and ... Keywords: nanoimprint lithography, organic field-effect transistors, short channel effects

A. P. Kam; J. Seekamp; V. Solovyev; C. Clavijo Cedeo; A. Goldschmidt; C. M. Sotomayor Torres

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Spire Semiconductor formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC Semiconductor formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC) Place Hudson, New Hampshire Zip 3051 Product Spire-owned US-based manufacturer of gallium-arsenide (GaAs) cells; offers design and manufacturing capabilities of concentrator cells. References Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC) is a company located in Hudson, New Hampshire . References ↑ "Spire Semiconductor (formerly Bandwidth Semiconductor LLC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Spire_Semiconductor_formerly_Bandwidth_Semiconductor_LLC&oldid=351621"

146

Unitary lens semiconductor device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Study of the transport properties of organic semiconductors based on europium diphthalocyanine and bi-tris-phthalocyanine complexes with ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge and based on erbium and europium dinaphthalocyanine complexes  

SciTech Connect

The transport properties of organic semiconductors based on europium diphthalocyanine and bitris-phthalocyanine complexes with ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge and based on europium and erbium dinaphthalocyanine are studied. The temperature dependences of the dc conductivity for all types of the structures under study are obtained; it is shown that all dependences include two activation portions. For high-temperature portions, the activation energies are determined as 0.85 eV for europium diphthalocyanine with the ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge, 1.135 eV for europium bi-tris-phthalocyanine with the orthobis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge, 0.98 eV for europium dinaphthalocyanine, and 1.18 eV for erbium dinaphthalocyanine. For the low-temperature activation portion, it is shown that lanthanide ions and their bond with a ligand make the dominant contribution to the conductivity of the structures under study.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru [State Research and Project Institute of Rare-Metal Industry GIREDMET (Russian Federation); Tikhonov, E. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Dronov, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ryabchikov, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Pashkova, N. V.; Kladova, E. I. [State Research and Project Institute of Rare-Metal Industry GIREDMET (Russian Federation); Belogorokhova, L. I.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

149

Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jero^me Cornil,, Demetrio A. da Silva Filho, Yoann Olivier, Robert Silbey,# and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrodes in the case of light-emitting diodes or field-effect transistors or generated within the materials

Wu, Zhigang

150

Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Semiconductor photocatalysis has been identified as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar energy into environmentally friendly fuels, most notably by the production of hydrogen from water.[1-5] Nanometer-scale materials in particular have attracted considerable scientific attention as the building blocks for light-harvesting applications.[6,7] Their desirable attributes include tunability of the optical properties with size, amenability to relatively inexpensive low-temperature processing, and a high degree of synthetic sophistication leading to increasingly complex and multi-functional architectures. For photocatalysis in particular, the high surface-to-volume ratios in nanoscale materials should lead to an increased availability of carriers for redox reactions on the nanoparticle surface. Recombination of photoexcited carriers directly competes with photocatalytic activity.[3] Charge separation is often achieved with multi-component heterostructures. An early example is the case of TiO2 powders functionalized with Pt and RuO2 particles, where photoexcited electrons are transferred to Pt (the reduction site) and holes to RuO2 (the oxidation site).[8] More recently, many colloidally synthesized nanometer-scale metal-semiconductor heterostructures have been reported.[7,9,10] A majority of these structures are made by thermal methods.[7,10] We have chosen to study photochemical formation of metal-semiconductor heterostructures. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in photodeposition of metals on nanometer-scale semiconductors is necessary to enable a high degree of synthetic control. At the same time, because the results of metal deposition can be directly observed by electron microscopy, it can be used to understand how factors such as nanocrystal composition, shape, carrier dynamics, and surface chemistry influence the photochemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. In this communication, we report on the photodeposition of Pt on colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. Among the II-VI semiconductors, CdS is of particular interest because it has the correct band alignment for water photolysis[2] and has been demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.[11-16] We have found that the photoexcitation of CdS and CdSe/CdS in the presence of an organometallic Pt precursor leads to deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the semiconductor surface. Stark differences are observed in the Pt nanoparticle location on the two substrates, and the photodeposition can be completely inhibited by the modification of the semiconductor surface. Our results suggest that tuning of the semiconductor band structure, spatial organization and surface chemistry should be crucial in the design of photocatalytic nanostructures.

Dukovic, Gordana; Merkle, Maxwell G.; Nelson, James H.; Hughes, Steven M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

151

2012 ELECTRONIC PROCESSES IN ORGANIC MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, JUNE 2-8, 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This meeting focuses on the latest progress and challenges regarding organic electronics devices, artificial light-harvesting systems, and inorganic/organic hybrid nanoscale systems and especially on the synergy between these fields.

Eisele, Dorthe

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

152

About the 1996 Electronic Materials Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Session N: Non-Stoichiometric Compound Semi-Conductors Session O: Quantum Effect Materials: Spontaneous Ordering Composition Modulation in...

153

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Scher, Erik C. (San Francisco, CA); Manna, Liberato (Lecce, IT)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

154

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

155

Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Savoy, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

156

Guiding effect of quantum wells in semiconductor lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The guiding effect of InGaAs quantum wells in GaAs- and InP-based semiconductor lasers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that such waveguides can be effectively used in laser structures with a large refractive index difference between the quantum well material and semiconductor matrix and a large number of quantum wells (e.g. in InP-based structures). (semiconductor lasers. physics and technology)

Aleshkin, V Ya; Dikareva, Natalia V; Dubinov, A A; Zvonkov, B N; Karzanova, Maria V; Kudryavtsev, K E; Nekorkin, S M; Yablonskii, A N

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

158

Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Daejeon, KR); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

159

Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

organic material in any unit below unit 1, and (v) the lack of evidence of vegetation growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

organic material in any unit below unit 1, and (v) the lack of evidence of vegetation growth except locally within units 2 and 3. Because intense precipitation along the arid Peruvian coast is typically deposits at Quebrada Tacahuay. Radiocarbon dating of units 1, 2, 3, 4, 4c3, and 8 (Table 1 and Fig. 2

Lin, Zhihong

163

Uranium Oxide Semiconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of semiconductors, it would consume the annual production rate of depleted uranium from uranium enrichment facilities. For more information: PDF Semiconductive Properties of...

164

Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex  

SciTech Connect

The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ``Aging`` processes.

Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Theory of Semiconductor Laser Cooling .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order (more)

Rupper, Greg

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters. With the advent of the use of SiC devices it is imperative that models of these be made available in commercial simulators. This enables power electronic designers to simulate their designs for various test conditions prior to fabrication. To build an accurate transistor-level model of a power electronic system such as an inverter, the first step is to characterize the semiconductor devices that are present in the system. Suitable test beds need to be built for each device to precisely test the devices and obtain relevant data that can be used for modeling. This includes careful characterization of the parasitic elements so as to emulate the test setup as closely as possible in simulations. This report is arranged as follows: Chapter 2--The testing and characterization of several diodes and power switches is presented. Chapter 3--A 55-kW hybrid inverter (Si insulated gate bipolar transistor--SiC Schottky diodes) device models and test results are presented. A detailed description of the various test setups followed by the parameter extraction, modeling, and simulation study of the inverter performance is presented. Chapter 4--A 7.5-kW all-SiC inverter (SiC junction field effect transistors (JFET)--SiC Schottky diodes) was built and tested. The models built in Saber were validated using the test data and the models were used in system applications in the Saber simulator. The simulation results and a comparison of the data from the prototype tests are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 5--The duration test results of devices utilized in buck converters undergoing reliability testing are presented.

Chinthavali, M.S.

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

167

Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) an affinity molecule linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal. The semiconductor nanocrystal is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Exposure of the semiconductor nanocrystal to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Effects of Organic Material and Mycorrhizal Inoculation On Horticultural Seedling Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

colonization and two levels of compost supply on nutrientH, 2007. Effects of compost addition on extra-radical growthchemical properties of composts. N Compost materials 1.

Ortas, Ibrahim; Demirbas, Ahmet; Akpinar, a?da?; ?im?ek, Murat; Kaya, Zlkf

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

171

High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami U/NREL DoD/DLA Project) (presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Miami University/NREL DoD/DLA Project Miami University/NREL DoD/DLA Project High throughput combinatorial screening of biomimetic metal-organic materials for military hydrogen-storage applications Philip Parilla - NREL Joe Zhou, Dan Zhao - Miami U, Ohio Jeff Blackburn, Kevin O'Neill, Lin Simpson, Mike Heben - NREL Outline * Miami/NREL Project - Synthesis (Miami) - High Throughput Characterization (NREL) - Other Characterization * Other High Throughput Activities (NREL) - Parallel Sieverts - Parallel Gravimetric * Final Comments Overview of Miami/NREL Project * Goals - Development of H 2 storage materials based on MOFs, targeting 15 kJ/mole binding energy and high density of H 2 sites - Development of optical-based detection of adsorbed H 2 allowing rapid screening of samples * Approach - Combinatorial MOFs synthesis involving 8

172

Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

173

Organization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization Print Organization Print 2012-12 org chart A complete ALS organization chart (June 2013) is available in PDF. Appointed and elected members of advisory panels provide guidance to Berkeley Lab and ALS management in developing the ALS scientific and user programs. ALS Staff Photo staff photo thumb Click on the image to see a recent photo of ALS staff in front of the dome. The photo was taken on May 14, 2013. ALS Management and Advisory Team Steve Kevan, Deputy Division Director, Science Michael J. Banda, Deputy Division Director, Operations Robert W. Schoenlein, Senior Staff Scientist, Next Generation Light Source Initiative Janos Kirz, Scientific Advisor Paul Adams, Division Deputy for Biosciences ALS Scientific, Technical, and User Support Groups Accelerator Physics

174

2 www.trnmag.com Technology Research News February 23/March 2, 2005 Process yields semiconductor foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wayne State University have made crystalline aerogels -- new semiconductor materials that are very porous, giving them very high surface areas. Unlike conventional aerogels, the researchers' materials

Ruina, Andy L.

175

Analysis of lateritic material from Cerro Impacto by instrumental neutron activation employing a low-energy photon semiconductor and a high-energy Ge(Li) detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nineteen elements were determined in four different grain size fractions of a bulk geological material from Cerro Impacto for a study of the physical (mechanical) concentration process of different elements based upon the hardness of the different minerals. The analysis was performed by excitation of the sample with a high, slow neutron flux followed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with both a conventional Ge(Li) high-energy detector and a low-energy photon detector (LEPD). The accuracy of this method was studied with the use of two standard reference materials, SY-2 and SY-3, which are similar to the real samples. The values determined were also compared with a secondary target x-ray fluorescence method for all the elements that were suitable to both methods. Actually, the x-ray fluorescence method was found to be more complementary than competitive. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

LaBrecque, J.J.; Beusen, J.M.; Van Grieken, R.E.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Compatibility of PWR gasket and packing materials and resins with organic amines  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this testing program were two-fold: (1) to examine the compatibility of morpholine and five other amines with several synthetic polymeric materials useful for gaskets and seals in pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary cycles and (2) to examine the potential chemical degradation of ion exchange (IX) resins by morpholine and ethanolamine. The screening of the polymeric materials in the amines was performed by heating small samples of the materials in the amines for one week to one month. Interaction of the amines with the materials was accelerated by testing at elevated temperatures and at high amine concentrations. Two materials (Kalrez and EPDM) that are potentially useful in high-temperature and high-pressure steam systems were tested in morpholine solutions in sealed bombs at 260{degrees}C (500{degrees}). After heating in the aqueous amine solutions, changes in weight were measured and the samples were visually examined for physical changes, such as swelling or cracking. Selected materials underwent testing for hardness, elongation, and tensile strength after heating in morpholine for one month. This document provides the results of this testing program.

Keneshea, F.J.; Hobart, S.A. (Adams and Hobart Consulting Engineers, Fremont, CA (United States)); Camenzind, M.J. (Balazs Analytical Lab., Mountain View, CA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Semiconductor diode with external field modulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-destructive-readout nonvolatile semiconductor diode switching device that may be used as a memory element is disclosed. The diode switching device is formed with a ferroelectric material disposed above a rectifying junction to control the conduction characteristics therein by means of a remanent polarization. The invention may be used for the formation of integrated circuit memories for the storage of information.

Nasby, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Reactive Aging of Films of Secondary Organic Material Studied by Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition. In the case that particle composition is significantly hygroscopic, the particles take up water surface area, coupled to the moist surface properties, also increases rates of gas-particle reactions anthropogenic and natural sources.7,13,14 The presence of organic species in the particle phase tends

179

Two inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalate anions and methylene blue: Preparations, crystal structures and properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on an organic dye cation methylene blue (MB) and Lindqvist-type POM polyanions, [C{sub 22}H{sub 18}N{sub 3}S]{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 19} 2DMF (1) and [C{sub 22}H{sub 18}N{sub 3}S]{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} 2DMF (2) were synthesized under ambient conditions and characterized by CV, IR spectroscopy, solid diffuse reflectance spectrum, UV-vis spectra in DMF solution, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data reveal that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and both crystallize in the triclinic space group P1-bar . Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong {pi}...{pi} stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations and near distance interactions among organic dye cations, Lindqvist-type POM polyanions and DMF molecules. The solid diffuse reflectance spectra and UV-vis spectra in DMF solution appear new absorption bands ascribed to the charge-transfer transition between the cationic MB donor and the POM acceptors. Studies of the photoluminescent properties show that the formation of 1 and 2 lead to the fluorescence quenching of starting materials. -- Graphical abstract: Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong {pi}...{pi} stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations. Display Omitted

Nie Shanshan; Zhang Yaobin; Liu Bin; Li Zuoxi; Hu Huaiming [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Xue Ganglin, E-mail: xglin707@163.co [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Fu Feng; Wang Jiwu [Department of Chemistry, Yanan University, Yan'an 716000 (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

Gruner, Sol

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Wide-Bandgap Compound Semiconductors to Enable Novel Semiconductor Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of GaN-based wide bandgap semiconductor materials (referred to as III-N materials). Our theoretical investigations include the determination of fundamental materials parameters from first-principles calculations, the study of gain properties of III-N heterostructures using a microscopic laser theory and density-functional-theory, charge-state calculations to determine the core structure and energy levels of dislocations in III-N materials. Our experimental investigations include time-resolved photoluminescence and magneto-luminescence studies of GaN epilayers and multiquantum well samples as well as x-ray diffraction studies of AlGaN ternary alloys. In addition, we performed a number of experiments to determine how various materials processing steps affect both the optical and electrical properties of GaN-based materials. These studies include photoluminescence studies of GaN epilayers after post-growth rapid thermal annealing, ion implantation to produce n- and p-type material and electrical and optical studies of plasma-etched structures.

Crawford, M.H.; Chow, W.W.; Wright, A.F.; Lee, S.R.; Jones, E.D.; Han, J.; Shul, R.J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors, wherein energy is transferred from the energy donor to the energy acceptor and wherein: the energy acceptor is a colloidal nanocrystal having a lower band gap energy than the energy donor; the energy donor and the energy acceptor are separated by a distance of 40 nm or less; wherein the average peak absorption energy of the acceptor is at least 20 meV greater than the average peak emission energy of the energy donor; and

183

Photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of III-V semiconductors has been used to fabricate unique structures in electronic and photonic devices, such as integral lenses on light-emitting diodes, gratings on laser structures, and through-wafer via connections ...

P. A. Kohl

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Coherent multi-exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures via two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Coulomb correlations between photoexcited charged particles in materials such as photosynthetic complexes, conjugated polymer systems, J-aggregates, and bulk or nanostructured semiconductors produce a hierarchy of ...

Stone, Katherine Walowicz

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

Hui, Rongqing (Lenexa, KS); Jiang,Hong-Xing (Manhattan, KS); Lin, Jing-Yu (Manhattan, KS)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

186

Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2006-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

187

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

188

Atomic hydrogen cleaning of semiconductor photocathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) semiconductor photocathodes are widely used for the production of polarized electron beams, and are also useful for the production of high brightness electron beams which can be modulated at very high frequencies. Preparation of an atomically clean semiconductor surface is an essential step in the fabrication of a NEA photocathode. This cleaning step is difficult for certain semiconductors, such as the very thin materials which produce the highest beam polarization, and those which have tightly bound oxides and carbides. Using a small RF dissociation atomic hydrogen source, the authors have reproducibly cleaned GaAs wafers which have been only degreased prior to installation in vacuum. They have consistently prepared very high quantum efficiency photocathodes following atomic hydrogen cleaning. Details of their apparatus and most recent results are presented.

Sinclair, C.K.; Poelker, B.M.; Price, J.S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth by W. G. Breiland, L. A. Bruskas, A. A. Allerman, and T. W. Hargett Motivation-Temperature is a critical factor in the growth of thin films by either chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is particularly important in compound semiconductor growth because one is often challenged to grow materials with specific chemical compositions in order to maintain stringent lattice-matching conditions or to achieve specified bandgap values. Optical pyrometry can be used to measure surface temperatures, but the thin film growth causes significant changes in the emissivity of the surface, leading to severe errors in the pyrometer measurement. To avoid these errors, emissivity changes must be measured and

190

Applied Materials Inc AMAT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc AMAT Inc AMAT Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95052-8039 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of equipment used in solar (silicon, thin-film, BIPV), semiconductor, and LCD markets. References Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) is a company located in Santa Clara, California . References ↑ "Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Applied_Materials_Inc_AMAT&oldid=342244" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes

191

Material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed, utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range. (1.0-4.7 V) XAS measurements were performed at different states of charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized toward Co{sup 4+}, and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remained as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O, and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Deb, Aniruddha

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

192

Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

193

Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

194

Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

195

Materials Performance Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Kinetics Staff; Materials Science and Engineering Division Staff Directory; MML Organization. Contact. Materials Performance ...

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thermally robust semiconductor optical amplifiers and laser diodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly heat conductive layer is combined with or placed in the vicinity of the optical waveguide region of active semiconductor components. The thermally conductive layer enhances the conduction of heat away from the active region, which is where the heat is generated in active semiconductor components. This layer is placed so close to the optical region that it must also function as a waveguide and causes the active region to be nearly the same temperature as the ambient or heat sink. However, the semiconductor material itself should be as temperature insensitive as possible and therefore the invention combines a highly thermally conductive dielectric layer with improved semiconductor materials to achieve an overall package that offers improved thermal performance. The highly thermally conductive layer serves two basic functions. First, it provides a lower index material than the semiconductor device so that certain kinds of optical waveguides may be formed, e.g., a ridge waveguide. The second and most important function, as it relates to this invention, is that it provides a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the semiconductor material, which is the principal material in the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices.

Dijaili, Sol P. (Moraga, CA); Patterson, Frank G. (Danville, CA); Walker, Jeffrey D. (El Cerrito, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Petersen, Holly (Manteca, CA); Goward, William (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - New Materials, Devices, and Processes for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Materials, Devices, and Processes for Advanced Concepts New Materials, Devices, and Processes for Advanced Concepts Computational Science and Theory We can use high-performance computing tools in modeling and simulation studies of semiconductor and other solar materials. We also determine the performance of solar devices. Theoretical studies can help us understand underlying physical principles or predict useful chemical compositions and crystalline structures. Scientific Computing Experimental Materials Science Solid-State Theory. NREL has strong complementary research capabilities in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), combinatorial (combi) methods, and atmospheric processing. From fundamental physical studies to applied research relating to solar industry needs, we are developing the

198

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

SciTech Connect

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone should be achieved as the result of the source reduction procedure.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductor Nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light-matter interactions in Semiconductor Nanostructures. ... We investigate the interaction of light with semiconductor-based nanostructures. ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Dilute magnetic semiconductors in spin-polarized electronics (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Dilute magnetic semiconductors have proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics{emdash}so far they provide the only viable route to establish spin-polarized current injection into a nonmagnetic semiconductor. The reasons for this become apparent from a simple spin-channel model, which predicts that spin injection into a semiconductor can, within linear response, only readily be achieved from a ferromagnetic injector that has: (i) a resistivity that is comparable to the semiconductor and (ii) preferably is 100% spin polarized. Both of these criteria can be met in magnetic semiconductors, but (so far) are hard to achieve using other materials. Experimentally, we demonstrate how dilute magnetic II{endash}VI semiconductors can be used to inject a strongly (up to 90%) spin-polarized current into a light emitting diode. In addition, we discuss the implications of the spin-channel model for the observation of giant magnetoresistance-like effects in the magnetoresistance of an all-semiconductor device. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Schmidt, Georg; Molenkamp, Laurens W.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

Gupta, Amita

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Novel Materials for Photovoltaic Technologies: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While existing photovoltaic technologies continue to advance, there are still many exciting opportunities in the area of novel materials. These opportunities arise because there is a substantial need for reducing the costs associated with the preparation and processing of photovoltaics, and because the theoretically possible photovoltaic efficiencies have yet to be achieved in practical devices. Thus it remains reasonable to continue photovoltaic research activity aimed at entirely new approaches to processing and at entirely new materials as the active media. This group identified three areas for further consideration: (a) Nano/molecular composites and hierarchical structures; (b) Organic semiconductors; and (c) Hot carrier devices.

Alivisatos, P. (University of California Berkeley); Carter, S. (University of California Santa Barbara); Ginley, D.; Nozik, A. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Meyer, G. (Johns Hopkins University); Rosenthal, S. (Vanderbilt University)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Synthetic Control of Organic Semiconductor Excited States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Al architecture. Indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glassTiO 2 /Polymer/Al. Indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glassAl architecture. Indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass

Clem, Tabitha Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Synthetic Control of Organic Semiconductor Excited States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

overlap with the solar spectrum seen for high-performingoverlap with the AM 1.5 solar spectrum, but the materialsoverlap with the solar spectrum. In light of its superior

Clem, Tabitha Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Argonne licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies By Joseph Bernstein * By Jared Sagoff * March 4, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced today that the laboratory has granted AKHAN Technologies exclusive diamond semiconductor application licensing rights to breakthrough low-temperature diamond deposition technology developed by Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM). The Argonne-developed technology allows for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond on a variety of wafer substrate materials at temperatures as low as 400 degrees Celsius. The combination of the Argonne's low-temperature diamond technology with AKHAN's Miraj Diamond(tm) process represents the state of the art in diamond semiconductor

206

Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

207

Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

208

Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Materials Growth and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress in 4H SiC Wafers and Epitaxy for Power Electronics Applications: Darren Hansen1; Mark Loboda1; Stephan Mueller1; Jie Zhang1; Bernd Thomas1

210

Semiconductor Materials for Photoelectrolysis - DOE Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production and Delivery Photoelectrochemical Turner - National Renewable Energy Laboratory hydrogen and oxygen spontaneously upon illumination, (ii) has a STH...

211

Materials and Processing Issues in Nanostructured Semiconductor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently studies indicate that the most noble metal, gold, on transition metal oxides could have important applications for room-temperature catalytic oxidation of...

212

Computational Design of Complex Semiconductor Materials for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of Computational Thermodynamics in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ... Electrical Properties of Point Defects in CdS and ZnS Thin-film PV Buffer Layers.

213

Training Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Training Materials. NIST Handbook 44 Self-Study Course. ... Chapter 3 Organization and Format of NIST Handbook 44 DOC. ...

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

214

Amorphous semiconductor solar cell  

SciTech Connect

A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project  

SciTech Connect

KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Compound semiconductor MOSFETs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhancement mode, high electron mobility MOSFET devices have been fabricated using an oxide high-@k gate dielectric stack developed using molecular beam epitaxy. A template layer of Ga"2O"3, initially deposited on the surface of the III-V device unpins ... Keywords: Compound semiconductors, GaAs gate dielectric, III-V MOSFETs

R. Droopad; K. Rajagopalan; J. Abrokwah; P. Zurcher; M. Passlack

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

218

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

219

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

220

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

222

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already here to a certain extent. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a spin-based effect, has revolutionized the information storage industry. Beyond this, however, scientists envision the possibility of combining storage and processing functions in one integrated system. In electronics, processing is done using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers) and holes (positive p-type charge carriers). Thus, a spintronically desirable semiconductor would simultaneously have discrete spin-up and spin-down states as well as both positive and negative charge carriers. Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or on alloying, both of which have drawbacks such as chemical instability or reduced mobility. In BiTeI, however, electron and hole conduction is achieved without modifying the ideal crystal structure. One of the things discovered by Crepaldi et al. was that the electronic band structure of BiTeI bends in different ways near the surface depending on which layer is on top. That, in turn, means that the Fermi level (which determines a material's conductivity) can be located in either the valence band (for positive charge carriers) or the conduction band (for negative charge carriers). With techniques such as molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, it is realistic to consider that regions with opposite band bending could be patterned on a substrate, opening new possibilities for the manipulation of spin-polarized states.

223

Gas fixation solar cell using gas diffusion semiconductor electrode  

SciTech Connect

A gas diffusion semiconductor electrode and solar cell and a process for gaseous fixation, such as nitrogen photoreduction, CO/sub 2/ photoreduction and fuel gas photo-oxidation are described. The gas diffusion photosensitive electrode has a central electrolyte porous matrix with an activated semiconductor material on one side adapted to be in contact with an electrolyte and a hydrophobic gas diffusion region on the opposite side adapted to be in contact with a supply of molecular gas.

Ang, P.G.; Sammells, A.F.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Power Electronics Based on the 2-Dimensional Electron Gas in GaN High Power Electronics Based on the 2-Dimensional Electron Gas in GaN Heterostructures by S. R. Kurtz, A. A. Allerman, and D. Koleski Motivation-GaN-based electronics offer miniaturization potential of radical proportions for microwave power amplifiers. GaN's large bandgap, high breakdown field, high electron velocity, and excellent thermal properties have led to high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) with up to 10x the power density of GaAs and other traditional semiconductors at frequencies up to 20 GHz. Further contributing to the outstanding performance of GaN-based amplifiers is the highly conducting, 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) used for the HEMT channel. Intrinsic polarization and piezoelectric properties of GaN materials can produce a 2DEG at an

225

Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

226

Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in he probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection  

SciTech Connect

GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

228

Materials Agencies and Organizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air Force Office of Scientific Research Army Research Office Army Medical Research & Materiel Command Army Research Laboratory Defense Advanced ...

229

Light amplification using semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

Dupuis, R.D.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods  

SciTech Connect

Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

Photocatalytic semiconductor clusters for fuel production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High quality crystalline, monodisperse nanometer-size semiconductor clusters were successfully grown using an inverse micellar synthesis process and their optical and structural properties were studied. Among the materials studied were PbS, FeS{sub 2}, MoS{sub 2}, CdS and related compounds. The results demonstrated strong electronic quantum confinement effects and broad tailorability of the bandgaps with decreasing cluster size, features that are important for the potential use of these materials as photocatalysts for solar fuel production and solar detoxification. The highlights of the work are included in an Executive Summary.

Wilcoxon, J.P.; Bliss, D.E.; Martin, J.E. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a number of sensitive and precise methods for the determination of trace elements, heavy element species and organic compounds in materials from an oil shale research retort process and from a solvent-refined coal pilot plant operation are discussed. The methods were chosen both for their sensitivity, and also for their relative freedom from interference effects. Coal liquids contain much higher concentrations of aromatic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's). A larger relative fraction of the pna's in shale oil are alkyl substituted. Coal liquids are also considerably higher in phenols (28 percent) than is shale oil (2 percent). N-heterocyclics are present in higher concentration (greater than 8 percent) in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics are common in coal liquids but negligible in shale oil. Inorganic elements and speciation measurements indicate significant amounts of the toxic heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se in effluent oil water and gas streams. In addition, the process water contains significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. Raw oil shale is highly enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. The majority of trace elements are concentrated by the process into the mineral residue. Only Br and Hg are not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements still remaining in significant amounts are U, Ta, Cr, and Zn.

Fruchter, J.S.; Petersen, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Ryan, P.W.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Semiconductor P-I-N detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

Sudharsanan, Rengarajan (53 Timber Line Dr., Nashua, NH 03062); Karam, Nasser H. (577 Lowell St., Lexington, MA 02173)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Molecular Chemistry to the Fore: New Insights into the Fascinating World of Photoactive Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals possess unique properties that are unmatched by other chromophores such as organic dyes or transition-metal complexes. These versatile building blocks have generated much scientific interest and found applications in bioimaging, tracking, lighting, lasing, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, thermoelectrics, and spintronics. Despite these advances, important challenges remain, notably how to produce semiconductor nanostructures with predetermined architecture, how to produce metastable semiconductor nanostructures that are hard to isolate by conventional syntheses, and how to control the degree of surface loading or valence per nanocrystal. Molecular chemists are very familiar with these issues and can use their expertise to help solve these challenges. In this Perspective, we present our groups recent work on bottom-up molecular control of nanoscale composition and morphology, low-temperature photochemical routes to semiconductor heterostructures and metastable phases, solar-to-chemical energy conversion with semiconductor-based photocatalysts, and controlled surface modification of colloidal semiconductors that bypasses ligand exchange.

Vela-Becerra, Javier [Ames Laboratory

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Colvin, Vicki L. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed. 10 figs.

Alivisatos, A.P.; Colvin, V.L.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

238

Argonne CNM News: State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology Licensed to AKHAN Technologies State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology Licensed to AKHAN Technologies The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced today that the laboratory has granted AKHAN Technologies, Inc., exclusive diamond semiconductor application licensing rights to breakthrough low-temperature diamond deposition technology developed by Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM). The method allows for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond on a variety of wafer substrate materials at temperatures as low as 400°C, highly advantageous for integration with processed semiconductor electronic materials and resulting in the deposition of low-defect nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films. The combination of CNM's low-temperature diamond technology with the AKHAN Miraj Diamond(tm) process represents the state of the art in diamond semiconductor thin-film technology.

239

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

Haller, Eugene E.

2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

240

L9, LATE NEWS: Electrical and Materials Reliability Issues in Single ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the 2009 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors [1], ..... Activated Charcoal-Carbon Fabrics Composite Electrode Materials for Supercapacitor...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FederalState Programs PFC ReductionClimate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry Launched in 1996 in collaboration with the Semiconductor Industry Association, EPA's PFC...

242

Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. June 25, 2013 Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Method Of Transferring Strained Semiconductor Structures The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having

243

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Research: Compound Semiconductor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compound Semiconductor Science and Technology Thrust The Physical, Chemical, and Nano Sciences Center's vision for Compound Semiconductors is to develop the science of compound...

244

Mesoscopic Magnetic/Semiconductor Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the experimental results of Fe and Fe3O4 nanostructures on GaAs(100) surfaces and hybrid Ferromagnetic/Semiconductor/Ferromagnetic (FM/SC/FM) spintronic devices. Element specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) ... Keywords: Epitaxial ferromagnetic thin film, ferromagnetic/semiconductor hybrid structures, spintronics

Yong Bing Xu; E. Ahmad; Yong Xiong Lu; J. S. Claydon; Ya Zhai; G. van der Laan

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ultra-thin, large-area light sources made from organic semiconductor materials. Over the last decades, much research has been spent on finding the suitable materials to realize highly efficient monochrome and white OLEDs. With their high efficiency, color-tunability, and color-quality, white OLEDs are emerging to become one of the next generation light sources. In this review, we discuss the physics of a variety of device concepts that are introduced to realize white OLEDs based on both polymer and small molecule organic materi als. Owing to the fact that about 80 % of the internally generated photons are trapped within the thin-film layer structure, we put a second focus on reviewing promising concepts for improved light outcoupling.

Reineke, Sebastian; Lssem, Bjrn; Leo, Karl

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

Crandall, Richard S. (Princeton, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

Crandall, R.S.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

248

Magnetic Materials Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Materials Science and Engineering Division Staff Directory; MML Organization. Contact. Magnetic Materials Group Robert Shull, Group Leader. ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

249

Bredas-121511 - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials Sicence Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bredas-121511 Bredas-121511 MATERIALS SCIENCE COLLOQUIUM SPEAKER: Professor Jean-Luc Bredas Georgia Tech TITLE: "Electronic and Optical Processes in Organic Semiconductors: The Case of Organic Solar Cells" DATE: Thursday, December 15, 2011 TIME: 11:00 a.m. PLACE: Building 212 / A-157 HOST: John Schlueter Refreshments will be served at 10:45 a.m. ABSTRACT: Our objective in this presentation is two-fold. First, we provide a general overview of the optical and electronic processes that take place in a solid-state organic solar cell, which we define as a cell in which the semiconducting materials between the electrodes are organic, be them polymers, oligomers, or small molecules. We briefly turn our attention to: (i) optical absorption and exciton formation; (ii) exciton migration to the

250

An Act Concerning the Recycling of Organic Materials by Certain Food Wholesalers, Manufacturers, Supermarkets, and Conference Centers (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act requires all commercial food wholesalers and distributors, industrial food manufacturers, and resource and conservation centers that generate at least 104 tons of organic waste each year...

251

Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

252

Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic solid-state lasers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on works published during the last decade. Referring originally to dyes in solid-state polymeric matrices, organic lasers also include the rich family of organic semiconductors, paced by the rapid development of organic light emitting diodes. Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources are potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. In this review, we describe the basic photophysics of the materials used as gain media in organic lasers with a specific look at the distinctive feature of dyes and semiconductors. We also outline the laser architectures used in state-of-the-art organic lasers and the performances of these devices with regard to output power, lifetime, and beam quality. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments in terms of wavelength coverage, wavelength agility, efficiency and compactness, or towards integrated low-cost sources, with a special focus on the gr...

Chenais, Sbastien; 10.1002/pi.3173

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Hydrogen in compound semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in the understanding of hydrogen and its interactions in III/V and II/VI compound semiconductors is reviewed. Donor, acceptor and deep level passivation is well established in III/V compounds based on electrical measurements and on spectroscopic studies. The hydrogen donor levels in GaAs and GaP are estimated to lie near E{sub v}+0.5 eV and E{sub v}+0.3 eV, respectively. Arsenic acceptors have been passivated by hydrogen in CdTe and the very first nitrogen-hydrogen local vibrational model spectra in ZnSe have been reported. This long awaited result may lead to an explanation for the poor activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnSe grown by techniques which involve high concentrations of hydrogen.

Haller, E.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

SOME RESULTS OF STUDIES ON THE UPTAKE OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS BY MARINE AND ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ORGANISMS USING CONTINUOUS CULTURE TECHNIQUES. Technical Report XXI  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in studies on the uptake of radioactive waste products by phytoplackton organisms in a marine environment. Laboratory studies were made of the growth requirements of a number of phytoplankton algae. Data are included on the uptake of Ru/sup 103/ by a green algae and oysters and the uptake of Zn/sup 65/ by selected marine algae. The advantages of the use of continuous culturing techniques for the study of the uptake of radioactive materials by phytoplankton organisms are discussed. (C.H.)

Taylor, W.R.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries, polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics havelaser industry, people are also seeking good ceramic laser

Wang, Zhaojie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Materials  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

one crystal to another. Bandgap The bandgap of a semiconductor material is the minimum energy needed to move an electron from its bound state within an atom to a free state. This...

257

Materials Science Advanced Materials Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to Discovery of Novel Quantum Spin-Liquid. illustration of metal organic framework Novel Filter Material Could Cut Natural Gas Refining Costs. ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

Semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an explosive device comprising an explosive material which can be made to explode upon activation by activation means in contact therewith; electrical activation means adaptable for activating said explosive material such that it explodes; and electrical circuitry in operation association with said activation means; there is an improvement wherein said activation means is an electrical material which, at an elevated temperature, has a negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and which has a shape and size and an area of contact with said explosive material sufficient that it has an electrical resistance which will match the resistance requirements of said associated electrical circuitry when said electrical material is operationally associated with said circuitry, and wherein said electrical material is polycrystalline; or said electrical material is crystalline and (a) is mounted on a lattice matched substrate or (b) is partially covered with an intimately contacting metallization area which defines its area of contact with said explosive material.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Prediction of semiconductor band edge positions in aqueous environments from first principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to predict a semiconductor's band edge positions in solution is important for the design of water-splitting photocatalyst materials. In this paper, we introduce a first-principles method to compute the ...

Wu, Yabi

260

Ge-on-Si Integrated Photonics: New Tricks from an Old Semiconductor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent progress in Ge active photonic devices for electronic-photonic integration on Si, demonstrating new tricks in optoelectronics from this old semiconductor material used for the first transistor more than ...

Jifeng, Liu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Role of propagating ionisation fronts in semiconductor generation of sub-ps THz radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in standard semiconductor THz emitters may lead to identification of superior materials and excitation) 2806. [7] J.L. Oudar, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, F. Alexandre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 (1985) 2074

Strathclyde, University of

262

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials Science Materials Science1354608000000Materials ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Materials Science Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Data Sources Reference Organizations Journals Key Resources CINDAS Materials Property Databases video icon Thermophysical Properties of Matter Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys Handbook (SAH) Proquest Technology Collection Includes the Materials Science collection MRS Online Proceedings Library Papers presented at meetings of the Materials Research Society Data Sources

263

Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

Hanna, Mark Cooper (Boulder, CO); Reedy, Robert (Golden, CO)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

264

Organo Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described which is capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation (luminescing) in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form an organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance in a material being analyzed, and capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing, scattering, or diffracting energy when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam. The probe is stable to repeated exposure to light in the presence of oxygen and/or other radicals. Further described is a process for making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound and for making the organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe comprising the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound linked to an affinity molecule capable of bonding to a detectable substance. A process is also described for using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Simulating nanoscale semiconductor devices.  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of electronic devices will be developed at the nanoscale and molecular level, where quantum mechanical effects are observed. These effects must be accounted for in the design process for such small devices. One prototypical nanoscale semiconductor device under investigation is a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Scientists are hopeful the quantum tunneling effects present in an RTD can be exploited to induce and sustain THz frequency current oscillations. To simulate the electron transport within the RTD, the Wigner-Poisson equations are used. These equations describe the time evolution of the electrons distribution within the device. In this paper, this model and a parameter study using this model will be presented. The parameter study involves calculating the steady-state current output from the RTD as a function of an applied voltage drop across the RTD and also calculating the stability of that solution. To implement the parameter study, the computational model was connected to LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms), a part of Sandia National Laboratories parallel solver project, Trilinos. Numerical results will be presented.

Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Zhao, P. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Woolard, D. L. (U. S. Army Research Laboratory, NC); Kelley, C. Tim (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Lasater, Matthew S. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Quantum Effect Materials: Methods of Fabrication of Quantum ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Session A: Quantum Effect Materials: Methods of Fabrication of Quantum Dots. Session ... Nanometer size semiconductor crystallites show a striking evolution of ...

269

Printing Highly-aligned Single-crystalline Organic Electronic Thin Films |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Printing Highly-aligned Single-crystalline Organic Electronic Thin Films Printing Highly-aligned Single-crystalline Organic Electronic Thin Films Monday, September 23, 2013 Organic semiconductor materials have some intriguing advantages compared to their inorganic counterparts: low-cost and versatile manufacturing (e.g. roll-to-roll printing), material abundance and new form factors (e.g. flexible, transparent and stretchable). However, solution-processed organic devices are usually made and optimized with poorly scalable fabrication using lab-based techniques such as spin coating or dip coating. A better route for organic-electronics fabrication is printing, which can potentially realize large-area, high-throughput, low-cost fabrication on an industrial scale. Fluence image FLUENCE: fluid-enhanced crystal engineering. Solution shearing (a) using a

270

Elements of Doping Engineering in Semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using defect thermodynamics, we discuss physical factors that affect doping limits in semiconductors. The dependencies of the defect formation enthalpy on the atomic chemical potentials and on the electron Fermi energy are demonstrated. These dependencies, in particular on the Fermi energy, lead to spontaneous formation of charge-compensating defects that can limit doping. Experimental data compiled for III-V, II-VI, and I-III-VI2 compounds support this view and further provide insight into the connections among different host materials. We argue that what matters is not the magnitude of the band gap that determines the dopability of a material, but rather, the relative position of the conduction-band minimum (in the case of n-doping) and the valence-band maximum (in the case of p-doping) with respect to vacuum.

Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S.; Zunger, A.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

271

Sandia National Labs: Materials Science & Engineering, Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING HOME OrganizationMission Capabilities Awards & Accomplishments Patents MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CENTER Techniques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 These are...

272

Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

274

Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

Hite, Larry R. (Dallas, TX); Houston, Ted (Richardson, TX); Matloubian, Mishel (Dallas, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Correlated exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The absorption and dissipation of energy in semiconductor nanostructures are often determined by excited electron dynamics. In semiconductors, one fundamentally important electronic state is an exciton, an excited electron ...

Wen, Patrick, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

Janikowski, Stuart K.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Synthetic Design of New Metal-Organic Framework Materials for Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Pingyun Feng (Primary Contact), Qipu Lin, Xiang Zhao Department of Chemistry University of California Riverside, CA 92521 Phone: (951) 827-2042 Email: pingyun.feng@ucr.edu DOE Program Officer: Dr. Michael Sennett Phone: (301) 903-6051 Email: Michael.Sennett@science.doe.gov Objectives Design and * synthesize new metal-organic framework materials using lightweight chemical elements to help improve gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity. Develop new synthetic strategies to generate novel * active binding sites on metal ions and ligands to enhance solid-gas interactions for increased uptake near ambient conditions.

278

Synchronization in semiconductor laser rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the dynamics of semiconductor lasers coupled in a ring configuration. The lasers, which have stable output intensity when isolated, behave chaotically when coupled unidirectionally in a closed chain. In this way, we show that neither feedback nor bidirectional coupling is necessary to induce chaotic dynamics at the laser output. We study the synchronization phenomena arising in this particular coupling architecture, and discuss its possible application to chaos-based communications. Next, we extend the study to bidirectional coupling and propose an appropriate technique to optical chaos encryption/decryption in closed chains of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers.

Javier M. Buldu; M. C. Torrent; Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

279

Innovations in Semiconductor Devices for Exascale ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Innovations in Semiconductor Devices for Exascale Computing. TC Chen IBM Fellow and Vice President of Science and ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

280

Economic Impact of Measurement in the Semiconductor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... semiconductors are the workhorses that take electric voltage and engender ... the distance between lines of memory (dynamic random access ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Robust Capacity Planning in Semiconductor Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 3, 2001 ... Abstract: We present a stochastic programming approach to capacity planning under demand uncertainty in semiconductor manufacturing.

282

New Materials for Spintronics  

SciTech Connect

One of the critical materials needs for the development of spin electronics is diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) which retain their ferromagnetism at and above room temperature. Spin polarization in DMS materials leads to the possibility of spin-polarized current injection into nonmagnetic semiconductor heterostructures. Such transport is of critical importance in the development of devices that utilize spin (e.g. spin-LEDs and spin-FETs). New magnetically-doped semiconducting oxides that show promise because of Curie points which exceed room temperature are currently being investigated in our lab and elsewhere. However, the detailed materials properties and mechanism(s) of magnetism in these systems have been elusive. In this talk, I will present recent results from our laboratory focused on the MBE synthesis and properties of these ferromagnetic oxide semiconductors. This work was funded by the PNNL Nanoscience and Technology Initiative, the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering Physics, and the DARPA Spins in Semiconductors (SPINS) Initiative.

Chambers, Scott A.; Yoo, Young K.

2003-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Broad spectrum inorganic and organic analytical techniques provide the best approach for the initial characterization of the complex samples encountered in working with new energy technologies such as oil shale retorting and solvent refining of coal. In complex samples, analyses are facilitated by techniques, such as neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence, that are relatively insensitive to matrix effects. A comparative organic constituent analysis of the crude shale oil and coal liquid samples analyzed in this study showed that the coal liquids contained higher concentrations of aromatic compounds including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The coal liquids were considerably richer in phenols than was the shale oil. N-heterocyclics were present in higher concentration in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics were found to be common in coal liquids but negligible in this shale oil. Measurable amounts of the heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se were found in effluent streams from oil shale retorting. The process water also contained significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. The raw oil shale was enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg, and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. Most were concentrated in the mineral residue. Only Br was not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements remaining in significant amounts were U, Ta, Cr and Zn. We have not yet measured the trace elements and gaseous and particulate samples from the solvent-refined coal plant. 10 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Laul, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ryan, P.W.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Atomic-scale properties of semiconductor heterostructures probed by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The engineering of advanced semiconductor heterostructure materials and devices requires a detailed understanding of, and control over, the structure and properties of semiconductor materials and devices at the atomic to nanometer scale. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy has emerged as a unique and powerful method to characterize structural morphology and electronic properties in semiconductor epitaxial layers and device structures at these length scales. The basic experimental techniques in cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy are described, and some representative applications to semiconductor heterostructure characterization drawn from recent investigations in the authors laboratory are discussed. Specifically, they describe some recent studies of InP/InAsP and InAsP/InAsSb heterostructures in which nanoscale compositional clustering has been observed and analyzed.

Yu, E.T.; Zuo, S.L.; Bi, W.G.; Tu, C.W. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

Lin, P.T.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

286

Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

Lin, Peter T. (East Brunswick, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Laser Application for Material Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Advanced Materials, Processes and Applications for Additive Manufacturing: Laser Application for Material Processing Program Organizers:...

288

Hybrid high-temperature superconductor-semiconductor tunnel diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the demonstration of hybrid high-Tc-superconductor-semiconductor tunnel junctions, enabling new interdisciplinary directions in condensed matter research. The devices were fabricated by our newly-developed mechanical bonding technique, resulting in high-Tc-semiconductor planar junctions acting as superconducting tunnel diodes. Tunneling-spectra characterization of the hybrid junctions of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+{\\delta} combined with bulk GaAs, or a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, exhibits excess voltage and nonlinearity - in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a d-wave superconductor-normal material junction, and similar to spectra obtained in scanning tunneling microscopy. Additional junctions are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+{\\delta} combined with graphite or Bi2Te3. Our results pave the way for new methods in unconventional superconductivity studies, novel materials and quantum technology applications.

Alex Hayat; Parisa Zareapour; Shu Yang F. Zhao; Achint Jain; Igor G. Savelyev; Marina Blumin; Zhijun Xu; Alina Yang; G. D. Gu; Harry E. Ruda; Shuang Jia; R. J. Cava; Aephraim M. Steinberg; Kenneth S. Burch

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

289

A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent metamaterial (MM) research faces several problems when using metal-based plasmonic components as building blocks for MMs. The use of conventional metals for MMs is limited by several factors: metals such as gold and silver have high losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) ranges and very large negative real permittivity values, and in addition, their optical properties cannot be tuned. These issues that put severe constraints on the device applications of MMs could be overcome if semiconductors are used as plasmonic materials instead of metals. Heavily doped, wide bandgap oxide semiconductors could exhibit both a small negative real permittivity and relatively small losses in the NIR. Heavily doped oxides of zinc and indium were already reported to be good, low loss alternatives to metals in the NIR range. Here, we consider these transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) as alternative plasmonic materials for many specific applications ranging from surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides to MMs with hype...

Naik, Gururaj V; 10.1016/j.metmat.2010.11.001

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Internal cooling in a semiconductor laser diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractA thermal model of a diode laser structure is developed which includes a bipolar thermoelectric term not included in previous models. It is shown that heterostructure band offsets can be chosen so that there are thermoelectric cooling sources near the active region; this method of cooling is internal to the device itself, as opposed to temperature stabilization schemes which employ an external cooler. A novel laser structure is proposed that is capable of internal cooling in the Ga1 In As Sb1 GaSb material system with = 2 64 m. Index TermsElectrothermal effects, lasers, laser thermal factors, photothermal effects, semiconductor lasers, thermionic emission, thermionic energy conversion, thermoelectric devices, thermoelectric energy conversion, thermoelectricity. Fig. 1. Band structure and thermoelectric heat source distribution for (a) and (b) conventional SCH, and (c) and (d) ICICLE.

K. P. Pipe; R. J. Ram; A. Shakouri

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Electronics Materials Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Biomaterials Staff; Complex Fluids Staff; Sustainable Polymers Staff; Materials Science and Engineering Division Staff Directory; MML Organization. ...

2012-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

Materials Science/Crystallography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Understanding the ormation of Methane Hydrate F ... J.247 agnetic Excitation Spectrum in Spin ... eutron Vibrational Spectroscopy of Organic Materials ...

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Powder Materials Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Powder Materials for Energy Efficiency in Transportation; January 2011: Organized By: Fernand Marquis Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy...

294

A hybrid bio-organic interface for neuronal photo-activation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interfacing artificial functional materials and living neuronal tissues is at the forefront of bio-nano-technology. Attempts have been so far based onto microscale processing of metals and inorganic semiconductors as electrodes or photoactive layers in biased devices. More recently, also nanomaterials properties have been investigated. In spite of extensive research however, the communication between biological tissues and artificial sensors is still a challenge. Constraints consist in the complexity of the fabrication processes (i.e. metal and semiconductor lithography), the mechanical properties (e.g. flexibility and mechanical invasiveness) and chemical influence (e.g. inflammatory reactions). In addition, electrodes have fixed geometries that limit the location in space of the stimulus and often electrical currents are detrimental for the overall system. To this respect organic soft matter offers a chance in terms of biological affinity and mechanical properties. In particular conjugated polymers have appealing optoelectronic features which could lead to a new generation of neuronal communication and photo-manipulation techniques. So far conjugated polymers have being only tested as coatings of electrodes for neuronal activity recording. Here we report an up-scale of their use: the successful interfacing of an organic semiconductor to a network of cultured primary neurons, through optical excitation. This allows to a new paradigm for the optical stimulation of neurons which could have important implications for the development of an artificial retina based on organic photodetectors.

Maria Rosa Antognazza; Diego Ghezzi; Marco Dal Maschio; Erica Lanzarini; Fabio Benfenati; Guglielmo Lanzani

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

295

Joining of dissimilar materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fabrication of photonic band gap materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microspheres, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microspheres therefrom. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microspheres may be polystyrene microspheres.

Constant, Kristen (Ames, IA); Subramania, Ganapathi S. (Ames, IA); Biswas, Rana (Ames, IA); Ho, Kai-Ming (Ames, IA)

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

Fabrication of Photonic band gap Materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microsphere, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microsphere there from. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microsphere may be polystyrenemicrosphere.

Constant, Kristen; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Biswas, Rana; Ho, Kai-Ming

2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

298

Tuning the interfacial hole injection barrier between p-type organic materials and Co using a MoO{sub 3} buffer layer  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that the interfacial hole injection barrier {Delta}{sub h} between p-type organic materials (i.e., CuPc and pentacene) and Co substrate can be tuned by the insertion of a MoO{sub 3} buffer layer. Using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, it was found that the introduction of MoO{sub 3} buffer layer effectively reduces the hole injection barrier from 0.8 eV to 0.4 eV for the CuPc/Co interface, and from 1.0 eV to 0.4 eV for the pentacene/Co interface, respectively. In addition, by varying the thickness of the buffer, the tuning effect of {Delta}{sub h} is shown to be independent of the thickness of MoO{sub 3} interlayer at both CuPc/Co and pentacene/Co interfaces. This Fermi level pinning effect can be explained by the integer charge-transfer model. Therefore, the MoO{sub 3} buffer layer has the potential to be applied in p-type organic spin valve devices to improve the device performance via reducing the interfacial hole injection barrier.

Wang Yuzhan; Wee, Andrew T. S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Cao Liang [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Qi Dongchen [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Chen Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Gao Xingyu [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments  

SciTech Connect

A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

Xie Yiming [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, the Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China); Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Lu Canzhong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China)], E-mail: czlu@fjirsm.ac.cn

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

Weil, Raoul B. (Haifa, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

1980-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

302

Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

Sadtler, Bryce F

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

304

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

305

Power Electronics in the Semiconductor Fabrication Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides utility marketing and account executives and engineering staff with fundamental information about the use of power electronics systems in semiconductor fabrication equipment. It details the power electronics systems used in typical semiconductor production equipment as well as current topology and system compatibility issues. Finally, the report outlines how power electronics will serve future advances in the semiconductor industry and how utilities can help the industry make their e...

1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

306

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the size of an automotive cooling system by 60% or even eliminate the secondary liquid cooling system. 2 Military: WBG semiconductors have great potential as an enabling...

307

Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline ...  

Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or ...

308

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Work...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Work Plans The Semiconductor Industry Association has finalized its work plan with the collaboration of EPA. The plan describes actions the industry intends to take to achieve its...

309

Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Spinoff Applications SBIRSTTR...

310

Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Spinoff Applications Spinoff...

311

Stangl Semiconductor Equipment AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Product German manufacturer of wet chemistry systems for processing silicon and thin-film solar cells. References Stangl Semiconductor Equipment AG1 LinkedIn...

312

Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55?m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

Williams, Michael D.

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

Materials Science & Tech Division | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supporting Organizations Supporting Organizations Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Chemical Sciences Division Materials Science and Technology BES Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Program BES Materials Sciences and Engineering Program Joint Institute For Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Supporting Organizations | Materials Science and Technology SHARE Materials Science and Technology Division The Materials Science and Technology Division is unique within the Department of Energy (DOE) System with mission goals that extend from fundamental materials science to applied materials science and technology. One key component of the division is a strong Basic Energy Sciences (BES) portfolio that pushes the frontiers of materials theory, synthesis

314

Electrical Transport Through a Single Nanoscale SemiconductorBranch Point  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Semiconductor tetrapods are three dimensional branched nanostructures, representing a new class of materials for electrical conduction. We employ the single electron transistor approach to investigate how charge carriers migrate through single nanoscale branch points of tetrapods. We find that carriers can delocalize across the branches or localize and hop between arms depending on their coupling strength. In addition, we demonstrate a new single-electron transistor operation scheme enabled by the multiple branched arms of a tetrapod: one arm can be used as a sensitive arm-gate to control the electrical transport through the whole system. Electrical transport through nanocrystals, molecules, nanowires and nanotubes display novel quantum phenomena. These can be studied using the single electron transistor approach to successively change the charge state by one, to reveal charging energies, electronic level spacings, and coupling between electronic, vibrational, and spin degrees of freedom. The advent of colloidal synthesis methods that produce branched nanostructures provides a new class of material which can act as conduits for electrical transport in hybrid organic-inorganic electrical devices such as light emitting diodes and solar cells. Already, the incorporation of branched nanostructures has yielded significant improvements in nanorod/polymer solar cells, where the specific pathways for charge migration can have a significant impact on device performance. Progress in this area requires an understanding of how electrons and holes migrate through individual branch points, for instance do charges delocalize across the branches or do they localize and hop between arms. Here we employ the single electron transistor approach to investigate the simplest three dimensional branched nanostructure, the semiconductor tetrapod, which consists of a pyramidal shaped zinc blende-structured ''core'' with four wurzite-structured arms projecting out at the tetrahedral angle. Monodisperse CdTe tetrapods with arms 8 nm in diameter and 150 nm in length were synthesized as previously reported. The tetrapods dispersed in toluene were deposited onto {approx}10 nm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} dielectrics with alignment markers and a back gate (see Supporting Information). A tetrapod spontaneously orients with one arm pointing perpendicularly away from the substrate and three arms projecting down towards the surface. Individual 60 nm-thick Pd electrodes were placed by EBL onto each of the three arms downwards so that there are four terminals (three arms and a back gate) as shown schematically in Fig. 1 top inset. Figure 1 bottom inset shows a typical scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the devices. The center brighter spot is due to the fourth arm pointing up away from the substrate although its controlled breaking is possible. The separation between the metal electrodes and the tetrapod branch point ranges from 30 to 80 nm in our devices. The devices were loaded into a He{sup 4}-flow cryostat for low-temperature ({approx}5K) electrical measurements.

Cui, Yi; Banin, Uri; Bjork, Mikael T.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

315

Business Case Slide 28: High-Value: Semiconductors - Program...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductors - Program Focus Previous Slide Next Slide Table of Contents High-Value: Semiconductors - Program Focus Measurement of DUO2 transistor properties at ORNL Measurement...

316

Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides  

SciTech Connect

Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygennitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygennitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor liquid junction photocell in which the photocell is in the configuration of a light concentrator and in which the electrolytic solution both conducts current and facilitates the concentration of incident solar radiation onto the semiconductor. The photocell may be in the configuration of a non-imaging concentrator such as a compound parabolic concentrator, or an imaging concentrator such as a lens.

Parkinson, B.A.

1982-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

319

Development of Pillared M(IV) Phosphate Phosphonate Inorganic Organic Hybrid Ion Exchange Materials for Applications in Separations found in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation focuses on key intergroup and intragroup separations found in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, specifically americium from lanthanides and americium from other actinides, most importantly americium from curium. Our goal is to implement a liquid-solid separation process to reduce waste and risk of contamination by the development of metal(IV) phosphate phosphonate inorganic organic hybrid ion exchange materials with the ideal formula of M(O6P2C6H4)0.5(O3POA) * nH2O, where M = Zr or Sn, A = H or Na. These materials have previously shown to have high affinity for Ln, this work will expand on the previous studies and provide methods for the above target separation, exploiting oxidation state and ion charge to drive the separation process. The optimum hydrothermal reaction conditions were determined by adjusting parameters such as reaction temperature and time, as well as the phosphonate to phosphate (pillarto-spacer) ligands ratio. Following these results four bulk syntheses were performed and their ion exchange properties were thoroughly examined. Techniques such as inductively coupled mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting were used to determine the affinity of the materials towards Na+, Cs+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ni2+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Ho3+, Yb3+, NpO2+, Pu4+, PuO22+, Am3+, AmO2+, and Cm3+. Separation factors in the thousands have been observed for intergroup separations of the Ln from the alkali, alkaline earth, and low valent transition metals. A new method for Am oxidation was developed, which employed Na2S2O8 as the oxidizing agent and Ca(OCl)2 as the stabilizing agent for AmO2+ synthesis. Separation factors of 30-60 for Nd3+ and Eu3+ from AmO2+, as well as 20 for Cm3+ from AmO2+ were observed at pH 2. The work herein shows that a liquid-solid separation can be carried out for these difficult separations by means of oxidation and ion exchange.

Burns, Jonathan

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)  

SciTech Connect

Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

Xiao, Teng

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

322

Revision: October 2013 White Papers on Materials for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Revision: October 2013 White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting, Wooni Choi, Muhammad N. Huda, Su-Huai Wei DOE PEC Working Group #12;Revision: October 2013 PEC White Papers: III-V Semiconductors for PEC III-V semiconductor systems for high-efficiency solar water

323

Laser Materials Processing - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 17, 2011 ... Laser Applications in Materials Technology (II): Laser Materials Processing Sponsored by: MS&T Organization Program Organizers: Stephen...

324

MST: Organizations: Bio: Alex Rosler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alex Roesler Alex Roesler Alex is the manager of the Ceramic and Glass organization at Sandia National Laboratories. His organization provides expertise in a variety of materials...

325

Photosynthesis-inspired device architectures for organic photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic semiconductor photovoltaics offer a promising route to low-cost, scalable, emissions-free electricity generation. However, achieving higher power conversion efficiencies is critical before these devices can play a ...

Heidel, Timothy David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Structure-property relationships in radical-cation (electron-donor molecule) and anion-based (including fullerides) organic superconductors and their use in the design of new materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presently known structure-property relations that have been developed for organic superconductors based on the ET molecule (b- phases and k-phases), and the C{sub 60}-anion-based fullerides, and their use in the structural design of new superconducting materials are discussed. 12 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs.

Williams, J.M.; Carlson, K.D.; Kini, A.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Energy Management in Semiconductor Cleanrooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Energy Management in Semiconductor Cleanrooms Cleanrooms are used extensively in the manufacturing of integrated circuits and in the biological and pharmaceutical industries. For particle concentrations to remain low, for example, less than 100 particles/ft3 at >0.5 micrometers (Class 100), the air in the cleanroom must be filtered. Typically, the air is circulated through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters at a very high rate, such as 400 to 600 room air volumes per hour, to maintain low particle concentrations. The combined effect of high recirculation and a high pressure drop through HEPA filters is higher power costs per unit floor area to operate the cleanroom than to ventilate a commercial building. Cleanrooms are usually ventilated constantly and

328

Boron doping a semiconductor particle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

329

Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

330

Heating device for semiconductor wafers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

Vosen, S.R.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

331

Heating device for semiconductor wafers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

Vosen, Steven R. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Excess charges in semiconductor nanocrystallites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors explore in this report the effects of excess electrons on the edge of the absorption spectrum of small semiconductor particles. The presence of these charges leads to strong bleaching of the absorption at the exciton region and to slight enhancement of the absorption on both sides of the bleaching. They show that the effect is independent of the origin of the charge; it occurs whether the charge is injected into the particle or only attached to its surface, and it appears even when the charge is deeply localized within the band gap. They conclude that the effect arises from the electric field associated with the charge and not from its presence in the band.

Laungdilok, C.; Lawless, D.; Cook, A.R.; Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications.

Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Scanning probe characterization of novel semiconductor materials and devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. Smith, E. T. Yu, J. M. Redwing, and K. S. Boutros, Appl.V. Smith, E. T. Yu, J. M. Redwing, and K. S. Boutros, Appl.Dang, E. T. Yu, and J. M. Redwing, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

Zhou, Xiaotian

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Photocell utilizing a wide-bandgap semiconductor material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photocell comprises a p-i-n amorphous silicon structure having a wide bandgap layer adjacent to either the p-type or n-type layer. This structure reduces the absorption of light entering the photocell and the back-diffusion of minority carriers.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Williams, Brown F. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

336

FY08 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)  

SciTech Connect

This is the annual report for an old project funded by NA22. The purpose of the project was to develop amorphous semiconductors for use as radiation detectors. The annual report contains information about the progress made in synthesizing, characterizing, and radiation response testing of these new materials.

Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.; Rockett, Angus

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Not Your Grandma's Quilt Researchers develop technique to keep cool high-power semiconductor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

devices used in wireless applications, traffic lights and electric cars By Sean Nealon On MAY 8, 2012 in everything from traffic lights to electric cars. Gallium Nitride (GaN), a semiconductor material found by the Nano-Device Laboratory research group led byAlexander Balandin, professor of electrical engineering

338

Molecular beam epitaxy passivation studies of Ge and III-V semiconductors for advanced CMOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future CMOS technologies will require the use of substrate material with a very high mobility in order to fulfil the performance requirements. Therefore, combination of Ge p-MOS with n-MOS devices made out of high mobility III/V compounds, such as GaAs, ... Keywords: High mobility semiconductors, Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), Passivation

C. Merckling; J. Penaud; D. Kohen; F. Bellenger; A. Alian; G. Brammertz; M. El-Kazzi; M. Houssa; J. Dekoster; M. Caymax; M. Meuris; M. M. Heyns

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Standard practice for radiologic examination of semiconductors and electronic components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice provides the minimum requirements for nondestructive radiologic examination of semiconductor devices, microelectronic devices, electromagnetic devices, electronic and electrical devices, and the materials used for construction of these items. 1.2 This practice covers the radiologic examination of these items to detect possible defective conditions within the sealed case, especially those resulting from sealing the lid to the case, and internal defects such as extraneous material (foreign objects), improper interconnecting wires, voids in the die attach material or in the glass (when sealing glass is used) or physical damage. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this practice. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the app...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Applied Chemicals and Materials Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Chemicals and Materials Staff Directory. ... accept either a name, organizational name, or ... MML Organization. Contact. Material Measurement ...

2012-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

News and Awards | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Events and Conferences Supporting Organizations Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | News & Awards SHARE News and Awards Latest News...

342

Session M: Graphene - Materials and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 24, 2010 ... TMS 2010 Electronic Materials Conference: Session M: Graphene - Materials and Characterization Program Organizers: Mark Goorsky,...

343

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-04NT41947; W(A)-04-021, CH-1190 The Petitioner, Osram Opto Semiconductors (Osram), was awarded this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Polymer OLED White Light Development Program." In this program, Osram will develop, fabricate, and fully characterize a 12-inch square OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) white light prototype. The prototype will be based on use of multiple discrete 3-inch square white light devices fabricated on glass substrates. A broadband light-emitting co-polymer for the generation of white light, from either a single large area emitting film, or from a relatively small number of segmented emitting films will be used. An alternate

344

Biogas and Cattle Organs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A study has been conducted to assess the possibilities to introduce dead cattle organs as the raw material for biogas generation at the rural (more)

Jamil, Adnan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Independent Materials Testing Laboratories, Inc.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... [02/L24] ASTM D2974 Moisture, Ash, and Organic Matter of Peat Material. ... Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Materials Used in ...

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

346

Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

Geyer, Scott Mitchell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells Haoting Shen Prof. Redwing's Research and in-situ dopant for Si nanowires Y. Ke, X.J. Weng, J.M. Redwing, C.M. Eichfeld, T.R. Swisher, S

Yener, Aylin

348

Mospec Semiconductor Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mospec Semiconductor Corp Mospec Semiconductor Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name Mospec Semiconductor Corp Place Tainan, Taiwan Sector Solar Product Taiwanese semiconductor products producer; offers monocrystalline silicon wafers and as of April 2008, ingots for the solar industry. Coordinates 22.99721°, 120.180862° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":22.99721,"lon":120.180862,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

349

Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC Jump to: navigation, search Name Hemlock Semiconductor Corp (HSC) Place Hemlock, Michigan Zip 48626 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor and solar industries. Coordinates 39.589497°, -82.153275° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.589497,"lon":-82.153275,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

350

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements The U.S. semiconductor industry, represented by the members of the Environmental Protection Agency's PFC Reduction/Climate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry, has committed to reduce absolute perfluorocompound (PFC) emissions by 10% below the 1995 baseline level by the year 2010. Perfluorocompounds include the most potent and long-lived greenhouse gases such as perfluorocarbons (e.g., CF4, C2F6, C3F8), trifluoromethane (CHF3), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) voluntary semiconductor industry partnership was developed collaboratively with the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA). EPA, SIA, and the Partner companies (listed below) are working to reduce industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EPA's

351

Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

352

Developing New Nanoprobes from Semiconductor Nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water-Soluble Silica- Coated CdSe/ZnS Semiconductor QuantumEnhanced Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dots on Gold Colloids.CdS/ZnS shells on colloidal CdSe nanorods. Journal Of The

Fu, Aihua

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Using a microfluidic reactor, Los Alamos researchers transformed the SLS process into a flow-based technique. September 26, 2013 Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent The new "flow" solution-liquid-solid method allows scientists to slow down growth and thereby capture mechanistic details as the nanowires grow in solution. A Los Alamos research team has transformed the synthesis process of semiconductor nanowires for use in solar cells, batteries, electronics, sensors and photonics using a solution-liquid-solid (SLS) batch approach to achieve unprecedented control over growth rates, nanowire size and internal

355

Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

356

Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Electronic Oxides: Superconductor and Semiconductor Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has proven to be one of the most versatile and effective methods for obtaining high-quality electronic oxide thin-film materials. Much of this success can be attributed to its initial use in depositing high temperature superconducting materials. However, pulsed-laser deposition is now a leading research tool in the development of various electronic oxide thin-film technologies, In this paper, recent progress in the deposition of oxide materials on dissimilar materials for both superconductor and semiconductor applications is discussed. Recent developments in the synthesis of superconducting wires via epitaxial growth of superconducting oxides on biaxially textured metal tapes is described. In addition, efforts to integrate high-k dielectric oxides on semiconductor surfaces using pulsed-laser deposition are highlighted.

Norton, D.P.; Park, C.; Lee, Y.E.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Christen, D.K.; Kroeger, D.M.

2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

357

Bioinspired Materials Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioinspired Crystal Growth by Organic/Inorganic Crystal Engineering Bioinspired Materials Design from Renewable Resources Biological Synthesis of TiNi...

358

MST: Organizations: Bio: Dianna Blair  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Machining Services Electronic Fabrication Manufacturing Process Science & Technology Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging Organic Materials Ceramic & Glass Meso Manufacturing &...

359

MSE 891: Materials for Energy Applications Spring 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1, 2 Module III: photovoltaic materials Inorganic semiconductors for solar cell applications Morelli include: unconventional geologic fuels and biofuels; photovoltaic materials and solar energy conversion Feb 17,22 Module III: photovoltaic materials Introduction and design of materials Morelli Feb 24, Mar

360

White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

viable from a stable and efficient material with an absorber cost of 150m 2 . Light emitting diode III-V synthesis has seen a dramatic reduction in semiconductor cost by...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

Cleland, John W. (Knoxville, TN); Westbrook, Russell D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wood, Richard F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Young, Rosa T. (Knoxville, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

Domnita Catalina Marinescu

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

363

Nano Materials Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Scientists at Idaho National Laboratory have developed improved nano-composite materials composed of an organic polymer constituent, an inorganic ...

364

Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

Porous Diblock Copolymer Thin Films in High-Performance Semiconductor Microelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The engine fueling more than 40 years of performance improvements in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs) has been industry's ability to pattern circuit elements at ever-higher resolution and with ever-greater precision. Steady advances in photolithography - the process wherein ultraviolet light chemically changes a photosensitive polymer resist material in order to create a latent image - have resulted in scaling of minimum printed feature sizes from tens of microns during the 1980s to sub-50 nanometer transistor gate lengths in today's state-of-the-art ICs. The history of semiconductor technology scaling as well as future technology requirements is documented in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The progression of the semiconductor industry to the realm of nanometer-scale sizes has brought enormous challenges to device and circuit fabrication, rendering performance improvements by conventional scaling alone increasingly difficult. Most often this discussion is couched in terms of field effect transistor (FET) feature sizes such as the gate length or gate oxide thickness, however these challenges extend to many other aspects of the IC, including interconnect dimensions and pitch, device packing density, power consumption, and heat dissipation. The ITRS Technology Roadmap forecasts a difficult set of scientific and engineering challenges with no presently-known solutions. The primary focus of this chapter is the research performed at IBM on diblock copolymer films composed of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) (PS-b-PMMA) with total molecular weights M{sub n} in the range of {approx}60K (g/mol) and polydispersities (PD) of {approx}1.1. These materials self assemble to form patterns having feature sizes in the range of 15-20nm. PS-b-PMMA was selected as a self-assembling patterning material due to its compatibility with the semiconductor microelectronics manufacturing infrastructure, as well as the significant body of existing research on understanding its material properties.

Black, C.T.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Methods for manufacturing geometric multi-crystalline cast materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semi-conductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a geometrically ordered multi-crystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm.

Stoddard, Nathan G

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

368

High-power semiconductor separate-confinement double heterostructure lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The review is devoted to high-power semiconductor lasers. Historical reference is presented, physical and technological foundations are considered, and the concept of high-power semiconductor lasers is formulated. Fundamental and technological reasons limiting the optical power of a semiconductor laser are determined. The results of investigations of cw and pulsed high-power semiconductor lasers are presented. Main attention is paid to inspection of the results of experimental studies of single high-power semiconductor lasers. The review is mainly based on the data obtained in the laboratory of semiconductor luminescence and injection emitters at the A.F. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute. (review)

Tarasov, I S [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Optical Nonlinearities and Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots  

SciTech Connect

Low-dimensional semiconductors have attracted great interest due to the potential for tailoring their linear and nonlinear optical properties over a wide-range. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC's) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects or quantum dots. Due to quantum cordhement and a large surface-to-volume ratio, the linear and nonlinear optical properties, and the carrier dynamics in NC's are significantly different horn those in bulk materials. napping at surface states can lead to a fast depopulation of quantized states, accompanied by charge separation and generation of local fields which significantly modifies the nonlinear optical response in NC's. 3D carrier confinement also has a drastic effect on the energy relaxation dynamics. In strongly confined NC's, the energy-level spacing can greatly exceed typical phonon energies. This has been expected to significantly inhibit phonon-related mechanisms for energy losses, an effect referred to as a phonon bottleneck. It has been suggested recently that the phonon bottleneck in 3D-confined systems can be removed due to enhanced role of Auger-type interactions. In this paper we report femtosecond (fs) studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities, and energy relaxation and trap ping dynamics in three types of quantum-dot systems: semiconductor NC/glass composites made by high temperature precipitation, ion-implanted NC's, and colloidal NC'S. Comparison of ultrafast data for different samples allows us to separate effects being intrinsic to quantum dots from those related to lattice imperfections and interface properties.

Klimov, V.; McBranch, D.; Schwarz, C.

1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttram, Malcolm T. (Sandia Park, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); O' Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Chow, Weng W. (Cedar Crest, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 2. Overview).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodriguez, J.

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

373

Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 1. Overview).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodgriguez, J.

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

375

Ferromagnetism in Doped Thin-Film Oxide and Nitride Semiconductors and Dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

The principal goal in the field of high-Tc ferromagnetic semiconductors is the synthesis, characterization and utilization of semiconductors which exhibit substantial carrier spin polarization at and above room temperature. Such materials are of critical importance in the emerging field of semiconductor spintronics. The interaction leading to carrier spin polarization, exchange coupling between the dopant spins and the valence or conduction band, is known to be sufficiently weak in conventional semiconductors, such as GaAs and Si, that magnetic ordering above cryogenic temperatures is essentially impossible. Since the provocative theoretical predictions of Tc above ambient in p-Mn:ZnO and p-Mn:GaN (T. Dietl et al., Science 287 1019 (2000)), and the observation of room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co:TiO2 anatase (Y. Matsumoto et al., Science 291 854 (2001)), there has been a flurry of work in oxides and nitrides doped with transition metals with unpaired d electrons. It has even been claimed that room-temperature ferromagnetism can be obtained in certain d0 transition metals oxides without a dopant. In this Report, the field of transition metal doped oxides and nitrides is critically reviewed and assessed from a materials science perspective. Since much of the field centers around thin film growth, this Report focuses on films prepared not only by conventional vacuum deposition methods, but also by spin coating colloidal nanoparticles.

Chambers, Scott A.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

FY06 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)  

SciTech Connect

We describe progress in the development of new materials for portable, room-temperature, gamma-radiation detection at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site in Washington State. High Z, high resistivity, amorphous semiconductors are being designed for use as solid-state detectors at near ambient temperatures; principles of operation are analogous to single-crystal semiconducting detectors. Amorphous semiconductors have both advantages and disadvantages compared to single crystals, and this project is developing methods to mitigate technical problems and design optimized material for gamma detection. Several issues involved in the fabrication of amorphous semiconductors are described, including reaction thermodynamics and kinetics, the development of pyrolytic coating, and the synthesis of ingots. The characterization of amorphous semiconductors is described, including sectioning and polishing protocols, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, particle-induced X-ram emission, Rutherford backscattering, and electrical testing. Then collaboration with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is discussed in the areas of Hall-effect measurements and current voltage data. Finally, we discuss the strategy for continuing the program.

Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Henager, Charles H.; Zhang, Yanwen; Shutthanandan, V.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Growth of pseudomorphic structures through organic epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

The control of molecular orientation in thin solid film phases of organic semiconductors is a basic factor for the exploitation of their physical properties for optoelectronic devices. We compare structural and optical properties of thin films of the organic semiconductor {alpha}-quarterthiophene grown by molecular beam epitaxy on different organic substrates. We show how epitactic interactions, characteristic of the surface of organic crystals, can drive the orientation of the crystalline overlayer and the selection of specific polymorphs and new pseudomorphic phases. We identify a key role in this phenomenon played by the marked groove-like corrugations present in some organic crystal surfaces. Since different polymorphs possess rather different performance in terms of, e.g., charge carrier mobility, this strategy is demonstrated to allow for the growth of oriented phases with enhanced physical properties, while keeping the substrate at room temperature. These results provide useful guidelines for the design of technological substrates for organic epitaxy and they substantiate the adoption of an organic epitaxy approach for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices based on thin films of organic semiconductors.

Kaviyil, Sreejith Embekkat; Sassella, Adele; Borghesi, Alessandro [Department of Materials Science, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan (Italy); Campione, Marcello [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 4, I-20126 Milan (Italy); Su Genbo; He Youping [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Science, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen Chenjia [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

378

Zecon Solar Semiconductor Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zecon Solar Semiconductor Inc Zecon Solar Semiconductor Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Zecon Solar & Semiconductor Inc Place Cupertino, California Zip 95014 Sector Solar Product Focused on large-scale solar building integrated PV systems. Coordinates 37.31884°, -122.029244° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.31884,"lon":-122.029244,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

379

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

380

Coherent optical control of electronic excitations in functionalized semiconductor nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of creating and manipulating coherent quantum states on surfaces offunctionalized semiconductor nanostructures is computationally investigated. Quantumdynamics simulations of electron-hole transfer between catechol molecules adsorbed ... Keywords: adsorbates, coherent control, semiconductors, wave-packet dynamics

L. G. C. Rego; S. G. Abuabara; V. S. Batista

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Business Case Slide 27: High-Value: Semiconductors - Basis for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semiconductors - Basis for Use Basis for use DUO2 has good electronic properties for semi-conductor applications Have made and tested a diode and transistor which appear superior...

382

Lattice mismatched compound semiconductors and devices on silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III-V compound semiconductors, due to their superior electron mobility, are promising candidates for n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, the limited size of III-V substrates and ...

Yang, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd TSMC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd TSMC Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd TSMC Jump to: navigation, search Name Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC) Place Hsinchu, Taiwan Zip 300 Sector Solar Product Taiwan-based semiconductor company. The firm is also venturing into solar and LED production. References Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC) is a company located in Hsinchu, Taiwan . References ↑ "Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Taiwan_Semiconductor_Manufacturing_Co_Ltd_TSMC&oldid=352012"

384

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure

385

Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology  

SciTech Connect

The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Areas Research Areas Research Highlights Facilities and Capabilities Science to Energy Solutions News & Awards Events and Conferences Supporting Organizations Directionally Solidified Materials Using high-temperature optical floating zone furnace to produce monocrystalline molybdenum alloy micro-pillars Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials Advanced Materials | Advanced Materials SHARE ORNL has the nation's most comprehensive materials research program and is a world leader in research that supports the development of advanced materials for energy generation, storage, and use. We have core strengths in three main areas: materials synthesis, characterization, and theory. In other words, we discover and make new materials, we study their structure,

387

The importance of intra-molecular electron spin relaxation in small molecular semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron spin relaxation rate (eSR) is investigated on several organic semiconductors of different morphologies and molecular structures, using avoided level crossing muon spectroscopy as a local spin probe. We find that two functionalized acenes (polycrystalline tri(isopropyl)silyl-pentacene and amorphous 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene) exhibit eSRs with an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence, each with two characteristic energy scales similar to those expected from vibrations. Polycrystalline tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)gallium shows a similar behavior. The observed eSR for these molecules is no greater than 0.85 MHz at 300 K. The variety of crystal structures and transport regimes that these molecules possess, as well as the local nature of the probe, strongly suggest an intra-molecular phenomenon general to many organic semiconductors, contrasting the commonly assumed spin relaxation models based on inter-molecular charge carrier transport.

L. Schulz; M. Willis; L. Nuccio; P. Shusharov; S. Fratini; F. L. Pratt; W. P. Gillin; T. Kreouzis; M. Heeney; N. Stingelin; C. A. Stafford; D. J. Beesley; C. Bernhard; J. E. Anthony; I. Mckenzie; J. S. Lord; A. J. Drew

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

388

Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Low-temperature magnetization of (Ga,Mn) As semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a comprehensive study of the ferromagnetic moment per Mn atom in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors. Theoretical discussion is based on microscopic calculations and on an effective model of Mn local moments antiferromagnetically coupled to valence band hole spins. The validity of the effective model over the range of doping studied is assessed by comparing with microscopic tight-binding/coherent-potential approximation calculations. Using the virtual crystal k center dot p model for hole states, we evaluate the zero-temperature mean-field contributions to the magnetization from the hole kinetic and exchange energies, and magnetization suppression due to quantum fluctuations of Mn moment orientations around their mean-field ground state values. Experimental low-temperature ferromagnetic moments per Mn are obtained by superconducting quantum interference device and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a series of (Ga,Mn)As semiconductors with nominal Mn doping ranging from similar to 2 to 8%. Hall measurements in as-grown and annealed samples are used to estimate the number of uncompensated substitutional Mn moments. Based on our comparison between experiment and theory we conclude that all these Mn moments in high quality (Ga,Mn)As materials have nearly parallel ground state alignment.

Jungwirth, T.; Masek, J.; Wang, KY; Edmonds, KW; Sawicki, M.; Polini, M.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, AH; Campion, RP; Zhao, LX; Farley, NRS; Johal, TK; van der Laan, G.; Foxon, CT; Gallagher, BL.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of metal or semiconductor nanoclusters in microheterogeneous oil-continuous inverse micelle systems is discussed. We focus on synthesis and catalytic properties of palladium, iron, and iron sulfide nanoclusters. Cluster size-control is achieved by changing the micelle size which is determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and chosen to produce cluster in size range of 1-20 nm. Cluster sizes were determined by either transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Cluster structure was determined by either x-ray or electron diffraction. In the case of Fe nanoclusters the crystal structure depended on the chemical nature of the surfactant micelle used in the synthesis, illustrating the important role of the surfactant during the growth process. Results of in-situ pyrene hydrogenation using size-selected Pd clusters show a significant increase in activity/total surface area as the size decreases. These clusters also proved effective as unsupported catalysts for direct coal hydropyrolysis, even at very low metal concentrations. Synthesis and optical features of a new semiconductor cluster material, FeS{sub 2}, is discussed with regard to its use in photocatalysis. Application of FeS{sub 2} in coal hydrogenolysis reactions has improved yields of short chain hydrocarbons significantly compared to conventional FeS{sub 2} powders.

Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martino, T.; Klavetter, E.; Sylwester, A.P.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to ...  

Using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological molecules could fuel medical breakthroughs in many areas, including ...

392

Advanced Materials News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nhan Nguyen demonstrates how he performs optical measurements on a graphene-insulator-semiconductor sample structure. ...

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

393

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electrical Usage Characterization of Semiconductor Processing Tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the basic concepts in performing an energy and power audit of a semiconductor process tool. A protocol exists that fully describes these measurements and their use and applicability and it will be described. This protocol is currently being examined by SEMATECH for future publication. Example data will be presented showing the power, energy, and current load profiles of a typical tool.

Hinson, S. R.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Olshavsky, Michael A. (Brunswick, OH)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0001 0001 Transport and Kinetic Processes in GaN Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth M. E. Coltrin and C. C. Mitchell Motivation-GaN is a wide band gap semi- conductor with a broad range of potential appli- cations, e.g., high-temperature electronics, op- telectronics, chemical or biological sensors. GaN thin films usually have a high defect den- sity, leading to poor performance. Epitaxial Lat- eral Overgrowth (ELO) has been shown to greatly reduce defect densities, often by factors of 100 or more. We are conducting fundamental studies of GaN growth kinetics during ELO. Accomplishment-In ELO, a mask pattern of dielectric material is deposited on top of a GaN buffer layer. Further growth of GaN occurs se- lectively on exposed areas of the underlying buffer layer, and not on the dielectric material.

399

GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

A GaN based depletion mode metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was demonstrated using Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as the gate dielectric. The MOS gate reverse breakdown voltage was > 35V which was significantly improved from 17V of Pt Schottky gate on the same material. A maximum extrinsic transconductance of 15 mS/mm was obtained at V{sub ds} = 30 V and device performance was limited by the contact resistance. A unity current gain cut-off frequency, f{sub {tau}}, and maximum frequency of oscillation, f{sub max} of 3.1 and 10.3 GHz, respectively, were measured at V{sub ds} = 25 V and V{sub gs} = {minus}20 V.

Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Cheng, P.; Shul, R.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Schurman, M.J.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones  

SciTech Connect

A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O' Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Subtle Chemistry of Colloidal, Quantum-Confined Semiconductor Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscale colloidal semiconductor structures with at least one dimension small enough to experience quantum confinement effects have captured the imagination and attention of scientists interested in controlling various chemical and photophysical processes. Aside from having desirable quantum confinement properties, colloidal nanocrystals are attractive because they are often synthesized in low-temperature, low-cost, and potentially scalable manners using simple benchtop reaction baths. Considerable progress in producing a variety of shapes, compositions, and complex structures has been achieved. However, there are challenges to overcome in order for these novel materials to reach their full potential and become new drivers for commercial applications. The final shape, composition, nanocrystal-ligand structure, and size can depend on a delicate interplay of precursors, surface ligands, and other compounds that may or may not participate in the reaction. In this Perspective, we discuss current efforts toward better understanding how the reactivity of the reagents can be used to produce unique and complex nanostructures.

Hughes, B. K.; Luther, J. M.; Beard, M. C.

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

402

Novel theoretical and experimental approaches for understanding and optimizing hydrogen-sorbent interactions in metal organic framework materials - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Yves. J. Chabal (Primary Contact), Jing Li, Timo Thonhauser UT Dallas - Department of Materials Science and Engineering 800 W. Campbell Road, RL 10 Richardson, TX 75080 Phone: (972) 883-5751 Email: chabal@utdallas.edu DOE Program Officer: Dr. Bonnie Gersten Phone: (301) 903-0002 Email: Bonnie.Gersten@science.doe.gov Subcontractors: * Jing Li (Rutgers University) * Timo Thonhauser (Wake Forest University) Objectives Develop a * comprehensive understanding of how small molecules (e.g. H 2 ) bind inside metal organic framework

403

SETEC/Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program: 1999 Annual and Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of work conducted by the Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) during 1999. This work was performed by one working group: the Semiconductor Equipment Technology Center (SETEC). The group's projects included Numerical/Experimental Characterization of the Growth of Single-Crystal Calcium Fluoride (CaF{sub 2}); The Use of High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) Imaging for Certifying Critical-Dimension Reference Materials Fabricated with Silicon Micromachining; Assembly Test Chip for Flip Chip on Board; Plasma Mechanism Validation: Modeling and Experimentation; and Model-Based Reduction of Contamination in Gate-Quality Nitride Reactor. During 1999, all projects focused on meeting customer needs in a timely manner and ensuring that projects were aligned with the goals of the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association and with Sandia's defense mission. This report also provides a short history of the Sandia/SEMATECH relationship and a brief on all projects completed during the seven years of the program.

MCBRAYER,JOHN D.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Next Generation Solar Cell Materials and Devices - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Next Generation Solar Cell Materials and Devices. Sponsorship. Organizer(s), Mark S. Goorsky, University of California, Los Angeles

405

Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS: Energy Conversion and Storage Committee TMS: Magnetic Materials Committee. Organizer(s), Paul Ohodnicki, National Energy Technology Laboratory

406

Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sponsorship, TMS: Energy Conversion and Storage Committee TMS: Magnetic Materials Committee. Organizer(s), Paul Ohodnicki, National Energy Technology

407

Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

Difley, Seth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

409

Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and GaP{sub 1-x}N{sub x} with x {approx}< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also occurs between localized states and the valence band states. Soft x-ray fluorescence experiments provide direct evidence of the BAC interaction in these systems. In the final chapter of the thesis, I describe and summarize my studies of optical properties of wurtzite InN and related alloys. Early studies performed on InN films grown by sputtering techniques suggested a direct bandgap of {approx}1.9 eV for this semiconductor. Very recently, high-quality InN films with much higher mobility have become available by using the molecular beam epitaxy growth method. Optical experiments carried out on these samples reveal a narrow bandgap for InN of 0.77 eV, much lower than the previously accepted value. Optical properties of InGaN and InAlN ternaries on the In rich side have also been characterized and are found to be consistent with the narrow bandgap of InN. The bandgap bowing parameters in these alloys were determined. In the context of these findings, the bandgap energies of InGaN and InAlN were found to cover a wide spectral range from the infrared for InN to the ultraviolet for GaN and deep ultraviolet for AlN. The significance of this work is rooted in many important applications of nitride semiconductors in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion devices.

Wu, Junqiao

2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

410

Advanced Materials Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal  

Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), utilizing organic materials to produce light, consume relatively little power. OLEDs are composed of three ...

411

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Cantilever Epitaxy to Produce High Quality GaN with Reduced Development of Cantilever Epitaxy to Produce High Quality GaN with Reduced Threading Dislocation Densities by C. C. Mitchell, A. A. Allerman, C. I. H. Ashby, R. D. Briggs, D. M. Follstadt, S. L. Lee, D. D. Koleske Motivation-GaN grown on any currently available substrates has an inherent problem of having to overcome a large lattice mismatch with the substrate. As a result typical planar GaN includes anywhere from 10 8 - 10 10 threading dislocations per square centimeter. Cantilever epitaxy (CE) is a technique developed to produce areas of GaN with a reduced number of vertical threading dislocations (VTDs) over large areas. Low defect materials are required to reduce leakage and breakdown of both electronic and opto- electronic devices. Accomplishment-This

412

N.G. Basov and early works on semiconductor lasers at P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A survey is presented of works on creation and investigation of semiconductor lasers during 1957 - 1977 at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute. Many of these works were initiated by N.G. Basov, starting from pre-laser time, when N.G. Basov and his coworkers formulated principal conditions of creation of lasers on interband transitions in semiconductors. Main directions of further works were diode lasers based on various materials and structures, their characteristics of output power, high-speed operation and reliability. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

Eliseev, P G [Centre for High-Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States)

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Isotopically engineered semiconductors: from the bulk tonanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Research performed with semiconductors with controlled isotopic composition is evolving from the measurement of fundamental properties in the bulk to those measured in superlattices and nanostructures. This is driven in part by interests associated with the fields of 'spintronics' and quantum computing. In this topical review, which is dedicated to Prof. Abstreiter, we introduce the subject by reviewing classic and recent measurements of phonon frequencies, thermal conductivity, bandgap renormalizations, and spin coherence lifetimes in isotopically controlled bulk group IV semiconductors. Next, we review phonon properties measured in isotope heterostructures, including pioneering work made possible by superlattices grown by the group of Prof. Abstreiter. We close the review with an outlook on the exciting future possibilities offered through isotope control in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions that will be possible due to advances in nanoscience.

Ager III, Joel W.; Haller, Eugene E.

2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

415

Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp SMIC | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Manufacturing International Corp SMIC Manufacturing International Corp SMIC Jump to: navigation, search Name Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp (SMIC) Place Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Zip 201203 Sector Solar Product Semiconductor group launching solar cell production from its recycled silicon wafers. Coordinates 31.247709°, 121.472618° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.247709,"lon":121.472618,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

416

Semiconductor junction formation by directed heat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The process of the invention includes applying precursors 6 with N- and P-type dopants therein to a silicon web 2, with the web 2 then being baked in an oven 10 to drive off excessive solvents, and the web 2 is then heated using a pulsed high intensity light in a mechanism 12 at 1100.degree.-1150.degree. C. for about 10 seconds to simultaneously form semiconductor junctions in both faces of the web.

Campbell, Robert B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1988-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fuzzy Logic Connectivity in Semiconductor Defect Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In joining defects on semiconductor wafer maps into clusters, it is common for defects caused by different sources to overlap. Simple morphological image processing tends to either join too many unrelated defects together or not enough together. Expert semiconductor fabrication engineers have demonstrated that they can easily group clusters of defects from a common manufacturing problem source into a single signature. Capturing this thought process is ideally suited for fuzzy logic. A system of rules was developed to join disconnected clusters based on properties such as elongation, orientation, and distance. The clusters are evaluated on a pair-wise basis using the fuzzy rules and are joined or not joined based on a defuzzification and threshold. The system continuously re-evaluates the clusters under consideration as their fuzzy memberships change with each joining action. The fuzzy membership functions for each pair-wise feature, the techniques used to measure the features, and methods for improving the speed of the system are all developed. Examples of the process are shown using real-world semiconductor wafer maps obtained from chip manufacturers. The algorithm is utilized in the Spatial Signature Analyzer (SSA) software, a joint development project between Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) and SEMATECH.

Gleason, S.S.; Kamowski, T.P.; Tobin, K.W.

1999-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

418

Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Oxide Ferromagnetic Semiconductors for Spin-Electronic Transprt  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to investigate the viability of oxide magnetic semiconductors as potential materials for spintronics. We identified some members of the solid solution series of ilmenite (FeTiO3) and hematite (Fe2O3), abbreviated as (IH) for simplicity, for our investigations based on their ferromagnetic and semiconducting properties. With this objective in focus we limited our investigations to the following members of the modified Fe-titanates: IH33 (ilmenitehematite with 33 atomic percent hematite), IH45 (ilmenite-hematite with 45 atomic percent hematite), Mn-substituted ilmenite (Mn-FeTiO3), and Mn-substituted pseudobrookite (Mn- Fe2TiO5). All of them are: 1. wide bandgap semiconductors with band gaps ranging in values between 2.5 to 3.5 eV; 2. n-type semiconductors; 3.they exhibit well defined magnetic hysteresis loops and 4. their magnetic Curie points are greater than 400K. Ceramic, film and single crystal samples were studied and based on their properties we produced varistors (also known as voltage dependent resistors) for microelectronic circuit protection from power surges, three-terminal microelectronic devices capable of generating bipolar currents, and an integrated structured device with controlled magnetic switching of spins. Eleven refereed journal papers, three refereed conference papers and three invention disclosures resulted from our investigations. We also presented invited papers in three international conferences and one national conference. Furthermore two students graduated with Ph.D. degrees, three with M.S. degrees and one with B.S. degree. Also two post-doctoral fellows were actively involved in this research. We established the radiation hardness of our devices in collaboration with a colleague in an HBCU institution, at the Cyclotron Center at Texas A&M University, and at DOE National Labs (Los Alamos and Brookhaven). It is to be appreciated that we met most of our goals and expanded vastly the scope of research by including investigations of Mn-FeTiO3, Mn-Fe2TiO5 and by producing a novel three terminal device capable of generating bipolar currents besides producing radiation resistant varistors and a magnetically switchable device. Furthermore we conclusively established the radiation hardness of the four modified iron titanates we studied. In all our publications, conference and seminar presentations, dissertations and theses sponsorship of DOE has been acknowledged

Dr. R. K. Pandey, Cudworth Endowed Professor (Professor Emeritus of The Unviersity of Alabama) Ingram Endowed Professor, Ingram School of Engineering and Physics Department, Texas State University, San Marocs, TX78666

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

420

Bio-Inspired, Smart, Multiscale Interfacial Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Bio-inspired smart materials should be a live material with various functions like organism in Nature, they must have three essential elements...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Session 8A: Radiation Resistant Materials III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale Multilayers'13: Session 8A: Radiation Resistant Materials III Program Organizers: Jon Molina-Aldareguia, IMDEA Materials Institute; Javier LLorca,...

422

Session 3: Radiation Resistant Materials I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 1, 2013 ... Nanoscale Multilayers'13: Session 3: Radiation Resistant Materials I Program Organizers: Jon Molina-Aldareguia, IMDEA Materials Institute;...

423

MST: Organizations: Bio: Mike Kelly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mike Kelly Mike is the manager of the Organic Materials Department in the Manufacturing Science and Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories. This department provides...

424

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Essential to Our Technology Future January 15, 2014 - 8:00am Addthis Learn how wide bandgap semiconductors could impact clean energy technology and our daily lives. | Video by Sarah Gerrity and Matty Greene, Energy Department. Dr. Ernest Moniz Dr. Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy What are the key facts? North Carolina State University will lead the Energy Department's new manufacturing innovation institute for the next generation of power electronics, focusing on wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors. Building America's leadership in WBG semiconductor manufacturing while driving down the cost of the technology could lead to more affordable products for businesses and consumers, billions of dollars in energy

425

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources and  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) is the premier trade association representing the U.S. semiconductor industry. Founded in 1977 by five microelectronics innovators, the SIA has grown to include over 100 companies that account for more than 83% of U.S.-based semiconductor production. The SIA provides a forum for domestic semiconductor companies to work collectively to advance the competitiveness of the $70 billion U.S. chip industry. Through its national and international network of chief executive officers and working committees, the SIA shapes public policy on issues important to the industry and provides a spectrum of services to help its members grow their businesses. World Semiconductor Council (WSC)

426

LBL-37525 UC-404 Surface Recombination in Semiconductors J.M. Langer* and W. Walukiewicz**  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

37525 37525 UC-404 Surface Recombination in Semiconductors J.M. Langer* and W. Walukiewicz** "Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences Al. Lotnikow 32/46 02668 Warsaw, Poland **Center for Advanced Materials Materials Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, California 94720 July 1995 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

427

Analysis of silicon carbide based semiconductor power devices and their application in power factor correction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent technological advances have allowed silicon (Si) semiconductor technology to approach the theoretical limits of the Si material; however, power device requirements for many applications are at a stage that the present Si-based power devices cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. Material technologies superior to Si are needed for future power device developments. Silicon Carbide (SiC) based semiconductor devices offer one such alternative. SiC based power devices exhibit superior properties such as very low switching losses, fast switching behavior, improved reliability and high temperature operation capabilities. Power factor correction stage of power supplies is identified as an area where application of these devices would prove advantageous. In this thesis a high performance, high efficiency, SiC based power factor correction stage is discussed. The proposed topology takes advantage of the superior properties of SiC semiconductor based devices and the reduced number of devices that the dual boost power factor correction topology requires to achieve high efficiency, small size and better performance at high temperature. In addition to this analysis of SiC based power devices is carried out to study their characteristics and performance.

Durrani, Yamin Qaisar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Absorptivity of semiconductors used in the production of solar cell panels  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the absorptivity of semiconductors on the thickness of the absorbing layer is studied for crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS), and copper gallium diselenide (CuGaSe{sub 2}, CGS). The calculations are performed with consideration for the spectral distribution of AM1.5 standard solar radiation and the absorption coefficients of the materials. It is shown that, in the region of wavelengths {lambda} = {lambda}{sub g} = hc/E{sub g}, almost total absorption of the photons in AM1.5 solar radiation is attained in c-Si at the thickness d = 7-8 mm, in a-Si at d = 30-60 {mu}m, in CdTe at d = 20-30 {mu}m, and in CIS and CGS at d = 3-4 {mu}m. The results differ from previously reported data for these materials (especially for c-Si). In previous publications, the thickness needed for the semiconductor to absorb solar radiation completely was identified with the effective light penetration depth at a certain wavelength in the region of fundamental absorption for the semiconductor.

Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Grushko, E. V.; Mikityuk, T. I. [Chernivtsy National University (Ukraine)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance.

CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; KOHMAN, K.T.; JAMES, R.B.

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

430

Materials Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Science. Summary: ... Description: Group focus in materials science (inkjet metrology, micro-macro, advanced characterizations). ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

431

Metrology For Organic Monolayers On Cobalt Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... used in: magnetic recording/storage, catalysis, batteries ... Molecule-metal electrode interface crucial ... formation between organic materials and the ...

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

432

MST: Organizations: Thin Film, Vacuum, and Packaging  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Processes & Services Electronic Fabrication Manufacturing Process Science & Technology Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging Organic Materials Ceramic & Glass Meso Manufacturing &...

433

July 28, 2010, Guiding semiconductor research through collaborative engagement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The SRC ... The SRC ... Guiding semiconductor research through collaborative engagement Elizabeth J. Weitzman Exec. VP, SRC Exec. Director, Focus Center Research Program Semiconductor Research Corporation 2 ... Awarded Nat'l Medal of Technology Presidential Citation: "For building the world's largest and most successful university research force to support the ... semiconductor industry; For proving the concept of collaborative research as the first high-tech research consortium; and For creating the concept and methodology that evolved into the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors." 3 Key Attributes of SRC Research Entities 1. Accepted IP model. SRC's model has been

434

Strain tuning of topological band order in cubic semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically explore the possibility of tuning the topological order of cubic diamond/zinc-blende semi- conductors with external strain. Based on a simple tight-binding model, we analyze the evolution of the cubic semiconductor band structure under hydrostatic or biaxial lattice expansion, by which a generic guiding princi- ple is established that biaxial lattice expansion can induce a topological phase transition of small band-gap cubic semiconductors via a band inversion and symmetry breaking at point. Using density functional theory cal- culations, we demonstrate that a prototype topological trivial semiconductor, InSb, is converted to a nontrivial topological semiconductor with a 2% 3% biaxial lattice expansion.

Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhu, Wenguang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weitering, Hanno [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xiao, Di [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: Resources and  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Technical Information Technical Information Download Acrobat Reader Modeling China's Semiconductor Industry Fluorinated Compound Emissions and Drafting a Roadmap for Climate Protection. (PDF 101 KB) 14th Annual International Semiconductor Environment Safety & Health (ISESH) Conference in Jeju, Korea (June 2007) presentation by Scott Bartos, U.S. EPA. Estimating the Impact of Migration to Asian Foundry Production on Attaining the WSC 2010 PFC Reduction Goal. (PDF 458 KB) 11th Annual ISESH Conference in Makuhari, Japan (July 2004) presentation by Scott Bartos, U.S. EPA. Guidelines for Environmental Characterization of Semiconductor Equipment (PDF 361 KB) This document provides guidelines for suppliers of semiconductor processing and abatement equipment to characterize their equipment to meet

436

II-V Compound Semiconductors - Microsystems Science, Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

researched, developed and delivered include: A wide variety of specialty semiconductor lasers Integrated VCSEL-RCPD circuits (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,...

437

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for ...  

Argonne researchers have developed a unique application of technology that involves using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological ...

438

Understanding How Semiconductors Absorb Light | U.S. DOE Office...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Understanding How Semiconductors Absorb Light Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy...

439

Resonator for Coherent Addition of Semiconductor Laser Arrays ...  

Resonator for Coherent Addition of Semiconductor Laser Arrays and Applications for a Solar Pumped Laser Array Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contact ...

440

Production of 35S for a Liquid Semiconductor Betavoltaic  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The specific energy density from radioactive decay is five to six orders of magnitude greater than the specific energy density in conventional chemical battery and fuel cell technologies. We are currently investigating the use of liquid semiconductor based betavoltaics as a way to directly convert the energy of radioactive decay into electrical power and potentially avoid the radiation damage that occurs in solid state semiconductor devices due to non-ionizing energy loss. Sulfur-35 was selected as the isotope for the liquid semiconductor demonstrations because it can be produced in high specific activity and it is chemically compatible with known liquid semiconductor media.

Meier, David E.; Garnov, A. Y.; Robertson, J. D.; Kwon, J. W.; Wacharasindhu, T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "materials semiconductor organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Argonne CNM News: HMapping Deformation in Buried Semiconductor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CMOS performance. Nano-XRD allows for the first time in situ nanoscale mapping of lattice strain and tilt within a buried semiconductor layer at high spatial resolution...

442

Photophysics of Two-dimensional Semiconductor Nanoparticle/Liquid Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These studies have investigated the optical properties of two very different types of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoclusters and superlattices of these nanoclusters.

Kelley, David F.

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

443

Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Clean Energy Workshop: Summary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilitator: Foundry service is from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service (MOSIS). There is an evaluation of...

444

Electronic Materials: Web resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 11, 2008 ... WEB: NETWORKS MATEC, Maricopa Community Colleges. NSF resource center focused on semiconductor and electronics education, 0, 811...

445

Fully Integrated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by Octavian

Florescu, Octavian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

McCluskey, M.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

III-Nitride Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using a band-structure method that includes bandgap correction, we study the chemical trends of the bandgap variation in III-V semiconductors and predict that the bandgap for InN is 0.85 0.1 eV. This result suggests that InN and its III-nitride alloys are suitable for photovoltaic applications. The unusually small bandgap for InN is explained in terms of the atomic energies and the bandgap deformation potentials. The electronic and structural properties of the nitrides and their alloys are also provided.

Wei, S. H.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Sandia Park, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

High power semiconductor laser diode arrays  

SciTech Connect

The cw optical power obtainable from semiconductor laser diodes has been extended to unprecedented levels in recent years through the use of multistripe arrays. By spreading out the optical power with more than 100 stripes, single-facet, cw output in exces of 5 Watts has been demonstrated, and 500 mW cw is now commercially available. Recent improvements to array performance include: arrays up to 1 cm wide that generates quasi-cw (150 usec pulse) output in excesss of 11 Watts, and a novel device structure which produces up to 215 mW cw in a single diffraction limited lobe.

Cross, P.S.

1986-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Interesting Electronic and Dynamic Properties of Quantum Dot Quantum Wells and other Semiconductor Nanocrystal Heterostructures .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Some interesting electronic and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanocrystal heterostructures have been investigated using various spectroscopic methods. Semiconductor nanocrystal heterostructures were prepared using colloidal synthesis (more)

Schill, Alexander Wilhem

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Semiconductor device design using the BiMADS algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing high-performance semiconductor devices is a complex optimization problem, which is characterized by multiple and, often, conflicting objectives. In this research work, we introduce a multi-objective optimization design approach based on the ... Keywords: Diodes, Drift-diffusion, Energy-transport, MESFETs, MOSFETs, Optimization, Semiconductors

Giovanni Stracquadanio, Vittorio Romano, Giuseppe Nicosia

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Study on Water-Cooled Solar Semiconductor Air Conditioner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-cooled solar semiconductor air conditioner was designed. Relevant calculation was made to determine the room's cooling load, which export the solar panels and battery capacity, followed by selection of CNC matcher. Development work also involves ... Keywords: solar energy, peltier effect, semiconductor air conditioner

Dong Zhi-Ming; Chang Ji-Bin; Xiang Li-Juan; Zhou Xue-Bin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Rand, Barry P. (Somers, NY)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

454

Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1{lambda}) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%. 5 figs.

Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Crawford, M.H.

1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

455

Distributed Quantum Computation Architecture Using Semiconductor Nanophotonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a large-scale quantum computer, the cost of communications will dominate the performance and resource requirements, place many severe demands on the technology, and constrain the architecture. Unfortunately, fault-tolerant computers based entirely on photons with probabilistic gates, though equipped with "built-in" communication, have very large resource overheads; likewise, computers with reliable probabilistic gates between photons or quantum memories may lack sufficient communication resources in the presence of realistic optical losses. Here, we consider a compromise architecture, in which semiconductor spin qubits are coupled by bright laser pulses through nanophotonic waveguides and cavities using a combination of frequent probabilistic and sparse determinstic entanglement mechanisms. The large photonic resource requirements incurred by the use of probabilistic gates for quantum communication are mitigated in part by the potential high-speed operation of the semiconductor nanophotonic hardware. The system employs topological cluster-state quantum error correction for achieving fault-tolerance. Our results suggest that such an architecture/technology combination has the potential to scale to a system capable of attacking classically intractable computational problems.

Rodney Van Meter; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Austin G. Fowler; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Photonic switching devices based on semiconductor nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Squeezing and guiding light into semiconductor nanostructures delivers revolutionary concepts of photonic devices, which may offer a practical pathway towards power-efficient optical networks. In this review, we consider photonic switches using semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and photonic cavities. By intuitively introducing in a field enhancement factor, the optical nonlinearity of nano-photonic switches can be understood and this has shown their unique features to dramatically improve the power-density/speed limitation that has lain in conventional photonic switches for decades. In addition, the power consumption has been reduced due to the atom-like characterization of QDs as well as the nano-size footprint of photonic cavities. Based on this theoretical perspective, the current progress of QD/cavity switches is reviewed in terms of various optical nonlinearities which have been employed to demonstrate photonic switching at the nanoscale. Emerging functionalities enabled by cavity nonlinear effects such as the wavelength tuning and Purcell-factor tuning have been further introduced.

Chao-Yuan Jin; Osamu Wada

2013-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

457

Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy) [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)] [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy) [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)] [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Materials science aspects of coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber

Charles Wert; Manfred Weller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Organization Chart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Mission Organization Staff - Organization Chart About Us Bob Cottingham, 865-241-0554 Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Meghan Drake 865-241-8288 Michael...

460

Science Organizations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organizations Science Organizations National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place...

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461

Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Material Basics Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics that influence its suitability for specific applications. For example, PV cell materials may differ based on their crystallinity, bandgap, absorbtion, and manufacturing complexity. Learn more about each of these characteristics below or learn about these solar cell materials: Silicon (Si)-including single-crystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, and amorphous Si Polycrystalline Thin Films-including copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films-including high-efficiency material

462

Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

Ullrich, Carsten A.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

463

Development and evaluation of on-line detection techniques for polar organics in ultrapure water  

SciTech Connect

An on-line monitor that can perform rapid, trace detection of polar organics such as acetone and isopropanol in ultrapure water (UPW) is necessary to efficiently recycle water in semiconductor manufacturing facilities. The detection of these analytes is problematic due to their high solubility in water, resulting in low partitioning into sensor coatings for direct water analysis or into the vapor phase for detection by vapor phase analyzers. After considering various options, we have evaluated two conventional laboratory techniques: gas chromatography and ion mobility spectroscopy. In addition, optimizations of sensor coating materials and sample preconditioning systems were performed with the goal of a low cost, chemical sensor system for this application. Results from these evaluations, including recommendations for meeting the needs of this application, are reported.

Frye, G.C.; Blair, D.S.; Schneider, T.W.; Mowry, C.D.; Colburn, C.W.; Donovan, R.P.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z